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1.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 35: e43584, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1351619

ABSTRACT

Objetivo investigar a correlação da circunferência do pescoço com outros parâmetros antropométricos, com a pressão arterial, com a glicemia capilar e com fatores de risco modificáveis e não modificáveis presentes. Método estudo transversal descritivo, com pacientes de uma policlínica, mediante aplicação de questionário semiestruturado. Circunferência do pescoço aferida considerando posição natural da cabeça, entre ponto médio cervical e do pescoço anterior. Risco cardiovascular determinado pela medida da circunferência abdominal e pelos fatores de risco modificáveis ou não modificáveis. Resultados encontradas correlações positivas entre circunferência do pescoço e índice de massa muscular, circunferência abdominal, pressão arterial sistólica, glicemia capilar e idade, além de ter sido identificado alto risco cardiovascular na maioria dos participantes do sexo masculino, com tendência de medida ser maior em indivíduos com hipertensão, diabetes e dislipidemias. Conclusão circunferência do pescoço correlacionou-se significativamente com índice de massa corpórea, circunferência abdominal, pressão sistólica, glicemia capilar e idade.


Objetivo investigar la correlación de la circunferencia del cuello con otros parámetros antropométricos, con la presión arterial, la glucemia capilar y con los factores de riesgo modificables y no modificables presentes. Método estudio descriptivo transversal, con pacientes de una policlínica, mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario semiestructurado. Circunferencia del cuello medida considerando la posición natural de la cabeza, entre el punto medio cervical y el cuello anterior. Riesgo cardiovascular determinado por la medición de la circunferencia abdominal y factores de riesgo modificables o no modificables. Resultados se encontraron correlaciones positivas entre la circunferencia del cuello y el índice de masa muscular, la circunferencia abdominal, la presión arterial sistólica, la glucemia capilar y la edad, además de haber sido identificado un alto riesgo cardiovascular en la mayoría de los participantes masculinos, con tendencia a ser mayor en individuos con hipertensión, diabetes y dislipidemias. Conclusión la circunferencia del cuello se correlacionó significativamente con el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia abdominal, la presión sistólica, la glucemia capilar y la edad.


Objective to investigate the correlation of neck circumference with other anthropometric parameters, with blood pressure, capillary glycemia and with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors present. Method descriptive cross-sectional study, with patients from a polyclinic, by applying a semi-structured questionnaire. Neck circumference was measured considering the natural position of the head, between cervical midpoint and anterior neck. Cardiovascular risk was determined by measurement of abdominal circumference and modifiable or non-modifiable risk factors. Results positive correlations were found between neck circumference and muscle mass index, abdominal circumference, systolic blood pressure, capillary glycemia and age, besides identifying high cardiovascular risk in most male participants, with a tendency to be higher in individuals with hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemias. Conclusion neck circumference was significantly correlated with body mass index, abdominal circumference, systolic pressure, capillary glycemia and age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anthropometry , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Obesity/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neck/growth & development
2.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e222, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156398

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La obesidad constituye un importante factor de riesgo independiente para el desarrollo de las disglucemias. A través del índice de masa corporal es posible hacer un diagnóstico rápido del exceso ponderal. Objetivo: Describir la relación entre el índice de masa corporal elevado y la predicción de las disglucemias. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura relevante sobre el tema en el primer trimestre de 2019. Se utilizaron como buscadores de información científica a Pubmed, SciELO y Google Académico. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó los siguientes términos como palabras clave: "obesidad", "sobrepeso corporal", "índice de masa corporal", "exceso de peso", "disglucemias". Se evaluaron artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas Web que, en general, tenían menos de 10 años de publicados, en idioma español, portugués e inglés, y que hicieran referencia específicamente al tema de estudio a través del título. Fueron excluidos los artículos que no cumplieron con estas condiciones. Esto permitió el estudio de 80 referencias bibliográficas, de las cuales 55 se citaron en el presente artículo. Conclusiones: El índice de masa corporal elevado incrementa la resistencia a la acción de la insulina preexistente, a través de diferentes mecanismos. Esto facilita el deterioro del metabolismo de los carbohidratos con la posible aparición de las disglucemias. El empleo de esta relación y de puntos de cortes validados para nuestra población, permitiría un diagnóstico rápido del exceso ponderal y la predicción de una de sus importantes consecuencias, las disglucemias(AU)


Introduction: Obesity is an important independent risk factor for the development of dysglycaemia. A rapid diagnosis of weight excess can be made through the body mass index. Objective: Describe the relationship between high body mass index and prediction of dysglycaemias. Method: A search for relevant literature on the subject was conducted in the first quarter of 2019. Pubmed, SciELO and Google Academic were used as scientific information searchers. The search strategy included the following terms as keywords: "obesity", "body overweight", "body mass index", "excess weight", "dysglycaemias". Review articles, research articles and web pages were evaluated, generally with less than 10 years old, in Spanish, Portuguese and English languages, and specifically referencing the subject of study through the title. Items that did not meet these conditions were excluded. This allowed the study of 80 bibliographic references, of which 55 were cited in this article. Conclusions: The high body mass index increases the resistance to the action of pre-existing insulin, through different mechanisms. This facilitates the deterioration of carbohydrates metabolism with the possible onset of dysglycaemia. The use of this relationship and of validated cut-off points for our population would allow a rapid diagnosis of weight excess and the prediction of one of its important consequences: dysglycaemias(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Obesity/diagnosis , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
3.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(1): e167, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126451

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los malos hábitos alimentarios contribuyen a la aparición de la obesidad, la cual representa un factor de riesgo para el inicio de la diabetes mellitus. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre hábitos alimentarios y el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en pacientes con obesidad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el consultorio médico de familia número 6 perteneciente al Policlínico Universitario "José Machado Rodríguez", municipio Unión de Reyes, Matanzas, durante el período comprendido entre diciembre 2013 y febrero 2015. El universo lo constituyó un total de 380 pacientes diagnosticados como obesos y se seleccionó una muestra de 186 individuos, según los criterios de selección. Se utilizó el score de riesgo Finish Diabetes Risk Score. Se solicitó el consentimiento asistido de los pacientes. Resultados: Se evidenció un predominio general del sexo femenino (51,61 por ciento), lo que se asocia con el grupo de edad más frecuente de 35 a 54 años (49,46 por ciento). Existió un elevado porcentaje de obesos que adicionan sal a las comidas después de cocidas o al sentarse a la mesa (93,0 por ciento), seguido del consumo de grasa animal para cocinar (52,7 por ciento). Hubo un escaso consumo diario de frutas (15,6 por ciento), y de verduras/hortalizas (25,3 por ciento). Predominaron los pacientes con riesgo alto de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (31,2 por ciento) asociados a 29,6 por ciento con malos hábitos alimentarios dentro de ese grupo. Conclusiones: La obesidad asociada a patrones de alimentación inadecuados predomina en los pacientes considerados laboralmente activos. El mayor porcentaje de individuos con riesgo alto y muy alto de diabetes presenta incorrectos hábitos dietéticos. Existe una asociación porcentual entre los malos hábitos alimentarios y el riesgo estimado de desarrollar diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en individuos obesos(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Bad eating habits contribute to the emergence of obesity, which represents a risk factor for the onset of diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine the association between food habits and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients with obesity. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Family Doctor´s office number 6 belonging to ´´José Machado Rodríguez´´ University Policlinic, in Union de Reyes municipality, Matanzas province, during the period from December 2013 to February 2015. The sample was a total of 380 patients diagnosed as obese and it was selected a sample of 186 individuals, according to the selection criteria. It was used the Finish Diabetes Risk Score risk score. It was requested the assisted consent of patients. Results: There was a general predominance of females (51.61 percent), which is associated with the most frequent age group of 35 to 54 years (49.46 percent). There was a high percentage of obese individuals that add salt to the meals after cooked or while at the table (93.0 percent), followed by consumption of animal fat for cooking (52.7 percent). There was a low daily consumption of fruits (15.6 percent), and vegetables (25.3 percent). There was a predominance of patients at high risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 (31.2 percent) associated with 29.6 percent with bad eating habits within that group. Conclusions: Obesity associated with inadequate feeding patterns prevails in patients considered occupationally active. The highest percentage of individuals with high and very high risk of diabetes presents incorrect dietary habits. There is a percentage association between the bad eating habits and the estimated risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 in obese individuals(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190736, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132171

ABSTRACT

Abstract Obesity is the most common chronic disease, due to its ignorance in society. It gives birth to other diseases such as endocrine. The objective of this research is to analyze the different trends of each BMI category and predict its related serious consequences. Data mining based Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique has been applied for this and the accuracy of each BMI category has been calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC), which is an effective method and potentially applied to medical data sets. The Area Under Curve (AUC) of ROC and predictive accuracy have been calculated for each classified BMI category. Our analysis shows interesting results and it is found that BMI ≥ 25 has the highest AUC and Predictive accuracy compares to other BMI, which claims a good rank of performance. From our trends, it has been explored that at each BMI precaution is mandatory even if the BMI < 18.5 and at ideal BMI too. Development of effective awareness, early monitoring and interventions can prevent its harmful effects on health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , ROC Curve , Obesity/diagnosis , Area Under Curve , Data Mining , Support Vector Machine
5.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(1): e195, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1094977

ABSTRACT

En este estudio se compara el Índice de Peso-Circunferencia de Cintura (IPCC), con los indicadores Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), Índice Cintura-Talla (ICT) y Porcentaje de Grasa Corporal (%GC), en tres grupos de sujetos para determinar que tan eficiente resulta en el diagnósticoo de sobrepeso y obesidad y proponerlo como complemento de los otros indicadores mencionados. Métodos: estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, prospectivo y correlacional en una muestra probabilística de 655 sujetos, dividida en tres sub muestras: 455 niños y adolescentes, 97 universitarios y 103 adultos. Variables: edad, sexo, peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura (CC), Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), Índice Cintura Talla (ICT) e Índice de Peso-Circunferencia de Cintura (IPCC), Porcentaje de Grasa Corporal (%GC). Medidas estadísticas: descriptivas, asociación, correlación, comparación de promedios y regresión logística. Resultados: IMC revela, sobrepeso y obesidad mayor en adultos; CC e ICT mayor riesgo en adultos; %GC reporta obesidad en 6,8% niños, 17,9% universitarios y 64,8% adultos. IPCC se comporta normalmente, aumenta con la edad, 15,6% en niños y adolescentes, 14,4% universitarios y 14,6% adultos, en riesgo. Promedios del IPCC por sexo, en niños y adolescentes, no significativos; correlaciona con peso, talla e IMC (r>0,70). Regresión logística evidencia verosimilitud significativa (p<0,001), regresiones mayores a 0,90 y bondad de ajuste significativas (p<0,000). Conclusiones: Considerar el IPCC conjuntamente con otros indicadores para evaluar sobrepeso y obesidad(AU)


This study compares the Waist Weight-Circumference Index (WIWC), with the indicators Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist-Height Index (WHI) and Body Fat Percentage (BF%), in three groups of subjects to determine how efficient it is in the diagnosis of overweight and obesity and propose it as a complement to the other indicators mentioned. Methods: Methods: exploratory, descriptive, prospective and correlational study in a probabilistic sample of 655 subjects, divided into three sub-samples: 455 children and adolescents, 97 university students and 103 adults. Variables: age, sex, weight, height, waist circumference (WC), Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Height Index (WHI) and Waist Circumference Weight Index (WIWC), Body Fat Percentage (BF%). Statistical measures: descriptive, association, correlation, comparison of averages and logistic regression. Results: BMI reveals, overweight and obesity in adults; CW and WHI increased risk in adults; BF% reports obesity in 6.8% children, 17.9% university students and 64.8% adults. WIWC behaves normally, increases with age, 15.6% in children and adolescents, 14.4% university students and 14.6% adults, at risk. WIWC averages by sex, in children and adolescents, not significant; correlates with weight, height and BMI (r> 0.70). Logistic regression shows significant likelihood (p <0.001), regressions greater than 0.90 and significant goodness of fit (p <0.000). Conclusions: Consider the WIWC together with other indicators to assess overweight and obesity. Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Size Index, Weight Index Waist Circumference, Body Fat Percentage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Body Weights and Measures/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , Overweight/diagnosis , Waist Circumference , Obesity/diagnosis , Anthropometry/instrumentation , Body Fat Distribution/statistics & numerical data , Waist-Height Ratio
6.
Buenos Aires; s.n; dic. 2019. 23 p. tab, graf, mapas.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1284045

ABSTRACT

En este informe se presenta información referida a la situación nutricional de la población menor de 19 años, adultos/as y embarazadas atendidas en los Centros de Salud Nivel 1 (CESACs) durante el período 2018. Los diagnósticos de malnutrición incluidos son: déficit, exceso de peso y anemia en población menor de 19 años, adultos/as, y embarazadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Nutrition Programs , Nutritional Surveillance , Health Centers , Anthropometry , Overweight/diagnosis , Overweight/epidemiology , Nutritional Sciences , Anemia/diagnosis , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology
7.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 30(3): e212, sept.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126438

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En Cuba, no existe consenso acerca de qué valor del índice cintura/cadera debe ser considerado de riesgo para identificar disglucemias. Objetivos: Determinar el punto de corte del índice cintura/cadera como predictor de disglucemias para ambos sexos, en personas con sospecha de padecer diabetes mellitus. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal con 975 personas, de ellas 523 mujeres y 452 hombres. La muestra no fue obtenida de población general y no fue aleatoria. A los sujetos se les realizó interrogatorio, examen físico y estudios complementarios. Se determinaron distribuciones de frecuencia de las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas. Se utilizó para el procesamiento estadístico el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson, análisis de regresión logística y el análisis de curvas Receiver Operator Characteristic. Se empleó la prueba Chi Cuadrado para evaluar la significación estadística. Resultados: En ambos sexos observamos una correlación directamente proporcional y significativa entre el índice cintura/cadera y las diferentes variables estudiadas, entre ellas: glucemia en ayunas y a las 2h, insulinemia en ayunas, triglicéridos, ácido úrico y el índice de resistencia a la insulina (HOMA-IR). El colesterol se comportó de la misma forma en los hombres, pero en las mujeres se verificó una correlación débil y no significativa. El punto de corte óptimo del índice cintura/cadera, como predictor independiente de disglucemias, fue de 0,85 en las mujeres y 0,93 en los hombres. El índice cintura/cadera presentó un buen poder predictivo para identificar a sujetos con y sin disglucemias para ambos sexos y superior al de la edad. Conclusiones: El punto de corte óptimo del índice cintura/cadera, como predictor independiente de disglucemias, es de 0,85 en las mujeres y 0,93 en los hombres. Su poder predictor de disglucemias fue bueno(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: In Cuba, there is no consensus about what value of the waist-hip ratio must be considered as a risk to identify dysglycemia. Objectives: To determine the cut-off point of the waist-hip ratio as a predictor of dysglycemias for both sexes, in people suspected of suffering from diabetes mellitus. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study with 975 people, including 523 women and 452 men. The sample was not obtained from general population and it was not random. The subjects underwent interrogation, physical examination and complementary studies. There were identified frequency distributions of qualitative and quantitative variables. It was used for the statistical processing the Pearson's correlation coefficient, logistic regression analysis and the curves analysis called Receiver Operator Characteristic. It was used the chi-square test to assess the statistical significance. Results: In both sexes, it was observed a directly proportional and significant correlation between the waist-hip ratio and the different variables studied, including: fasting and after 2 hours glycemia, fasting insulinemia, triglycerides, uric acid and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Cholesterol behaved the same way in men, but in women there was a weak and not significant correlation. The optimal cut-point of the waist-hip ratio, as an independent predictor of dysglycemia, was 0.85 in women and 0.93 in men. The waist-hip ratio presented a good predictive power to identify subjects with and without dysglycemia for both sexes and it was higher than that of the age. Conclusions: The optimal cut-point of the waist-hip ratio, as an independent predictor of dysglycemia, was 0.85 in women and 0.93 in men. Its power as predictor of dysglycemia was good(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Body Weights and Measures/methods , Waist-Hip Ratio , Obesity/diagnosis , Physical Examination/methods , Insulin Resistance , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Archiv. med. fam. gen. (En línea) ; 16(2): 11-18, nov 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1343310

ABSTRACT

La evaluación nutricional tiende a promover la salud, sea reduciendo el riesgo o sea controlando los posibles efectos patológicos relacionados con una alimentación excesiva o insuficiente. Durante el mes de marzo de 2018, en el Hospital rural de Tomás Manuel de Anchorena, se llevó a cabo el control anual de salud en niños de 2 a 13 años. Para ello se utilizaron índices antropométricos que puedan relacionarse con estándares de normalidad según edad y sexo (peso/edad, talla/edad, peso/talla, índice de masa corporal) y se definieron los indicadores: desnutrición, bajo peso, acorde, sobrepeso y obesidad. Se examinaron 50 niños/as, residentes habituales, de 2 a 13 años de edad, con una distribución por sexo de 48% niñas y 52% niños. Se organizaron 3 grupos según edad, 2 a 6 años (28%), 6 a 11 años (54%) y 11 a 13 años (18%). Se obtuvo una prevalencia de desnutrición del 8%, 22% se encontraba acorde a su edad y sexo, sobrepeso 22%, y obesidad del 38%. Comparado con datos del Programa Nacional de Salud Escolar (PROSANE 2015), la prevalencia de obesidad en nuestro trabajo supera muy significativamente el valor provincial (17,9%) y nacional (21,4%). No pasa lo mismo con los demás indicadores (AU)


The nutritional evaluation tends to promote health, either by reducing the risk or by controlling the possible pathological effects related to excessive or insufficient feeding. During the month of March 2018, in the rural Hospital of Tomás Manuel de Anchorena, the annual health control was carried out on children aged 2 to 13. For this, anthropometric indices were used that can be related to normality standards according to age and sex (weight / age, height / age, weight / height, body mass index) and the indicators were defined: malnutrition, low weight, overweight and obesity. 50 children, habitual residents, from 2 to 13 years of age, with a gender distribution of 48% girls and 52% boys were examined. 3 groups were organized according to age, 2 to 6 years (28%), 6 to 11 years (54%) and 11 to 13 years (18%). There was a prevalence of malnutrition of 8%, 22% were according to their age and sex, overweight 22%, and obesity with 38%. Compared with data from the National School Health Program (PROSANE 2015), the prevalence of obesity in our work significantly exceeds the provincial (17.9%) and national (21.4%) values. The same does not happen with the other indicators (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child Nutrition Disorders/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Overweight/diagnosis , Obesity/diagnosis , Anthropometry , Failure to Thrive
9.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 693-699, oct 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025972

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the effects of increasing BMI on the Respiratory function. Introduction: There is a worldwide increasing prevalence of overweihgt and obesity. Researchers have found that obesity affects the respiratory function leading to different respiratory medical illnesses, including asthma and obstructive deep apnea. The effect of obesity on the pulmonary functiion is assisted using different anthropometric measurements, like BMI, waist circumference, skin fold, etc. So the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of increasing BMI on different respiratory function test measures. Methods: 23 adult males with BMI of 25 and above were included in the study and compared with 18 normal weight adult males with BMI of (18-24.99) regarding different measures of PFT like: FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF. Results: no significant difference was found between the two groupsñ. Conclusions: there were no effects of increasing BMI on the respiratory functions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiratory Function Tests , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity/diagnosis
10.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(3): 111-118, jul.-sep. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019302

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo : El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el consumo de azúcares añadidos por la población urbana costarricense y los factores asociados a este. Método: Estudio transversal donde se analizan los datos de 798 participantes del Estudio ELANS-Costa Rica, que constituyen una muestra representativa de la población urbana costarricense, (con edades entre 15 y 65 años). Para conocer el consumo de azúcares añadidos, se realizan dos recordatorios de 24 horas, en días no consecutivos. Se recolectan variables sociodemográficas, cantidad, lugar y momento del consumo. Resultados: El consumo de azúcares añadidos representa el 14,7% de la energía consumida por la población urbana costarricense, siendo este porcentaje mayor en las mujeres y en las personas más jóvenes. La mayor cantidad de azúcares añadidos se consume en el hogar y durante las meriendas. Las bebidas azucaradas constituyen la principal fuente de azúcares añadidos en la dieta costarricense, y las bebidas gaseosas son la fuente más importante en el quintil de mayor consumo. Conclusión: La ingesta de energía obtenida de los azúcares añadidos supera la recomendación máxima establecida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, por lo tanto, es necesario establecer políticas públicas dirigidas a reducir su consumo y a la modificación de conductas asociadas a la preparación e ingesta de alimentos fuente de azúcares añadidos.


Abstract Aim: High consumption of added sugars has been associated with a greater risk of chronic diseases, appearance of caries and weight gain, which implies a lower quality of life for the population and an increase in costs for the health system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of added sugar and its related factors in urban Costa Rican population. Methods : This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a representative sample of the Costa Rican urban population (798 participants aged between 15 and 65 years). To determine the consumption of added sugars, two 24 hours recalls were conducted, in non-consecutive days. Sociodemographic variables, quantity of food consumed, place and time of consumption were collected. Results: The consumption of added sugars represents 14.7% of total energy intake for the Costa Rican urban population. This consumption is higher among women and younger people. The greater amount of added sugars was consumed in the home and during snacks. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the main source of this added sugar in the Costa Rican diet and soft drinks were the most important source in the highest consumption quintile. Conclusions: The intake of energy obtained from the added sugars exceeds the máximum recommendation established by the World Health Organization, therefore it is necessary to establish public policies aimed at reducing consumption and modifying behaviors associated with the preparation and intake of food source of added sugars.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Sugars/analysis , Dietary Sugars/administration & dosage , Obesity/diagnosis , Costa Rica
11.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(3): 307-314, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038100

ABSTRACT

El propósito de este estudio fue identificar la relación entre la masa grasa expresada como porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC) medida por el método de deuterio (D2O) e indicadores antropométricos en escolares costarricenses. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal en el que participaron 54 niños y 49 niñas de 6 a 9 años. Se realizaron medidas antropométricas: peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de brazo, circunferencia de cintura, circunferencia abdominal, pliegue cutáneo subescapular y pliegue cutáneo tricipital. El análisis del %GC se realizó por medio del método de referencia del D2O. Se realizó una estadística descriptiva y se aplicó un análisis de coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para identificar la relación entre las mediciones antropométricas y el %GC obtenido por D2O. En el grupo de escolares, las niñas presentaron valores mayores de talla y pliegue cutáneo tricipital (p<0,05) y %GC obtenida por D2O (p<0,001). Se observó una fuerte correlación entre el %GC medido por D2O y el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de cintura y la circunferencia abdominal tanto en los niños como en las niñas. Se concluye que la circunferencia de cintura y la circunferencia abdominal podrían ser utilizadas conjuntamente con el IMC como herramientas para el diagnóstico de sobrepeso y obesidad en población escolar, cuando no se cuente con metodologías más precisas que determinen el %GC.


The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between fat mass (FM) expressed as body fat percentage (%BF) measured by the deuterium method (D2O) and anthropometric indicators in Costa Rican schoolchildren. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed and the participants were 54 boys and 49 girls of ages between six and nine years old. The anthropometric measurements recorded were weight, height, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference (AC), waist circumference (WC), abdominal circumference (AC), subscapular skinfold (SSF), and tricipital skinfold (TSF). The analysis of %BF was performed by means of D2O reference method. Descriptive statistics and the application of Pearson correlation coefficient analysis identified the relationship between anthropometric measurements and %BF obtained by D2O. From the group of schoolchildren, the girls showed greater values for height and tricipital skinfold (p<0.05) and %BF obtained by D2O (p<0.001). This study evidences a strong correlation between %BF measured by D2O and BMI, WC and AC in both girls and boys. It is concluded that WC and AC could be used together with the IMC as tools for the diagnosis of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren, when there are no more precise methodologies that determine the %BF.


O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a relação entre a massa gordurosa (MG), expressa como percentagem de gordura corporal (%GC) medida pelo método de deutério (D2O) e indicadores antropométricos em escolas da Costa Rica. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal, no qual participaram 54 meninos e 49 meninas com idade entre seis e nove anos. Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas: peso, tamanho, índice de massa corporal (IMC), circunferência do braço (CB), circunferência da cintura (CC), circunferência abdominal (CA), prega cutânea subescapular (PCS) e prega cutânea tricipital (PCT). A análise da %GC foi realizada pelo método de referência D2O, realizou-se uma estatística descritiva e foi aplicada análise coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para identificar a relação entre as medições antropométricas e a %GC obtida por meio do D2O. No grupo de escolares, as meninas apresentaram maiores valores de estatura e PCT (p<0,05) e %GC obtida por D2O (p<0,001). Observou-se uma importante correlação entre %GC medida por D2O e IMC, CC e CA tanto nos meninos quanto nas meninas. Conclui-se que a CC e a CA poderiam ser utilizadas conjuntamente com o IMC como ferramenta para o diagnóstico de sobrepeso e obesidade em população escolar, quando não se conte com metodologias mais precisas que determinem o %GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Body Weights and Measures/statistics & numerical data , Anthropometry , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Costa Rica/epidemiology , Deuterium , Body Fat Distribution/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/diagnosis
12.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 899-913, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094097

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la diabetes mellitus es un trastorno metabólico caracterizado por hiperglucemia crónica con alteraciones en los carbohidratos, grasas y proteínas. Las tasas de morbimortalidad han aumentado al igual que la obesidad, constituye un problema de salud en el mundo, Cuba y la provincia de Matanzas. Objetivo: realizar una caracterización clínica epidemiológica de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en dos áreas de salud, conocer las variables e identificar las barreras para una posterior intervención. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo- transversal a 750 diabéticos tipo 2 mayores de 18 años en dos áreas de salud. Se realizaron encuestas, procesándose en el programa Epi-Info, obteniéndose la frecuencia de las variables, y las diferencias estadísticas significativas entre variables de las dos aéreas de salud, utilizándose el valor de p < 0,05 % y el Chi2. Resultados: el promedio de edad fue de 62,2 años, predominio del sexo femenino y color de la piel blanca. La hipertensión arterial y la obesidad fueron las enfermedades más asociadas, y el tabaquismo, la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas y azucaradas, y la no realización de ejercicios físicos fueron los factores asociados más relevantes. Los medicamentos más utilizados fueron la glibenclamida y la metformina. Conclusiones: la diabetes mellitus es la primera causa de fracaso renal en el mundo occidental, siendo la insuficiencia renal una de las complicaciones crónicas más graves de esta enfermedad. Entre las principales causas de muerte de esta enfermedad son las complicaciones macrovasculares, manifestadas clínicamente como cardiopatía isquémica, insuficiencia cardíaca, la enfermedad vascular cerebral y la insuficiencia arterial periférica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with alterations in carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Morbi-mortality rates have increased as have done obesity, being a health problem in the world, Cuba and the province of Matanzas. Objective: to carry out clinical-epidemiological characterization of type 2 diabetes mellitus in two health areas, knowing the variables and identifying the barriers for a subsequent intervention. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 750 type-2 diabetic patients over 18 years in two health areas. Surveys were made and processed in Epi-Info program, showing significant statistic differences among variables of both health areas; p < 0,05 % value and Chi2 were used. Results: the average age was 62.2 years, predominating female sex and white skin color. The most commonly associated diseases were arterial hypertension and obesity; smoking and drinking alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages and sedentary life were the most relevant associated factors. The most commonly used medications were glibenclamide and metformin. Conclusions: diabetes is the first cause of renal failure in the Western world, being renal insufficiency one of the most serious chronic complications of this disease. The main causes of death of this disease are macro vascular complications clinically manifested as ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebra-vascular disease and peripheral arterial insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Risk Factors , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Tobacco Use Disorder/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Myocardial Ischemia/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Sedentary Behavior , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Hypertension/diagnosis , Obesity/diagnosis
13.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 940-958, jul.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094100

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El síndrome de ovario poliquístico se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública, siendo el más común de los desórdenes endocrinos en mujeres en edad reproductiva con estudios que reportan una prevalencia de hasta un 21%. El diagnóstico de esta entidad es importante debido a que representa riesgos metabólicos, cardiovasculares y afecta la capacidad reproductiva de estas pacientes. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de los principales artículos relacionados sobre el tema, resumiendo los aspectos fundamentales de este problema de salud.


ABSTRACT Polycystic ovary syndrome has become a public health problem, being the most common of the endocrine disorders in reproductive-age women, with studies reporting prevalence by 21 %. The diagnosis of this entity is important because it represents metabolic and cardiovascular risk, and affects the reproductive capacity of these patients. The authors carried out bibliographic review of the main articles related with the theme, summarizing the basic aspects of this health problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/etiology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Preventive Health Services , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Disease Management , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Disease Prevention , Reproductive Health , Healthy Lifestyle , Genitalia/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance , Ultrasonography , Hirsutism/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Menstruation Disturbances/diagnosis , Obesity/diagnosis
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 336-338, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019412

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aniridia is a congenital eye disorder with a variable degree of hypoplasia or absence of iris tissue. It is caused by loss of function of the PAX6 gene and may be an isolated ocular abnormality or part of a syndrome. WAGRO refers to a rare genetic condition leading to Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation, and obesity and is caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p), where the PAX6 gene is located. Here, we report on an 8-year-old boy with aniridia, polar cataract, and lens subluxation along with neuropsychomotor and speech delays. Karyotype evaluation showed an interstitial deletion including region 11p13-p14, confirming the diagnosis of WAGRO syndrome. In cases of aniridia, a diagnosis of WAGRO syndrome should be considered.


RESUMO A aniridia é uma doença ocular congênita com grau variável de hipoplasia ou ausência do tecido da íris. É causada pela perda de função do gene PAX6 e pode ser uma anormalidade ocular isolada ou parte de uma síndrome. WAGRO refere-se a uma condição genética rara que leva ao tumor de Wilms, aniridia, anomalias geniturinárias, déficit intelectual e obesidade e é causada por uma deleção do braço curto do cromossomo 11 (11p), onde o gene PAX6 está localizado. Aqui, nós relatamos um menino de 8 anos de idade com aniridia, catarata polar e subluxação do cristalino, além de retardo neuropsicomotor e de fala. A avaliação cariotípica revelou uma deleção intersticial envolvendo a região 11p13-p14, confirmando o diagnóstico da síndrome WAGRO. Em casos de aniridia, um diagnóstico de síndrome de WAGRO deve ser considerado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Cataract/diagnosis , Aniridia/diagnosis , Lens Subluxation/diagnosis , WAGR Syndrome/diagnosis , Obesity/diagnosis , Cataract/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11/genetics , Aniridia/genetics , Lens Subluxation/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , WAGR Syndrome/genetics , Karyotype , Obesity/genetics
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(6): 729-736, Jun. 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The presence of dyslipidemia and behavioral aspects are determinants of cardiovascular risk, especially in childhood and adolescence. Objective: To verify possible relationships between dyslipidemia, cultural factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in schoolchildren. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated a sample of 1,254 children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 17 from the South of Brazil, 686 of whom were female. Dyslipidemia was defined as increased levels of at least one of the following lipid profile parameters: triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and fractions of high (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c). Cultural aspects were evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed by logistic regression, considering the odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) at 95%. Results: The results revealed a high prevalence of dyslipidemia (41.9%), which was associated with female sex (OR: 1.56; IC: 1.24-1.96) and overweight/obese status (OR: 1.55; IC: 1.20-2.00). When lipid profile parameters were evaluated separately, high levels of LDL-c were observed to be associated with sedentary school transport (OR: 1.59; IC: 1.20-2.09). Schoolchildren who were overweight/obese had higher chances of elevated levels of TC (OR: 1.40; IC: 1.07-1.84) and TG (OR: 3.21; IC: 1.96-5.26). HDL-c was shown to be related to high television time (OR: 1.59; IC: 1.00-2.54). Conclusion: Alterations in lipid parameters are associated with cultural factors, especially those related to sedentary lifestyle and low levels of CRF.


Resumo Fundamento: A presença de dislipidemia e os aspectos comportamentais são fatores determinantes do risco cardiovascular, sobretudo na infância e adolescência. Objetivos: Verificar possíveis relações entre dislipidemia, fatores culturais e aptidão cardiorrespiratória (APCR) em escolares. Métodos: São sujeitos deste estudo transversal 1.254 crianças e adolescentes do Sul do Brasil, sendo 686 do sexo feminino, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos. Foi considerada dislipidemia a presença de níveis aumentados em pelo menos um dos parâmetros do perfil lipídico: triglicerídeos (TG), colesterol total (CT) e frações de alta (HDL-c) e baixa densidade (LDL-c). Os aspectos culturais foram avaliados por meio de questionário autorreferido pelo escolar. Os dados foram analisados pela regressão logística, considerando os valores de razão de chances (odds ratio; OR) e intervalos de confiança (IC) para 95%. Resultados: Foi encontrada elevada prevalência de dislipidemia (41,9%), a qual esteve associada com o sexo feminino (OR: 1,56; IC: 1,24-1,96) e com a presença de sobrepeso/obesidade (OR: 1,55; IC: 1,20-2,00). Quando os componentes do perfil lipídico foram avaliados de forma separada, observou-se que altos níveis de LDL-c se associaram ao deslocamento sedentário para a escola (OR: 1,59; IC: 1,20-2,09). Escolares com sobrepeso/obesidade apresentam maiores chances de elevação nos níveis de CT (OR: 1,40; IC: 1,07-1,84) e TG (OR: 3,21; IC: 1,96-5,26). O HDL-c apresentou associação com o elevado tempo em frente à televisão (OR: 1,59; IC: 1,00-2,54). Conclusão: A presença de alteração nos parâmetros lipídicos associa-se com fatores culturais, especialmente voltados ao sedentarismo e baixos níveis de APCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Triglycerides/blood , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Sedentary Behavior , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Lipids/blood , Obesity/physiopathology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Cultural Characteristics , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Dyslipidemias/blood , Lipids/biosynthesis , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/blood
17.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 73-81, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985121

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To associate the Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2max) with body fat percentage (%BF), and to establish the best VO2max cutoff point for predicting risk %BF in teenagers. Methods: This study was carried out with 979 subjects aged 10 to 18.8 years, 556 (56.8%) girls. The 20 m shuttle run protocol determined the VO2max, which was analyzed in quintiles and in a numeric scale. Cutaneous fold equations determined the %BF, later classified as risk to health/obesity when >25 in girls and >20 in boys. Regression method was used - Odds Ratio (OR) and Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (ROC curve) with α <5%. Results: From the total number of valid cases, 341 (65.6%) girls and 202 (53.2%) boys presented %BF of risk, and a larger proportion of %BF of risk was observed in the 1st quintile of the VO2max for both genders. There was inverse association between VO2max and %BF of risk from the 4th quintile (OR 1.84, 95%CI 1.05-3.24) until the 1st quintile (OR 4.74, 95%CI 2.44-9.19) for girls, and from the 2nd quintile (OR 2.99, 95%CI 1.48-6.00) until the 1st quintile (OR 5.60, 95%CI 2.64-11.87) for boys. As analytic highlights, VO2max Cutoff points for prediction of %BF of risk were ≤40.9 mL/kg-1/min-1 (AUC: 0.65; p<0.001) for girls and ≤44.8 mL/kg-1/min-1 (AUC: 0.66; p<0.001)for boys.. Conclusions: VO2max was inversely associated to the %BF, and VO2max cutoff points for prediction of %BF of risk are important results to generate action to fight early obesity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Associar o Consumo Máximo de Oxigênio (VO2máx) com o % de Gordura Corporal (%GC) e estabelecer o melhor ponto de corte do VO2máx para a previsão do %GC de risco em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo realizado com uma amostra de 979 sujeitos entre 10 e 18,8 anos, sendo 556 (56,8%) meninas. O protocolo shuttle run de 20 m determinou o VO2máx, que foi analisado em quintil e escala numérica. Equações de dobras cutâneas determinaram o %GC, posteriormente classificado como risco à saúde/obesidade quando >25, para meninas, e >20, para meninos. Utilizou-se regressão - Odds Ratio (OR) e Curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (curva ROC) com α <5%. Resultados: Do total de casos válidos, 341 (65,6%) meninas e 202 (53,2%) meninos apresentaram %GC de risco, e constatou-se maior proporção do %GC de risco no 1º quintil do VO2máx para ambos os sexos. Houve associação inversa entre VO2máx e %GC de risco do 4º quintil (OR 1,84, IC95% 1,05-3,24) até o 1º quintil (OR 4,74, IC95% 2,44-9,19) para meninas, e do 2º quintil (OR 2,99, IC95% 1,48-6,00) até o 1º quintil (OR 5,60, IC95% 2,64-11,87) para meninos. Pontos de corte do VO2máx para previsão do %GC de risco ≤40,9 mL/kg-1/min-1 (Area Under the Curve (Área Sob a Curva) - AUC: 0,65; p<0,001) para meninas e ≤44,8 mL/kg-1/min-1 (AUC: 0,66; p<0,001) para meninos foram destaques analíticos. Conclusões: VO2máx esteve associado inversamente ao %GC­, e os pontos de corte do VO2máx para a previsão do %GC de risco são resultados importantes para ações de combate à obesidade precoce.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Oxygen Consumption , Body Composition , Adipose Tissue , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment/methods , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(6): e00065618, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011698

ABSTRACT

Os objetivos deste artigo são: (i) comparar medidas autorrelatadas de peso e estatura com medidas aferidas; (ii) avaliar o impacto dessas discrepâncias sobre o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade; e (iii) aplicar modelos de correção das medidas autorrelatadas e avaliar o grau de melhoria das medidas corrigidas produzidas pelo uso desses modelos. Realizou-se estudo transversal, com avaliação de 4.151 adultos (18 a 60 anos) participantes do Estudo Epidemiológico dos Transtornos Mentais São Paulo Megacity. Foram propostos e testados modelos de regressão linear estratificados por sexo, para a correção das medidas autorrelatadas. Para avaliar a concordância, usou-se o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para as medidas aferidas, medidas autorrelatadas e medidas corrigidas, bem como o coeficiente kappa para as categorias de classificação do IMC. O peso autorrelatado e o IMC resultantes foram subestimados, ao passo que a estatura foi superestimada, comparados às medidas aferidas. Com todos os modelos de correção, as medidas corrigidas tornaram-se mais próximas às medidas aferidas. As prevalências de excesso de peso, quando calculadas a partir das medidas autorrelatadas, estavam subestimadas em 24% em homens e 28% em mulheres. Com as correções, a subestimativa diminuiu para 8% e 10%, respectivamente. Identificou-se concordância moderada para as medidas autorrelatadas e concordância substancial para as medidas corrigidas, quando comparadas às medidas reais. O uso de equações de correção para dados autorrelatados mostrou-se um método útil para produzir estimativas mais fidedignas da prevalência de excesso de peso e obesidade na população geral, geralmente estimadas a partir de medidas de peso e estatura autorrelatadas nos inquéritos populacionais.


The study's objectives: compare self-report measures of weight and height with direct measures; assess the impact of these discrepancies on body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity; and apply correction models to the self-report measures and assess the degree of improvement in the corrected measures produced with the use of these models. A cross-sectional study was performed, assessing 4,151 adults (18 to 60 years) participating in the São Paulo Megacity Epidemiological Study. Linear regression models stratified by sex were proposed for correction of self-reported measures. Agreement was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient for the direct measures, self-report measures, and corrected measures, and kappa coefficient for BMI classification categories. Self-reported weight and the resulting BMI were underestimated, while height was overestimated, compared to direct measures. With all the correction models, the corrected measures were closer to the direct measures. Prevalence rates for excess weight, calculated by self-report measures, were underestimated by 24% in men and by 28% in women; with corrections, the underestimation decreased to 8% and 10%, respectively. The results showed moderate agreement for self-report measures and substantial agreement for corrected measures compared to direct measures. The use of correction equations for self-report data proved to be a useful method for producing more trustworthy estimates of prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population, usually estimated from self-report measures of weight and height in population surveys.


Los objetivos fueron: comparar medidas autoinformadas de peso y estatura con medidas evaluadas; evaluar el impacto de estas discrepancias sobre el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad; y aplicar modelos de corrección de las medidas autoinformadas y evaluar el grado de mejoría de las medidas corregidas, producidas por el uso de esos modelos. Se realizó un estudio transversal evaluando a 4.151 adultos (18 a 60 años), participantes en el Estudio Epidemiológico São Paulo Megacity. Se propusieron y probaron modelos de regresión lineal estratificados por sexo para la corrección de las medidas autoinformadas. Para evaluar la concordancia, se usó el coeficiente de correlación intraclase para las medidas evaluadas, medidas autoinformadas y medidas corregidas, y el coeficiente kappa para las categorías de clasificación del IMC. El peso autoinformado y el IMC resultantes fueron subestimados mientras la estatura fue sobrestimada, comparados con las medidas evaluadas. Con todos los modelos de corrección, las medidas corregidas se convirtieron en más cercanas a las medidas evaluadas. Las prevalencias de exceso de peso, cuando se calculan a partir de las medidas autoinformadas, estaban subestimadas en un 24% en hombres y un 28% en las mujeres; con las correcciones, la infravaloración disminuyó a un 8% y un 10%, respectivamente. Se identificó una concordancia moderada para las medidas autoinformadas y una concordancia sustancial para las medidas corregidas, cuando se compararon con las medidas reales. El uso de ecuaciones de corrección para dados autoinformados se mostró un método útil para producir estimaciones más fidedignas de la prevalencia de exceso de peso y obesidad en la población general, generalmente estimadas a partir de medidas de peso y estatura autoinformadas en las encuestas poblacionales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Body Weights and Measures/methods , Overweight/diagnosis , Obesity/diagnosis , Body Height , Body Weight , Algorithms , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Epidemiologic Methods , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
19.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1257674

ABSTRACT

Background: Prevalence of obesity in youths has drastically increased in both industrialised and non-industrialised countries, and this transition resulted in an increased prevalence of chronic diseases. Aim: The study aimed to comparatively examine prevalence of overweight and obesity status based on tri-ponderal mass index and body mass index in estimating body fat levels in South African children. Setting: The study was conducted in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1361 (boys: n = 678; girls: n = 683) children aged 9­13 years was undertaken. The children's age and sex-related measurements of body weight, waist-to-height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfolds and sum of skinfold were taken using the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol. TMI and BMI calculations classified children according to weight and age categories. Descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were set at ≤ 0.05. Results: Obesity classifications on TMI and BMI among children were as follows: Boys: 7.3%, 2.6%; 2.2%, 0.7%; Girls: 4.0%, 1.0%; 1.8%, 0.6%. Body weight, WHtR, WHpR, TSKF, SSKF and Σ SKF significantly correlated with TMI (r = 0.40, p < 0.001; r = 0.73, p < 0.001; r = -0.09, p < 0.001; r = 0.50, p < 0.001; r = 0.51, p < 0.001 and r = 0.52, p< 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.81, p < 0.001; r = 0.59, p < 0.001; r = -0.22, p < 0.001; r = 0.63, p < 0.001; r = 0.67, p < 0.001 and r = 0.66, p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that body weight, WHtR, WHpR, TSKF, SSKF and Σ SKF accounted for 65% and 85% of variance in children's TMI (R 2 = 0.647, F[6 1354] = 413.977, p < 0.001) and BMI (R 2 = 0.851, F[6 1354] = 1288.218, p< 0.001). Conclusion: TMI revealed strikingly higher incidence of overweight and obesity in South African boys and girls than BMI. Future studies are needed to clarify sensitivity of TMI over BMI in quantifying obesity prevalence in children and adolescents


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Child , Chronic Disease , Obesity/diagnosis , Overweight , South Africa
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1398-1406, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975715

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to determine the level of adiposity and obesity among Macedonian adolescents and to compare the results with previous studies conducted in this population, as well as those conducted in other populations. The sample included 2390 adolescents from four urban different regions of R. Macedonia aged between 11 to 18 years; 1238 males and 1152 females. Weight, height, waist, and hip circumference (WC, HC) as well as triceps, calf, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), subscapular/triceps skinfold ratio (STR), and percentage body fat were computed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity defined by the IOTF children growth reference were calculated and age-dependent and gender-specific smoothed percentile curves for BMI and ROC curves were generated. The boys have statistically significantly higher values of WC, WHR and WHtR in all adult categories (except WHtR at 18 years old), greater body weight at the age of 12 to 18, and body weight 13 to 18 years (p<0.001). Weight, height and BMI are increasing with age in both, boys and girls, and decreases in girls. The level of adiposity of Macedonian adolescents has increased over the past 20 years and has reached the level of developed countries that face an obesity epidemic.


El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en determinar el nivel de adiposidad y obesidad entre los adolescentes macedonios y comparar los resultados con estudios previos realizados en esta población, así como aquellos realizados en otras poblaciones. La muestra incluyó a 2390 adolescentes de cuatro regiones urbanas diferentes de R. Macedonia con edades comprendidas entre 11 y 18 años (1238 hombres y 1152 mujeres). Se midieron el peso, la altura, la cintura y la circunferencia de la cadera (WC, HC), así como el grosor del pliegue cutáneo tríceps, pantorrilla, subescapular y suprailíaco (SFT). Se calcularon el índice de masa corporal (IMC), la relación cintura-cadera (WHR), la relación cintura-altura (WHtR), la relación de pliegue subcutáneo / tríceps (STR) y el porcentaje de grasa corporal. Se calcularon las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad definidas por la referencia de crecimiento de niños IOTF y se generaron curvas percentiles suavizadas dependientes de la edad y de sexo para las curvas BMI y ROC. Los niños tuvieron valores estadísticamente significativamente más altos de WC, WHR y WHtR en todas las categorías de adultos (excepto WHtR a los 18 años), mayor peso corporal a la edad de 12 a 18 años y peso corporal de 13 a 18 años (p <0,001). El peso, la estatura y el IMC aumentan con la edad tanto en niños como en niñas y disminuyen en las niñas. El nivel de adiposidad de los adolescentes macedonios ha aumentado en los últimos 20 años y ha alcanzado el nivel de los países desarrollados que enfrentan una epidemia de obesidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Composition , Anthropometry , Adiposity , Obesity/diagnosis , Skinfold Thickness , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , ROC Curve , Republic of North Macedonia , Waist-Hip Ratio , Overweight/epidemiology , Waist Circumference , Obesity/epidemiology
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