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1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(3): e007088, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515978

ABSTRACT

Si bien para los médicos la obesidad es una palabra técnica, para muchas personas tiene la implicaría de un largo sufrimiento en relación a su cuerpo. Históricamente, la medicina tradicional se ha comportado como una barrera en la atención a las personas con exceso de peso debido a la gordofobia y a una perspectiva reduccionista pesocentrista. Es preocupante que las ciencias y prácticas de la salud aún tengan esta mirada sobre la gordura, ya que supone un sesgo que impide que las personas sean atendidas integralmente, vulnerando sus derechos en nombre de una preocupación médica y anteponiendo el descenso de peso frente a otras necesidades de los pacientes. Este artículo, si bien intenta modestamente abrir una reflexión filosófica sobre el cuerpo, la medicina hegemónica y la enfermedad, también tiene como objetivo brindar herramientas técnicas y no técnicas para abordar la obesidad desde otro lugar. En esta primera entrega, desarrollaremos el abordaje integral de la persona con cuerpo gordo. La segunda entrega estará enfocada en los tratamientos farmacológicos, no farmacológicos y quirúrgicos de la obesidad. (AI)


Although obesity is a technical word for doctors, it implies long-term suffering in relation to their bodies for many people. Historically, traditional medicine has behaved as a barrier in caring for people with excess weight due to fatphobia and aweight-centric reductionist perspective. It is worrying that health sciences and practices still have this view of fatness, sinceit implies a bias that prevents people from being thoroughly cared for, violating their rights in the name of medical concernand putting weight loss before other patients' needs. This article modestly attempts to open a philosophical reflection about the body, hegemonic medicine, and disease, while also aiming to provide technical and non-technical tools to approach obesity. In this first part, we will explain the comprehensive approach to the person with a fat body. The second part will focus on pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and surgical treatments for obesity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Mass Index , Weight Prejudice/psychology , Obesity/diagnosis , Health-Disease Process , Patient Preference , Social Stigma , Weight Prejudice/prevention & control , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/epidemiology
2.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(3): 46-52, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451956

ABSTRACT

El ambiente obesogénico promueve la obesidad al facilitar el acceso y consumo de una amplia variedad de alimentos palatables altos en calorías. La activación del receptor de GLP1 (GLP1R) reduce la ingesta de alimentos, enlentece el vaciamiento gástrico y promueve un balance energético negativo a través de su acción en distintos órganos como el músculo esquelético, disminuyendo así el peso corporal. La obesidad inducida por dieta alta en grasa disminuye el efecto anorexigénico de la administración sistémica vía intra-peritoneal de EX4 (agonista de GLP1R). Sin embargo, se desconoce si la exposición a un ambiente obesogénico previo a la manifestación de obesidad disminuye los efectos anorexigénicos de EX4 o un posible efecto de EX4 sobre marcadores de oxidación de ácidos grasos y termogénesis en músculo esquelético. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto a corto plazo de la dieta CAF, un modelo del ambiente obesogénico humano, sobre la capacidad de EX4 de reducir la ingesta y modular la expresión de marcadores proteicos de oxidación de ácidos grasos y termogénesis (CPT1 y UCP2) en músculo de ratones. Nuestros datos muestran que una inyección intraperitoneal de EX4 a ratones C57BL/6J alimentados con dieta CAF o dieta control durante 10 días no altera la ingesta calórica total, peso corporal, o la expresión de proteínas marcadoras de los procesos de beta-oxidación y de termogénesis (CPT1 y UCP2). Estos datos sugieren que protocolos alternativos de administración de EX4 son necesarios para observar los efectos fisiológicos de la activación de GLP1R.


The obesogenic environment promotes obesity by facilitating access to and consumption of a wide variety of palatable, high-calorie foods. Activation of the GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) reduces food intake, slows gastric emptying, and promotes a negative energy balance by acting on organs such as skeletal muscle, thus decreasing body weight. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet decreased the anorexigenic effect of intraperitoneal systemic administration of EX4 (GLP1R agonist). However, it is unknown whether exposure to an obesogenic environment before the manifestation of obesity diminishes the anorexigenic effects of EX4 or a possible effect of EX4 on markers of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis in skeletal muscle. This investigation aimed to determine the short-term effect of the CAF diet, a model of the human obesogenic environment, on the ability of EX4 to reduce intake and modulate the expression of protein markers of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis (CPT1 and UCP2) in mouse muscle. Our data show that intraperitoneal injection of EX4 to C57BL/6J mice fed CAF diet or control diet for ten days does not alter total caloric intake, body weight, or expression of proteins markers of beta-oxidation and thermogenesis processes (CPT1 and UCP2). These data suggest that alternative EX4 administration protocols are necessary to observe the physiological effects of GLP1R activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Diet/adverse effects , Exenatide/administration & dosage , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Blotting, Western , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Thermogenesis , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/metabolism , Uncoupling Protein 2 , Irinotecan , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 11-11, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Sex- and age-specific impacts of cardiovascular risk factors on the development of dementia have not been well evaluated. We investigated these impacts of smoking, overweight/obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus on the risk of disabling dementia.@*METHODS@#The study participants were 25,029 (10,134 men and 14,895 women) Japanese aged 40-74 years without disabling dementia at baseline (2008-2013). They were assessed on smoking status (non-current or current), overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively), hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or any antihypertensive medication use), and diabetes mellitus (a fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dL, non-fasting glucose ≥200 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program or glucose-lowering medication use) at baseline. Disabling dementia was identified as the level of care required ≥1 and cognitive disability grade ≥IIa according to the National Long-term Care Insurance Database. We used a Cox proportional regression model to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of disabling dementia according to the cardiovascular risk factors and calculated the population attributable fractions (PAFs).@*RESULTS@#During a median follow-up of 9.1 years, 1,322 (606 men and 716 women) developed disabling dementia. Current smoking and hypertension were associated with a higher risk of disabling dementia in both sexes, whereas overweight or obesity was not associated with the risk in either sex. Diabetes mellitus was associated with a higher risk only in women (p for sex interaction = 0.04). The significant PAFs were 13% for smoking and 14% for hypertension in men and 3% for smoking, 12% for hypertension, and 5% for diabetes mellitus in women. The total PAFs of the significant risk factors were 28% in men and 20% in women. When stratified by age, hypertension in midlife (40-64 years) was associated with the increased risk in men, while diabetes mellitus in later-life (65-74 years) was so in women.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A substantial burden of disabling dementia was attributable to smoking, and hypertension in both sexes and diabetes mellitus in women, which may require the management of these cardiovascular risk factors to prevent dementia.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Overweight/complications , East Asian People , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Obesity/etiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Dementia/etiology
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(4): e00344020, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374815

ABSTRACT

Obesity is considered a global public health problem. Cesarean section has been associated with high body mass index (BMI) and increased obesity throughout life. However, this association has been challenged by some studies. This study aims to assess the causal effect of cesarean section on the BMI of children aged 1-3 years. This is a cohort study of 2,181 children aged 1-3 years, born in 2010, obtained from the BRISA Birth Cohort, in São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil. Sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, type of childbirth, morbidity, anthropometric measurements, and BMI were assessed. Marginal structural models with a counterfactual approach were used to check the causal effect of the type of childbirth on obesity, weighted by the inverse probability of selection and exposure. Out of the 2,181 children assessed (52% female), 50.6% were born by cesarean section, 5.9% of the newborn infants were large for gestational age, and 10.7% of them had excess weight. No causal effect of cesarean section on BMI was observed (coefficient = -0.004; 95%CI: -0.136; 0.127; p = 0.948). Cesarean section did not have a causal effect on the BMI of children aged 1-3 years.


A obesidade é considerada um problema de saúde pública global. Alguns estudos têm mostrado associação entre índice de massa corporal (IMC) elevado e aumento da obesidade em todas as fases da vida. Entretanto, essa mesma associação tem sido contestada por outros estudos. O objetivo foi de avaliar o efeito causal do parto cesáreo sobre o IMC das crianças entre 1 e 3 anos de idade. O estudo de coorte analisou 2.181 crianças de 1 a 3 anos de idade, nascidas em 2010, com dados obtidos da Coorte de Nascimentos BRISA em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil. Foram avaliados dados sociodemográficos, características maternas, tipo de parto, morbidades, medidas antropométricas e IMC. Foram usados modelos estruturais marginais com abordagem contrafactual para verificar o efeito causal do tipo de parto sobre a obesidade, ponderado pela probabilidade inversa de seleção e exposição. Entre as 2.181 crianças avaliadas 52% eram do sexo feminino, 50,6% nascidas de parto cesáreo, 5,9% grandes para a idade gestacional e 10,7% com excesso de peso. Não foi observado efeito causal da cesariana sobre o IMC da criança (coeficiente = -0,004; IC95%: -0,136; 0,127; p = 0,948). O parto cesáreo não teve efeito causal sobre o IMC de crianças entre 1 e 3 anos de idade.


La obesidad está considerada un problema global de salud pública. El parto por cesárea ha sido asociado con un alto índice de masa corporal (IMC) y mayor obesidad en todos los estadios de la vida. Esta asociación, sin embargo, ha sido recusada en algunos estudios. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto causal del parto por cesárea en el IMC de niños con edades de 1 a 3 años. Esta es una cohorte de estudio de 2.181 niños con edades de 1 a 3 años, nacidos en 2010, obtenidos de la Cohorte de Nacimientos BRISA, en São Luís, estado de Maranhão, Brasil. Se evaluaron las variables sociodemográficas, características maternales, tipo de parto, morbilidad, medidas antropométricas, e IMC. Se usaron modelos marginales estructurales con un enfoque contrafactual para comprobar el efecto causal del tipo de parto en la obesidad, ponderado por la probabilidad inversa de selección y exposición. Aparte de los 2.181 niños evaluados (52% mujeres), 50,6% nacieron por parto por cesárea, 5,9% de los niños recién nacidos fueron grandes para la edad gestacional, y 10,7% de ellos tenían exceso de peso. No se observó un efecto causal del parto por cesárea en el índice de masa corporal (coeficiente = -0,004; IC95%: -0,136; 0,127; p = 0,948). El parto por cesárea no tuvo un efecto a causal en el IMC de niños con edades entre 1 a 3 años.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Parturition , Obesity/etiology
5.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e220020, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406929

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study was conducted to determine the frequency of vitamin D deficiency in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and to define the relationship between vitamin D levels and obesity, depression, and pain intensity. Methods This study was conducted with 69 patients (Male = 32, Female = 37) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis. The participants' 25(OH)D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. In addition, bone metabolic status, including bone mineral density and bone turnover markers, was also evaluated. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to determine the depression statuses of the patients, while the McGill Melzack Pain Questionnaire was administered to measure pain intensity. The results were evaluated at a significance level of p<0.05. Results Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was found in 76.8% of the patients. Binary logistic regression analysis showed a significantly higher frequency of vitamin D deficiency in patients who: 1) had higher body mass indexes (OR 3.197, 95% CI 1.549-6.599); 2) fared higher in Beck's depression score (OR 1.817, 95% CI 1.027-3.217); and 3) were female rather than male (OR 1.700, 95% CI 0.931-3.224) (p<0.05). Conclusion In this study, vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in lumbar spinal stenosis patients. In addition, obese, depressed, and female individuals have higher risks of vitamin D deficiency.


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a frequência de deficiência de vitamina D em pacientes com estenose espinhal lombar e para definir a relação entre os níveis de vitamina D e obesidade, depressão e intensidade da dor. Métodos Este estudo foi realizado com 69 pacientes (homens = 32, mulheres = 37) diagnosticados com estenose espinhal lombar. Os níveis de 25(OH)D dos participantes foram medidos por radioimunoensaio. Além disso, o estado metabólico ósseo, incluindo densidade mineral óssea e marcadores de remodelação óssea, também foi avaliado. O Inventário de Depressão de Beck foi usado para determinar os estados de depressão dos pacientes, enquanto o Questionário de Dor McGill Melzack foi aplicado para medir a intensidade da dor. Os resultados foram avaliados a um nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados A deficiência de vitamina D (<20 ng/mL) foi encontrada em 76,8% dos pacientes. A análise de regressão logística binária mostrou uma frequência significativamente maior de deficiência de vitamina D nos seguintes pacientes: 1) com maior índice de massa corporal (OR 3,197, 95% IC 1,549-6,599); 2) com maior pontuação na escala de depressão de Beck (OR 1,817, 95% IC 1,027-3,217) e 3) do sexo feminino em vez de masculino (OR 1,700, 95% IC 0,931-3,224) (p<0,05). Conclusão Neste estudo, a deficiência de vitamina D foi prevalente em pacientes com estenose espinhal lombar. Além disso, pessoas obesas, deprimidas e mulheres correm maior risco de deficiência de vitamina D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Spinal Stenosis/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Pain Measurement , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Obesity/etiology
6.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(3)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408258

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La obesidad se ha identificado como un estado crónico de inflamación sistémica conocido como lipoinflamación. En los últimos tiempos ha cobrado relevancia el descubrimiento de moléculas clave que actúan como blancos terapéuticos, así como sus conexiones y mecanismos existentes. Por otra parte, es sabido lo difícil que es la obtención de nuevos fármacos naturales como alternativas o terapias complementarias en enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles como la obesidad y las dislipemias. El LECISAN® destaca como candidato por sus potencialidades. Objetivos: Valorar los resultados de investigaciones preclínicas y clínicas que avalan el uso del LECISAN®. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática y crítica de las evidencias de impacto de los efectos de la lecitina de soya. Se consultaron artículos publicados preferentemente en los últimos diez años en las bases de datos EBSCO, Google Scholar, Latindex, Redalyc, DOAJ, Dialnet, WorldCat, LILACS, SciELO y OATD. Conclusiones: El LECISAN® es un producto natural que rebasa el contexto de su empleo como suplemento nutricional, pero requiere nuevas investigaciones en el campo de la farmacología. Resultan contradictorios y poco concluyentes los resultados referentes a sus posibles efectos y usos(AU)


Introduction: Obesity has been identified as a chronic state of systemic inflammation known as lipoinflammation. In recent times, the discovery of key molecules acting as therapeutic targets, as well as their connections and existing mechanisms, has gained relevance. On the other hand, it is known how difficult it is to obtain new natural drugs as alternatives or complementary therapies in chronic noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and dyslipidemias. LECISAN® stands out as a candidate, for its potentialities. Objective: To assess the results of preclinical and clinical investigations that support the use of LECISAN®. Methods: A systematic and critical review of evidence about the impact of the effects of soy lecithin was carried out. Articles published preferably in the last ten years were consulted, from the EBSCO, Google Scholar, Latindex, Redalyc, DOAJ, Dialnet, WorldCat, LILACS, SciELO and OATD databases. Conclusions: LECISAN® is a natural product that goes beyond the context of its use as a nutritional supplement, but requires new research in the field of pharmacology. The results regarding its possible effects and uses are contradictory and inconclusive, based on hypotheses that relate an emulsifying action with the phospholipids present in the mixture, the antioxidant effects with isoflavones, the anti-inflammatory effects with the polyunsaturated fatty acids that regulate lipid metabolism, as well as the activation of the phospholipase A2 system with the consequent production of inflammatory cytosines(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dyslipidemias , Lecithins , Antioxidants , Obesity/etiology , Complementary Therapies , Review Literature as Topic , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Databases, Bibliographic , Noncommunicable Diseases
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(3): 164-177, sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353177

ABSTRACT

Diversos estudios epidemiológicos y de intervención apuntan a una asociación fuerte y consistente entre la ingesta excesiva de azúcares y el riesgo de desarrollar caries dentales y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. El objetivo fue describir los 10 principales alimentos que contribuyen a la ingesta de azúcares añadidos en muestras representativas de poblaciones urbanas de ocho países latinoamericanos, y considerar diferencias por país, sexo, nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y grupo de edad. Se realizó una encuesta transversal multinacional en hogares de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela (N=9218; 15­65 años). La contribución porcentual a la ingesta total del nutriente sirvió para identificar los alimentos aportadores. Los datos se estratificaron por país, sexo, NSE y grupo de edad y se compararon los gramos por día. Excepto en Perú y en el grupo de 50 a 65 años, los refrescos figuraron como el principal contribuyente a la ingesta de azúcares añadidos. Las bebidas caseras y las industrializadas también destacaron. Argentina fue el país con mayor ingesta de azúcares añadidos aportados por bebidas industrializadas, y Chile el país con menor frecuencia de bebidas como fuentes. Entre los 10 contribuyentes, la ingesta de azúcares añadidos fue mayor en el sexo masculino, excepto para sacarosa y pasteles dulces. Mayores ingestas de azúcares provenientes del jugo de fruta natural y sacarosa fueron observadas en el NSE más bajo. Las mayores y menores ingestas en los grupos de edad cambian de acuerdo con la fuente alimentaria. En conclusión, las bebidas azucaradas fueron los principales contribuyentes a la ingesta de azúcares añadidos, y la ingesta varió según la ubicación geográfica y los factores sociodemográficos(AU)


This study aimed to describe the top 10 foods that contribute to added sugars intake in representative samples of urban populations in eight Latin American countries, and consider differences by country, sex, socioeconomic level (SEL), and age group. A household-based, multinational, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela (N=9218; 15­65 years). Contributors to added sugars were identified and listed based on the percentage of contribution to total intake of this nutrient. Data were stratified by country, sex, SEL, and age group, and the grams per day compared. Except in Peru and in the 50 to 65 years age group, soft drinks were the leading contributor to added sugar intake. Homemade beverages together industrialized beverages have been a prominent position on ranking. In general, the highest intake of added sugars by industrialized beverages was from Argentina, and the lowest frequency of beverages as sources of added sugars was observed in Chile. Among the top 10 contributors, male sex had highest added sugar intake, except for sucrose and sweet cakes. Higher intakes of sugars from natural fruit juice and sucrose were observed in the lower SEL. The highest and lowest intakes in the age groups change according to the food source. In conclusion, sugar-sweetened beverages were main contributors to added sugar intake, and the intake vary with geographical location and sociodemographic factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chronic Disease , Dental Caries/etiology , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Obesity/etiology , Exercise , Epidemiologic Studies , Family Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Eating , Sugars/adverse effects , Nutritional Sciences
8.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(2): e274, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1347400

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los cuestionarios son instrumentos estandarizados que se utilizan en la vigilancia global de la actividad física en las personas con diabetes mellitus y obesidad. Estos constituyen una técnica costo-efectiva más viable pero menos precisa en comparación con los métodos objetivos que se utilizan para medir la actividad física a nivel poblacional. Sin embargo, son la herramienta más empleada por los especialistas por su interacción directa con los pacientes que se incluyen en las investigaciones sobre la diabetes y la obesidad. Objetivos: Identificar los cuestionarios como una opción factible en Cuba para medir el nivel de actividad física en estudios epidemiológicos en personas con diabetes mellitus y obesidad. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión integradora de la bibliografía durante el periodo 2013-2020, a partir de los criterios de inclusión. La búsqueda se efectuó a través de PubMed, Cochrane, LILIACS y SciELO. Las palabras o criterios empleados fueron: actividad física, actividad física/cuestionarios, actividad física/técnicas de medición, enfermedades no transmisibles, diabetes mellitus y obesidad. Se identificaron 68 artículos, de los cuales fueron seleccionados 29 que contribuyeron al resultado final. Conclusiones: Las nuevas evidencias expuestas propician elementos sólidos para identificar los cuestionarios validados por sensores de movimiento como una opción factible que debe ser utilizada en Cuba para medir el nivel de actividad física en estudios epidemiológicos en personas con diabetes mellitus y obesidad(AU)


Introduction: The questionnaires are standardized instruments, which are used in full monitoring of physical activity in people with diabetes mellitus and obesity. They are a more viable cost-effect technique, but less precise in comparison with the objective methods that are used to measure physical activity in the population level. However, they are the most used tool by the specialists due to its direct interaction with patients included in researches on diabetes and obesity. Objectives: Identify the questionnaires as a feasible option in Cuba to measure the level of physical activity in epidemiological studies in people with diabetes mellitus and obesity. Methods: An integrative review of the bibliography was carried out from the inclusion criteria during the period 2013-2020. The search was carried out through PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS and SciELO to answer the question of the review: What is the physical activity´s measurement technique that can be used in people with diabetes mellitus and obesity in the Cuban population, taking into account the new empirical evidence on the subject? Physical activity, physical activity / questionnaires, physical activity / measurement techniques, non-communicable diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity; were the words or criteria used. 68 articles were identified, and 29 of them were selected so, they contributed to the final result. Conclusions: The new evidences presented provide solid elements to identify the questionnaires validated by motion sensors as a feasible option that should be used in Cuba to measure the level of physical activity in epidemiological studies of people with diabetes mellitus and obesity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Review Literature as Topic , Epidemiologic Studies , Databases, Bibliographic
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 233-253, mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154321

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper argues that many of the foundations and trends that led to the rise in obesity and other diet-related health problems in Latin America began to develop in the late nineteenth century. The tendency towards presentism in the nutrition transition literature provides a much abbreviated and limited history of changes in diet and weight. Whereas medical and nutrition researchers have tended to emphasize the recent onset of the crisis, a historical perspective suggests that increasingly global food sourcing prompted changes in foodways and a gradual "fattening" of Latin America. This paper also provides a methodological and historiographic exploration of how to historicize the nutrition transition, drawing on a diverse array of sources from pre-1980 to the present.


Resumo Este trabalho argumenta que fundamentos e tendências que levaram ao aumento da obesidade e de outros problemas de saúde relacionados à alimentação na América Latina começaram a surgir no final do século XIX. A propensão ao presentismo na literatura sobre transição nutricional produz uma história abreviada e limitada das mudanças em alimentação e peso. Embora pesquisadores médicos e nutricionistas enfatizem a recente instalação da crise, uma perspectiva histórica sugere que fontes alimentares crescentemente globalizadas resultaram em mudanças na alimentação e em gradual "aumento de gordura" na população latino-americana. O artigo propõe ainda a exploração metodológica e historiográfica de como historicizar a transição nutricional recorrendo a fontes pré-1980 até o momento.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Diet/history , Obesity/history , Carbonated Beverages/history , Advertising/history , Diet/trends , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/history , Latin America , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Obesity/etiology
10.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2020076, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155479

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of breastfeeding (BF) and the association between occurrence/duration of BF and overweight/obesity in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012-2013, on schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Weight and height were measured according to procedures of the World Health Organization. Breastfeeding and sociodemographic data were obtained from a questionnaire responded by parents/guardians. BF was categorized as a dichotomous variable (yes/no) and according to duration (months). Nutritional status was evaluated according to the Z score of the body mass index per age for sex and it was categorized into two groups: normal weight (<Z score+1) and overweight/obesity (≥Z score+1). The adjusted analysis was performed by logistic regression in two age strata (age groups of 7-10 and 11-14 years). Results: 6.6% of schoolchildren had never breastfed; 16.8% had been breastfed for ≤3 months; 16.7%, for 4-6 months; and 59.9%, for ≥7 months. No statistically significant differences were found in the occurrence and duration of BF between the age groups. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%. For age groups (7-10 and 11-14 years), the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 36.7% and 29.8%, respectively. Chance of overweight/obesity for the age group of 7-10 years was lower among schoolchildren who were breastfed (OR=0.54; 95%CI 0.33-0.88), when compared with those who never breastfed. When categorized, the chance of overweight/obesity in the age group of 7-10 years was lower for duration of BF ≤3 months (OR=0.41; 95%CI 0.20-0.83), and 4-6 months (OR=0.48; 95%CI 0.28-0.82) when compared with children who never breastfed. Conclusions: BF for at least six months was associated with a lower chance of overweight/obesity for schoolchildren aged 7-10 years. No association was found for schoolchildren aged 11-14 years.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar prevalência e duração de aleitamento materno (AM) e sua associação com sobrepeso/obesidade em escolares de 7-14 anos. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado em 2012-2013, com escolares de 7-14 anos de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. Peso e altura foram mensurados segundo preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Dados sociodemográficos e sobre AM foram obtidos por questionários enviados aos responsáveis/cuidadores. A variável amamentação foi analisada como dicotômica (sim/não) e por duração (em meses). O perfil antropométrico foi avaliado por escore Z do índice de massa corporal (IMC) para a idade, segundo sexo, categorizado em: normal (<escore Z+1) e sobrepreso/obesidade (≥escore Z+1). Análises ajustadas foram realizadas (regressão logística) em dois estratos etários (7-10 e 11-14 anos). Resultados: 6,6% dos escolares nunca tinham sido amamentados, 16,8% foram amamentados por ≤3 meses, 16,7% por 4-6 meses e 59,9% por ≥7 meses. Não houve diferença estatística de ocorrência/duração de AM entre os grupos etários. A prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade foi 34,2%. Nos grupos etários (7-10 e 11-14 anos), a prevalência foi 36,7% e 29,8%, respectivamente. A chance de sobrepeso/obesidade nos escolares de 7-10 anos foi menor entre aqueles que tinham sido amamentados (OR=0,54; IC95% 0,33-0,88), comparando com os nunca amamentados. Quando categorizada, a chance de ter sobrepeso/obesidade nos escolares de 7-10 anos foi menor quando a duração do AM foi ≤3 meses (OR=0,41; IC95% 0,20-0,83) e 4-6 meses (OR=0,48; IC95% 0,28-0,82), em comparação à ausência de AM. Conclusões: AM por pelo menos seis meses foi associado com menor chance de sobrepeso/obesidade para escolares de 7-10 anos. Não foi observada associação para o grupo 11-14 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Nutritional Status/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Time Factors , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/etiology , Child Nutrition Sciences/statistics & numerical data , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/etiology
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(supl.1): e00323020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374805

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão de escopo da literatura acerca da associação entre o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados e desfechos em saúde. A busca foi realizada nas bases PubMed, Web of Science e LILACS. Foram elegíveis os estudos que avaliaram a associação entre o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados identificados com base na classificação NOVA e os desfechos em saúde. O processo de revisão resultou na seleção de 63 estudos, os quais foram analisados em termos de qualidade com base em ferramenta do Instituto Nacional de Saúde dos Estados Unidos. Os desfechos encontrados incluíram indicadores de obesidade, marcadores de risco metabólico, diabetes, doenças cardiovasculares, câncer, asma, depressão, fragilidade, doenças gastrointestinais e mortalidade. A evidência foi particularmente consistente para obesidade (ou indicadores relacionados a ela) em adultos, cuja associação com o consumo de ultraprocessados foi demonstrada, com efeito dose-resposta, em estudos transversais com amostras representativas de cinco países, em quatro grandes estudos de coorte e em um ensaio clínico randomizado. Grandes estudos de coorte também encontraram associação significativa entre o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados e o risco de doenças cardiovasculares, diabetes e câncer, mesmo após ajuste para obesidade. Dois estudos de coorte demonstraram associação do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados com depressão e quatro estudos de coorte com mortalidade por todas as causas. Esta revisão sumarizou os resultados de trabalhos que descreveram a associação entre o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados e as diversas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e seus fatores de risco, o que traz importantes implicações para a saúde pública.


El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión de alcance de la literatura sobre la asociación entre el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y los resultados de salud. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science y LILACS. Fueron elegibles los estudios que evaluaron la asociación entre el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados identificados según la clasificación NOVA y los resultados de salud. El proceso de revisión resultó en la selección de 63 estudios, cuya calidad se analizó con base en una herramienta delo Instituto Nacional de Salud de Estados Unidos Los resultados encontrados incluyeron indicadores de obesidad, marcadores de riesgo metabólico, diabetes, enfermedad cardiovascular, cáncer, asma, depresión, fragilidad, enfermedad gastrointestinal y mortalidad. La evidencia fue particularmente consistente para la obesidad (o indicadores relacionados con ella) en adultos, cuya asociación con el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados se demostró, con un efecto dosis-respuesta, en estudios transversales con muestras representativas de cinco países, en cuatro grandes estudios de cohortes y en un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Grandes estudios de cohortes también encontraron una asociación significativa entre el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes y cáncer, incluso después de ajustar la obesidad. Dos estudios de cohortes mostraron una asociación entre el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y la depresión y cuatro estudios de cohortes con mortalidad por todas las causas. Esta revisión resumió los resultados de estudios que describieron la asociación entre el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y las diversas enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y sus factores de riesgo, lo que tiene importantes implicaciones para la salud pública.


The aim of this study was to conduct a literature scope review of the association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and health outcomes. The search was carried out in the PubMed, Web of Science and LILACS databases. Studies that assessed the association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods, identified on the NOVA classification, and health outcomes were eligible. The review process resulted in the selection of 63 studies, which were analyzed in terms of quality using a tool from the National Institutes of Health. The outcomes found included obesity, metabolic risk markers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, asthma, depression, frailty, gastrointestinal diseases and mortality indicators. The evidence was particularly consistent for obesity (or indicators related to it) in adults, whose association with the consumption of ultra-processed foods was demonstrated, with dose-response effect, in cross-sectional studies with representative samples from five countries, in four large cohort studies and in a randomized clinical trial. Large cohort studies have also found a significant association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer - even after adjusting for obesity. Two cohort studies have shown an association of ultra-processed foods consumption with depression and four cohort studies with all-cause mortality. This review summarized the studies' results that described the association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and various non-communicable diseases and their risk factors, which has important implications for public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , United States , Brazil , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Obesity/etiology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249338

ABSTRACT

The interplay between obesity and gastrointestinal (GI) motility is contradictory, and the transgenerational influence on this parameter is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the GI function in a model of paternal obesity and two subsequent generations of their male offspring. Newborn male rats were treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) and composed the F1 generation, while control rats (CONT) received saline. At 90 days, male F1 were mated with non-obese females to obtain male offspring (F2), which later mated with non-obese females for obtaining male offspring of F3 generation. Lee Index analysis was adopted to set up the obesity groups. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) technique was employed to calculate GI transit parameters: mean gastric emptying time (MGET), mean cecum arrival time (MCAT), mean small intestinal transit time (MSITT), and gastric frequency and amplitude of contractions. Glucose, insulin, and leptin levels and duodenal morphometry were measured. F1 obese rats showed a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of gastric contractions, while obese rats from the F2 generation showed accelerated MGET and delayed MCAT and MSITT. Glucose and leptin levels were increased in F1 and F2 generations. Insulin levels decreased in F1, F2, and F3 generations. Duodenal morphometry was altered in all three generations. Obesity may have paternal transgenerational transmission, and it provoked disturbances in the gastrointestinal function of three generations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Paternal Exposure , Obesity/etiology , Gastrointestinal Transit , Leptin , Gastrointestinal Motility , Insulin
13.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(2): e218, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138892

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El cuestionario abreviado de evaluación de la actividad física para la atención primaria (BPAAT, por sus siglas en inglés) se diseñó con el objetivo de evaluar las mismas dimensiones de actividad física que mide el cuestionario internacional de actividad física (IPAQ, por sus siglas en inglés), pero de manera más efectiva. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad del cuestionario corto BPAAT para medir actividad física en una población cubana. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal, con una muestra de 230 personas, de dos áreas de salud del municipio "Plaza de la Revolución" para evaluar la utilidad de este cuestionario. Previo a su empleo en el estudio, se realizó la adaptación cultural del cuestionario. La concordancia entre los cuestionarios IPAQ y BPAAT se estimó con el coeficiente kappa. Se determinó si la proporción de sujetos suficientemente activos (SA) era superior al 71 por ciento en los cuestionarios. Resultados: El grupo más representado fue el de 50-64 años (41,7 por ciento). El nivel promedio de actividad física acumulada en la semana fue de 1236,7 equivalentes calóricos (MET's), lo que se corresponde con la categoría moderada. El nivel de concordancia entre los cuestionarios fue de considerable (k = 0,774). Existió correlación negativa entre el grado de actividad física, la edad (p = 0,001) y el índice de masa corporal (p < 0,0001). Conclusiones: El cuestionario BPAAT tiene un grado de concordancia considerable con la versión corta del IPAQ. La mayoría de los sujetos a los que se les aplico el BPAAT estuvo en la categoría suficientemente activos, por lo que resulta adecuado como instrumento de medición de la actividad física en la población estudiada(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The Brief Physical Activity Assessment Tool (BPAAT, as it stands in English) for primary care was designed with the aim of evaluating the same physical activity dimensions as measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, as it stands in English), but more effectively. Objective: To determine the usefulness of the short BPAAT questionnaire to measure physical activity in a Cuban population. Methods: A cross-sectional and observational-descriptive study was carried out with a sample of 230 people from two health areas of Plaza de la Revolution Municipality, in order to evaluate the usefulness of this questionnaire. Prior to its use in the study, the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was done. Agreement between the IPAQ and BPAAT questionnaires was estimated with the Kappa coefficient. It was determined whether the proportion of sufficiently active subjects (AS) was greater than 71 percent in the questionnaires. Results: The most represented group was that of 50-64 years (41.7 percent). The average level of physical activity accumulated in a week was 1236.7 caloric equivalents (MET's), which is in correspondence with the moderate category. The level of agreement between the questionnaires was considerable (k = 0.774). There was a negative correlation between degree of physical activity, age (p = 0.001), and body mass index (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The BPAAT questionnaire has a considerable degree of agreement with the short version of the IPAQ. Most of the subjects to whom the BPAAT was applied were in the SA category, making it suitable as a tool for measuring physical activity in the population studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Exercise/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Obesity/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
15.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(6): 316-324, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137839

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the influence of health-related behaviors including food intake, physical activity, sleep time, smoking habits, stress, depression, and optimism on excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) among women with overweight and obesity. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Women's Hospital of the Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, with 386 mediate postpartum women that fit the inclusion criteria of ≥ 19 years old, first prenatal care visit at or before 14 weeks, and single live baby. Dietary habits, physical exercise practice, sleep duration, smoking and alcohol habits were self-reported. Psychosocial history was evaluated using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R). Sociodemographic, obstetric, anthropometric, and neonatal data were retrieved from medical records. Descriptive statistics and stepwise logistic regression were performed. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.27% and 24.61%, respectively, according to the body mass index (BMI). Excessive GWG was observed in 47.79% of women with overweight and in 45.26% of women with obesity. Excessive GWG among overweight and obese women was associated with inadequate vegetable and bean consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 2.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-6.46 and OR = 1.91; 95%CI: 1.01-3.63, respectively) and stress (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.01-2.64). After adjustment by maternal age, multiparity, sleep duration, smoking, and alcohol intake, we found that stress (PSS ≥ 20) was associated with excessive GWG in women with overweight or obesity (OR: 1.75; 95%CI: 1.03-2.96). Conclusion Among women with overweight and obesity, stress is the main variable associated with excessive GWG. Inadequate vegetables and beans consumption also showed association with excessive GWG.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a influência de comportamentos relacionados à saúde: ingestão alimentar, atividade física, tempo de sono, tabagismo, estresse, depressão e otimismo no ganho de peso gestacional (GPG) excessivo em mulheres com sobrepeso e obesidade. Métodos Estudo transversal no Hospital da Mulher, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil, com 386 mulheres no puerpério mediato, ≥ 19 anos, primeira consulta pré-natal até 14 semanas e cuja gestação resultou em neonato vivo. Os comportamentos relacionados à saúde foram autorreferidos. História psicossocial foi avaliada usando: Escala de Depressão Pós-Parto de Edimburgo (EPDS, na sigla em inglês), Escala de Estresse Percebido (PSS, na sigla em inglês) e Teste de Orientação à Vida-Revisado (LOT-R, na sigla em inglês). Dados sociodemográficos, obstétricos, antropométricos e neonatais foram obtidos dos prontuários médicos. Realizou-se análises descritivas e regressão logística. Resultados A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade foi de 29,27% e de 24,61%, respectivamente. Ganho de peso gestacional excessivo foi observado em 47,79% das mulheres com sobrepeso e em 45,26% das mulheres com obesidade. O consumo inadequado de verduras e feijão (razão de probabilidade [OR] = 2,95; índice de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,35-6,46 e OR = 1,91; IC95%: 1,01-3,63, respectivamente) e estresse (OR = 1,63; IC95%: 1,01-2,64) foram associados ao GPG excessivo em mulheres com sobrepeso e obesidade. Análises ajustadas para idade materna, multiparidade, duração do sono, tabagismo e ingestão de álcool mostraram que o estresse (PSS ≥ 20) associou-se ao GPG excessivo em mulheres com sobrepeso e obesidade (OR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.03-2.96). Conclusão Entre mulheres com sobrepeso e obesidade, o estresse foi a principal variável associada ao GPG excessivo. O consumo inadequado de verduras e feijão também se associou com o GPG excessivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Obesity/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Psychometrics , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise , Demography , Medical Records , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Overweight/etiology , Overweight/psychology , Overweight/epidemiology , Gestational Weight Gain , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/psychology
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 223-234, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131088

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of gene expression in the 15q11.2-q13 paternal chromosome. Patients with PWS develop hypothalamic dysfunction that can lead to various endocrine changes such as: obesity, growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and low bone mineral density. In addition, individuals with PWS have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes and updates the current knowledge about the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of endocrine manifestations associated with Prader Willi syndrome, especially diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency, management and monitoring of adverse effects; diagnosis of central adrenal insufficiency and management in stressful situations; screening for central hypothyroidism; research and treatment of hypogonadism; prevention and treatment of disorders of glucose metabolism. Careful attention to the endocrine aspects of PWS contributes significantly to the health of these individuals. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):223-34


Subject(s)
Humans , Prader-Willi Syndrome/complications , Prader-Willi Syndrome/diagnosis , Prader-Willi Syndrome/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Hypogonadism/etiology , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Obesity/etiology
18.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(1): e128, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126453

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La ginecomastia define el aumento benigno del tamaño de la glándula mamaria en el hombre. Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas, etiológicas y bioquímicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de ginecomastia atendidos en el servicio de Cirugía General. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra de 108 pacientes, mayores de 18 años, atendidos en el servicio de Cirugía General con diagnóstico de ginecomastia. El estudio se llevó a cabo en los Hospitales Mariano Pérez Balí y Celia Sánchez Manduley, entre septiembre 2015 y marzo 2017. Se determinó edad, características clínicas, etiología y perfil bioquímico de estos pacientes. Resultados: La edad media fue de 27,63 años siendo la afectación estética el principal motivo de consulta. Predominó la ginecomastia bilateral, el sobrepeso/obesidad, el grado IIa de la enfermedad, la etiología idiopática y el antecedente de ginecomastia puberal. La presencia de galactorrea, hiperprolactinemia, hipoandrogenismo e hiperestrogenemia fue mínima. Conclusiones: La ginecomastia bilateral de causa idiopática, en pacientes con sobrepeso/obesidad y niveles normales de hormonas hipofisarias y gonadales es la forma de presentación más frecuente de esta afección(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Gynecomastia defines the benign increase of the mammary gland size in men. Objective: To determine the clinical, etiological and biochemical characteristics of patients diagnosed with gynecomastia attended at the General Surgery service. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 108 patients over the age of 18 years, attended at the service of General Surgery with a diagnosis of gynecomastia. The study was carried out in ´´Mariano Perez Bali´´ and ´´Celia Sánchez Manduley´´ Hospitals from September 2015 to March 2017. The age, clinical characteristics, etiology, and biochemical profile of these patients were determined. Results: The mean age was 27.63 years and the aesthetic affectations were the main reason for consultation. There was a predominance of bilateral gynecomastia, overweight/obesity, grade IIa of the disease, idiopathic etiology and the history of pubertal gynecomastia. The presence of hyperprolactinemia, galactorrhea, hypoandrogenism and hyperstrogenism was minimal. Conclusions: Bilateral gynecomastia of idiopathic cause, in patients with overweight/obesity and normal levels of gonadal and pituitary hormones is the most common presentation of this condition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Esthetics , Overweight/epidemiology , Gynecomastia/diagnosis , Obesity/etiology , Hyperprolactinemia/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 39-45, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091655

ABSTRACT

Insulin deregulation (ID) is a central player in the pathophysiology of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), which is associated with generalized and/or regional obesity. The objective of this experiment was to characterize the alterations in the hormonal profile in horses exposed to a hypercaloric diet. A total of nine Mangalarga Marchador adult horses with initial body condition score (BCS) of 2.9±1/9 (mean±SD) were submitted to a high calorie grain-rich diet for 5 months. The data was collected before the start of the experiment and every 15 days until the end of the experiment and glucose and insulin concentrations were measured in the plasma. Proxies G:I, RISQI, HOMA-IR and MIRG were calculated. The low-dose oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed and the total area under the glucose (GTA) and insulin (ITA) curves at three different timepoints (before inducing obesity, after 90 days and after 150 days) was used. Analysis of variance of the results was performed considering the time effects and the means were compared with repeated measures by the Tukey's test (P≤0.05). The ID was observed during the first 90 days of the experiment and was characterized as a decompensated ID, showing an increase of basal glucose and insulin plasma levels, changes in all proxies and a significant increase in GTA (P<0.001) and ITA (P<0.05). However, a clear compensation of the ID was evident after 150 days of experiment, which was supported by data from the insulin secretory response of ß cells of the pancreas that showed an increase in insulin plasma levels, after fasting or exposure to gastric glucose, with a concomitant decrease in fasting glucose and fructosamine levels, and a decrease of GTA and marked increase of ITA (P<0.0001) in the dynamic test. These findings confirm the occurrence of hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin deregulation in Mangalarga Marchador horses exposed to hypercaloric diets.(AU)


A desregulação insulínica (DI) é o ponto central dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos da síndrome metabólica equina (SME), que é associada à obesidade generalizada e/ou regional. O objetivo deste experimento foi caracterizar as alterações no perfil hormonal em equinos submetidos à dieta hipercalórica. Foram utilizados nove equinos Mangalarga Marchador adultos com escore corporal (EC) médio (±DP) inicial de 2,9±1 (escala de 1-9) submetidos à dieta hipercalórica atingindo um EC de 8,3±1 após cinco meses. Os dados foram coletados antes do início do experimento e com o intervalo de 15 dias até o final do experimento, os valores plasmáticos foram obtidos para mensuração das concentrações de glicose e insulina. Foram calculados os proxies G:I, RISQI, HOMA-IR e o MIRG. Foi realizado o teste de baixa dose de glicose oral (TBDGO) utilizando a área total sob a curva de glicose (ATG) e insulina (ATI) em três momentos, antes da indução a obesidade, após 90 e 150 dias. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância considerando-se os efeitos de tempo e as médias comparadas com medidas repetidas pelo teste de Tukey, com o valor P≤0,05. A DI foi observada nos primeiros 90 dias de experimento, se caracterizando como um quadro de DI descompensada, apresentando um aumento dos níveis plasmáticos basais de glicose e insulina, pelas alterações em todos os proxies e com um aumento significativo da ATG (P<0,001) e ATI (P<0,05). Contudo, ficou evidente uma compensação do quadro de DI após 150 dias de experimento, sendo demonstrado pelos dados da resposta secretória insulínica das células ß do pâncreas, que se manifestaram pelo aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de insulina pós-jejum ou exposição à glicose gástrica com concomitante redução nos níveis de glicose e frutosamina pós-jejum e pela redução da ATG e pela marcada elevação de ATI (P<0,0001) no teste dinâmico. Tais achados comprovam a ocorrência de hiperinsulinemia associada à desregulação insulínica em equinos Mangalarga Marchador expostos a dietas à dieta hipercalórica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/veterinary , Diet/veterinary , Horses/metabolism , Hyperinsulinism/etiology , Hyperinsulinism/veterinary , Obesity/etiology , Weight Gain , Obesity/veterinary
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Obesity Agents/therapeutic use , Sericins/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Time Factors , Triglycerides/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Weight Gain/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Cholesterol/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Sericins/pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Liver/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glucose Tolerance Test , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/physiopathology
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