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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 955-965, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1285270

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the reasons of quality deviation of a concentrate from a predefined standard. Five treatments were established: T1 - Control, standard concentrate formulation (SCF); T2 - PXMore5, SCF with more 5% vitamin-mineral premix (VMP); T3 - PXLess5, SCF with less 5% VMP. All three treatments used a 400kg batches in an INTECNIAL mixer; T4 - FeedMixer, SCF using a 4,000kg batch in an IMOTO mixer; T5 - PremixMixer, SCF using a 1,200kg batch in an MUYANG mixer. For each treatment, bags of 20 kg were stored in three storage places for four months. Water activity of concentrate was affected by temperature and air relative humidity in different storage places. Regarding the kind of mixer, the greatest variation in concentration of crude protein, mineral residue, copper, zinc, and selenium was observed in the PremixMixer. Adjustments are imperative in the handling and use procedures of this kind of mixer to meet the quality requirements required in the concentrate production. Analyzing the effect of the mineral-vitamin premix level, no difference could be defined with the evaluated parameters.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as razões do desvio de qualidade de um concentrado de um padrão predefinido. Foram estabelecidos cinco tratamentos: T1 - controle, concentrado com formulação padrão (CFP); T2 - PXMais5, CFP com 5% a mais de vitaminas e minerais da pré-mistura (PVM); T3 - PXMenos5, CFP com 5% a menos de PVM. Todos esses três tratamentos utilizaram lotes de 400kg em um misturador INTECNIAL; T4 - FeedMixer, CFP usando um lote de 4.000kg em um misturador IMOTO; T5 - PremixMixer, CFP usando um lote de 1.200kg em um misturador MUYANG. Para cada tratamento, sacos de 20kg foram armazenados em três ambientes distintos por quatro meses. A atividade de água do concentrado foi afetada pela temperatura e umidade relativa do ar em diferentes locais de armazenamento. Em relação ao tipo de misturador, a maior variação na concentração de proteína bruta, resíduo mineral, cobre, zinco e selênio foi devido ao PremixMixer. Ajustes são imperativos nos procedimentos de manuseio e uso desse tipo de misturador para atender aos requisitos de qualidade exigidos na produção de concentrado. Ao se analisar o efeito do nível da pré-mistura de vitaminas e minerais, nenhuma diferença pôde ser definida com os parâmetros avaliados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/analysis , Selenium , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Vitamins , Zinc , Copper
2.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 142-135, jul. 29, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282985

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La dieta actual de la población se caracteriza por la sustitución de alimentos naturales por productos alimenticios procesados, formulados industrialmente con ingredientes que contienen sodio. Objetivo. Clasificar el contenido de sodio en productos alimenticios preenvasados comercializados en El Salvador, según el perfil de nutrientes de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y las metas regionales para formulación industrial. Metodología. Diseño transversal descriptivo, se analizaron las etiquetas nutricionales de 1016 productos de siete categorías, registrados en el Sistema de Información en Salud Ambiental. Para la clasificación del contenido de sodio se aplicaron fórmulas según el perfil de nutrientes: alto en sodio ≥1 miligramo de sodio por caloría. Para la clasificación según metas regionales: cuando el contenido de sodio en 100 gramos de producto es > a la meta establecida. Resultados. Según el perfil de nutrientes, el 52% de los productos tiene alto contenido de sodio. Según metas regionales, el 24% está formulado por arriba de las metas, esto refleja diferencias entre las valoraciones de contenido de sodio por categoría. Conclusión. Más de la mitad los productos alimenticios preenvasados comercializados en El Salvador son clasificados como altos en sodio, según el perfil de nutrientes. Una cuarta parte de estos están formulados con sodio por encima de las metas regionales, mostrando que las metas son más flexibles en la valoración de contenido máximo de sodio para la formulación industrial en relación con la valoración de contenido alto en sodio para consumo humano


Introduction. The current diet of the population is characterized by the substitution of natural foods for processed food products, industrially formulated with ingredients that contain sodium. Target. Classify the sodium content in prepackaged food products marketed in El Salvador, according to the nutrient profile of the Pan American Health Organization and the regional goals for industrial formulation. Methodology. Descriptive cross-sectional design, the nutritional labels of 1016 products from seven categories, registered in the Environmental Health Information System, were analyzed. For the classification of sodium content, formulas were applied according to the nutrient profile: high in sodium ≥1 milligram of sodium per calorie. For classification according to regional goals: when the sodium content in 100 grams of product is> the established goal. Results. According to the nutrient profile, 52% of the products are high in sodium. According to regional goals, 24% is formulated above the goals, this reflects differences between the valuations of sodium content by category. Conclution. More than half of the prepackaged food products marketed in El Salvador are classified as high in sodium, according to the nutrient profile. A quarter of these are formulated with sodium above the regional goals, showing that the goals are more flexible in the assessment of maximum sodium content for industrial formulation in relation to the assessment of high sodium content for human consumption


Subject(s)
Sodium , Food , Nutrients , Diet , Food Labeling
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 114-126, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290833

ABSTRACT

La mayoría de los estudios apoyan la tesis de que el desayuno es la comida más importante del día. Un desayuno adecuado contribuye a lograr un patrón dietético global saludable y a mejorar la calidad de la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los principales patrones de desayuno en tres poblaciones universitarias de España, Túnez y Estados Unidos, analizar sus semejanzas y diferencias y estudiar la influencia de factores antropométricos, sociodemográficos y de estilo de vida en la adherencia a cada patrón. Se realizó un estudio transversal con datos de 730 estudiantes matriculados en las Universidades de Castilla-La Mancha, Cartago e Internacional de Florida en 2013. El consumo de alimentos se obtuvo mediante dos recordatorios de 24 horas, no consecutivos, uno de ellos en fin de semana. Los patrones se identificaron mediante análisis factorial exploratorio. La adherencia de los estudiantes a cada patrón se evaluó usando las puntuaciones factoriales. Se obtuvieron cuatro patrones para cada país. El principal patrón de los universitarios españoles incluyó pan, tomate, sal y aceite de oliva (varianza explicada: 20,85%); el principal de los tunecinos contenía pan, mermelada, nata y mantequilla (varianza explicada: 12,73%) y el principal de los americanos incluyó huevos, leche entera y azúcares (varianza explicada: 10,77%). Género, peso, IMC o comer fuera de casa fueron factores que influyeron en la adherencia a diferentes patrones. El estudio mostró la coexistencia de patrones tradicionales con otros occidentalizados y modelos transicionales intermedios. No se determinó un patrón generalizable asociado a mejores resultados del IMC(AU)


Most studies support the conclusion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. An adequate breakfast contributes to achieving a healthy global dietary pattern and improving quality of diet. The objective of this study was to determine the main breakfast patterns of three university populations from Spain, Tunisia, and The United States of America, analyze their similarities and differences, and study the impact of anthropometric, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the adherence to each pattern. A cross-sectional study was developed with data from 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, University of Carthage, and Florida International University, during 2013. Food consumption data were obtained by means of two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls including one weekend day. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify breakfast patterns. Factor scores were used to assess students' adherence to each pattern. Four breakfast patterns were obtained for each country. The main pattern of the Spanish students included bread, tomato, salt, and olive oil (explained variance: 20.85%); the main model of the Tunisians included bread, jam, cream and butter (explained variance: 12.73%); and the first pattern of the Americans was characterized by eggs, whole milk and sugars (explained variance: 10.77%). Gender, weight, BMI or eating out of home were factors that influenced the adherence to different patterns. Breakfast patterns obtained in this work showed the coexistence of traditional models with westernized and transitional ones. It was not determined a generalizable pattern associated with better BMI results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Breakfast , Life Style , Body Mass Index , Nutrients , Anthropometry , Metabolism
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 469-476, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248951

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the nutrient digestibility of grain-inclusive and grain-free commercial dry dog foods using the method of total fecal collection and also explore their effects on fecal consistency. 21 different foods, including 14 grain-inclusive (7 grain-chicken meat, 7 grain-lamb meat) and 7 grain-free were investigated. 12 adult Golden retriever dogs (age 3-4 years, body weight=22.5±1.7kg) were divided into 3 groups. The results of digestibility trials indicated that the grain-lamb meat foods showed the highest digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude fiber. Overall, in the grain-inclusive and grain-free group evaluation, grain-inclusive foods showed higher digestibility of crude fibers while grain-free foods had higher ether extract digestibility whereas the differences in the scores of fecal consistencies between the groups were insignificant. Contrary to popular belief, grain-inclusive foods were more digestive than grain-free foods in terms of dry matter and organic matter. There are studies involving starch sources in the dog food formulations, but there is a need to study the digestibility of complete dog food to supply them with adequate nutrients. Also, each diet should be assessed based on its overall nutrient profile and digestibility rather than individual ingredients.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar as digestibilidades de nutrientes de alimentos secos para cães comerciais, com grãos e livres de grãos, usando o método de coleta fecal total, bem como explorar seus efeitos na consistência fecal. Vinte e um alimentos diferentes, incluindo 14 grãos inclusivos (sete grãos de carne de frango, sete grãos de carne de cordeiro) e sete livres de grãos, foram investigados. Doze cães Golden Retriever adultos (idade de três-quatro anos, peso corporal = 22,5 ± 1,7kg) foram divididos em três grupos. Os resultados dos ensaios de digestibilidade indicaram que os alimentos cárneos de cordeiro apresentaram as maiores digestibilidades de matéria seca, matéria orgânica e fibra bruta. Em geral, na avaliação do grupo com grãos inclusivos e do grupo sem grãos, os alimentos com grãos inclusivos mostraram maior digestibilidade das fibras brutas, enquanto os alimentos sem grãos tiveram maior digestibilidade do extrato etéreo; já as diferenças nos escores de consistência fecal entre os grupos foram insignificantes. Ao contrário da crença popular, os alimentos com inclusão de grãos eram mais digestivos do que os sem grãos, em termos de matéria seca e matéria orgânica. Existem estudos envolvendo fontes de amido em formulações de rações, mas é necessário estudar a digestibilidade de rações completas para fornecer nutrientes adequados. Além disso, cada dieta deve ser avaliada com base em seu perfil geral de nutrientes e digestibilidade, em vez de ingredientes individuais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Nutrients/analysis , Edible Grain , Digestion , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Feed/classification
5.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 3-14, jan./jun. 2021. Ilus, Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247805

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: quantificar a abundância e a biomassa de moluscos bentônicos no Lago Igapó I, Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Material e Métodos: foram realizadas duas coletas no Lago Igapó I, a primeira em junho de 2015 e a segunda em fevereiro de 2016. O substrato (incluindo os moluscos incrustados) foi amostrado utilizando um quadrante com área de 1 m2, onde 10 amostragens foram realizadas entre três pontos distintos do lago. Os moluscos capturados foram anestesiados e eutanasiados por superexposição ao gelo. Posteriormente, o material foi quantificado em abundância (n) e biomassa total (kg), e armazenado em tambores contendo formol 4% tamponado com carbonato de cálcio. Resultados: foram identificadas cinco espécies de moluscos, sendo três não nativas (Limnoperna fortunei, Corbicula fluminea e Melanoides tuberculata), uma nativa (Aylacostoma cf. tenuilabris) e um indivíduo do gênero Pomacea. Em ambas as coletas, L. fortunei compreendeu aproximadamente 90% da abundância e biomassa total. A partir da densidade média de L. fortunei e a área total do Lago Igapó I, estimou-se que a população total de mexilhões-dourados pode chegar a 633 milhões de indivíduos, correspondendo a 638 toneladas de biomassa. Conclusão: é evidente a dominância da espécie invasora L. fortunei no Lago Igapó I, onde esta pode causar diversos efeitos negativos, como alterações no ciclo de nutrientes, redução de espécies nativas, introdução de parasitos, bioacumulação de metais pesados na cadeia trófica, diminuição da qualidade da água para uso humano e obstrução de encanamentos com risco de alagamentos. Desta forma, recomenda-se uma imediata ação de manejo neste ambiente para retirada de indivíduos da espécie, com consequente redução de sua abundância.(AU)


Objective: quantify the abundance and biomass of benthic molluscs in Igapó Lake I, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Material and Methods: two samplings was made at Igapó Lake I, first in June 2015 and then in February 2016. The substrate (including all embedded molluscs) was sampled using a 1 m2 quadrant, where 10 samples were taken between three distinct points from the lake. All molluscs captured were anesthetized and euthanized by overexposure to ice. Subsequently, the material was quantified in quantity (n) and total biomass (kg), and stored in barrels containing 4% formaldehyde buffered with calcium carbonate. Results: five species of molluscs were identified, three non native species (Limnoperna fortunei, Corbicula fluminea and Melanoides tuberculata), one native (Aylacostoma cf. tenuilabris) and one Pomacea sp. In both sampling, L. fortunei comprised approximately 90% of the abundance and total biomass. From the average density of L. fortunei and the total area of the Igapó Lake I, it was estimated that the total population of golden mussels can reach 633 million individuals, corresponding to 638 tons of biomass. Conclusion: the dominance of the invasive species L. fortunei in Igapó Lake I is evident, where it can cause several negative effects, such as alterations in the nutrient cycle, reduction of native species, introduction of parasites, bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, decreased quality of water for human use and obstruction of pipes obstruction with risk of overflow. Therefore, we recommend an immediate management action in this environment in order to remove individuals of this species and, consequently, to reduce its abundance. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , Bivalvia , Introduced Species , Parasites , Nutrients , Mollusca
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879134

ABSTRACT

This study is to clarify the composition and content differences of water-soluble nutrients in Lycium barbarum leaves(LBLs) from different areas. The total polysaccharides, free monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, nucleosides and amino acids in 35 batches of LBLs were analyzed with use of spectrophotometry, HPLC-ELSD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that LBLs contained abundant polysaccharides, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, with an average contents of 39.07, 12.69, 8.99, 17.44, 8.32 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Besides, eight nucleosides and twelve amino acids were detected in LBLs, and their average total contents were 54.95, 336.9 μg·g~(-1). Principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discrimination analysis(PLS-DA) of carbohydrate, nucleoside and amino acid showed that the water-soluble nutrients of the samples from Qinghai Province were significantly different from those from other areas mainly in asparagine, proline, glutamine, sucrose, adenine and guanosine. In this study, the compositions and contents of water-soluble nutrients in LBLs were preliminarily clarified, which provided basis for further development and utilization of LBLs resoures.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Lycium , Nutrients , Plant Leaves , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878972

ABSTRACT

In this study, 24 copies of samples of Chrysanthemum morifolium and soil from two main production towns in Macheng city were collected, and the contents of 13 mineral elements, 5 effective components and 14 soil nutrient factors in Ch. morifolium were determined. The enrichment characteristics of available soil nutrients by mineral elements were analyzed and the dominant factors affecting the effective components of Ch. morifolium were screened. The results showed that the content of mineral elements and soil nutrients and effective components are very different, and variation of soil fertility was much greater than that of inorganic elements in chrysanthemum plants. In general, the level of element content in Ch. morifolium from different producing areas is K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. The content of K, N and Mg is higher than that of common crops, and the content of Cu, Cd and Pb in Ch. morifolium from various producing areas does not exceed the relevant standards. The N, P and K enrichment capacity in soil was stronger than that of other elements, and the Ca enrichment ability was the worst. The content of AvCu in the soil was positively correlated with the contents of N, Mg, K, Fe and Cu elements in Ch. morifolium. The contents of chlorogenic acid, luteolin, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid reached the pharmacopoeia standard. The percentage of chlorogenic acid and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in Ch. morifolium that from Huangtugang town in the active components were generally higher than that from Futianhe town, and the diffe-rences of luteolin contents in the two producing areas were relatively small. The correlation and regression analysis showed that the contents of Cu, Zn and Cr in Ch. morifolium were positively correlated with the active components, while the contents of Fe, Mn and Ni were negatively correlated with the contents of AvP, AvK, TK, AvMn and AvCu in soil. In general, Zn and Ca fertilizer should be added to the ecological planting of Ch. morifolium, K fertilizer should be added, and N and P fertilizer should be applied appropriately.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Fertilizers , Minerals , Nutrients , Soil
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878702

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the nutritional literacy levels of the takeaway platform practitioners in Chengdu,the takeaway food nutrients,and the correlation between them.Methods We employed a multi-stage random sampling method to investigate the nutritional literacy levels of 100 takeaway platform restaurants in the main urban area of Chengdu and examined the nutritional components of hot set meals in each restaurant.A questionnaire survey was conducted on the nutritional literacy levels of chefs and food matching staff.The correlations of nutrient energy supply rationality with nutritional literacy level and set meal price were then analyzed.Results The total pass rate of nutrition knowledge of chefs/food matching staff was 61.0%.Only 2.0% of the set meals had reasonable total energy supply.The set meals with reasonable energy supply of available carbohydrate,protein,and fat accounted for 3.0%,62.0%,and 21.0%,and those with over energy supply accounted for 97.0%,26.0%,and 73.0%,respectively.The rest set meals provided insufficient energy.There was a positive correlation between the nutritional literacy level and the rationality of protein energy supply(r=0.414,P=0.003).Conclusions The nutritional literacy levels of chefs/food matching staff of takeaway food restaurants in Chengdu are moderate.The hot set meals on the takeaway platform have the problem of excess energy supply.The nutrition knowledge of chefs/food matching staff cannot effectively satisfy rational nutrition matching.The nutritional literacy levels of chefs/food matching staff showed no significant correlation with the rationality of nutrient energy supply.


Subject(s)
Fast Foods , Humans , Literacy , Meals , Nutrients , Restaurants
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(4): e00132020, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249429

ABSTRACT

Este estudo indagou como ampliar a análise da alimentação de crianças autistas, considerada inadequada pela seletividade alimentar ou pela dificuldade de interação nos momentos das refeições, atribuídas a alterações no processamento sensorial e a dificuldades sociais, comunicativas e cognitivas descritas no transtorno. A partir da perspectiva etnográfica, foi realizada observação participante, com registro em diários de campo, de oficinas culinárias com crianças/adolescentes autistas com vistas a analisar as relações que as crianças estabelecem com o alimento e os utensílios, com o espaço físico, entre elas e com adultos. Os registros foram analisados a partir da noção de experiência de Bondía e da Teoria Ator-Rede. Os dados produzidos mostraram singularidades na realização das tarefas de cozinhar e na aceitação das receitas. Algumas crianças não comeram os alimentos, mas cheiraram, lamberam e manipularam os ingredientes em momentos de experimentação, a partir da mediação dos profissionais, facilitadora da conexão das crianças com a comida e o comer. As interações estabelecidas com alimentos e utensílios apontam para a importância da comida e do cozinhar como mediadores da conexão das crianças com seus pares, com os adultos e com o mundo. Essa experiência rompeu com a valorização homogeneizadora das dificuldades de interação das crianças autistas e reforçou a comensalidade como ferramenta de construção de redes de cuidado. Pensar a alimentação dessas crianças em uma perspectiva ampliada é valorizar a subjetividade, a relação com o alimento e a interação entre pessoas nos momentos das refeições para além da compreensão biológica restrita aos nutrientes.


This study examined ways to expand the analysis of diet in autistic children, widely considered inadequate according to food selectivity and/or difficulty interacting at mealtimes, attributed to alterations in sensorial processing and social, communicative, and cognitive difficulties. From an ethnographic perspective, a participant observational study was performed with field diary records and cooking workshops with autistic children and adolescents, aimed at analyzing the relations established by the children with the food and utensils, physical space, and between each other and the adults. The records were analyzed based on Bondía's notion of experience and Actor-Network Theory. The resulting data showed singularities in performing cooking tasks and accepting recipes. Some children did not eat the foods, but smelled, licked, and handled the ingredients in moments of experimentation through mediation by the educators, facilitating connection by the children with food and eating. The interactions established with foods and utensils highlight the importance of food and eating as mediators of the connection between autistic children and their peers, with adults, and with the world. This experience broke with the homogenizing value assigned to autistic children's difficulties with interaction and reinforced commensality as a tool for building networks of care. To conceive eating for these children from an expanded perspective means to value subjectivity, the relationship to food, and interaction with others at mealtimes, far beyond the biological understanding of the nutrients.


Este estudio indagó como ampliar el análisis de la alimentación de niños autistas, considerada inadecuada por la selectividad alimentaria o por la dificultad de interacción en los momentos de las comidas, atribuidas a alteraciones en el procesamiento sensorial y dificultades sociales, comunicativas y cognitivas descritas en el trastorno. A partir de la perspectiva etnográfica, se realizó una observación participante, con registro en diarios de campo, de talleres culinarios con niños/adolescentes autistas, con el fin de analizar las relaciones que los niños establecen con el alimento y utensilios, con el espacio físico, entre ellos y con adultos. Los registros fueron analizados a partir de la noción de experiencia de Bondía y de la Teoría Actor Red. Los datos producidos mostraron singularidades en la realización de las tareas de cocinar y en la aceptación de las recetas. Algunos niños no comieron los alimentos, pero los olieron, lamieron y manipularon los ingredientes, en momentos de esta experiencia, a partir de la mediación de los educadores, facilitadora de la conexión de los niños con la comida y el comer. Las interacciones establecidas con alimentos y utensilios apuntan a la importancia de la comida y del cocinar como mediadores de la conexión de los niños con sus compañeros, con adultos, así como con el mundo. Esta experiencia rompió con la valoración homogeneizadora de las dificultades de interacción de los niños autistas y reforzó la comensalía como herramienta de construcción de redes de cuidado. Pensar la alimentación de estos niños desde una perspectiva ampliada es valorar la subjetividad, la relación con el alimento, la interacción entre personas en los momentos de las comidas, para ir más allá de la comprensión biológica restringida a los nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Autistic Disorder , Brazil , Nutrients , Cooking , Feeding Behavior , Meals
11.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 213-222, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118827

ABSTRACT

The ruderal babassu palm (Attalea speciosa) is expanding on large areas of degraded Amazon landscapes. Decomposition of leaves and roots is in the center of plant:soil interactions. We evaluated decomposition and nutrient concentrations of leaves and fine roots of babassu in comparison with two exotic reference species, Acacia mangium (slow degradability) and Leucaena leucocephala (fast degradability), in a 138-day litterbag assay carried out in secondary forest stands of different age and babassu abundance. We chose 4-mm over 2-mm mesh litterbags based on a pilot study. Babassu leaves degraded slower than leaves of A. mangium and L. leucocephala, and also had lower nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium concentrations in all stages of decomposition. By contrast, potassium concentrations in babassu leaves were higher than in both reference species at 0 and 50 days. Roots of all three species decomposed slower than leaves. Compared to the leaves, both biomass loss and nutrient concentrations differed less between babassu and reference-species roots, except for lower nitrogen concentration in babassu roots. Leaf-litter decomposition of all three species was significantly faster in old than in young secondary forest, suggesting an acceleration of decomposition along succession. Babassu leaves decomposed faster in old babassu-dominated than non-dominated secondary forest, pointing to the existence of specialized decomposer communities in babassu-dominated stands. (AU)


Subject(s)
Soil , Nutrients , Amazonian Ecosystem , Acacia , Organic Matter
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 782-791, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138615

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Una dieta vegetariana se define por la exclusión total o parcial de alimentos de origen animal. Cuando es planificada adecuadamente puede prevenir y tratar enfermedades. Sin embargo, una dieta restrictiva en ciertos alimentos debe ser evaluada. El propósito de esta investigación fue describir parámetros antropométricos, hábitos de alimentación y de estilo de vida en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y veganos y explorar diferencias en la ingesta de nutrientes críticos entre ambos grupos. Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, realizado en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y veganos de Asunción, Paraguay, durante el 2015. Se evaluaron parámetros antropométricos,, ingesta y hábitos de estilo de vida saludable. Participaron 17 ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos y 14 veganos. El 67,7 % (n= 21) se encontró normopeso, el 29 % (n= 9) presentó exceso de peso, y el 3,2% (n=1) bajo peso. Se presentó una ingesta inferior a los requerimientos en energía, carbohidratos, proteínas y grasas en ambos grupos de vegetarianos, e ingesta muy limitada de calcio y vitamina B12 en veganos. Las mujeres presentaron ingesta muy por debajo de las recomendaciones para hierro y calcio. Ninguna mujer vegana cumplió con la recomendación dietaria de vitamina B12. Al comparar grupos, se hallaron diferencias significativas en proteínas, calcio (menor consumo en veganos) y fibra (menor en ovo-lácteo-vegetarianos). La suplementación con vitaminas y suplementos también fue muy baja. Los resultados resaltan la importancia de una evaluación constante de la ingesta de nutrientes en una dieta vegetariana, a modo de evitar deficiencias o excesos, y la insoslayable tarea del nutricionista para el asesoramiento alimentario-nutricional a los individuos que expresen interés en adoptar este tipo de dieta.


ABSTRACT A vegetarian diet is defined by the total or partial exclusion of foods of animal origin. When properly planned it can prevent and treat disease. However, a restrictive diet in certain foods must be evaluated. The purpose of this research was to describe anthropometric parameters, eating and lifestyle habits of lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans, and to explore differences in critical nutrient intake between both groups. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out among lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans in the city of Asunción, Paraguay, during 2015. Anthropometric parameters,, intake and healthy lifestyle habits were evaluated. Seventeen lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 14 vegans participated. 67.7% (n= 21) were normal weight, 29.1% (n= 9) were overweight, and 3.2% (n= 1) were underweight. There was an intake lower than the requirements in terms of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and fats in both groups of vegetarians, and very limited intake of calcium and vitamin B12 in vegans. Women particularly had intake well below the recommendations for iron and calcium. No woman on a vegan diet met the dietary recommendation for vitamin B12. When comparing groups, significant differences were found in terms of protein and calcium, (lower consumption in vegans), fiber (lower in lacto-ovo-vegetarians). Vitamin supplementation was also very low. The results highlight the importance of constant evaluation of nutrient intake in a vegetarian diet in order to avoid deficiencies or excesses, and the very important work of the nutritionist for food and nutritional advice for individuals who express interest in adopting this type of diet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diet, Vegetarian , Nutrients , Nutritional Status , Carbohydrates , Proteins , Life Style
13.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(3): 258-282, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133641

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be 82 million people in the world with dementia. Objective: To evaluate the effect of dietary interventions on the cognitive performance of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was conducted in the Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane databases. Thirty-two RCT were included. Results: Omega-3 fatty acid showed positive effects at different doses. Fortasyn Connect seemed to be effective in the early stages of the disease. Probiotic, Ginseng, Inositol and specialized nutritional formulas seemed to have a positive effect on cognition. Most of the primary studies presented poor methodological quality, included patients with mild AD, small samples, and did not obtain significative results for all the cognitive outcomes. Conclusions: The effect of most dietary interventions on cognition in AD patients remains inconclusive, however, several nutrients, isolated or not, show potential to improve cognitive function in AD, especially in its early stages.


RESUMO. Estima-se que até 2030 haverá 82 milhões de pessoas no mundo com demência. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito de intervenções dietéticas no desempenho cognitivo de indivíduos com DA. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) nas bases de dados Scopus, PubMed e Cochrane. Trinta e dois ECRs foram incluídos. Resultados: Ácidos graxos ômega-3 apresentaram efeitos positivos em diferentes doses. O Fortasyn Connect mostrou-se efetivo em estágios iniciais. Probióticos, Ginseng, Inositol e fórmulas nutricionais especializadas também demonstraram efeito positivo sobre a cognição. A maioria dos estudos primários apresentou baixa qualidade metodológica, incluiu pacientes com DA leve e amostras pequenas e não obteve resultados significativos para todos os desfechos cognitivos. Conclusões: O efeito da maioria das intervenções dietéticas em pacientes com DA permanece inconclusivo; entretanto, vários nutrientes, isolados ou não, apresentam potencial para melhorar a função cognitiva na DA, principalmente em seu estágio inicial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Nutrients , Cognition , Dietary Supplements , Diet
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1469-1478, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1131483

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the different lactation stages of F1 Holstein x Zebu cows on intake and digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen use efficiency, feeding behavior and performance. Thirty-six F1 Holstein × Zebu cows with initial body weight (BW) of 482±43kg were used. The early, mid and late lactation stages were characterized after 50±13, 111.5±11.75 and 183.0±17.5 days in milk, respectively. A completely randomized design with three lactation stages and 12 cows in each treatment group was used. Dry matter intake (P=0.01) was higher in late lactation. Milk yield (P<0.01) was 24.17% higher in early lactation than in other stages. Body weight was lowest in mid-lactation cows (465.63kg; P<0.01). The feed efficiency was 23.36% higher in early lactation than in other stages (0.82kg of milk/kg of DM). F1 Holstein x Zebu cows have increased dry matter intake in late lactation. Milk yield and feed efficiency in early lactation were benefited by changes in feeding behavior, such as increased rumination time.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os diferentes estágios de lactação de vacas F1 Holandês x Zebu quanto ao consumo e à digestibilidade de nutrientes, à eficiência no uso de nitrogênio, ao comportamento ingestivo e ao desempenho. Trinta e seis vacas F1 Holandês × Zebu, com peso corporal inicial (PC) de 482±43kg, foram utilizadas. Os estágios inicial, médio e final da lactação foram caracterizados após 50±13, 111,5±11,75 e 183,0±17,5 dias de lactação, respectivamente. O arranjo experimental adotado foi o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três fases de lactação e 12 vacas em cada grupo de tratamento. O consumo de matéria seca (P=0,01) foi maior no período final da lactação. Na fase inicial da lactação, a produção de leite (P<0,01) foi maior em 24,17% em comparação às demais fases. Na fase intermediária da lactação, as vacas apresentaram menor peso corporal (465,63kg; P<0,01) em relação às demais fases. A eficiência alimentar foi maior em 23,36% na fase inicial da lactação (0,82kg de leite/kg de MS). Vacas F1 Holandês x Zebu aumentam o consumo de matéria seca no período final da lactação. A produção de leite e a eficiência alimentar no início da lactação foram favorecidas por mudanças no comportamento ingestivo, como o aumento do tempo de ruminação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Nutrients , Feeding Behavior , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Lactation , Crosses, Genetic
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): s130-s141, agosto 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118606

ABSTRACT

Los padres que deciden cambiar la dieta habitual de sus hijos por otra más restrictiva deben conocer los riesgos y las ventajas de la alimentación escogida y recibir información que les ayude a ofrecerles una alimentación suficiente. Las dietas vegetarianas pueden realizarse siempre que sean planificadas por especialistas con la inclusión de una amplia variedad de alimentos vegetales y fortificados, y con el suplemento adecuado indicado en cada etapa.El objetivo de este documento es dar a conocer la postura del Comité de Nutrición de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría y brindar a los profesionales de la salud información adecuada que permita responder a las inquietudes de los padres y los pacientes que deciden escoger una dieta vegetariana como modalidad de alimentación. Se identifican los desafíos para tener en cuenta y se destaca que, sin dichas consideraciones y un seguimiento adecuado, estas dietas no pueden realizarse de manera segura en la infancia


Parents who decide to change the usual diet of their children for a more restrictive one should know the risks and advantages of the chosen diet and receive information that helps them to offer their children a sufficient diet. Vegetarian diets can be adopted as long as they are planned by specialists with the inclusion of a wide variety of plant foods and fortified foods with the appropriate supplementation indicated at each stage. The objective of this document is to present the position of the Nutrition Committee of the Argentine Society of Pediatrics and to provide health professionals with adequate information to respond to the concerns of parents and patients who decide to choose a vegetarian diet as a modality of feeding. The challenges to be taken into account are identified, highlighting that without these considerations and proper monitoring these diets cannot be carried out safely in childhood


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Diet, Vegetarian , Pediatrics , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Child Development , Risk , Monitoring , Adolescent Development , Diet Therapy
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1069-1074, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1129781

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the digestive tract characteristics, metabolizability and nutrient retention of broilers fed diets supplemented with enzyme complex (EC). To evaluate the characteristics of the digestive tract 600 female Cobb 500 birds were used, distributed in a completely randomized design, with 5 inclusion levels of the EC (0; 100, 200, 300 and 400 g/ton) and 6 replicates of 20 birds each. To evaluate the metabolizability and the retention of nutrients 200 female Cobb 500 birds at 15 days of age were used, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 levels of supplementation of the EC and 4 replicates of 10 birds each. No significant effects (P>0.05) were observed for the supplementation of the EC in the intestinal pH, digestive organ weight, intestinal length and metabolizable coefficients of dry matter and crude protein. The metabolizable coefficient of ethereal extract was influenced in a quadratic decreasing form (P<0.01). The metabolizable coefficients of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were influenced in a quadratic increase (P<0.01), resulting in increased Ca retention in 21.39% and P in 9.56%. Supplementation of the EC in broiler diets improves the metabolizability and retention of P and Ca, without affecting the other parameters evaluated.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Chickens/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Enzymes/administration & dosage , Peptide Hydrolases , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Cellulases
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1167-1174, 01-06-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147229

ABSTRACT

The knowledge about growth and nutrient accumulation can help improve fertilizer efficiency in the production of jabuticaba seedlings, which is still carried out in an empirical way. This study aimed at determining the growth and macronutrient uptake in 'Sabará' jabuticaba genotypes grown in nutrient solution. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in split plots, with four replications. In the main plots three jabuticaba genotypes (J001, J005 and J012) were cultivated in nutrient solution and six evaluation periods (at 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days) in the sub-plots were evaluated. Plant height, root length, stem diameter, leaf area index and dry matter (root, stem and leaves) in each period were evaluated. The accumulation of macronutrients in different plant organs was determined, as well as the accumulation of nutrients as a function of time adjusted to the linear model. The results showed that the cultivation in nutrient solution was efficient in the production of Sabará jabuticabeira seedlings. There was no difference in macronutrient growth and absorption among jabuticaba genotypes grown in nutrient solution. 'Sabará' jabuticaba plants accumulated (in mg plant-1) 559 of N, 45 of P, 443 of K, 363 of Ca, 59 of Mg and 82 of S. The distribution of macronutrient accumulations in jabuticaba showed the following order: leaves > stem > roots.


O conhecimento sobre o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes poderá contribuir para a melhoria da eficiência da adubação na produção de mudas de jabuticabeira, que ainda é realizada de forma empírica. Neste estudo, objetivou-se determinar o crescimento e a marcha de absorção de macronutrientes em genótipos de jabuticabeira Sabará cultivados em solução nutritiva. O experimento conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas principais, foram utilizados três genótipos de jabuticabeira (J001, J002 e J003) e, nas subparcelas, foram avaliados seis períodos de avaliação (aos 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 e 360 dias). Avaliou-se altura das plantas, comprimento das raízes, diâmetro do caule, índice de área foliar e matéria seca (raiz, caule, folhas) em cada período. Foi determinado o acúmulo de macronutrientes nos diferentes órgãos das plantas, bem como, o acúmulo de nutrientes em função do tempo ajustado ao modelo linear. Os resultados demonstraram que o cultivo em solução nutritiva foi eficiente na produção de mudas de jabuticabeira Sabará. Não houve diferença no crescimento e absorção de macronutrientes entre os genótipos de jabuticaba cultivados em solução nutritiva. As plantas de jabuticaba 'Sabará' acumularam (em mg planta-1) 559 de N, 45 de P, 443 de K, 363 de Ca, 59 de Mg e 82 de S. A distribuição das acumulações de macronutrientes na jabuticaba mostrou a seguinte ordem: folhas > caule> raízes.


Subject(s)
Nutrients , Manure
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(1): 30-39, marz. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1129596

ABSTRACT

Evaluar la prevalencia de riesgo de desnutrición (RD) en adultos mayores de dos municipios de Yucatán, México, e identificar algunos factores asociados. Estudio transversal con muestreo intencional no probabilístico en 6 centros de atención geriátrica, una clínica universitaria y visitas domiciliares. Noventa y seis adultos mayores de 60 años (76% mujeres), 42 residentes de estancias geriátricas y 54 no institucionalizados. Se evaluó el RD con la escala de Valoración Mínima del Estado de Nutrición (VMEN), junto con variables demográficas, de funcionalidad, comorbilidades, depresión y apetito. La composición corporal se evaluó con ecuaciones basadas en antropometría e impedancia bioeléctrica. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, t de Student, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi cuadrado, análisis univariado y análisis de regresión múltiple. El 47,9 % (46 sujetos; 37 mujeres y 9 varones) presentaron RD de acuerdo con la VMEN y 52,1% de los participantes fueron clasificados con estado nutricio normal de acuerdo con dicha escala. Los valores promedio de la masa corporal libre de grasa y la masa muscular esquelética en extremidades de sujetos con RD, fueron más bajos que en aquellos con estado de nutrición normal (p< 0,05). El análisis de regresión logístico múltiple ajustado por género indicó que la edad (OR=1,08, p=0,005) y la depresión (OR=3,79, p=0,017) fueron factores predictores asociados con RD. El 47,9 % de los participantes presentaron RD. Se requieren acciones para diagnosticar y atender el RD y evitar que progrese a desnutrición. La edad y la depresión se debieran incluir como posibles marcadores tempranos de desnutrición en futuros estudios poblacionales e intervenciones nutricionales en adultos mayores en comunidad e institucionalizados en Yucatán(AU)


To assess the prevalence of Malnutrition Risk (MR) in older adults from two municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, and to identify some associated factors. Cross-sectional study, using non-probabilistic sample in six geriatric care centers, a university clinic, and home visits. Ninety-six adults over 60 years (76% women), 42 residents of geriatric care homes, and 54 non-institutionalized. The MR was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment scale (MNA), along with demographic, functionality, comorbidities, depression, and appetite variables. Body composition was also assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Descriptive analyzes, Student's t, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-square, univariate, and multiple regression analysis were performed. Of the total sample, 47.9% (46 subjects; 37 women and 9 men) presented RD according to the VMEN and 52.1% of the participants were classified with normal nutritional status according to the scale. Mean values of fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were lower in subjects with MR than in those with normal nutritional status (p <0.05). The multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by gender indicated that age (OR = 1.08, p = 0.005) and depression (OR = 3.79, p = 0.017) were predictor associated factors with MR. Almost forty eight percent of the participants present MR. Actions are required to diagnose and treat MR, avoiding progressing to malnutrition. Age and depression should be included as possible early markers of malnutrition in future population studies and nutritional interventions, in the community and institutionalized older adults in Yucatan(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Eating , Risk Factors , Protein-Energy Malnutrition , Elderly Nutrition , Body Composition , Nutrients , Anthropometry
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(5): 666-672, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136266

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by multisystem involvement including low bone mineral density (BMD). OBJECTIVE To assess the bone phenotype of individuals with NF1 and verify its association with nutrient intake. METHODS Twenty-six adults with NF1 underwent bone phenotype assessments using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and food intake evaluations. They were compared to 26 unaffected matched control patients. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. DXA provided total body, spine, and hip BMDs and bone mineral content (BMC) for all patients. Food intake was evaluated for energy, macro- and micro-nutrients. RESULTS Height (1.68 ± 0.1; 1.61 ± 0.1 cm; P = 0.003) and BMC (2.3 ± 0.4; 2.0 ± 0.5 kg; P = 0.046) were lower in the NF1 group. Individuals with NF1 also presented lower total body and spine BMDs (g/cm2) (1.1 ± 0.1, 1.0 ± 0.1, P = 0.036; 1.0 ± 0.1, 0.9 ± 0.1; P = 0.015, respectively). The frequency of total body bone mass below the expected level for patients' ages was higher in the NF1 group (7.7%; 34.6%, P = 0.016). There were no differences in energy consumption. No correlations between BMC and BMD with nutrient intake were observed in the NF1 group. CONCLUSIONS The NF1 group presented lower BMCs and BMDs. Although a lower consumption of calcium, iron, and vitamin A, and a higher intake of sodium and omega-6 were observed, there was no relationship between bone phenotype and nutrient intake.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO A Neurofibromatose tipo 1 (NF1) é uma doença genética autossômica dominante caracterizada por envolvimento neurocutâneo e multissistêmico, incluindo baixa densidade mineral óssea (DMO). OBJETIVOS Avaliar características ósseas em indivíduos com NF1 e verificar associação com a ingestão de nutrientes. METODOLOGIA 26 adultos com NF1 submeteram-se a avaliação dos parâmetros ósseos usando absorciometria com raios-X de dupla energia (DXA), além da avaliação da ingestão alimentar. O grupo NF1 foi comparado e pareado com 26 indivíduos sem a doença. Peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura foram avaliados. DXA forneceu o conteúdo mineral ósseo (CMO) e a DMO do corpo total, coluna e fêmur. A ingestão de calorias, macronutrientes e micronutrientes foi avaliada. RESULTADOS O grupo NF1 apresentou redução da estatura (1,68 ± 0,1; 1,61 ± 0,1 cm; P=0,003) e do CMO (2,3 ± 0,4; 2,0 ± 0,5 kg; P=0,046). Indivíduos com NF1 também apresentaram redução da DMO de corpo total e coluna (g/cm2) (1,1 ± 0,1, 1,0 ± 0,1, P=0,036; 1,0 ± 0,1, 0,9 ± 0,1; P=0,015, respectivamente). A frequência de indivíduos com massa óssea abaixo do esperado para a idade foi maior no grupo NF1 (7,7%; 34,6%, P=0,016). Não houve diferenças no consumo energético. Não houve correlação entre CMO e DMO com a ingestão de nutrientes no grupo NF1. CONCLUSÕES O grupo NF1 apresentou redução do CMO e da DMO. Apesar de menor consumo de cálcio, ferro e vitamina A, e maior consumo de sódio e ômega-6, não foi observada relação entre o fenótipo ósseo e a ingestão de nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Bone Density , Nutrients , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Absorptiometry, Photon , Lumbar Vertebrae
20.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 23(1): 61-68, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126280

ABSTRACT

La alimentación es un factor fundamental en la calidad de vida de los trabajadores, ya que aporta los nutrientes requeridos por el organismo para un funcionamiento apropiado. Teniendo en cuenta esto, se realizó una revisión documental de artículos científicos sobre la alimentación laboral en los países de Sur América a través de una búsqueda en las bases de datos Medline, Scielo y Ebsco en el periodo 2010 - 2019. Los artículos seleccionados fueron experiencias de programas de promoción de la alimentación saludable en el entorno laboral. En términos generales, se identificó cómo desde las acciones implementadas en el nivel individual, ambiental y organizacional aumentó el consumo de frutas y vegetales en la dieta de los trabajadores. Del mismo modo se evidencia que las experiencias de alimentación laboral saludable en América del Sur son limitadas desde el enfoque de la promoción de la salud.


Food is an important factor in the life quality of workers, since it provides the nutrients required by the body for proper functioning. Taking this into account, a documentary review of scientific articles on labor feeding in the countries of South America was carried out through a search in the Medline, Scielo and Ebsco databases, in the period 2010 - 2019. The articles selected were experiences of programs to promote healthy eating in the work environment. In general terms, it was identified how from the actions implemented at the individual, environmental and organizational level, the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the workers' diet increased. In the same way it is evident that the experiences of healthy work feeding in South America are limited from the health promotion approach. Keywords: Health promotion, Employment, Healthy Diet, Occupational Health.


Subject(s)
Food , Diet, Healthy , Health Promotion , Vegetables , Working Environment , Nutrients , Fruit
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