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1.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 14: 1-4, 20 de Enero del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1370109

ABSTRACT

NTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) es una causa frecuente de mortalidad en adultos. El objetivo de este estudio fue mostrar resultados de la implementación del Programa de Rastreo de Cáncer Colorrectal (PRCCR) en la provincia del Neuquén, Argentina. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con análisis de resultados de sangre oculta en materia fecal (SOMF) y videocolonoscopía (VCC) en personas de 50-75 años, en efectores del sistema de salud pública en 2015-2019. Se determinó porcentaje de participación, resultados de SOMF, realización de colonoscopía en pacientes con SOMF positiva y sus hallazgos, y valor predictivo positivo (VPP) para detección de lesiones y de CCR. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 11 189 SOMF. La participación promedio fue 6,52% de la población objetivo. Tuvieron SOMF positiva el 24,6% de los participantes; de ellos, realizaron la VCC un 24%. Se encontró lesión significativa en el 24,8% (pólipos adenomatosos 21,9%, cáncer 2,9%), con un VPP para la detección de lesiones del 34,3%. Tuvieron adenomas avanzados el 7,4%. Repitieron la SOMF tras un resultado negativo (segunda o tercera ronda) el 17,6% de los pacientes, y realizaron una VCC de control tras el hallazgo de un pólipo adenomatoso el 13,7%. DISCUSIÓN: El PRCCR en Neuquén muestra algunos indicadores que deben mejorarse (cobertura, realización de VCC) y otros adecuados (frecuencia de lesiones). Ante las dificultades se pueden plantear medidas más focalizadas, como la aplicación de escalas de riesgo de CCR, rastreo bianual, etc.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Colonoscopy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Occult Blood
2.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-5, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1151563

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El Programa de Prevención de Tumores de la Provincia del Neuquén recomienda la Sangre Oculta en Materia Fecal Inmunológica (SOMFi) como intervención de rastreo, con posterior confirmación por videocolonoscopía (VCC) en pacientes con resultado positivo. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los resultados de la utilización de SOMFi, la realización de VCC confirmatoria y sus hallazgos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, que analizó los resultados de SOMFi obtenidos en personas de 50 a 75 años en todos los efectores del Sistema de Salud Pública de Neuquén en el período 2015-2019 sobre la base de registros informáticos provinciales y de cada centro de endoscopía. Se determinó la frecuencia de resultados de SOMFi, de VCC en los pacientes con SOMFi positiva y sus hallazgos. RESULTADOS: De 9909 muestras analizadas, 23,1% fueron positivas. Se realizó VCC confirmatoria en 24,1% de los pacientes con SOMFi positiva; presentaron cáncer el 3,7% de los casos, pólipos el 35% y estudio normal el 61,3%. Los tipos histológicos de los pólipos fueron: tubular (49%), hiperplásico (21,3%), tubulovelloso (20%), aserrado (7,2%) y otros tipos (2,5%). DISCUSIÓN: La frecuencia de SOMFi positiva fue mayor a la publicada. Solo el 20% de los pacientes realizó VCC confirmatoria. La frecuencia de cáncer y pólipos encontrados fue similar a la de otros estudios publicados. Debe incrementarse la realización de VCC confirmatoria


Subject(s)
Argentina , Colorectal Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Colonoscopy , Occult Blood
3.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-5, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1178694

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) es uno de los tumores malignos más frecuentes y representa un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Argentina, con 13 558 casos en 2012 se ubica en segundo lugar después del cáncer de mama y tiene una elevada mortalidad debido al diagnóstico tardío. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la factibilidad organizacional y los resultados a corto plazo de la implementación local del Programa Nacional de Prevención y Detección Temprana de Cáncer Colorrectal (PNCCR). MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, que analizó las actividades de una prueba piloto de programa de pesquisa de CCR, efectuado en tres ciudades del departamento La Paz (Entre Ríos) entre febrero de 2019 y febrero de 2020. RESULTADOS: La población objetivo fue de 730 personas (hombres y mujeres de 50 a 64 años), de las cuales 325 (45%) se realizaron test inmunoquímico de sangre oculta en materia fecal (TSOMFi). Se obtuvieron 81 positivos (24,9%), 226 negativos (69,5%) y 18 inadecuados (5,5%). Se articularon 42 videocolonoscopias (VCC), de las cuales fueron realizadas 36, lo que representa un índice de cumplimiento de VCC luego de TSOMFi positivo del 43,2%, con hallazgos endoscópicos en 5 de ellos (14,2%). DISCUSIÓN: La prueba piloto cumplió el objetivo de evaluar la factibilidad organizacional de implementar el PNCCR en la provincia de Entre Ríos, aportando información e identificando problemas para repensar las estrategias sanitarias.


Subject(s)
Argentina , Colorectal Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Occult Blood
4.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-5, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1253977

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El Programa de Prevención de Tumores de la Provincia del Neuquén recomienda la Sangre Oculta en Materia Fecal Inmunológica (SOMFi) como intervención de rastreo, con posterior confirmación por videocolonoscopía (VCC) en pacientes con resultado positivo. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los resultados de la utilización de SOMFi, la realización de VCC confirmatoria y sus hallazgos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, que analizó los resultados de SOMFi obtenidos en personas de 50 a 75 años en todos los efectores del Sistema de Salud Pública de Neuquén en el período 2015-2019 sobre la base de registros informáticos provinciales y de cada centro de endoscopía. Se determinó la frecuencia de resultados de SOMFi, de VCC en los pacientes con SOMFi positiva y sus hallazgos. RESULTADOS: De 9909 muestras analizadas, 23,1% fueron positivas. Se realizó VCC confirmatoria en 24,1% de los pacientes con SOMFi positiva; presentaron cáncer el 3,7% de los casos, pólipos el 35% y estudio normal el 61,3%. Los tipos histológicos de los pólipos fueron: tubular (49%), hiperplásico (21,3%), tubulovelloso (20%), aserrado (7,2%) y otros tipos (2,5%). DISCUSIÓN: La frecuencia de SOMFi positiva fue mayor a la publicada. Solo el 20% de los pacientes realizó VCC confirmatoria. La frecuencia de cáncer y pólipos encontrados fue similar a la de otros estudios publicados. Debe incrementarse la realización de VCC confirmatoria.


Subject(s)
Argentina , Colorectal Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Colonoscopy , Occult Blood
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1335-1344, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are the most widely used non-invasive tests in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, evidence about the direct comparison of the test performance of the self-administered qualitative a laboratory-based quantitative FITs in a CRC screening setting is sparse.@*METHODS@#Based on a CRC screening trial (TARGET-C), we included 3144 pre-colonoscopy fecal samples, including 24 CRCs, 230 advanced adenomas, 622 non-advanced adenomas, and 2268 participants without significant findings at colonoscopy. Three self-administered qualitative FITs (Pupu tube) with positivity thresholds of 8.0, 14.4, or 20.8 μg hemoglobin (Hb)/g preset by the manufacturer and one laboratory-based quantitative FIT (OC-Sensor) with a positivity threshold of 20 μg Hb/g recommended by the manufacturer were tested by trained staff in the central laboratory. The diagnostic performance of the FITs for detecting colorectal neoplasms was compared in the different scenarios using the preset and adjusted thresholds (for the quantitative FIT).@*RESULTS@#At the thresholds preset by the manufacturers, apart from the qualitative FIT-3, significantly higher sensitivities for detecting advanced adenoma were observed for the qualitative FIT-1 (33.9% [95% CI: 28.7-39.4%]) and qualitative FIT-2 (22.2% [95% CI: 17.7-27.2%]) compared to the quantitative FIT (11.7% [95% CI: 8.4-15.8%]), while at a cost of significantly lower specificities. However, such difference was not observed for detecting CRC. For scenarios of adjusting the positivity thresholds of the quantitative FIT to yield comparable specificity or comparable positivity rate to the three qualitative FITs accordingly, there were no significant differences in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values and positive/negative likelihood ratios for detecting CRC or advanced adenoma between the two types of FITs, which was further evidenced in ROC analysis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although the self-administered qualitative and the laboratory-based quantitative FITs had varied test performance at the positivity thresholds preset by the manufacturer, such heterogeneity could be overcome by adjusting thresholds to yield comparable specificities or positivity rates. Future CRC screening programs should select appropriate types of FITs and define the thresholds based on the targeted specificities and manageable positivity rates.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Feces , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Laboratories , Occult Blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(1): e002102, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222362

ABSTRACT

El cáncer colorrectal presenta un problema para la salud pública a nivel mundial. En Argentina, se diagnostican aproximadamente 13.500 casos cada año. El tamizaje como medida de prevención secundaria es una medida beneficiosa para lograr un abordaje temprano con mejores resultados. Los dos métodos más utilizados para el tamizaje son la videocolonoscopía y la prueba de sangre oculta en materia fecal, sobre todo la de tipo inmunoquímico que con el paso de los años fue reemplazando a la prueba de guayaco por su mayor practicidad. El primero es un método invasivo y que requiere anestesia, mientras que el segundo no tiene un efecto adverso directo pero debe realizarse con una cadencia mayor. El objetivo de los autores de este artículo fue evaluar la evidencia sobre la sensibilidad y especificidad de ambos métodos, como también sus beneficios y daños a partir de la consulta de un paciente a su médico de familia. Ninguna prueba parecería ser inferior para el tamizaje de cáncer colorrectal en una población de riesgo promedio, y ambas pueden usarse en programas de rastreo. Sin embargo, no existen estudios que comparen ambos métodos de manera directa, y toda prueba inmunoquímica fecal positiva debe ser seguida de una colonoscopía. La elección de la prueba puede depender de los valores y preferencias de los pacientes. (AU)


Colorectal cancer presents a public health problem worldwide. In Argentina, approximately 13,500 cases appear each year. Screening as a secondary prevention measure is a beneficial measure to achieve an early approach with better results. The two most used methods for screening are video colonoscopy and faecal immunochemical test, the former being invasiveand requiring anaesthesia, while the latter does not have a direct adverse effect but must be performed at a higher rate. The objective of this article was to evaluate the evidence for the sensitivity and specificity of both methods, as well as their benefits and harms. No test would appear to be inferior for colorectal cancer screening in an average-risk population, and both can be used in screening programs. However, there are no studies comparing both methods directly, and any positive faecal immunochemical test should be evaluated with a colonoscopy. The choice of the test may depend on the values and preferences of the patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colonic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Patient Participation , Mass Screening/methods , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colonoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/adverse effects , Secondary Prevention/methods , Patient Preference , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Occult Blood
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 316-322, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131664

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rectal bleeding is the most important symptom of intestinal neoplasia; thus, tests of occult blood detection in stools are widely used for pre neoplastic lesions and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the accuracy of OC-Sensor quantitative test (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) at cut-off 10 µg Hb/g feces (50 ng/mL) in a cohort of subjects that had to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy, and if more than one sample collected in consecutive days would improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test. METHODS: Patients (mean age 56.3±9.7 years) that underwent colonoscopy prospectively randomly received one (1-sample FIT, FIT 1) or two (2-sample FIT, FIT 2) collection tubes. They collected the stool sample before starting colonoscopy preparation. Samples were analyzed by the OC-Auto Micro 80 (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan). The performance of FIT 1 and FIT 2 were compared to the colonoscopy findings. RESULTS: Among 289 patients, CRC was diagnosed in 14 (4.8%), advanced adenoma in 37 (12.8%), early adenoma in 71 (24.6%) and no abnormalities in 141 (48.8%). For FIT 1, the sensitivity for CRC was 83.3% (95%CI 36.5-99.1%), for advanced adenoma was 24% (95%CI 10.1-45.5%), with specificity of 86.9% (95%CI 77.3-92.9%). For FIT 2, the sensitivity for CRC was 75% (95%CI 35.6-95.5%), for advanced adenoma was 50% (95%CI 22.3-77.7%), with specificity of 92.9% (95%CI 82.2-97.7%). The positive likelihood ratios were 1.8 (95%CI 0.7-4.4 for FIT 1) and 7.1 (95%CI 2.4-21.4 for FIT 2) for advanced adenoma, and 6.4 (95%CI 3.3-12.3, for FIT 1) and 10.7 (95%CI 3.8-29.8, for FIT 2) for CRC. The negative likelihood ratio were 0.9 (95%CI 0.7-1, for FIT 1) and 0.5 (95%CI 0.3-0.9, for FIT 2) for advanced adenoma, and 0.2 (0.03-1.1, for FIT 1) and 0.3 (0.08-0.9, for FIT 2) for CRC. The differences between FIT 1 and FIT 2 performances were not significant. However, the comparison of the levels of hemoglobin in feces of patients of FIT 1 and FIT 2 showed that the differences between no polyp group and advanced adenoma and CRC were significant. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of OCR Sensor with 10 µg Hb/g feces cut-off was comparable to other reports and two-sample collection improved the detection rate of advanced adenoma, a pre neoplastic condition to prevent CRC incidence.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Sangramento retal é o sintoma mais importante de neoplasia intestinal; portanto, testes para detecção de sangue oculto nas fezes são amplamente usados para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas e de câncer colorretal (CCR). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia do teste quantitativo OC-Sensor (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) com o valor de corte de 10 µg Hb/g fezes (50 ng/mL) numa coorte de indivíduos que se submeteram à colonoscopia diagnóstica, e se mais de uma amostra coletada em dias consecutivos melhoraria a acurácia diagnóstica do teste. MÉTODOS: Pacientes (idade média 56,3±9,7 anos) que se submeteram à colonoscopia prospectivamente, randomicamente, receberam tubos de coleta: um (1-amostra FIT, FIT 1), ou dois (2-amostra FIT, FIT 2). Eles coletaram as amostras de fezes antes de iniciar o preparo da colonoscopia. As amostras foram analisadas pelo OC-Auto Micro 80 (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan). As performances do FIT 1 e do FIT 2 foram comparadas com os achados da colonoscopia. RESULTADOS: Entre 289 pacientes, CCR foi diagnosticado em 14 (4,8%), adenoma avançado em 37 (12,8%), adenoma precoce em 71 (24,6%) e sem anormalidades em 141 (48,8%). Para FIT 1, a sensibilidade para CCR foi 83,3% (95%IC 36,5-99,1%), para adenoma avançado foi 24% (95%IC 10,1-45,5%), com especificidade de 86,9% (95%IC 77,3-92,9%). Para FIT 2, a sensibilidade para CCR foi 75% (95%IC 35,6-95,5%), para adenoma avançado foi 50% (95%IC 22,3-77,7%), com especificidade de 92,9% (95%IC 82,2-97,7%). A razão de verossimilhança positiva foi 1,8 (95%IC 0,7-4,4 para FIT 1) e 7,1 (95%IC 2,4-21,4 para FIT 2) para adenoma avançado, e 6,4 (95%IC 3,3-12,3, para FIT 1) e 10,7 (95%IC 3,8-29,8, para FIT 2) para CCR. A razão de verossimilhança negativa foi 0,9 (95%IC 0,7-1, para FIT 1) e 0,5 (95%IC 0,3-0,9, para FIT 2) para adenoma avançado, e 0,2 (0,03-1,1, para FIT 1) e 0,3 (0,08-0,9, para FIT 2) para CCR. As diferenças de performance entre FIT 1 e FIT 2 não foram significantes. Entretanto, a comparação dos níveis de hemoglobina nas fezes dos pacientes de FIT 1 e FIT 2 mostraram que as diferenças entre sem pólipo e adenoma avançado e CCR foram significantes. CONCLUSÃO: A acurácia do OCR Sensor com valor de corte de 10 µg Hb/g de fezes foi comparável a outras publicações e a coleta de duas amostras melhorou a taxa de detecção de adenoma avançado, lesão pré-neoplásica, para prevenir CCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenoma , Colonoscopy , Early Detection of Cancer , Feces , Middle Aged , Occult Blood
9.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 17-24, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100762

ABSTRACT

Se estima que aproximadamente 100 trillones de microorganismos (incluidos bacterias, virus y hongos) residen en el intestino humano adulto y que el total del material genético del microbioma es 100 veces superior al del genoma humano. Esta comunidad, conocida como microbioma se adquiere al momento del nacimiento a través de la flora comensal de la piel, vagina y heces de la madre y se mantiene relativamente estable a partir de los dos años desempeñando un papel crítico tanto en el estado de salud como en la enfermedad. El desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, como los secuenciadores de próxima generación (NGS), permiten actualmente realizar un estudio mucho más preciso de ella que en décadas pasadas cuando se limitaba a su cultivo. Si bien esto ha llevado a un crecimiento exponencial en las publicaciones, los datos sobre las poblaciones Latinoamérica son casi inexistentes. La investigación traslacional en microbioma (InTraMic) es una de las líneas que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). Esta se inició en 2018 con la línea de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) en una colaboración con el Colorectal Cancer Research Group del Leeds Institute of Medical Research en el proyecto Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents. A fines de 2019 se cumplió el objetivo de comprobar la factibilidad de la recolección, envío y análisis de muestras de MBF en 5 continentes, incluyendo muestras provenientes de la Argentina, Chile, India y Vietnam. Luego de haber participado de capacitaciones en Inglaterra, se ha cumplido con el objetivo de la etapa piloto, logrando efectivizar la recolección, envío y análisis metagenómico a partir de la secuenciación de la región V4 del ARNr 16S. En 2019, la línea de enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico se sumó a la InTraMic iniciando una caracterización piloto en el marco de una colaboración con el laboratorio Novartis. Los resultados de ese estudio, así como el de cáncer colorrectal, están siendo enviados a publicación. En 2020, con la incorporación de la línea de trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas, fue presentado un proyecto para un subsidio del CONICET que ha superado la primera etapa de evaluación. En el presente artículo se brinda una actualización sobre la caracterización taxonómica de microbioma y se describen las líneas de investigación en curso. (AU)


It is estimated that approximately 100 trillion microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) reside in the adult human intestine, and that the total genetic material of the microbiome is 100 times greater than that of the human genome. This community, known as the microbiome, is acquired at birth through the commensal flora of the mother's skin, vagina, and feces and remains relatively stable after two years, playing a critical role in both the state of health and in disease. The development of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencers (NGS), currently allow for a much more precise study of it than in past decades when it was limited to cultivation. Although this has led to exponential growth in publications, data on Latin American populations is almost non-existent. Translational research in microbiome (InTraMic) is one of the lines developed at the Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). This started in 2018 with the Colorectal Cancer Line (CRC) in a collaboration with the Colorectal Cancer Research Group of the Leeds Institute of Medical Research in the project "Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents". At the end of 2019, the objective of verifying the feasibility of collecting, sending and analyzing MBF samples on 5 continents, including samples from Argentina, Chile, India and Vietnam, was met. After having participated in training in England, the objective of the pilot stage has been met, achieving the collection, delivery and metagenomic analysis from the sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA. In 2019, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease line joined InTraMic, initiating a pilot characterization in the framework of a collaboration with the Novartis laboratory. The results of that study, as well as that of colorectal cancer, are being published. In 2020, with the incorporation of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation line, a project was presented for a grant from the CONICET that has passed the first stage of evaluation. This article provides an update on the taxonomic characterization of the microbiome and describes the lines of ongoing research. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Translational Medical Research/organization & administration , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Transplantation, Homologous , Vietnam , Aztreonam/therapeutic use , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/microbiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Classification/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Metagenomics , Translational Medical Research/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/trends , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , India , Latin America , Occult Blood
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(5): 1142-1151, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094118

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer colorrectal constituye un serio problema de salud por su alta incidencia. Es una entidad que afecta significativamente a la humanidad y conlleva a una alta mortalidad. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de los pacientes con cáncer colorrectal diagnosticado por colonoscopia en el Hospital Militar "Mario Muñoz", Matanzas. Materiales y Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo en pacientes con sangre oculta en heces fecales y diagnóstico colonoscópico de cáncer colorrectal, desde enero del 2015 a noviembre del 2018. El universo quedó conformado por 135 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de selección. Se estudiaron variables como: grupo etario, sexo, factores de riesgo, síntomas y signos, localización y estadio. Se utilizó una planilla de recolección de datos. Se emplearon métodos de estadística descriptiva y los resultados fueron presentados en tablas. Resultados: en 722 colonoscopias realizadas a pacientes con sangre oculta positiva, en el 18.7 % se diagnosticó cáncer colorrectal. Predominó el grupo etario de 61-70 años con un 30.4 % de los pacientes y el sexo masculino (41.4%). Los factores de riesgos más frecuentes) fueron: dieta inadecuada (46.6%), sedentarismo (25.2%) y enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (29.6%). Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: diarrea (45.9%), dolor abdominal (31.1%) y dispepsia (25.2%). La localización que predominó fue el recto (24.4%), seguido del colon ascendente (22.2%). Predominaron los pacientes en un estadio II con 42.2%. Conclusiones: el cáncer colorrectal se presentó con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de la 6ta década de vida tal como se reporta en la literatura, asociado a malos hábitos dietéticos e inadecuado modo y estilo de vida que pueden ser modificados a través de estrategias educativas que garanticen la salud de la población (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: Colorectal cancer [cancer colorectal (CCR) in Spanish] is a serious health problem due to its high incidence. It is an entity affecting the human kind and producing a high mortality. Objective: to determine the behavior of the colorectal cancer diagnosed by colonoscopy in the Military Hospital "Mario Muñoz", Matanzas. Material and methods: a prospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out in patients with hidden blood in fecal feces and colonoscopic diagnosis of colorectal cancer from January 2015 to November 2018. The universe was formed by 135 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria. The studied variables were age group, gender, risk factors, symptoms, locations and stage. A form was used for collecting data. Methods of descriptive statistics were used and the results are showed in charts. Results: In 722 colonoscopies carried out to patients with positive hidden blood, 18.7 % was diagnosed as colorectal cancer. The 61-70 years-old age group (30.4 %) and male gender (41.4 %) predominated. The most frequent risk factors were improper diet (46.6 %), sedentary life style (25.2 %), and inflammatory intestinal disease (29.6 %). The most frequent symptoms were diarrhea (45.9 %), abdominal pain (31.1 %) and dyspepsia (25.2 %). The predominant location was the rectum (24.4 %), followed by ascending colon (22.2 %). Stage II patients predominated, with 42.2 %. Conclusions: colorectal cancer appeared more frequently in patients in their sixth decade of life as it is reported in the literature, associated to bad dietary habits and to an inadequate style and way of life that could be modified through educative strategies warranting the population's health (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colonoscopy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Observational Study , Occult Blood
12.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(2): 121-126, Apr.-June 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012590

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Globally, colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death among men and the second among women, corresponding to about 10% of all cancers. The Brazilian Ministry of Health and National Cancer Institute recommend the screening of colorectal cancer for people over 50 years-old with Fecal Occult Blood Test. Endoscopy is limited to patients with positive screening results. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of malignant or premalignant lesions diagnosed by endoscopy in patients with positive or negative Fecal Occult Blood Test and assess the efficacy of Fecal Occult Blood Test to predict the finding of a malignant colorectal lesion. We carried out a cross-sectional study among patients with a Fecal Occult Blood Test result that were submitted to colonoscopy, in the same hospital, from March 2016 to July 2017. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of Fecal Occult Blood Test compared to colonoscopy neoplastic findings was calculated. The total of 92 patients were enrolled, 52 (56.5%) were female, Fecal Occult Blood Test was positive in 42.4% of them and in 41 (44.6%) the colonoscopy showed abnormal findings. Polyps were the most frequent alteration, found in 20 patients (21.7%). Among the patients with polyps, 15 (16.3%) had neoplastic and 5 (5.4%) presented non-neoplastic polyps. The Fecal Occult Blood Test sensitivity for detection of neoplastic polyps was 66.7%, specificity 62.3%, positive predictive value 11% and negative predictive value was 94.2%. Considering the need for a screening method, Fecal Occult Blood Test showed to be an effective and reliable screening test that can be applied in public health programs to detect and prevent colorectal cancer.


RESUMO Globalmente, o carcinoma colorretal é a terceira principal causa de morte por neoplasia entre homens e a segunda entre mulheres, correspondendo a 10% de todas as neoplasias. O Ministério da Saúde Brasileiro e o Instituto Nacional do Câncer recomendam a triagem do câncer colorretal para indivíduos acima de 50 anos, utilizando a Pesquisa de Sangue Oculto nas fezes. A endoscopia é reservada para aqueles com Pesquisa de Sangue Oculto nas fezes positiva. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a incidência de lesões malignas/pré-malignas diagnósticas na colonoscopia e correlacionar com os resultados prévios da Pesquisa de Sangue Oculto e verificar a eficácia da Pesquisa de Sangue Oculto para predizer uma lesão colorretal maligna. Realizamos um estudo transversal em pacientes que apresentavam resultados positivos ou negativos de Pesquisa de Sangue Oculto nas fezes e foram submetidos à colonoscopia, na mesma instituição, entre março de 2016 e julho de 2017. Dos 92 participantes; 52 (56,5%) eram do sexo feminino, a Pesquisa de Sangue Oculto nas fezes foi positiva em 42,4%; e em 41 (44,6%) a colonoscopia mostrou alterações. Em 20 pacientes (21,7%) havia pólipos; 15 (16,3%) eram neoplásicos e 5 (5,4%) não neoplásicos. A sensibilidade da Pesquisa de Sangue Oculto nas fezes para detecção de pólipos neoplásicos foi 66,7%; a especificidade 62,3%; o valor preditivo positivo 11% e o valor preditivo negativo 94,2%. Considerando a necessidade de um método de triagem, a Pesquisa de Sangue Oculto nas fezes mostrou ser um exame de triagem eficaz e confiável para ser aplicado em programas de saúde pública com o objetivo de detectar e prevenir o carcinoma colorretal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Diseases , Occult Blood , Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Colonic Polyps , Triage , Colonoscopy
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fecal occult blood tests have been widely used to screen for colorectal cancer. SENTiFIT 270 (Sentinel diagnostics, Italy) is a fecal occult blood test with an immunochemical method that utilizes FOB Gold reagents. We evaluated the performance of SENTiFIT 270 using the FOB Gold reagent. In addition, FOB Gold was evaluated with the HITACHI 7180 (Hitachi Ltd., Japan). METHODS: The precision and linearity of the SENTiFIT 270 was evaluated in accordance with applicable Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. The comparison study between SENTiFIT 270-FOB Gold and the OC-Sensor (Eiken chemical Co., Japan) was performed using stool specimens. RESULTS: In the precision evaluation, the total precision of SENTiFIT 270-FOB Gold was 4.94% and 2.54% at high and low concentrations, respectively. The HITACHI 7180-FOB Gold had excellent precision of 4.60% and 2.09% at high and low concentrations, respectively. Linearity was also excellent for the SENTiFIT 270-FOB Gold and HITACHI 7180-FOB Gold at 0.9987 and 0.9986, respectively. The SENTITIF 270-FOB Gold showed excellent agreement with a kappa value of 0.830 and a concordance rate of 93.6%. The HITACHI 7180-FOB Gold showed high agreement with a kappa value of 0.832 and a concordance rate of 93.9%. CONCLUSION: The SENTiFIT 270-FOB Gold showed excellent performance in accuracy, linearity, and comparative inspection ability.


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Indicators and Reagents , Methods , Occult Blood
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760860

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of inflammatory biomarkers in acute infectious diarrhea among children. METHODS: Clinical parameters including fever, bacterial and viral etiology based on stool culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and nine biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and leukocytes in blood and calprotectin, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, polymorphonuclear elastase, leukocytes, and occult blood in feces were evaluated in children who were hospitalized due to acute diarrhea without underlying disease. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients were included. Among these patients, 33 had fever, 18 showed bacterial infections, and 40 patients were infected with 43 viruses. Of all the biomarkers, CRP was significantly correlated with fever (p<0.001). CRP, ESR, calprotectin, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, fecal leukocytes, and occult blood were significantly associated with infection with bacterial pathogens (p<0.001, p=0.04, p=0.03, p=0.003, p=0.02, p=0.03, p=0.002, respectively). The combination of CRP and fecal lactoferrin at their best cut-off values (13.7 mg/L and 22.8 µg/mL, respectively) yielded a sensitivity of 72.2%, and a specificity of 95.5% for bacterial etiology compared with their individual use. CONCLUSION: Blood CRP is a useful diagnostic marker for both fever and bacterial etiology in acute pediatric diarrhea. The combination of CRP and fecal lactoferrin yields better diagnostic capability for bacterial etiology than their use alone for acute diarrhea in children without underlying gastrointestinal disease.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Biomarkers , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Diarrhea , Feces , Fever , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Lactoferrin , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Leukocytes , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Occult Blood , Pancreatic Elastase , Peroxidase , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765642

ABSTRACT

In 2018, external quality assessment trials for urinalysis and fecal occult blood (FOB) were performed using 1,590 participants. Urine chemistry tests were performed thrice while urine sediment and FOB tests twice. Urine chemistry tests comprised of pH, protein, glucose, ketone body, bilirubin, blood, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte, and specific gravity analyses. The results of urine chemistry and specific gravity tests showed accuracy rates >95%, except for the pH test. The accuracy rate of urine sediments was low, especially for atypical calcium oxalate crystal and red blood cell cast. In the FOB quality test, reagents showed accuracy rates >90%, except for SD and GC Genedia FOB reagents. In the FOB quantitative test, Alfresa NS-Plus C instrument showed falsely high values in the FOB negative specimens.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , Calcium Oxalate , Chemistry , Erythrocytes , Glucose , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Indicators and Reagents , Leukocytes , Occult Blood , Quality Control , Specific Gravity , Urinalysis , Urobilinogen
17.
In. CASMU. Investigación clínica: desarrollo e innovación, 2019. Montevideo, Ideas Uruguay, 2019. p.185-186.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1359545
18.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(5): 630-637, oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978135

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La proctocolitis alérgica inducida por proteína alimentaria (PCA) es la forma más fre cuente de alergia alimentaria no mediada por IgE. El diagnóstico se realiza por prueba de provocación oral, sin embargo, no existe una prueba diagnóstica no invasiva para su diagnóstico. Frecuentemente en Chile se utiliza la prueba de hemorragia oculta fecal (PHOF) para confirmar PCA, pero no hay estudios que respalden su indicación. Objetivo: Determinar la validez diagnóstica de la PHOF en la evaluación de lactantes con PCA. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de casos y controles con recluta miento prospectivo de lactantes con rectorragia y sospecha de PCA y lactantes sanos, en quienes se realizó una PHOF. Se indicó dieta de exclusión a los casos y luego se confirmó diagnóstico de PCA mediante contraprueba. Resultados: Se incluyó a 25 casos y 29 controles sin diferencias signi ficativas en edad, sexo, tipo de parto, alimentación o edad materna. Los casos presentaron con mayor frecuencia comorbilidades alérgicas, uso de medicamentos y antecedentes familiares de alergia. La PHOF fue positiva en 84% de casos y en 34% de controles (p<0,001). La sensibilidad de la PHOF para diagnosticar PCA fue 84%, especificidad 66%, valor predictivo positivo 68% y valor predictivo nega tivo 83%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue de 0,75 (IC 95% 0,61-0,88). Conclusiones: Si bien la PHOF tiene sensibilidad adecuada para detectar PCA en lactantes con rectorragia, resulta alterada en más de un tercio de lactantes sanos por lo que no se recomienda su uso habitual para el diagnóstico de PCA.


Abstract: Introduction: Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) is the most frequent presenta tion of non-IgE mediated food allergy (FA). The diagnosis is made by oral food challenge, however, non-invasive diagnostic tests are not available. In Chile, the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is fre quently used to confirm FPIAP, however, there are no studies that support this practice. Objective: To establish the diagnostic validity of FOBT in the evaluation of infants with FPIAP. Patients and Method: Case-control study with prospective recruitment of infants with rectal bleeding and suspicion of FPIAP, and controls were healthy infants, in whom the FOBT was conducted. All cases underwent an elimination diet, after which the diagnosis of FPIAP was confirmed by oral food cha llenge. Results: 25 cases and 29 controls were included without significant differences in age, gen der, type of delivery, feeding, and maternal age. The cases had higher rates of allergic comorbidities, medication use, and family history of allergy. The FOBT was positive in 84% of cases and in 34% of controls (p < 0.001). The sensitivity of the FOBT for the diagnosis of FPIAP was 84%, specificity was 66%, positive predictive value 68%, and the negative predictive value 83%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.75 (CI 95% 0.61-0.88). Conclusions: Although the FOBT has an adequate sensitivity to diagnose FPIAP in infants with rectal bleeding, this test had abnormal results in more than a third of healthy infants. Therefore, the routine use of FOBT is not recommended for the diagnosis of FPIAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Proctocolitis/etiology , Food Hypersensitivity/blood , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Occult Blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Food Hypersensitivity/complications
19.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 57(2): 1-12, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978371

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Evidencias científicas avalan que niveles elevados de ácidos biliares en la luz intestinal se asocian con lesiones inflamatorias, premalignas y malignas de colon. Objetivo: Argumentar científicamente la condición de niveles elevados de ácidos biliares totales en heces, litiasis vesicular y colecistectomizado como factores de riesgo para lesiones de colon. Método: Se realizó una investigación analítica en el Instituto de Gastroenterología y el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso desde 2002 hasta 2015. En el estudio se incluyeron adultos con sintomas digestivos bajos. Se desarrollaron dos momentos: la determinación del riesgo relativo de la presencia de lesiones colónicas diagnosticadas por endoscopía y la identificación por histología. Se utilizaron métodos estadísticos como la prueba chi cuadrado de Pearson, determinación del riesgo relativo, regresión logística, entre otros. Resultados: Se observó mayor probabilidad de presentar algún diagnóstico endoscópico e histológico positivo para todas las edades y sexo, en pacientes con niveles elevados de ácidos biliares totales en heces y los colecistectomizados. Los riesgos relativos comunes y más altos se relacionaron con adenomas tubulares de alto grado de displasia y tubulovellosos. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron pólipos y adenomas. Conclusiones: Los resultados avalan que los niveles elevados de ácidos biliares totales en heces, la litiasis vesicular y estar colecistectomizado, constituyen factores de riesgo para lesiones de colon. Se recomienda incluir estas tres condiciones de riesgo en los programas de pesquisa para el cáncer colorrectal(AU)


Introduction: Scientific evidence supports that elevated levels of bile acids in the intestinal lumen are associated with inflammatory, premalignant and malignant lesions of the colon. Objective: To scientifically support the condition of elevated levels of total bile acids in faeces, vesicular and cholecystectomized lithiasis as risk factors for colonic lesions. Method: An analytical research was carried out in the Gastroenterology Institute and the National Center for Minimally-Invasive Surgery, from 2002 to 2015. The study included adults with low digestive symptoms. Two moments were developed: the determination of the relative risk for the presence of colonic lesions diagnosed by endoscopy and the identification by histologic study. Statistical methods were used, such as the Pearson chi-square test, the relative risk determination, logistic regression, among others. Results: Higher probability was observed for all ages and sexes to present a positive endoscopic and histological diagnosis, in patients with high levels of total bile acids in feces and in cholecystectomized patients. The common and higher relative risks were related to tubular adenomas of high degree of dysplasia and tubulovillous. The most frequent diagnoses were polyps and adenomas. Conclusions: The results support that high levels of total bile acids in faeces, vesicular lithiasis and being cholecystectomized constitute risk factors for colonic lesions. These three risk conditions are recommended to be included in screening programs for colorectal cancer(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cholecystectomy/adverse effects , Urinary Bladder Calculi/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Colon/injuries , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Feces/microbiology , Observational Study , Occult Blood
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(6): 685-692, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961448

ABSTRACT

Background: Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs (CRCSP) are widely accepted in developed countries. Unfortunately, financial restrictions, low adherence rate and variability on colonoscopy standardization hamper the implementation of CRCSP in developing countries. Aim: To analyze a multicentric pilot model of CRCSP in Chile. Material and Methods: A prospective model of CRCSP was carried out in three cities, from 2012 to 2015. The model was based on CRC risk assessment and patient education. Health care personnel were trained about logistics and protocols. The endoscopy team was trained about colonoscopy standards. A registered nurse was the coordinator in each center. We screened asymptomatic population aged between 50 and 75 years. Immunological fecal occult blood test (FIT) was offered to all participants. Subjects with positive FIT underwent colonoscopy. Results: A total of 12,668 individuals were enrolled, with a FIT compliance rate of 93.9% and 2,358 colonoscopies were performed. Two hundred and fifty high-risk adenomas and 110 cancer cases were diagnosed. One patient died before treatment due to cardiovascular disease, 74 patients (67%) underwent endoscopic resection and 35 had surgical treatment. Ninety one percent of patients had an early stage CRC (0-I-II). Among colonoscopy indicators, 80% of cases had an adequate bowel preparation (Boston > 6), cecal intubation rate was 97.7%, adenoma detection rate was 36.5%, and in 94.5% of colonoscopies, withdrawal time was adequate (> 8 min). Conclusions: This CRCS pilot model was associated to a high rate of FIT return and colonoscopy quality standards. Most CRCs detected with the program were treated by endoscopic resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Program Evaluation , Adenoma/diagnosis , Colonoscopy/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenoma/pathology , Chile , Pilot Projects , Nutritional Status , Patient Education as Topic , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Colonoscopy/standards , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Occult Blood
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