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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 162-168, abr. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125058

ABSTRACT

En abril de 2019, UNICEF denunció que más de 20 millones de niños en todo el mundo no habían sido vacunados y alertó sobre posibles brotes de sarampión que, por su alta contagiosidad, es la primera enfermedad en emerger entre las prevenibles mediante vacunación. De continuar el descenso en las vacunaciones, podrían reaparecer también pertussis, tétanos y otras enfermedades con menor requerimiento de cobertura para alcanzar protección poblacional. A fin de agosto de 2019 se inició en la Argentina el actual brote de sarampión. Este virus se transmite por vía respiratoria, infecta múltiples órganos e induce inmunosupresión. Su genoma consiste en ARN de cadena simple. La genotipificación se efectúa por secuenciación de un fragmento de 450 nucleótidos de la proteína N que contiene la mayor densidad de variación de nucleótidos del genoma. En Sudamérica circula el genotipo D8, y en Norteamérica hay, además, un 8% de genotipo B3. Cada persona con sarampión infecta, en promedio, otras 12-18 en una población susceptible. La vacunación confiere protección directa e indirecta, e induce tanto anticuerpos como inmunidad celular. Los recién nacidos tienen protección hasta los 6 meses por anticuerpos maternos transmitidos vía placentaria. En la Argentina, el Calendario de Vacunación incluye dos dosis de triple viral, a los 12 meses y a los 5 años, y una dosis cero (6- 11 meses de edad) en distritos con casos de enfermedad. Una dosis protege al 93% de los vacunados a los 12 meses y dos dosis al 97%, de por vida.


In April 2019, UNICEF denounced that more than 20 million children worldwide had not been vaccinated and alerted on possible outbreaks of measles which, due to the high transmissibility of this virus, is the first disease preventable by vaccination to emerge. If the decline in vaccinations continues, pertussis, tetanus and other diseases, which require less coverage to achieve population protection, may also reappear. In Argentina, the current outbreak began in late August 2019. Measles virus is transmitted by air, infects multiple organs, and is associated with immunosuppression. Its genome consists of single stranded RNA. Genotyping is carried out by sequencing a 450-nucleotide fragment of the N protein, which contains the highest density of nucleotide variation. In South America, D8 is the circulating genotype and in North America, B3 accounts for 8% of the cases. Each person with measles infects, on average, another 12-18 people in a susceptible population. Vaccination confers direct and indirect protection, and induces both antibodies and cellular immunity. Newborns are protected by maternal antibodies transmitted via the placenta, up to 6 months. In Argentina, the Vaccination Calendar includes two doses of triple viral vaccine, at 12 months and 5 years, and a zero dose (6- 11 months of age) in districts with disease cases. The protection conferred by the vaccine is 93% at 12 months with a dose, and with 2 doses 97% for life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , History, 19th Century , Vaccination , Measles/prevention & control , Argentina/epidemiology , Viral Proteins , Disease Outbreaks , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Genotype , Measles/history , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/virology , Nucleoproteins
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1428-1432, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038620

ABSTRACT

A vacinação é a forma mais utilizada para prevenir a bronquite infecciosa causada pelo vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (IBV). Contudo, as vacinas convencionais são incapazes de diferenciar aves infectadas de vacinadas. No presente trabalho foi construído, caracterizado, e avaliado como candidato vacinal, um adenovírus recombinante expressando o gene N do IBV. O gene N foi clonado em um adenovírus humano tipo 5 defectivo e transfectado para as células HEK-293A para gerar rAd5_N. Após o vetor ser obtido como esperado e a confirmação da expressão da proteína N em HEK-293ª, foi realizada inoculação pela via oculo-nasal na dose de 10 7 TCID 50 /0,1mL para imunização de galinhas livres de patógenos específicos (SPF). A resposta imunológica do Ad5_N e a proteção contra o desafio ao IBV foram avaliadas e comparadas com uma vacina viva comercial. Não foram detectados anticorpos anti-IBV em aves vacinadas com o Ad5_N. A vacina comercial induziu anticorpos detectáveis a partir do 7º dia pós-vacinal. Em aves vacinadas com o Ad5_N não houve aumento na expressão de IFNγ. Neste estudo, o rAd5_N obtido não conferiu proteção contra desafio com IBV-M41. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de avaliar adenovírus recombinantes expressando outros genes do IBV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Vaccines, Synthetic , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious bronchitis virus , Nucleoproteins , Nucleocapsid Proteins
3.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 36(1): 46-53, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004412

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Caracterizar la nucleoproteína (N) y establecer el origen del virus de la rabia en canes procedentes de Arequipa. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 30 muestras de tejido nervioso procedentes de los departamentos de Arequipa y Puno. Se extrajo el ARN total de las muestras y se sintetizó ADNc para amplificar el gen de la nucleoproteína, secuenciarlo y realizar el análisis bioinformático. Resultados. Se obtuvo la formación de un grupo definido con respecto al grupo externo (European bat lyssavirus). Este grupo fue clasificado en dos subgrupos, uno constituido por muestras procedentes de Puno y Arequipa (subgrupo A), y otro por muestras de Puno (subgrupo B), observándose una identidad nucleotídica de 99,9% en el subgrupo A. Conclusiones. Los agrupamientos de las secuencias virales muestran que los casos de rabia canina notificados en Arequipa son el resultado de la expansión de rabia canina procedente de la región endémica de Puno.


ABSTRACT Objective . To characterize the nucleoprotein (N) and establish the origin of the rabies virus in dogs coming from Arequipa. Materials and Methods. Thirty samples of nervous tissue from the departments of Arequipa and Puno were analyzed. Total RNA was extracted from the samples and cDNA was synthesized to amplify the nucleoprotein gene, sequence it, and perform bioinformatics analysis. Results . A defined group was formed with respect to the external group (European bat lyssavirus). This group was classified into two subgroups, one constituted by samples coming from Puno and Arequipa (subgroup A), and another one by samples from Puno (subgroup B), exhibiting a nucleotide identity of 99.9% in subgroup A. This group was classified in two subgroups, one constituted by samples coming from Puno and Arequipa (subgroup A), and another one by samples from Puno (subgroup B), observing a nucleotide identity of 99.9% in subgroup A. Conclusions. The groupings of viral sequences show that the cases of canine rabies reported in Arequipa are the result of the expansion of canine rabies from the endemic region of Puno.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Rabies virus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Nucleoproteins/genetics , Peru
4.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 27-34, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719490

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to develop a serodiagnostic test for differentiation infected from vaccinated animal (DIVA) strategy accompanying the marker vaccine lacking an immunodominant epitope (IDE) of nucleoprotein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant epitope-repeat protein (rERP) gene encoding eight repeats of the IDE sequence (ETQFLDLMRAVANSMR) by tetra-glycine linker was synthesized. Recombinant baculovirus carrying the rERP gene was generated to express the rERP in insect cells. Specificity and sensitivity of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing the rERP was evaluated. RESULTS: The rERP with molecular weight of 20 kDa was successfully expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in an insect-baculovirus system. The rERP was antigenically functional as demonstrated by Western blotting. An indirect ELISA employing the rERP was developed and its specificity and sensitivity was determined. The ELISA test allowed discrimination of NDV infected sera from epitope deletion virus vaccinated sera. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results represent rERP ELISA as a promising DIVA diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Baculoviridae , Blotting, Western , Discrimination, Psychological , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insecta , Molecular Weight , Newcastle disease virus , Newcastle Disease , Nucleoproteins , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 54-63, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719487

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The influenza B virus diverges into two antigenically distinct lineages: B/Yamagata and B/Victoria. Influenza B is the dominant circulating virus during some influenza seasons, and recent data demonstrated that influenza A and B infection similarly cause severe clinical symptoms in hospitalized patients. Nucleoprotein (NP) is a good target for a universal influenza vaccine. This study investigated whether NP epitope variation within two lineages affects the dominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced by vaccination and the resultant protective immunity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The NP of B/Yamagata/16/1988, the representative strain of the Yamagata lineage, includes a dominant CTL epitope, FSPIRITFL, while B/Shangdong/7/1997 from the Victoria lineage has one amino acid difference in this sequence, FSPIRVTFL. Two recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus (rAd)-vectored vaccines expressing either NP were prepared (rAd/B-NP(I) and rAd/B-NP(V), respectively) and administered to BALB/c mice intranasally. To examine the efficacy of vaccination, antibody responses, CTL responses, and morbidity/mortality after challenge were measured. RESULTS: Both vaccines induce similar antibody and CD8 T-cell responses cross-reacting to both epitopes, and also confer cross-protection against both lineages regardless of amino acid difference. CONCLUSION: The rAd-vectored vaccine expressing the NP could be developed as universal influenza B vaccine which provides broader protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Adenoviridae , Antibody Formation , Epitopes , Influenza B virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Lymphocytes , Nucleoproteins , Seasons , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic , Vaccination , Vaccines , Victoria
6.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 51-57, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758884

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are widely applied in disease diagnoses. Herein, we report a MAb, WF-4, against Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP), its broad response with Influenza A virus, and its application in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. WF-4 was screened by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results showed that its reactivity with baculovirus-expressed full-length recombinant NP (rNP) in Western blot (WB), indicating its IHC applicability. Fifteen Influenza A virus (reference subtypes H1 to H15) infected chicken embryonated chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), fixed by formalin, were all detectable in the WF-4-based IHC assay. Also, the reactivity of the IHC test with NP from experimentally inoculated H6N1 and from all recent outbreaks of H5 subtype avian Influenza A virus (AIV) field cases in Taiwan showed positive results. Our data indicate that CAM, a by-product of Influenza A virus preparation, is helpful for Influenza A virus-specific MAb characterization, and that the WF-4 MAb recognizes conserved and linear epitopes of Influenza A virus NP. Therefore, WF-4 is capable of detecting NP antigens via IHC and may be suitable for developing various tests for diagnosis of Influenza A virus and, especially, AIV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Blotting, Western , Chickens , Chorioallantoic Membrane , Diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Epitopes , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Formaldehyde , Immunohistochemistry , Influenza A virus , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Nucleoproteins , Taiwan
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 1-5, Mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022489

ABSTRACT

Background: TRF2 (telomeric repeat binding factor 2) is an essential component of the telomere-binding protein complex shelterin. TRF2 induces the formation of a special structure of telomeric DNA and counteracts activation of DNA damage-response pathways telomeres. TRF2 has a poorly characterized linker region (udTRF2) between its homodimerization and DNA-binding domains. Some lines of evidence have shown that this region could be involved in TRF2 interaction with nuclear lamina. Results: In this study, the fragment of the TERF2 gene encoding udTRF2 domain of telomere-binding protein TRF2 was produced by PCR and cloned into the pET32a vector. The resulting plasmid pET32a-udTRF2 was used for the expression of the recombinant udTRF2 in E. coli RosettaBlue (DE3). The protein was isolated and purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The purified recombinant protein udTRF2 was injected into guinea pigs to generate polyclonal antibodies. The ability of anti-udTRF2 antibodies to bind endogenous TRF2 in human skin fibroblasts was tested by western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Conclusions: In this study, the recombinant protein udTRF2 and antibodies to it were generated. Both protein and antibodies will provide a useful tool for investigation of the functions of the udTRF2 domain and its role in the interaction between TRF2 and nuclear lamina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2/metabolism , Antibodies/metabolism , Plasmids , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Chromosomes , Cloning, Molecular , Nuclear Lamina , Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2/genetics , Immunoprecipitation , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Antibodies/isolation & purification , Antibody Formation , Nucleoproteins
8.
Immune Network ; : 307-316, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220080

ABSTRACT

Quantitative PCR and plaque assay are powerful virological techniques used to measure the load of defective or infectious virus in mouse and human. However, these methods display limitations such as cross contamination and long run-time. Here, we describe a novel technique termed as semi-functional quantitative flow cytometry (SFQF) for the accurate estimation of the quantity of infectious lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). LCMV titration method using flow cytometry was previously developed but has technical shortcomings, owing to the less optimized parameters such as cell overgrowth, plate scale, and detection threshold. Therefore, we first established optimized conditions for SFQF assay using LCMV nucleoprotein (NP)-specific antibody to evaluate the threshold of the virus detection range in the plaque assay. We subsequently demonstrated that the optimization of the method increased the sensitivity of virus detection. We revealed several new advantages of SFQF assay, which overcomes some of the previously contentious points, and established an upgraded version of the previously reported flow cytometric titration assay. This method extends the detection scale to the level of single cell, allowing extension of its application for in vivo detection of infected cells and their phenotypic analysis. Thus, SFQF assay may serve as an alternative analytical tool for ensuring the reliability of LCMV titration and can be used with other types of viruses using target-specific antibodies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies , Flow Cytometry , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis , Methods , Nucleoproteins , Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2017; 18 (1): 36-42
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189265

ABSTRACT

Rabies virus nucleoprotein [N protein] encapsidates genomic RNA of the virus and forms the viral ribonucleoprotein complex. These N proteins represent highly organized structures which activate proliferation of B cells and production antibodies against the N protein. In addition to the B cell, the rabies virus N protein has been shown to induce potent T helper cell responses resulting in a long-lasting and strong humoral immune response. Rabies virus N protein is a molecular target of choice for development of tools to diagnose acute rabies infection. We produced a recombinant immune reactive C-terminal fragment of the rabies virus N protein which contains an antigenic determinant located between positions 360-389. Synthetic gene encoding the N protein was cloned into an expression plasmid to produce the recombinant antigen in Escherichia coli cells BL21 [DE3]. SDS-PAGE showed presence of the product with expected molecular weight [44 kDa]. The recombinant fragment of the N protein efficiently recognized antibodies in sera from mice immunized with an inactivated rabies virus. Thus produced recombinant antigen of the rabies virus N protein can be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] for diagnosis of the rabies infection


Subject(s)
Cloning, Organism , Gene Expression , Nucleoproteins , Escherichia coli , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antigens
10.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 8(2): 132-134, 2017. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1263259

ABSTRACT

A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire) responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Ebolavirus/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Nucleoproteins , Sierra Leone
11.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 148-155, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139534

ABSTRACT

Rabies is known as the most fatal disease in all warm-blooded animals, including dogs. Among animals that transmit rabies, dogs are mainly responsible for transmitting animal rabies in Asian countries. Detection of rabies virus (RABV) antibodies in dogs is performed by fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test or rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. These standard assays are difficult to carry out in diagnostic laboratories without sufficient instruments, designated RABV, and cell culture systems. An alternative assay that is easy to conduct and time efficient is required for rapid sero-surveillance following vaccination. Recombinant baculovirus expressing RABV nucleoprotein (RVN) was constructed and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA and fast protein liquid column chromatography. We developed and evaluated an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) with recombinant RVN for the detection of RABV antibodies in 122 dog serum samples. The I-ELISA results obtained from these samples were compared with FAVN results. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of I-ELISA were 88.1%, 92.5%, and 91.0%, respectively, compared with FAVN. Results of I-ELISA were significantly correlated with that of FAVN (r = 0.81). These results suggest that I-ELISA with recombinant RVN is useful for sero-surveillance of RABV in dog sera.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Antibodies , Asian People , Baculoviridae , Cell Culture Techniques , Chromatography , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Nucleoproteins , Rabies virus , Rabies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vaccination
12.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 148-155, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139531

ABSTRACT

Rabies is known as the most fatal disease in all warm-blooded animals, including dogs. Among animals that transmit rabies, dogs are mainly responsible for transmitting animal rabies in Asian countries. Detection of rabies virus (RABV) antibodies in dogs is performed by fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test or rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. These standard assays are difficult to carry out in diagnostic laboratories without sufficient instruments, designated RABV, and cell culture systems. An alternative assay that is easy to conduct and time efficient is required for rapid sero-surveillance following vaccination. Recombinant baculovirus expressing RABV nucleoprotein (RVN) was constructed and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA and fast protein liquid column chromatography. We developed and evaluated an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) with recombinant RVN for the detection of RABV antibodies in 122 dog serum samples. The I-ELISA results obtained from these samples were compared with FAVN results. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of I-ELISA were 88.1%, 92.5%, and 91.0%, respectively, compared with FAVN. Results of I-ELISA were significantly correlated with that of FAVN (r = 0.81). These results suggest that I-ELISA with recombinant RVN is useful for sero-surveillance of RABV in dog sera.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Antibodies , Asian People , Baculoviridae , Cell Culture Techniques , Chromatography , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Nucleoproteins , Rabies virus , Rabies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vaccination
13.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 14-18, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296223

ABSTRACT

The Ebola virus is highly infectious and can result in death in ≤ 90% of infected subjects. Detection of the Ebola virus and diagnosis of infection are extremely important for epidemic control. Presently, Chinese laboratories detect the nucleic acids of the Ebola virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, such detection takes a relatively long time and necessitates skilled personnel and expensive equipment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of serum is simple, easy to operate, and can be used to ascertain if a patient is infected with the Ebola virus as well as the degree of infection. Hence, ELISA can be used in epidemiological investigations and is a strong complement to detection of nucleic acids. Cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have not been documented in China, so quality-control material for positive serology is needed. Construction and expression of human-mouse chimeric antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the Ebola virus was carried out. Genes encoding variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) chains were extracted and amplified from murine hybridoma cells. Genes encoding the VH and VL chains of monoclonal antibodies were amplified by RT-PCR. According to sequence analyses, a primer was designed to amplify functional sequences relative to VH and VL chain. The eukaryotic expression vector HL51-14 carrying some human antibody heavy chain- and light chain-constant regions was used. IgG antibodies were obtained by transient transfection of 293T cells. Subsequently, immunological detection and immunological identification were identified by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and western blotting. These results showed that we constructed and purified two human- mouse chimeric antibodies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Cloning, Molecular , Ebolavirus , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Nucleoproteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
14.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 177-180, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247712

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To correlate sperm nucleoprotein transition (SNT) with sperm morphology, DNA damage and embryo development, and assess its value for assisted reproductive technology (ART).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The SNT of 437 infertile men underwent ART were assayed, and its correlation with sperm morphology, DNA damage, fertilization rate, normal fertilization rate, cleavage rate, available embryo rate, D3 high quality embryo rate, blastocyst formation rate and high quality blastocyst rate were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The normal morphology rate of sperms, DNA damage, fertilization rate, normal fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo transfer rate (ETR), D3 high quality embryo rate, blastocyst formation rate (BFR) and high quality blastocyst in normal males (Group A, abnormal rate≤30%, 135 subjects) did not significantly differ from those with an abnormal rate between 30% and 60% (Group B, 170 subjects) (P>0.05). For those with an abnormal rate of above 60% (Group C, 132 subjects), the sperm normal morphology rate, DNA damage, normal fertilization rate, ETR, D3 high quality embryo rate, high quality blastocyst rate were significantly lower compared with Group A (P<0.01), while no significant difference was found in fertilization rate, cleavage rate and BFR between groups A and C (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SNT is related with sperm morphology rate, DNA damage and embryo development, and should be assessed before ART.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Blastocyst , Metabolism , DNA Damage , Embryo Transfer , Embryonic Development , Fertilization in Vitro , Infertility, Male , Genetics , Metabolism , Nucleoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Spermatozoa , Metabolism
15.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 307-314, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148739

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV), a phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease that impacts humans. This disease manifests as a decreased blood cell count and multi-organ failure, with a case-fatality rate of more than 12% in China. Because vaccines or antiviral drugs for the treatment of this disease are not available, monitoring the SFTS circulation in animals and controlling the tick-mammal cycle are important for preventing SFTS. Monoclonal antibodies against the recombinant nucleoprotein of SFTSV were generated to develop a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of antibodies against SFTSV infection in cattle. The specificity and sensitivity of cELISA was assessed by comparing the results of this assay to those of an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results of the cELISA using 416 field bovine serum samples and laboratory-immunized positive sera showed 98.1% consistency with those of the IFA. The cELISA used in this study did not show cross-reactivity with antisera against other viral cattle diseases. The cELISA presented in this study can be applied to detect antibodies against SFTSV in cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents , Blood Cell Count , Bunyaviridae , Cattle Diseases , China , Communicable Diseases , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fever , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immune Sera , Nucleoproteins , Phlebovirus , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines
16.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 450-456, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296264

ABSTRACT

The influenza A is an acute respiratory infection persistently threatening human health and social stability, and has caused high morbidity and mortality. The development of novel anti-influenza drugs based on new targets is very significant because of high mutation and drug resistance of influenza virus. The nucleoprotein of influenza A virus identified high conservation, provides cross immune protection as a potential target of anti-influenza drugs and reports on relevant studies have been published at home and a- board. Herbal drug as a traditional Chinese medicine shows the distinct advantages in the aspect of prevention and treatment of influenza A. This paper analyzes the structure and function of influenza a virus, and reviews the advances in the research on anti-influenza targets based on the nucleoprotein of the influenza A virus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Drug Discovery , Methods , Influenza A virus , Metabolism , Physiology , Influenza, Human , Drug Therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Methods , Nucleoproteins , Chemistry , Metabolism , Virus Replication
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 351-362, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757579

ABSTRACT

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a key member of Filoviridae family and causes severe human infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality. As a typical negative-sense single-stranded RNA (-ssRNA) viruses, EBOV possess a nucleocapsid protein (NP) to facilitate genomic RNA encapsidation to form viral ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) together with genome RNA and polymerase, which plays the most essential role in virus proliferation cycle. However, the mechanism of EBOV RNP formation remains unclear. In this work, we solved the high resolution structure of core domain of EBOV NP. The polypeptide of EBOV NP core domain (NP(core)) possesses an N-lobe and C-lobe to clamp a RNA binding groove, presenting similarities with the structures of the other reported viral NPs encoded by the members from Mononegavirales order. Most strikingly, a hydrophobic pocket at the surface of the C-lobe is occupied by an α-helix of EBOV NP(core) itself, which is highly conserved among filoviridae family. Combined with other biochemical and biophysical evidences, our results provides great potential for understanding the mechanism underlying EBOV RNP formation via the mobility of EBOV NP element and enables the development of antiviral therapies targeting EBOV RNP formation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Crystallography, X-Ray , Ebolavirus , Physiology , Nucleoproteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Assembly , Physiology
18.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 189-194, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22780

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A new rabies vaccine for animals, including raccoon dogs, in Korea is needed to eradicate rabies infection. In this study, we constructed two recombinant adenoviruses expressing the glycoprotein or nucleoprotein of the rabies virus (RABV). We then investigated the safety and immunogenicity of these strains in raccoon dogs, depending on inoculation route. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant adenoviruses expressing the glycoprotein (Ad-0910G) or nucleoprotein (Ad-0910N) of rabies were constructed in 293A cells using an adenoviral system. One-year-old raccoon dogs underwent intramuscular (IM) inoculation or oral administration of the recombinant Ad-0910G and Ad-0910N. Clinical symptoms were observed and virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNA) against RABV were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the immunization. Raccoons were considered positive if VNA titers were > or = 0.1 IU/mL. RESULTS: Raccoon dogs inoculated with the combined Ad-0910G and Ad-0910N virus via the IM route did not exhibit any clinical sign of rabies during the observation period. All raccoon dogs (n = 7) immunized IM had high VNA titers, ranging from 0.17 to 41.6 IU/mL at 2 weeks after inoculation, but 70% (7/10) of raccoon dogs administered viruses via the oral route responded by 6 weeks after administration against RABV. CONCLUSION: Raccoon dogs inoculated with Ad-0910G and Ad-0910N viruses showed no adverse effects. Immunization with the combined Ad-0910G and Ad-0910N strains may play an important role in inducing VNA against RABV in raccoon dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adenoviridae , Administration, Oral , Antibodies , Glycoproteins , Immunization , Korea , Nucleoproteins , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies virus , Rabies , Raccoon Dogs , Raccoons
19.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 459-466, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207359

ABSTRACT

Rabies is a major fatal zoonotic disease in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine the recent dynamics of rabies virus (RABV) in various areas and animal species throughout Indonesia. A total of 27 brain samples collected from rabid animals of various species in Bali, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java, and Flores in 2008 to 2010 were investigated. The cDNA of the nucleoprotein gene from each sample was generated and amplified by one-step reverse transcription-PCR, after which the products were sequenced and analyzed. The symmetric substitution model of a Bayesian stochastic search variable selection extension of the discrete phylogeographic model of the social network was applied in BEAST ver. 1.7.5 software. The spatial dispersal was visualized in Cartographica using Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics. We demonstrated inter-island introduction and reintroduction, and dog was found to be the only source of infection of other animals. Ancestors of Indonesian RABVs originated in Java and its descendants were transmitted to Kalimantan, then further to Sumatra, Flores, and Bali. The Flores descendent was subsequently transmitted to Sulawesi and back to Kalimantan. The viruses found in various animal species were transmitted by the dog.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Brain , DNA, Complementary , Indonesia , Nucleoproteins , Phylogeography , Rabies virus , Rabies , Zoonoses
20.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 233-237, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356610

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate whether the nucleoprotein (NP) of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) can impact the cellular immunity of host cells. Gene segments that encode the NP and non-structural protein (NSs) of SFTSV were inserted into eukaryotic expression vector VR1012. Host proteins that interact with NP and affect immunity were identified with co-immunoprecipitation (IP), SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry (MS), and Western blot. Co-localization of NP and the identified host proteins was confirmed by confocal microscopy. A 60kD SSA/Ro, a protein related to immunity, interacted with NP, as found by IP and MS. Confocal microscopy showed that NP and SSA/Ro were co-localized in cytoplasm. These results indicated that SFTSV NP may specifically bind to 60kD SSA/Ro and cause a series of immune responses and clinical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bunyaviridae Infections , Genetics , Metabolism , Virology , HEK293 Cells , Nucleoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Phlebovirus , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Binding , Ribonucleoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Viral Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
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