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1.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 82: e38777, maio 2023. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, VETINDEX, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1435644

ABSTRACT

Xilooligossacarídeos (XOS) são reconhecidos pelo seu potencial prebiótico relevante para diversos setores industriais e foram obtidos após o pré-tratamento hidrotérmico da biomassa lignocelulósica residual de galhos de eucalipto. Subprodutos inibitórios são gerados durante o processo de solubilização dos oligossacarídeos e acabam comprometendo a utilização do licor em microrganismos. Neste trabalho, o processo de destoxificação, hidrólise enzimática e atividade estimulantes de crescimento da bactéria Staphylococcus xylosus foram estabelecidos. Os resultados mostraram que a adsorção com carvão ativado em pó removeu cerca de 55% do ácido acético e mais de 90% do ácido fórmico, compostos fenólicos, lignina solúvel, furfural e 5-hidroximetilfurfural, e que a soma dos oligossacarídeos xilobiose (X2) e xilotriose (X3) foram maximizadas de 0,57 g/L para 1,21 g/L com 110 U/gXOS da enzima endoxilanase e 6,3% do licor destoxificado na hidrólise enzimática. O consumo de cerca de 63% de X2 e de 46% de X3 pela bactéria em meio basal deficiente em fontes de carbono, mas acrescido com os oligômeros, proporcionou maior crescimento celular em relação aos meios basais com alta composição de carbono, com e sem XOS, revelando seu potencial prebiótico pelo efeito estimulante de crescimento. (AU)


Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are recognized for their prebiotic potential relevant to several industrial sectors and were obtained after hydrothermal pretreatment of residual lignocellulosic biomass from eucalyptus branches. Inhibitory by-products are generated during the solubilization process of oligosaccharides and end up compromising the utilization of the liquor in microorganisms. In this work, the detoxification process, enzymatic hydrolysis and growth stimulating activity of Staphylococcus xylosus bacteria were established. The results showed that adsorption with powdered activated carbon removed about 55% of acetic acid and more than 90% of formic acid, phenolic compounds, soluble lignin, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and the sum of the oligosaccharides xylobiose (X2) and xylotriose (X3) were maximized from 0.57 g/L to 1.21 g/L with 110 U/gXOS of the enzyme endoxylanase and 6.3% of the detoxified liquor in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The consumption of X2 and X3 were about 63% and 46%, respectively, by the bacteria in basal medium deficient in carbon sources, but in medium added with the oligomers, provided higher cell growth compared to basal medium with high carbon composition, with and without XOS, revealing its prebiotic potential by its growth-stimulating effect. (AU)


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides , Staphylococcus , Xylose , Charcoal , Biomass , Eucalyptus , Prebiotics
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 912-929, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970413

ABSTRACT

Chitosanases represent a class of glycoside hydrolases with high catalytic activity on chitosan but nearly no activity on chitin. Chitosanases can convert high molecular weight chitosan into functional chitooligosaccharides with low molecular weight. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the research on chitosanases. This review summarizes and discusses its biochemical properties, crystal structures, catalytic mechanisms, and protein engineering, highlighting the preparation of pure chitooligosaccharides by enzymatic hydrolysis. This review may advance the understandings on the mechanism of chitosanases and promote its industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Chitosan/chemistry , Chitin , Glycoside Hydrolases/genetics , Protein Engineering , Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Hydrolysis
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 898-911, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970412

ABSTRACT

α-amylase is an endonucleoside hydrolase that hydrolyzes the α-1, 4-glycosidic bonds inside polysaccharides, such as starch, to generate oligosaccharides, dextrins, maltotriose, maltose and a small amount of glucose. Due to the importance of α-amylase in food industry, human health monitoring and pharmaceuticals, detection of its activity is widely required in the breeding of α-amylase producing strains, in vitro diagnosis, development of diabetes drugs, and the control of food quality. In recent years, many new α-amylase detection methods have been developed with improved speed and sensitivity. This review summarized recent processes in the development and applications of new α-amylase detection methods. The major principle of these detection methods were introduced, and their advantages and disadvantages were compared to facilitate future development and applications of α-amylase detection methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , alpha-Amylases/chemistry , Polysaccharides , Oligosaccharides , Starch , Maltose
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4429-4437, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008697

ABSTRACT

Poria is an important medical herb in clinic. The authors isolated a polysaccharide(PCP-Ⅰ) from Poria in previous studies, which is composed of galactose, mannose, fucose and glucose. PCP-Ⅰ exhibited significant adjuvant effects on H1N1 influenza vaccine, hepatitis B surface antigen and anthrax protective antigen, and its adjuvant activity was stronger than aluminium adjuvant. However, little is known about the chemical structure of PCP-Ⅰ at present. In this study, weak acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the backbone oligosaccharide of PCP-Ⅰ. Then periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were performed to investigate the chemical structural features of PCP-Ⅰ and its hydrolytic oligosaccharide(PCP-Ⅰ-hy-1). These results suggested that the backbone of PCP-Ⅰ was composed of galactose with α anomeric carbon and β anomeric carbon. The linking residues of galactan are(1→),(l→6) and(1→2,6).


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Vaccine , Poria , Hydrolysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Galactose , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Oligosaccharides , Carbon
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4621-4634, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008046

ABSTRACT

Sialyllactose is one of the most abundant sialylated oligosaccharides in human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which plays an important role in the healthy development of infants and young children. However, its efficient and cheap production technology is still lacking presently. This study developed a two-step process employing multiple-strains for the production of sialyllactose. In the first step, two engineered strains, E. coli JM109(DE3)/ pET28a-BT0453 and JM109(DE3)/pET28a-nanA, were constructed to synthesize the intermediate N-acetylneuraminic acid. When the ratio of the biomass of the two engineered strains was 1:1 and the reaction time was 32 hours, the maximum yield of N-acetylneuraminic acid was 20.4 g/L. In the second step, E. coli JM109(DE3)/ pET28a-neuA, JM109(DE3)/ pET28a-nst and Baker's yeast were added to the above fermentation broth to synthesize 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL). Using optimal conditions including 200 mmol/L N-acetyl-glucosamine and lactose, 150 g/L Baker's yeast, 20 mmol/L Mg2+, the maximum yield of 3'-SL in the fermentation broth reached 55.04 g/L after 24 hours of fermentation and the conversion rate of the substrate N-acetyl-glucosamine was 43.47%. This research provides an alternative technical route for economical production of 3'-SL.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Escherichia coli/genetics , Lactose , Fermentation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Oligosaccharides , Glucosamine
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3406-3420, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007966

ABSTRACT

Soluble cello-oligosaccharide with 2-6 oligosaccharide units is a kind of oligosaccharide with various biological functions, which can promote the proliferation of intestinal probiotics such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus paracei. Therefore, it has a regulatory effect on human intestinal microbiota. In this study, a Cc 01 strain was constructed by expressing cellodextrin phosphorylase (CDP) in Escherichia coli. By combining with a previously constructed COS 01 strain, a three-enzyme cascade reaction system based on strains COS 01 and Cc 01 was developed, which can convert glucose and sucrose into cello-oligosaccharide. After optimization, the final titer of soluble cello-oligosaccharides with 2-6 oligosaccharide units reached 97 g/L, with a purity of about 97%. It contained cellobiose (16.8 wt%), cellotriose (49.8 wt%), cellotetrose (16.4 wt%), cellopentaose (11.5 wt%) and cellohexose (5.5 wt%). When using inulin, xylo-oligosaccharide and fructooligosaccharide as the control substrate, the biomass (OD600) of Lactobacillus casei (WSH 004), Lactobacillus paracei (WSH 005) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (WSH 006) on cello-oligosaccharides was about 2 folds higher than that of the control. This study demonstrated the efficient synthesis of cello-oligosaccharides by a three-enzyme cascade reaction and demonstrated that the synthesized cello-oligosaccharides was capable of promoting intestinal microbial proliferation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oligosaccharides , Biomass , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucose
7.
Actual. osteol ; 18(2): 60-74, oct. 2022. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437640

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los GOS son prebióticos naturales presentes en la leche materna que pue-den obtenerse enzimáticamente a partir de la lactosa de leche de vaca durante la fabricación de yogur. El producto lácteo resultante será reducido en lactosa y contendrá prebióticos y bacterias potencialmente probióticas. Sin embargo, mantendrá la baja relación Ca/Pi que aporta la leche de vaca, lo que podría alterar el remodelamiento óseo y la mineralización. Objetivo: comparar si un yogur reducido en lactosa que contiene GOS (YE) ofrece ventajas adicionales respecto de un yogur regular sin GOS (YR) sobre las absorciones (Abs) de Ca y Pi, retención y calidad ósea durante el crecimiento normal. Al destete, ratas machos fueron divididas en 3 grupos alimentados con AIN ́93-G (C), YE o YR durante 28 días. Resultados: YE mostró el mayor aumento de lactobacilos fecales; producción de ácidos grasos de cadena corta especialmente p, profundidad de las criptas colónicas y menor pH cecal. El %AbsCa y %AbsPi aumentó en el siguiente órden: YE> YR> C (p < 0,05). El contenido de Ca y Pi en fémur, la densidad y contenido mineral óseos y los parámetros biomecánicos fueron similares en YE y C, mientras que YR mostró valores significativa-mente menores (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: YE aumentó las Abs y biodisponibilidad de minerales, alcanzando la retención y calidad ósea de C. El aumento en las Abs observado en YR no logró obtener la retención y calidad ósea de C. Conclusión: YE habría contrarrestado el efecto negativo del mayor aporte de Pi de la leche de vaca y sería una buena estrategia para lograr el pico de masa ósea y calidad del hueso adecuados, especialmente en individuos intolerantes a la lactosa. (AU)


Breast milk contains an optimal calcium/phosphate (Ca/Pi) ratio and GOS. These natural prebiotics can be enzymatically produced via cow's milk lactose inyogurt manufacture. This milk product is low in lactose and contains prebiotics and potentially probiotic bacteria but maintains a low Ca/Pi ratio that could alter bone remodeling and mineralization. We evaluated if a lactose-reduced yogurt containing GOS (YE) offers additional advantages over regular yogurt without GOS (YR) on Ca and Pi absorption (Abs), bone retention and quality during normal growth. Weaning male rats were divided into 3 groups fed AIN'93-G (C), YE or YR for 28 days. Results: YE showed the highest increase in fecal lactobacilli; short-chain fatty acids production, especially propionate and butyrate; intestine crypt depth, and the lowest cecal pH. AbsCa% and AbsPi% increased in this order: YE> YR> C (p <0.05). Ca and Pi content in femur, bone density and mineral content, and biomechanical parameters were similar in YE and C, while YR showed the significantly lowest value (p < 0.05). Conclusions: YE increased mineral Abs reaching the retention and bone quality of C. Although YR increased Abs, bone retention and quality did not achieve C values. Seemingly, YE compensated for the negative effect of the higher Pi supply and would be a good strategy to achieve adequate peak bone mass and bone quality, especially in lactose intolerant individuals. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Osteogenesis/physiology , Calcium, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Phosphorus, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Lactose/metabolism , Magnesium/pharmacokinetics , Tibia/anatomy & histology , Yogurt/analysis , Calcium, Dietary/metabolism , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Phosphorus, Dietary/metabolism , beta-Galactosidase/chemical synthesis , Rats, Wistar , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/isolation & purification , Femur/anatomy & histology , Intestine, Large/anatomy & histology , Magnesium/metabolism , Nutritive Value
8.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 387-392, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929269

ABSTRACT

Most bacterial cell surface glycans are structurally unique, and have been considered as ideal target molecules for the developments of detection and diagnosis techniques, as well as vaccines. Chemical synthesis has been a promising approach to prepare well-defined oligosaccharides, facilitating the structure-activity relationship exploration and biomedical applications of bacterial glycans. L-Galactosaminuronic acid is a rare sugar that has been only found in cell surface glycans of gram-negative bacteria. Here, an orthogonally protected L-galactosaminuronic acid building block was designed and chemically synthesized. A synthetic strategy based on glycal addition and TEMPO/BAIB-mediated C6 oxidation served well for the transformation of commercial L-galactose to the corresponding L-galactosaminuronic acid. Notably, the C6 oxidation of the allyl glycoside was more efficient than that of the selenoglycoside. In addition, a balance between the formation of allyl glycoside and the recovery of selenoglycoside was essential to improve efficiency of the NIS/TfOH-catalyzed allylation. This synthetically useful L-galactosaminuronic acid building block will provide a basis for the syntheses of complex bacterial glycans.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Glycosides , Oligosaccharides , Oxidation-Reduction , Polysaccharides/chemistry
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 104-118, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927696

ABSTRACT

Alginate is a group of polyuronic saccharides that are widely used in pharmaceutical and food industry due to its unique physicochemical properties and beneficial health effects. However, the low water solubility and high viscosity of alginate hampered its application. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a decomposition product of alginate and has received increasing attention due to its low molecular weight, high water solubility, safety, and non-toxicity. The wide-ranging biological functions of AOS are closely related to its structural diversity. AOS with distinct structures and biological functions can be obtained by different methods of preparation. This review summarized the biological functions of AOS reported to date, including anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, prebiotic, and anti-diabetes. The preparation of AOS, as well as the relationship between the structure and biological functions of AOS were discussed, with the aim to provide a reference for further development and application of AOS.


Subject(s)
Alginates , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants , Molecular Weight , Oligosaccharides
10.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(3): 306-313, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249200

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Morinda officinalis oligosaccharide (MOO) capsules for depressive disorder. Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched for relevant studies from inception to April 19, 2020. Randomized controlled trials comparing MOO capsules with antidepressants were included. Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, and the quality of the studies was evaluated by two researchers using the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) software. Results: Seven studies involving 1,384 participants were included in this study. The effect of MOO capsules for moderate depressive disorder was not different from that of antidepressants (risk ratio [RR] = 0.99, 95%CI 0.92-1.06). Regarding adverse events, no significant difference was found between MOO capsules and antidepressants (RR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.65-1.07). In addition, the quality of evidence related to these adverse events was rated as low. Conclusion: This systematic review suggests that the efficacy of MOO capsules in the treatment of mild to moderate depression is not inferior to that of conventional antidepressants, which may provide a new direction for clinical alternative selection of antidepressants. However, more high-quality research and detailed assessments are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Morinda , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Oligosaccharides/adverse effects , Capsules/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects
11.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 14-21, Jan. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Milk whey, a byproduct of the dairy industry has a negative environmental impact, can be used as a raw material for added-value compounds such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) synthesis by bgalactosidases. RESULTS: B-gal42 from Pantoea anthophila strain isolated from tejuino belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family GH42, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and used for GOS synthesis from lactose or milk whey. Crude cell-free enzyme extracts exhibited high stability; they were employed for GOS synthesis reactions. In reactions with 400 g/L lactose, the maximum GOS yield was 40% (w/w) measured by HPAEC-PAD, corresponding to 86% of conversion. This enzyme had a strong predilection to form GOS with b(1 ? 6) and b (1 ? 3) galactosyl linkages. Comparing GOS synthesis between milk whey and pure lactose, both of them at 300 g/L, these two substrates gave rise to a yield of 38% (60% of lactose conversion) with the same product profile determined by HPAEC-PAD. CONCLUSIONS: B-gal42 can be used on whey (a cheap lactose source) to produce added value products such as galactooligosaccharides.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/biosynthesis , beta-Galactosidase/metabolism , Pantoea , Lactose/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins , Dairying , Whey
12.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 64-71, Jan. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) is known as a kind of prebiotics. Mannanase plays a key role for the degradation of mannan to produce MOS. In this study, the mannanases of glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5 Man5HJ14 and GH26 ManAJB13 were employed to prepare MOS from locust bean gum (LBG) and palm kernel cake (PKC). The prebiotic activity and utilization of MOS were assessed in vitro using the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain. RESULTS: Galactomannan from LBG was converted to MOS ranging in size from mannose up to mannoheptose by Man5HJ14 and ManAJB13. Mannoheptose was got from the hydrolysates produced by Man5HJ14, which mannohexaose was obtained from LBG hydrolyzed by ManAJB13. However, the same components of MOS ranging in size from mannose up to mannotetrose were observed between PKC hydrolyzed by the mannanases mentioned above. MOS stability was not affected by high-temperature and high-pressure condition at their natural pH. Based on in vitro growth study, all MOS from LBG and PKC was effective in promoting the growth of L. plantarum CICC 24202, with the strain preferring to use mannose to mannotriose, rather than above mannotetrose. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mannanases and mannan difference on MOS composition was studied. All of MOS hydrolysates showed the stability in adversity condition and prebiotic activity of L. plantarum, which would have potential application in the biotechnological applications.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/metabolism , beta-Mannosidase/metabolism , Plant Gums/chemistry , Mannans , In Vitro Techniques , Enzyme Stability , Sphingomonas , Prebiotics , Fermentation
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5744-5759, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921693

ABSTRACT

Polygalae Radix has long been used in China for calming the mind, promoting intelligence, communicating the heart and kidney, eliminating phlegm, and reducing swelling. At present, it is used to treat amnesia, insomnia, and malaise. Modern research has revealed that Polygalae Radix mainly contains triterpenoid saponins, xanthone, oligosaccharide esters, etc., with the activities of improving memory, resisting dementia, protecting the brain, relieving cough, and removing phlegm, as well as sedation and hypnosis. The present study reviews the research progress on chemical composition, pharmacological action, quality control, and metabolism of Polygalae Radix in the past 30 years, to provide a theoretical basis for further research and development.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Oligosaccharides , Plant Roots , Polygala , Quality Control
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1919-1930, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887772

ABSTRACT

Glycosidases are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its ability to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds of various sugar-containing compounds including glycosides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides to generate derivatives with important physiological and pharmacological activity. While glycosidases often need to be used under high temperature to improve reaction efficiency and reduce contamination, most glycosidases are mesophilic enzymes with low activity under industrial production conditions. It is therefore critical to improve the thermo-stability of glycosidases. This review summarizes the recent advances achieved in engineering the thermo-stability of glycosidases using strategies such as directed evolution, rational design and semi-rational design. We also compared the pros and cons of various techniques and discussed the future prospects in this area.


Subject(s)
Glycoside Hydrolases/genetics , Oligosaccharides , Polysaccharides , Protein Engineering
15.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 721-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922755

ABSTRACT

Chitooligosaccharide-zinc (COS·Zn) is a powerful anti-oxidant and anti-aging scavenger, whose anti-oxidative ability immensely exceeds vitamin C. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of COS·Zn against premature ovarian failure (POF) and potential mechanisms. Female KM adult mice were divided into the following groups: a treatment group (150 mg·kg


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Chitosan , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Oligosaccharides , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Zinc
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 266-275, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878560

ABSTRACT

As a type of prebiotics and dietary fiber, inulin performs plenty of significant physiological functions and is applied in food and pharmaceutical fields. Inulosucrase from microorganisms can use sucrose as the substrate to synthesize inulin possessing higher molecular weight than that from plants. In this work, a hypothetical gene coding inulosucrase was selected from the GenBank database. The catalytic domain was remained by N- and C- truncation strategies, constructing the recombinant plasmid. The recombinant plasmid was expressed in E. coli expression system, and after purifying the crude enzyme by Ni²⁺ affinity chromatography, a recombinant enzyme with a molecular weight of approximately 65 kDa was obtained. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were 5.5 and 45 °C, respectively, when sucrose was used as the sole substrate. The activity of this enzyme was inhibited by various metal ions at different degrees. After purifying the produced polysaccharide, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used to determine that the polysaccharide was inulin connected by β-(2,1) linkages. Finally, the conditions for the production of inulin were optimized. The results showed that the inulin production reached the maximum, approximately 287 g/L after 7 h, when sucrose concentration and enzyme dosage were 700 g/L and 4 U/mL, respectively. The conversion rate from sucrose to inulin was approximately 41%.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , Hexosyltransferases/genetics , Inulin , Oligosaccharides , Sucrose
17.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 848-864, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138622

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los adultos mayores son especialmente vulnerables a sufrir enfermedades asociadas al tracto gastrointestinal, ya que el envejecimiento conlleva naturalmente a un desbalance en la diversidad y cantidad de los microorganismos presentes en el intestino. Por ello, la suplementación de su dieta con oligosacáridos y polisacáridos no digestibles (OPND) ha cobrado gran relevancia científica. Esto, con el propósito de prevenir y revertir, en parte, los cambios negativos en la microbiota intestinal derivados del envejecimiento. Se ha observado que la suplementación de OPND en adultos mayores genera variados beneficios, entre los que destacan una mejora en el sistema inmune, una mayor absorción de calcio, reducción en la incidencia de alergias, reducción de la constipación y una disminución en los niveles de glicemia y colesterol sanguíneos. Debido a que, los efectos del consumo de OPND en adultos mayores han sido escasamente discutidos en la literatura científica en idioma castellano, el propósito de esta revisión es abordar el tema haciendo énfasis en la realidad chilena y latinoamericana. Ello, con miras a fomentar la incorporación de OPND en alimentos y programas de alimentación dirigidos específicamente a personas de la tercera edad.


ABSTRACT Since aging naturally leads to an imbalance in the diversity and quantity of microorganisms present in the intestine, older people are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, supplementing the diet of elderly persons with non-digestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (OPND) has gained scientific relevance. Supplementation aims to prevent and (partially) revert the negative changes in intestinal microbiota due to aging. It has been observed that OPND supplementation in older adults provides several benefits, including an improvement in the immune system, increased calcium absorption, a reduction in the incidence of allergies, a reduction in constipation and a decrease in blood levels of cholesterol and glucose. Because the effects of OPND supplementation in older adults has been scarcely discussed in the scientific literature in the Spanish language, the purpose of this review is to address the issue with emphasis on the Chilean and Latin-American reality. The article promotes the incorporation of OPND in processed food and feeding programs specifically designed for older people in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oligosaccharides , Polysaccharides , Aged , Probiotics , Functional Food , Prebiotics
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e8-e15, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095409

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los probióticos y prebióticos presentan beneficios potenciales en la inflamacióncrónica de las mucosas, incluida la prevención de la enterocolitis necrosante. No obstante, los mecanismos y resultados de estos efectos inmunomoduladores son confusos. El objetivo fue investigar la respuesta de las citocinas a Lactobacillus y Bifidobacterium asociados con fructo- y galactooligosacáridos (simbióticos) y lactoferrina en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer.Población y métodos. Se asignó aleatoriamente a lactantes con ≤32 semanas de gestación y ≤1500 g de peso para recibir simbióticos o 1 ml de agua destilada como placebo desde la primera alimentación hasta el alta. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre los días posnatales 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2 y 28 ± 2, y se midieron interferón-γ, interleucina (IL)-5, IL-10 e IL-17A.Resultados. En el grupo del estudio (n = 25), la concentración de IL-10 disminuyó a lo largo del estudio (p = 0,011), pero no cambió en el grupo de referencia. La concentración de IL-5 se mantuvo constante los primeros 14 días y luego disminuyó significativamente (p= 0,042) en el grupo del estudio, mientras que aumentó en los primeros 14 días (p = 0,019) y luego disminuyó en 28 días (p = 0,011) en el grupo de referencia (n = 25).La concentración de otras citocinas no cambió a lo largo del estudio.Conclusión. El uso combinado de probióticos con oligosacáridos y lactoferrina estuvo asociado con una disminución en la concentración de IL-10, pero no se observó un cambio en las otras citocinas.


Introduction. Probiotics and prebiotics, which are multifunctional agents, have potential benefits in chronic mucosal inflammation, including the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the mechanisms and the results of these immunomodulatory effects are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the cytokine response to the combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium together with fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides (symbiotic) and lactoferrin in very low birth weight neonates.Population and Methods. Infants ≤ 32 GWs and ≤ 1,500 g were randomly assigned to receive a symbiotic combination or 1 ml distilled water as placebo starting with the first feed until discharge. Blood samples were obtained at postnatal 0 ± 2, 14 ± 2, and 28 ± 2 days, and the serum levels of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, and IL-17A were measured.Results. In the study group (n = 25), the IL-10 levels decreased throughout the study period (p = 0.011) but did not change in the control group. The IL-5 levels remained steady in the first 14 days and decreased significantly thereafter (p = 0.042) in the study group, whereas they increased in the first 14 days (p = 0.019), and then decreased in 28 days (p = 0.011) in the control group (n = 25). The levels of the other cytokines did not change throughout the study period.Conclusion.The combined use of probiotics with oligosaccharides and lactoferrin was associated with a decrease in IL-10 levels, but no change was observed in the other cytokines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cytokines/analysis , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Prebiotics , Synbiotics/administration & dosage , Lactoferrin/administration & dosage , Oligosaccharides/therapeutic use , Turkey , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/blood , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Milk, Human
20.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 611-627, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010541

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is an effective orally administered antibody used to protect against various intestinal pathogens, but which cannot tolerate the acidic gastric environment. In this study, IgY was microencapsulated by alginate (ALG) and coated with chitooligosaccharide (COS). A response surface methodology was used to optimize the formulation, and a simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion (SGID) system to evaluate the controlled release of microencapsulated IgY. The microcapsule formulation was optimized as an ALG concentration of 1.56% (15.6 g/L), COS level of 0.61% (6.1 g/L), and IgY/ALG ratio of 62.44% (mass ratio). The microcapsules prepared following this formulation had an encapsulation efficiency of 65.19%, a loading capacity of 33.75%, and an average particle size of 588.75 μm. Under this optimum formulation, the coating of COS provided a less porous and more continuous microstructure by filling the cracks on the surface, and thus the GI release rate of encapsulated IgY was significantly reduced. The release of encapsulated IgY during simulated gastric and intestinal digestion well fitted the zero-order and first-order kinetics functions, respectively. The microcapsule also allowed the IgY to retain 84.37% immune-activity after 4 h simulated GI digestion, significantly higher than that for unprotected IgY (5.33%). This approach could provide an efficient way to preserve IgY and improve its performance in the GI tract.


Subject(s)
Alginic Acid/chemistry , Chitin/chemistry , Chitosan , Delayed-Action Preparations , Digestion , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Immunoglobulins/metabolism , Oligosaccharides
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