Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 207
Filter
1.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342403

ABSTRACT

The burden of hyperlipidemia is on the rise globally especially in many low-income countries like Uganda. Management of this metabolic disorder mainly involves dietary and behavioral therapies, which are often met with poor results as they require time and discipline from the patients. The chemotherapeutic options available are expensive, have many side effects and are rarely available to the average citizen. Thus, an alternative effective remedy which is readily available and cheap is needed to combat the problem of hyperlipidemia. This study sought to establish the effect of the mixture of Allium cepa extract and Camellia sinensis extract on the serum lipid profile of the male Wistar rats. Allium cepa and Camellia sinensis mixture in a ratio of 3:7 had the highest antioxidant activity. It reduced body weight, total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL, and in addition it had no toxicity to the liver of the animal models used. It has thus been recommended as a potential therapy for hyperlipidemia and its associated complication of liver toxicity. A pharmaco-kinetic study regarding the interaction of antioxidants for combinations of Allium cepa and Camellia sinensis extracts in different ratios should be conducted to understand the cause of synergism and antagonism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Onions , Hyperlipidemias , Camellia sinensis , Diet, High-Fat , Lipids , Antioxidants
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1276-1289, july/aug. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048933

ABSTRACT

In this study, leftover roots of Sansing green onions grown without toxic chemicals in Sansing Township, Ilan County, Taiwan were used as a raw material of skincare products. The raw material was extracted from the green onion roots by ultrasound in a low-temperature, safe and pollution-free environment. We hope to develop cleansers and other facial care products made of this natural, environmentally friendly, safe and affordable raw material so that people with sensitive skin can also use these products. We also hope that this study can contribute to circular economy and achieve the goal of green innovation by recycling the leftover roots. In terms of anti-oxidation, the DPPH free radical scavenging ability of 2.5 mg/mL green onion root extract was equivalent to 98% of that of 1 mg/mL BHT; the Fe2+ chelating ability was equivalent to 87.0% of that of 0.02 mg/mL EDTA; the superoxide anions scavenging ability of 2.5 mg/mL green onion root extract was equivalent to 84.2% of that of 1 mg/mL BHT and 80.4% of that of 0.05 mg/mL vitamin C. With respect to melanin synthesis inhibition, the green onion root extract's ability to inhibit dopachrome, the intermediate product of melanin, was positively correlated to its concentration, i.e., the higher the concentration of the green onion root extract, the better the inhibition ability. The IC50 of green onion root extract was 1.83 mg/mL, while, for comparison, the IC50 of vitamin C was 0.62 mg/mL. Furthermore, according to the cell survival assay, no obvious cytotoxic effect was found with the increase in the concentration of the green onion root extract. The whitening effect improved after 30 days of test. The improvement rate was 5.6% for 2.5 mg/mL green onion root extract, 3.1% for 1.25 mg/mL extract, and 1.7% for 0.625 mg/mL extract. The moisture retention also improved after 30 days of test. The moisture retention improvement rate was 22.7% for 2.5 mg/mL green onion root extract, 21.6% for 1.25 mg/mL extract, and 15.4% for 0.625 mg/mL extract. Based on the experiments, the green onion root extract obtained from ultrasound not only did not cause skin allergy and irritation but also showed anti-aging, melanin synthesis inhibition, whitening and moisture retention effects. The results showed that the green onion root extract can improve the moisture retention and whitening effect of the mask.


Neste estudo, restos de raízes de cebolinhas Sansing, cultivadas sem produtos químicos tóxicos no município de Sansing, Condado de Ilan, Taiwan, foram utilizadas como matéria-prima de produtos para a pele. A matéria-prima foi extraída das raízes de cebolinha por ultrassom em um ambiente de baixa temperatura, seguro e livre de poluição. Esperamos desenvolver produtos de limpeza e outros produtos para cuidados faciais produzidos com essa matéria-prima natural, ecologicamente correta, segura e acessível, para Improvement rate (%) Moisture retention Whitening effect 7.65 1.29 que pessoas com pele sensível também possam usar esses produtos. Também esperamos que este estudo possa contribuir para a economia circular e alcançar o objetivo da inovação ecológica, reciclando restos das raízes. Em termos de anti-oxidação, a capacidade de sequestro do radical livre DPPH de 2,5 mg/mL de extrato de raiz de cebolinha foi equivalente a 98% de 1 mg/mL de BHT; a capacidade quelante do Fe2+ foi equivalente a87,0% de 0,02 mg/mL de EDTA; a capacidade de sequestro de ânions superóxidos de 2,5 mg/mL de extrato de raiz de cebolinha foi equivalente a 84,2% de 1 mg/mL BHT e 80,4% de 0,05 mg/mL de vitamina C. No que diz respeito à inibição da síntese de melanina, a capacidade do extrato de raiz de cebolinha de inibir o dopacrômio, o metabolito intermediário de melanina, foi positivamente correlacionada com a sua concentração, ou seja, quanto maior a concentração do extrato de raiz de cebolinha, maior a capacidade de inibição. O IC50 de extrato de raiz de cebolinha foi de 1,83 mg/mL, enquanto que, por comparação, o IC50 de vitamina C foi de 0,62mg/mL. Além disso, de acordo com o ensaio de sobrevivência celular, nenhum efeito citotóxico foi observado com o aumento da concentração do extrato de raiz de cebolinha. O efeito de branqueamento melhora após 30 dias de ensaio. A melhoria foi de 5,6% para 2,5 mg/mL de extrato de raiz de cebolinha, 3,1% para 1,25 mg/mL de extrato e 1,7% para 0,625 mg/mL de extrato. A retenção de umidade também melhorou depois de 30 dias de teste. A taxa de melhoria de retenção de umidade foi de 22,7% para 2,5 mg/mL de extrato de raiz de cebolinha, 21,6% para 1,25 mg/mL de extrato, e 15,4% para 0,625 mg/mL de extrato.Com base nas experiências efetuadas, o extrato de raiz de cebolinha obtida por ultrassom não só não causa alergia nem irritação da pele, mas também demonstrou atividade anti-envelhecimento, inibição da síntese de melanina, capacidade de branqueamento e retenção de umidade. Os resultados mostraram que o extrato de raiz de cebolinha pode melhorar a retenção de umidade e efeito de branqueamento da máscara.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots , Onions , Cosmetics , Antioxidants
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774590

ABSTRACT

Congchi Decoction in Zhouhou Beiji Fang is a prescription commonly used in treating light exterior wind-cold syndrome.Fistular Onion Stalk in the prescription has the effects in inducing sweat and dispelling exogenous evils and accelerating Yang Qi,and has been recorded in many medical books. In addition to be used to treat light exterior wind-cold syndrome,Fistular Onion Stalk is also used extensively and uniquely to treat restlessness after cholera,febrile disease,thoracic obstruction,Yin-Yang toxin syndrome,consumptive disease,bellyache due to spleen Qi deficiency according to Zhouhou Beiji Fang. However,there is still lack of the research on whether Fistular Onion Stalk is derived from shallot or scallion. The authors analyzed the sources of Fistular Onion Stalk in the prescription of Congchi Decoction by consulting ancient books,and studying the plant morphology of shallot,the characteristic and effect of Fistular Onion Stalk and the historical physicians' clinical application of Fistular Onion Stalk,the completion and popularity of Zhouhou Beiji Fang,the ratio of water to medicine of Congchi Decoction and the chemical ingredients of Fistular Onion Stalk. Finally,the authors concluded that Fistular Onion Stalk in the Congchi Decoction refers to Scallion bulbs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Onions , Chemistry , Yin-Yang
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786164

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to develop fermented vegetable juices that possess antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Lactobacillus plantarum MKHA15 (MKHA15) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides MKSR (MKSR) were applied to ferment onion, cabbage, and tomato juices at 37℃ and 30℃ for 72 h, respectively, and their functionality was tested using the 12 h hour-fermented juice by MKHA15, and 48 h hour-fermented juice by MKSR. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity was observed in all fermented juices. The onion juice fermented by MKHA15 showed significantly higher α-glucosidase inhibition activity compared to other juices. All juices showed more than 70% inhibition of α-amylase activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of onion juice fermented by MKSR showed significantly lower activity than cabbage and tomato juices; however, no difference was observed between the types of starter cultures. The SOD-like activity of cabbage juice fermented by MKSR was the highest among the fermented juices. The juices fermented by MKHA15 showed higher reducing power than those by MKSR. Therefore, we believe that cabbage, onion and tomato juice fermented by MKHA15 and MKSR would be useful in probiotic juices, as they possess antidiabetic and antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Brassica , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus , Leuconostoc , Lycopersicon esculentum , Onions , Probiotics , Vegetables
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761798

ABSTRACT

Sperm function and male fertility are closely related to pH dependent K⁺ current (KSper) in human sperm, which is most likely composed of Slo3 and its auxiliary subunit leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 52 (LRRC52). Onion peel extract (OPE) and its major active ingredient quercetin are widely used as fertility enhancers; however, the effect of OPE and quercetin on Slo3 has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of quercetin on human Slo3 channels. Human Slo3 and LRRC52 were co-transfected into HEK293 cells and pharmacological properties were studied with the whole cell patch clamp technique. We successfully expressed and measured pH sensitive and calcium insensitive Slo3 currents in HEK293 cells. We found that OPE and its key ingredient quercetin inhibit Slo3 currents. Inhibition by quercetin is dose dependent and this degree of inhibition decreases with elevating internal alkalization and internal free calcium concentrations. Functional moieties in the quercetin polyphenolic ring govern the degree of inhibition of Slo3 by quercetin, and the composition of such functional moieties are sensitive to the pH of the medium. These results suggest that quercetin inhibits Slo3 in a pH and calcium dependent manner. Therefore, we surmise that quercetin induced depolarization in spermatozoa may enhance the voltage gated proton channel (Hv1), and activate non-selective cation channels of sperm (CatSper) dependent calcium influx to trigger sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction.


Subject(s)
Acrosome Reaction , Calcium , Fertility , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Onions , Phosphatidylinositols , Protons , Quercetin , Sperm Capacitation , Spermatozoa
7.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(2): 65-70, set. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989213

ABSTRACT

Food flavorings in general are few studied for the toxicological aspect. This condition justifies toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessments of the substances. In the present study, the toxicity of banana, cherry and hazelnut flavorings was evaluated in meristematic cells of roots of Allium cepa, in pure form (as marketed) and in the concentrations of 12.5; 25 and 50%, after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Toxic potential of these food additives was also evaluated against Artemia salina nauplii at concentrations of 0.78; 1.56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 and 50%, after 24 hours of exposure. The three additives, in all treatments and times of analysis considered, caused significant inhibition of cell division in A. cepa, however did not cause cellular alterations to the evaluated meristems. These food flavorings also caused significant mortality to micro crustaceans with LC50<100 μg/mL. From this, under the conditions of mentioned analyzes, cherry, banana and hazelnut flavorings induced significant toxicity and cytotoxicity to the bioassays used.


En general, los aspectos toxicológicos de los saborizantes de los alimentos son poco estudiados. Esta condición justifica las evaluaciones de toxicidad, citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de estas sustancias. En el presente estudio, se evaluó la toxicidad de los aromas de plátano, cereza y avellana en células meristemáticas de raíces de Allium cepa, en forma pura (según comercializa) y en concentraciones de 12.5; 25 y 50%, después de 24 y 48 horas de exposición. El potencial tóxico de estos aditivos alimentarios también se evaluó frente a nauplios de Artemia salina a concentraciones de 0,78; 1,56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 y 50%, después de 24 horas de exposición. Los tres aditivos, en todos los tratamientos y tiempos de análisis considerados, causaron inhibición significativa de la división celular en A. cepa, sin embargo, no causaron alteraciones celulares a los meristemos evaluados. Estos saborizantes alimentarios también causaron una mortalidad significativa a microcrustáceos con LC50 <100 μg/ mL. A partir de esto, bajo las condiciones de los análisis descriptos, los aromatizantes de cereza, plátano y avellana indujeron toxicidad significativa y citotoxicidad para los bioensayos utilizados.


Subject(s)
Artemia/cytology , Meristem/cytology , Onions/cytology , Flavoring Agents/toxicity , Flavoring Agents/chemistry
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 17(1): 40-45, jul.17,2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-909894

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o uso de Morinda citrifolia (noni) realizado com várias finalidades, no entanto, sua eficácia ainda não é, plenamente, comprovada. Segundo a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (2007), as publicações científicas sobre o suco de noni têm trazido muita controvérsia sobre sua segurança como alimento. Objetivos: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar quais concentrações de Morinda citrifolia não apresentam efeitos citotóxicos, genotóxicos e mutagênicos, possibilitando seu uso em futuras formas farmacêuticas. Metodologia: os frutos foram picados e desidratados em estufa. Em seguida o material foi pulverizado, obtendo-se o extrato seco. Foram utilizados bulbos de Alium cepa para testar as seguintes concentrações: controle negativo (água filtrada), 1 mg/mL (Tratamento 1), 1,5 mg/mL (Tratamento 2), 2 mg/mL (Tratamento 3), controle positivo (paracetamol 90 mg/mL). Resultados: os resultados encontrados na análise dos dados do extrato aquoso, demonstram que as três concentrações testadas de Morinda citrifolia apresenta atividade tóxica pela inibição do comprimento e pela diminuição do ciclo celular das raízes. Além disso, a Morinda citrifolia apresenta atividade citotóxica, devido à redução do índice mitótico, em todas as concentrações analisadas. Bem como, apresenta atividade genotóxica, nas duas maiores concentrações do extrato (1,5 mg/mL e 2,0 mg/mL). Conclusão: o presente estudo demonstrou que os extratos de Morinda citrifolia apresenta atividade citotóxica e genotóxica em todas as concentrações analisadas. É necessário realizar outros trabalhos para a avaliação da Morinda citrifolia em concentrações menores, para assim se estabelecer quais são as concentrações seguras de utilização do suco desse fruto


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/toxicity , Onions/drug effects , Morinda/toxicity , Toxicity Tests
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 104-111, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Despite the increasing reports on the incidence of fresh vegetables and fruits as a possible vehicle for human pathogens, there is currently limited knowledge on the growth potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on different plant substrates. This study analyzed the selective adhesion and growth of E. coli O157:H7 on chili habanero (Capsicum chinense L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris), and onion (Allium cepa L.) under laboratory conditions. The Gompertz parameters were used to determine the growth kinetics. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 on the epicarp of the samples. Predictive models were constructed to compare the growth of E. coli O157:H7 on the samples with different intrinsic factors and to demonstrate the low selectivity of the pathogen. No significant difference was observed in the lag-phase duration (LPD), generation time (GT), and exponential growth rate (EGR) of the pathogen adhered to the samples. The interaction between the microorganism and the substrate was less supportive to the growth of E. coli O157:H7 for onion, whereas for tomato and cucumber, the time for the microorganism to attain the maximum growth rate (M) was significantly longer than that recorded for other samples.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/microbiology , Escherichia coli O157/growth & development , Fruit/microbiology , Capsicum/microbiology , Kinetics , Food Contamination/analysis , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Cucumis sativus/microbiology , Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli O157/genetics , Escherichia coli O157/chemistry , Onions/microbiology , Beta vulgaris/microbiology
10.
Mycobiology ; : 242-253, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729774

ABSTRACT

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the major vegetable crops in Korea that are damaged and lost by pathogenic fungal infection during storage due to a lack of proper storage conditions. The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate control measure using thymol to increase the shelf life of onions. To control fungal infections that occur during low-temperature storage, it is necessary to identify the predominant fungal pathogens that appear in low-temperature storage houses. Botrytis aclada was found to be the most predominant fungal pathogen during low-temperature storage. The antifungal activity of the plant essential oil thymol was tested and compared to that of the existing sulfur treatments. B. aclada growth was significantly inhibited up to 16 weeks with spray treatments using a thymol solution. To identify an appropriate method for treating onions in a low-temperature storage house, thymol was delivered by two fumigation treatment methods, either by heating it in the granule form or as a solution at low-temperature storage conditions (in vivo). We confirmed that the disease severity was reduced up to 96% by fumigating thymol solution compared to the untreated control. The efficacy of the fumigation of thymol solution was validated by testing onions in a low-temperature storage house in Muan, Jeollanam-do. Based on these results, the present study suggests that fumigation of the thymol solution as a natural preservative and fungicide can be used as an eco-friendly substitute for existing methods to control postharvest disease in long-term storage crops on a commercial scale.


Subject(s)
Botrytis , Fumigation , Heating , Hot Temperature , Korea , Methods , Onions , Plants , Sulfur , Thymol , Vegetables
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to analyze the salinity of representative Korean foods high in sodium to generate data for use as a fundamental resource for setting salinity standards in foods. METHODS: A total of 480 foods from 16 representative Korean foods high in sodium were collected from 10 households, 10 industry foodservice establishments, and 10 Korean restaurants in four regions (Capital area, Chungcheong Province, Gyeongsang Province, and Jeolla Province) and analyzed for salinity. RESULTS: Among the foods, stir-fried anchovies (4.07~4.45%) showed the highest salinity, followed by pickled onion (1.86~2.62%), cabbage kimchi (1.83~2.2%), braised burdock and lotus root (1.79~2.17%), and sliced radish kimchi (1.78~1.89%) (p < 0.001). The salinity of kimchi from home meals (2.2%) was significantly higher than that of foodservice (1.83%) and restaurant (1.93%) kimchi (p < 0.05). Salinity in each group of food was highest in kimchi (1.83~2.04%), followed by braised dishes (1.54~1.78%), steamed dishes (1.0~1.22%), stir-fried dishes (1.02~1.18%), and soup or stew (0.74~1.02%) (p < 0.001). The salinity of soup and stew from restaurants (1.02%) was significantly higher than that of home meal (0.84%) and foodservice (0.74%) soup and stew. CONCLUSIONS: Determination of the salinity of representative Korean foods known to be high in sodium by eating place is expected to be useful to establishing guidelines for reduction of salinity.


Subject(s)
Arctium , Brassica , Eating , Family Characteristics , Lotus , Meals , Onions , Raphanus , Restaurants , Salinity , Sodium , Steam
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to analyze the salinity of representative Korean foods high in sodium to generate data for use as a fundamental resource for setting salinity standards in foods. METHODS: A total of 480 foods from 16 representative Korean foods high in sodium were collected from 10 households, 10 industry foodservice establishments, and 10 Korean restaurants in four regions (Capital area, Chungcheong Province, Gyeongsang Province, and Jeolla Province) and analyzed for salinity. RESULTS: Among the foods, stir-fried anchovies (4.07~4.45%) showed the highest salinity, followed by pickled onion (1.86~2.62%), cabbage kimchi (1.83~2.2%), braised burdock and lotus root (1.79~2.17%), and sliced radish kimchi (1.78~1.89%) (p < 0.001). The salinity of kimchi from home meals (2.2%) was significantly higher than that of foodservice (1.83%) and restaurant (1.93%) kimchi (p < 0.05). Salinity in each group of food was highest in kimchi (1.83~2.04%), followed by braised dishes (1.54~1.78%), steamed dishes (1.0~1.22%), stir-fried dishes (1.02~1.18%), and soup or stew (0.74~1.02%) (p < 0.001). The salinity of soup and stew from restaurants (1.02%) was significantly higher than that of home meal (0.84%) and foodservice (0.74%) soup and stew. CONCLUSIONS: Determination of the salinity of representative Korean foods known to be high in sodium by eating place is expected to be useful to establishing guidelines for reduction of salinity.


Subject(s)
Arctium , Brassica , Eating , Family Characteristics , Lotus , Meals , Onions , Raphanus , Restaurants , Salinity , Sodium , Steam
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17135, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974406

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic crude extracts and fractions of the species Senecio westermanii Dusén on Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion) seeds. We assessed the germination, growth, root respiration and photosynthesis of the target species in Petri dishes (9.0 cm diameter) containing filter paper n°6. The study was conducted using 50 seeds per plate and held in 4 replicates per concentration of each sample. In the germination there was an inhibitory effect of fractions hexane (FH) and chloroform (FCl) at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/mL. There was a reduction in the radicle growth of lettuce by 14 to 24% and a reduction of hypocotilum by 14 to 28%. As for the radicle of the onion was up 74% reduction to the FCl and the coleoptile was 24 and 45% reduction for FH and FCl, respectively. Inhibitory effects in the root respiration of lettuce were detected in all the samples analyzed, with results ranging from 16 to 83%. For the seeds of A. cepa, there was an encouragement for the FCl and ethyl acetate fractions (FAE), with results ranging from 94 to 142% and 76 to 150%, respectively. With regard to the photosynthesis of L. sativa, there was no significant difference between the control, and as for the A. cepa, there was a strain in inhibition concentrations of 250 and 500 µg/mL, which ranged from 27 to 68%. The samples of S. westermanii caused changes in the target species and thus can be used as a natural herbicide.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Lettuce/growth & development , Asteraceae/adverse effects , Onions/growth & development , Plant Components, Aerial , Senecio/classification , Allelopathy/physiology
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 55 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-997710

ABSTRACT

Muitos genes bacterianos são regulados pelo mecanismo de comunicação denominado quorum sensing (QS). Neste sistema, moléculas sinalizadoras ativam um comportamento de grupo, conforme a densidade celular, permitindo o controle da expressão gênica. Estudos sugerem o potencial de compostos extraídos de plantas sobre o QS, a exemplo da quercetina, um flavonol presente em concentrações elevadas em algumas frutas e hortaliças. Este composto é o flavonoide majoritário presente em cebola (Allium cepa), mas não existem estudos que mostrem a atividade anti-QS de extratos orgânicos deste vegetal. Este trabalho avaliou o potencial antimicrobiano e anti-QS de extratos orgânicos de cebola branca e cebola roxa, assim como de alguns de seus componentes majoritários identificados, em fenótipos regulados pelo QS como a produção de violaceína em Chrormobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, a motilidade tipo swarming e a formação de biofilmes em Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 e Serratia marcescens MG1. Extratos de cebola branca e roxa foram obtidos por extração em fase sólida utilizando coluna de poliamida e seus compostos identificados e quantificados pelas técnicas de Cromatografia líquida- ionização por elétron spray-espectrometria de massas e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a detector de arranjo de diodo. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelas curvas de multiplicação de cada micro-organismo. O efeito dos compostos quercetina aglicona (inibidor do QS já relatado na literatura e encontrado no extrato de cebola roxa) e quercetina-3-ß-D-glicosideo (um dos compostos majoritários encontrados em ambos extratos) sobre os micro-organismos utilizados neste estudo foi também avaliado. Foram obtidos três extratos: cebola branca em metanol (CB-MeOH), cebola branca em metanol amônia (CBMeOH/ NH4) e cebola roxa em metanol (CR-MeOH). Os compostos quercetina 3,4'- diglicosídeio, quercetina-4-glicosídeo, quercetina-3-ß-D-glicosideo e quercetina aglicona foram os predominantes nos extratos das duas variedades de cebola. Cianidina-3-O-glicosideo também foi identificada no extrato de cebola roxa. A concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) dos extratos foi igual ou superior a 125 µg/ml (p/v) de extrato seco. Não foi observada inibição significativa da produção de violaceína em C. violaceum pelos extratos orgânicos de cebola e nem pela quercetina-3-ß-D-glicosideo, nas concentrações sub-inibitórias avaliadas. No entanto, a quercetina aglicona inibiu significativamente a produção de violaceína em todas as concentrações. A glicosilação da quercetina pode ter afetado sua atividade sobre a inibição da produção de violaceina, já que estudos mostram menor atividade biológica deste composto quando glicosilado. Para a motilidade tipo swarming em P. aeruginosa PAO1 houve inibição significativa pelo extrato de cebola roxa, em todas as concentrações estudadas. Os demais extratos não apresentaram inibição contra este micro-organismo. Para S. marcescens MG1, foi observada inibição da motilidade swarming somente na concentração de 125 µg/ml de CBMeOH/ NH4. As análises de comparação entre os dois tipos de quercetina revelaram que, embora para as duas bactérias testadas os dois compostos apresentaram atividade inibitória sobre a motilidade tipo swarming, a quercetina-3-ß-D-glicosideo foi menos eficiente que a quercetina aglicona na concentração de 125 µg/ml. A formação de biofilmes não foi influenciada pelos extratos e, inesperadamente, não se detectou inibição da formação de biofilmes por ambos tipos de quercetina avaliados. De forma geral, os extratos orgânicos de cebola mostraram pouco efeito sobre os fenótipos controlados pelo quorum sensing e a glicosilação da quercetina provavelmente explica a baixa atividade antimicrobiana e anti-QS dos extratos


Many bacterial genes are regulated by a communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). In this system, signaling molecules activate a group behavior according to cell density, allowing the control of gene expression. Studies suggest the inhibitory potential of compounds extracted from plants on the QS system, like quercetin, a flavonol present in high concentrations in some fruits and vegetables. This compound is the main flavonoid found in onion (Allium cepa); however, there are no studies showing the anti-QS activity of organic extracts of this plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-QS potential of organic extracts of white and red onions, and their major components studied in QS-regulated phenotypes such as violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum, swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Serratia marcescens MG1.White and red onion extracts were obtained by solid phase extraction using a polyamide column and its compounds were identified and quantified by Liquid Chromatography - Electron Spray-Mass Spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. O The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by growth curves of each microorganism. The effect of non-glycosylated quercetin (a QS inhibitor already reported in the literature and found in red onion extract) and quercetin-3-ß-D-glycoside (one of the major compounds found in both extracts) on the microorganisms used in this study was also evaluated. Three extracts were obtained: white onion in methanol (CB-MeOH), white onion in methanol ammonia (CB-MeOH / NH4) and red onion in methanol (CR-MeOH). Our results showed that quercetin 3,4'- diglycoside, quercetin-4-glycoside, quercetin-3-ß-D-glycoside and non-glycosylated quercetin were predominant in the extracts of the two onion varieties. Cyanidin-3-O-glycoside has also been identified in the purple onion extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts was equal or greater than 125 µg / ml (w / v) of dry extract. There was no significant inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum by organic onion extracts or by quercetin-3-ß- D-glycoside at the sub-inhibitory concentrations evaluated. However, non-glycosylated quercetin showed a significant inhibition of violacein production in all tested concentrations. The glycosylation of Quercetin could have altered its inhibition activity towards violacein production, and in fact, some studies have shown less biological activity of some phenolic compounds when they have been glycosylated. For swarming motility in P. aeruginosa PAO1 there was significant inhibition by red onion extract, in all studied concentrations. The other extracts did not present inhibition against this microorganism. For S. marcescens MG1, inhibition of swarming motility was observed only at the concentration of 125 µg / ml of CB-MeOH / NH4. Comparative analyses between the two types of quercetin showed that, although for the two bacteria tested the two compounds showed inhibitory activity on swarming motility, quercetin-3-ß-D-glycoside was less efficient than non-glycosylated quercetin in the concentration of 125 µg / ml. Biofilm formation was not influenced by the extracts and unexpectedly, both types of quercetin evaluated did not show inhibition towards biofilm formation. In general, organic onion extracts showed little effect on quorum sensing controlled phenotypes and glycosylation of quercetin probably explains the low antimicrobial and anti-QS activity of the extracts


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Onions/classification , Quorum Sensing/immunology , Anti-Infective Agents , Quercetin/analysis , Phenolic Compounds , Food Microbiology/classification
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1517-1524, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893164

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the extract of Allium cepa (Onion) seeds (AC) on morphometric and histology of testis and biochemical parameters in STZ-induced male rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats (2 month old) were allocated into four groups of control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of onion seed extract. Diabetes mellitus was induced using 60 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin as a single intraperitoneal injection. The extract was administered by stomach gavage for 28 days. The morphometric and histological structure of the testis, biochemical factors like glucose and testosterone levels were assessed. All analyses were done at the end of the four week study period. Data were compared by using Kruskal Wallis Test, Dunnett T3 and the degree of significance was set at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. In diabetic+200 rats, the numbers of primary spermatocytes were significantly increased. In diabetic+400 rats, seminiferous tubular diameter was significantly increased and the level of testosterone hormone and testis weight was decreased significantly. In diabetic+200 and 400 rats, the numbers of spermatid, FBS and lumen diameter were significantly increased and the numbers of spermatozoa cells, body weight and volume density (VD) % lumen were decreased. Also, the numbers of spermatid in control diabetic rats was decreased. Our finding indicated that onion seed extract might be useful as a supplementary protective agent against adverse effects of diabetes on reproductive system in diabetic men.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del extracto de semillas de Allium cepa (cebolla) sobre la morfometría e histología de testículos y parámetros bioquímicos en ratas macho inducidas por estreptozotocina (STZ). Se asignaron cuarenta ratas macho Wistar adultas (2 meses de edad) en cuatro grupos: control diabético y diabético tratados con 200 o 400 mg / kg / día de extracto de semilla de cebolla. Se indujo diabetes mellitus utilizando 60 mg/kg de peso corporal de estreptozotocina por inyección única intraperitoneal. El extracto se administró por sonda gástrica durante 28 días. Se evaluaron la estructura morfométrica e histológica de los testículos, factores bioquímicos como la glucosa y los niveles de testosterona. Todos los análisis se realizaron al final del período de estudio de cuatro semanas. Los datos se compararon mediante el uso de Kruskal Wallis Test, Dunnett T3 y el grado de significación se estableció en P <0,05 y P <0,01. En el grupo diabético + 200, el número de espermatocitos primarios aumentó significativamente. En el grupo diabético + 400, el diámetro tubular seminífero aumentó significativamente en cambio el nivel de testosterona y el peso del testículo disminuyeron significativamente. En el grupo diabéticos + 200 y 400, los números de espermátidas, FBS y diámetro de luz se incrementaron significativamente y el número de espermatozoides, peso corporal y densidad de volumen (VD)% de lumen disminuyeron. Además, disminuyó el número de espermátidas en ratas diabéticas control. Nuestro estudio indicó que el extracto de semilla de cebolla podría ser útil como un agente protector adicional contra los efectos adversos de la diabetes en el sistema reproductivo en hombres diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Testicular Diseases/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Onions/chemistry , Seeds , Testis/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Body Weight , Streptomycin/toxicity , Rats, Wistar
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1251-1258, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886681

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tricyclazole is currently one of the fungicides recommended for the treatment of diseases in irrigated rice. However, there is relatively little information on its cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of rice crop water after apllication of the tricyclazole fungicide through the Allium cepa L. test. The rice crop water samplings were collected before and 1, 15 and 30 days after application of the fungicide in rice plant shoots. The Allium cepa roots were placed in contact with the rice crop water to check for possible chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic index of the bioindicators meristematic cells. The data obtained by the Allium cepa test indicates that the application of the tricyclazole fungicide leads to an increase in the genotoxic activity in the rice crop water, through the appearance of chromosomal abnormalities, without, however, causing significant effects on the mitotic index. The major chromosomal alterations observed were anaphasic and telophasic bridges and laggard chromosomes.


Subject(s)
Oryza/drug effects , Onions/drug effects , Fungicides, Industrial , Oryza/genetics , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , DNA Damage , Chromosome Aberrations/chemically induced , Crops, Agricultural , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Agricultural Irrigation , Mitosis/drug effects , Mitotic Index , Mutagenicity Tests/methods
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 317-331, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886626

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae) is a native plant from caatinga in Brazilian semiarid. This plant has been locally used as antimicrobial and hypoglycemiant agents, but their action mechanisms and toxicity remain largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the composition and antioxidant, cytoprotective and hypoglycemiant effects of raw extract, fractions and compounds from leaves of M. hirsuta. The cytogenotoxic effects of ursolic and oleanolic acids, the main phytotherapic components of this plant, were assessed. The raw extract and fractions presented steroids, saponins, flavonols, flavanonols, flavanones, xanthones, phenols, tannins, anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and flavonoids. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited efficiently the cascade of lipid peroxidation while the hydroalcoholic fraction was richer in total phenols and more efficient in capturing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (·DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS·+) radicals. The isolated fraction of M. hirsuta also inhibited the α-amylase activity. Cytotoxic effects were absent in both raw extract and fractions while ursolic+oleanolic acids were efficient in protecting cells after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, this mixture of acid shad no significant interference on the mitotic index and frequency of nuclear and/or chromosomal abnormalities in Allium cepa test. Therefore, M. hirsuta represents a potential source of phytochemicals against inflammatory and oxidative pathologies, including diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Triterpenes/chemistry , Brazil , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Cricetinae , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Onions/drug effects , Cytoprotection , Ethanol/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 150-154, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839151

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy’s solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.


Resumo Neste trabalho teve-se por objetivo analisar o potencial antiproliferativo e genotóxico de aromatizantes alimentares sintéticos, idêntico ao natural de Maracujá, e artificial de Baunilha. Esta avaliação foi realizada por meio das células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L., nos tempos de exposição de 24 e 48 horas e nas doses de 0,2; 0,4 e 0,6 ml. As raízes foram fixadas em solução de Carnoy, hidrolisadas em ácido clorídrico e coradas com orceína acética. Analisou-se, em microscópio óptico em aumento de 400×, 5.000 células por grupo tratamento, e utilizou-se o teste estatístico Qui-quadrado a 5% para análise dos dados. Verificou-se que as doses de 0,2 ml, no TE 48 h; 0,4 e 0,6 ml, nos TE 24 e 48 h, do aromatizante de Maracujá, e as três doses analisadas, nos TE 24 e 48 h, do aditivo de Baunilha reduziram significativamente o índice de divisão celular dos meristemas de raízes, mostrando-se citotóxicas. As doses 0,2; 0,4 e 0,6 ml do aditivo de Maracujá, e a de 0,6 ml do aromatizante de Baunilha, nos dois tempos de exposição considerados, induziram alterações de fuso mitótico e micronúcleos as células do organismo de prova utilizado, mostrando-se genotóxicas. Portanto, nas condições analisadas, as soluções aromatizantes de Baunilha e Maracujá, comercializadas nacional e internacionalmente, alteraram significativamente o funcionamento do ciclo celular das células meristemáticas de raízes de A. cepa.


Subject(s)
DNA Damage , Meristem/drug effects , Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective , Food Additives/toxicity , Cell Nucleus , Plant Roots/drug effects , Onions/drug effects , Mitosis
19.
Mycobiology ; : 20-24, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729893

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects on various crops of inoculation with species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soils from different sources and selected AMF species suitable for domestic environment-friendly farming. Effects on plants varied with the AMF species used. In carrot, Scutellospora heterogama, Acaulospora longula, and Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on growth of the host, whereas AMF had only weak effects on the growth of red pepper and leek. AMF inoculation had positive effects on the growth of carrot and sorghum. The results of this study indicate the nature of the relationship between soil, plants, and AMF; this study therefore has important implications for the future use of AMF in environment-friendly agriculture.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Capsicum , Daucus carota , Fungi , Onions , Organic Agriculture , Plants , Soil , Sorghum
20.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 247-252, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41803

ABSTRACT

The methylglyoxal (MGO) trapping constituents from onion (Allium cepa L.) peels were investigated using pre-column incubation of MGO and crude extract followed by HPLC analysis. The peak areas of MGO trapping compounds decreased, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-ESI/MS. Among major constituents in outer scale of onion, 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone (2) was more effective MGO scavenger than quercetin (6) and its 4′-glucoside, spiraeoside (3). After 1 h incubation, compound 2 trapped over 90% MGO at a concentration of 0.5 mM under physiological conditions, but compounds 3 and 6 scavenged 45%, 16% MGO, respectively. HPLC-ESI/MS showed that compound 2 trapped two molecules of MGO to form a di-MGO adduct and compounds 3 and 6 captured one molecule of MGO to form mono-MGO adducts, and the positions 6 and 8 of the A ring of flavonoids were major active sites for trapping MGO.


Subject(s)
Catalytic Domain , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids , Methods , Onions , Pyruvaldehyde , Quercetin
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL