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1.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39017, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415905

ABSTRACT

Tillering onion is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. We cloned the cDNAs of the actin gene (AcACT, GenBank: MF919598) of tillering onion using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of AcACT was 1,357 bp long with an open reading frame of 1,131 bp encoding 376 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of AcACT shared > 96% similarity with the amino acid sequences of other ACTs and was found (by means of phylogenetic tree analysis) to be closely related to those of Ananas comosus and Papaver somniferum. AcACT expressions showed no significant differences (p > 0.01) in two cultivars L-SH and L-SY over three growth periods and under suitable conditions, low temperature, and short-day conditions. In addition, AcACT was used as an internal reference gene to analyse the expression of the alliinase gene (AcALL). AcALL expression trends in the roots, stems and leaves were consistent with those of diallyl disulphide and diallyl trisulphide. Thus, AcACT is highly conserved and can be used as a suitable internal reference gene when analysing gene expression in tillering onion.


Subject(s)
Actins , Onions
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468805

ABSTRACT

For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-¹ and 1.0 mg mL-¹ MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-¹). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-¹, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.


Por muitos séculos, as populações humanas sofrem e tentam combater os mosquitos transmissores de doenças. Doenças emergentes e reemergentes como Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya afetam bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e, recentemente, vem apelando ao controle com pesticidas químicos. O Malation (MT) é um dos principais pesticidas usados contra mosquitos, vetores dessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e a mutagenicidade do MT para o bioindicador Allium cepa L. usando uma abordagem multivariada e integrativa. Além disso, uma tabela suplementar foi compilada com toda a literatura disponível de inseticidas avaliada pelo sistema Allium cepa para apoiar nossa discussão. Exposições ao MT durante 48h a 0,5 mg mL-¹ e 1,0 mg mL-¹ foram comparadas a um controle negativo (água destilada) e um controle positivo (10 mg L-¹ de MMS). Foram avaliadas a presença de aberrações cromossômicas, frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades no índice mitótico. As pontes anafásicas foram as alterações com maior incidência e apresentaram uma taxa significativamente elevada na concentração de 0,5 mg mL-¹, inclusive quando comparadas ao controle positivo. A análise discriminante integrativa resume que o MT nas concentrações avaliadas apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao controle positivo, corroborando seu potencial de toxicidade para o DNA. Portanto, conclui-se que o MT, em sua composição pura e nas concentrações realistas utilizadas, possui potencial genotóxico na avaliação biológica de células de A. cepa. A análise integrativa multivariada foi fundamental para mostrar uma resposta completa de todos os dados, fornecendo uma visão global do efeito da MT no DNA.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Onions/drug effects , Onions/genetics , Onions/toxicity , Organophosphate Poisoning , Malathion
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468957

ABSTRACT

Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2’-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared [...].


Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2’-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades [...].


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Onions , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/analysis
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240118, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278559

ABSTRACT

Abstract For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1 MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-1). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.


Resumo Por muitos séculos, as populações humanas sofrem e tentam combater os mosquitos transmissores de doenças. Doenças emergentes e reemergentes como Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya afetam bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e, recentemente, vem apelando ao controle com pesticidas químicos. O Malation (MT) é um dos principais pesticidas usados ​​contra mosquitos, vetores dessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e a mutagenicidade do MT para o bioindicador Allium cepa L. usando uma abordagem multivariada e integrativa. Além disso, uma tabela suplementar foi compilada com toda a literatura disponível de inseticidas avaliada pelo sistema Allium cepa para apoiar nossa discussão. Exposições ao MT durante 48h a 0,5 mg mL-1 e 1,0 mg mL-1 foram comparadas a um controle negativo (água destilada) e um controle positivo (10 mg L-1 de MMS). Foram avaliadas a presença de aberrações cromossômicas, frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades no índice mitótico. As pontes anafásicas foram as alterações com maior incidência e apresentaram uma taxa significativamente elevada na concentração de 0,5 mg mL-1, inclusive quando comparadas ao controle positivo. A análise discriminante integrativa resume que o MT nas concentrações avaliadas apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao controle positivo, corroborando seu potencial de toxicidade para o DNA. Portanto, conclui-se que o MT, em sua composição pura e nas concentrações realistas utilizadas, possui potencial genotóxico na avaliação biológica de células de A. cepa. A análise integrativa multivariada foi fundamental para mostrar uma resposta completa de todos os dados, fornecendo uma visão global do efeito da MT no DNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Insecticides/toxicity , DNA Damage , Chromosome Aberrations , Plant Roots , Onions , Mosquito Vectors , Malathion/toxicity , Mitotic Index
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339364

ABSTRACT

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Onions , Antioxidants , Swine , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , alpha-Glucosidases , Hydrogen Peroxide
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38045, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395982

ABSTRACT

The use of microalgae as natural biofertilizer in horticulture has recently been reported, while the use of humic substances is widespread. However, the combined use of microalgae with humic substances applied to plant leaves is still unexploited. Thus, the objective of this work was to combine fulvic acid (FA) with the Scenedesmus subspicatus microalga biomass (SC) as a natural biofertilizer applied via leaf in two onion cultivars in organic system. Four experiments were conducted: i) bioassays to verify the bioactive effect of FA, SC and combinations using the Vigna radiata model plant; ii) greenhouse pot experiment with foliar applications of FA, SC and combination in two onion cultivars; iii) field experiment in organic system with foliar applications of FA, SC and combination in two onion cultivars; and iv) onion bulb storage experiment. The bioactive effect of SC, FA and their combinations was identified by promoting changes in root growth of V. radiata. In pots, treatments containing FA, SC and combination promoted increase in fresh and dry leaf mass. The foliar application of FA, SC and combination promoted an increase in field bulb productivity, reduced mass loss in stored bulbs and increased carbohydrate, amino acid and protein contents in onion bulbs.


Subject(s)
Onions , Scenedesmus , Organic Agriculture , Humic Substances
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468455

ABSTRACT

Flavoring additives are of great technological importance for the food industry. However, there is little information regarding the toxicological properties of these micro-ingredients, especially at the cellular level. The present study used meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L. to evaluate the toxicity of a liquid, aroma and flavor synthetic chocolate additive, manufactured and widely marketed throughout Brazil and exported to other countries in South America. The flavoring concentrations evaluated were 100.00; 50.00; 25.00; 1.00; 0.50 and 0.25 µL/L, where the highest concentration established was one-hundred times lower than that commercially suggested for use. The concentration 100 µL/L substantially reduced cell division of meristems within 24- and 48-hours exposure. Concentrations from 100.00 to 0.50 µL/L resulted in a significant number of prophases to the detriment of the other phases of cell division, indicating an aneugenic activity, and induced a significant number of cellular changes, with emphasis on micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosomal breaks. Under the established analysis conditions, with the exception of concentration 0.25 µL/L, the flavoring of chocolate caused cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to root meristems.


Os aditivos aromatizantes têm grande importância tecnológica para a indústria de alimentos. Contudo, poucas são as informações quanto as propriedades toxicológicas desses microingredientes, especialmente, em nível celular. No presente estudo avaliou-se, sobre as células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L., a toxicidade de um aditivo sintético líquido de aroma e sabor de chocolate, fabricado e amplamente comercializado em todo Brasil, e exportado para outros países da América do Sul. As concentrações de aromatizante avaliadas foram 100,00; 50,00; 25,00; 1,00; 0,50 e 0,25 µL/L, onde a maior concentração estabelecida foi cem vezes menor que a sugerida comercialmente para uso. Com base na interpretação dos resultados, a concentração 100 µL/L reduziu substancialmente a divisão celular dos meristemas nas 24 e 48 horas de exposição. As concentrações 100,00 a 0,50 µL/L demonstraram número significativo de prófases em detrimento as outras fases da divisão celular, indicando ação aneugênica, e induziram número significativo de alterações celulares, com ênfase a micronúcleos, broto nucleares e quebras cromossômicas. Nas condições de análises estabelecidas, com exceção a concentração 0,25 µL/L, o aromatizante de chocolate causou citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade aos meristemas radiculares.


Subject(s)
Food Additives/administration & dosage , Food Additives/toxicity , Onions/drug effects
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-10, 2022. map, tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468504

ABSTRACT

The Gravataí River basin, one of the main water sources of the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, is among the ten most polluted rivers in Brazil. Water quality is monitored only through physico-chemical and microbiological parameters in Brazil, and in this context, considering the importance of the use of biomarkers in complementing the analysis of water, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental quality of the main affluent of the Gravataí River, Demetrio stream, through physico-chemical, microbiological, and cytogenotoxic criteria, at the stream source (P1), whereas samples P2 and P3 were obtained from the upstream near the area with the highest urban density and the downstream near the meeting point with the Gravataí River, respectively. The results for copper concentration and color classified the Demetrio stream as Class 4 in general, that is, the water is suitable only for navigation and to landscape harmony. The main genotoxic alterations (micronuclei and nuclear buds) were observed in P2, in which were obtained the highest levels of copper, in addition to iron and manganese. Anthropic interventions were observed in P1 and P2; however, due to its low metal concentration, P3, near the Gravataí River, manifested an improvement in environmental quality.


A bacia do rio Gravataí, uma das principais fontes de água da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, está entre os dez rios mais poluídos do Brasil. No Brasil a qualidade da água é monitorada apenas através de parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos e, nesse contexto, considerando a importância do uso de biomarcadores para complementar a análise da água, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade ambiental do principal afluente do Rio Gravataí, o arroio Demétrio, através de critérios físico-químicos, microbiológicos e citogenotóxicos, na nascente do arroio (P1), a montante e próximo à área com maior densidade urbana (P2) e a jusante e próximo ao ponto de encontro com o rio Gravataí (P3). Os resultados para a cor da água e para a concentração de cobre classificaram o arroio Demétrio como Classe 4 em geral, ou seja, esta água é adequada apenas para navegação e harmonia da paisagem. As principais alterações genotóxicas (micronúcleos e brotos nucleares) foram observadas no P2, no qual foram obtidos os maiores teores de cobre, além de ferro e manganês. Intervenções antrópicas foram observadas em P1 e P2; no entanto, devido à sua baixa concentração de metais, o P3, próximo ao rio Gravataí, manifestou uma melhoria na qualidade ambiental.


Subject(s)
Onions , Water Microbiology , Water Pollution/analysis , Water/chemistry
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243628, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249260

ABSTRACT

Flavoring additives are of great technological importance for the food industry. However, there is little information regarding the toxicological properties of these micro-ingredients, especially at the cellular level. The present study used meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L. to evaluate the toxicity of a liquid, aroma and flavor synthetic chocolate additive, manufactured and widely marketed throughout Brazil and exported to other countries in South America. The flavoring concentrations evaluated were 100.00; 50.00; 25.00; 1.00; 0.50 and 0.25 µL/L, where the highest concentration established was one-hundred times lower than that commercially suggested for use. The concentration 100 µL/L substantially reduced cell division of meristems within 24- and 48-hours exposure. Concentrations from 100.00 to 0.50 µL/L resulted in a significant number of prophases to the detriment of the other phases of cell division, indicating an aneugenic activity, and induced a significant number of cellular changes, with emphasis on micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosomal breaks. Under the established analysis conditions, with the exception of concentration 0.25 µL/L, the flavoring of chocolate caused cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to root meristems.


Os aditivos aromatizantes têm grande importância tecnológica para a indústria de alimentos. Contudo, poucas são as informações quanto as propriedades toxicológicas desses microingredientes, especialmente, em nível celular. No presente estudo avaliou-se, sobre as células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L., a toxicidade de um aditivo sintético líquido de aroma e sabor de chocolate, fabricado e amplamente comercializado em todo Brasil, e exportado para outros países da América do Sul. As concentrações de aromatizante avaliadas foram 100,00; 50,00; 25,00; 1,00; 0,50 e 0,25 µL/L, onde a maior concentração estabelecida foi cem vezes menor que a sugerida comercialmente para uso. Com base na interpretação dos resultados, a concentração 100 µL/L reduziu substancialmente a divisão celular dos meristemas nas 24 e 48 horas de exposição. As concentrações 100,00 a 0,50 µL/L demonstraram número significativo de prófases em detrimento as outras fases da divisão celular, indicando ação aneugênica, e induziram número significativo de alterações celulares, com ênfase a micronúcleos, broto nucleares e quebras cromossômicas. Nas condições de análises estabelecidas, com exceção a concentração 0,25 µL/L, o aromatizante de chocolate causou citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade aos meristemas radiculares.


Subject(s)
Chocolate , Mutagens/toxicity , DNA Damage , Brazil , Plant Roots , Onions , Food Additives
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 575-583, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153400

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vernonanthura polyanthes, popularly known as assa-peixe, is a medicinal plant that has been widely used by Brazilian Cerrado population for treatment of diseases without a detailed evaluation of their effectiveness, toxicity, and proper dosage. Thus, more studies investigating the safety of V. polyanthes aqueous extract before the use are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract using the Artemia salina and Allium cepa assays. For the A. salina assay, three groups of 10 larvae were exposed to V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/ml. For the A. cepa assay, 5 onion bulbs were exposed to V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract at 10, 20, and 40 mg/ml, and then submitted to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. As result it was identified a toxicity and cytotoxicity of V. polyanthes dependent on the extract concentration. The A. salina assay suggests that the concentration of 24 mg/ml of the V. polyanthes extract is able to kill 50% of naupllis; while the A. cepa assay suggests that V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract is toxic at concentrations higher than 20 mg/ml; however the cytotoxic effect in A. cepa root cells was observed at 40 mg/ml of the extract. It is important to say that the V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract concentration commonly used in popular medicine is 20 mg/ml. Thus, the popular concentration used is very close to toxicity limit in A. salina model (24 mg/ml) and is the concentration which showed toxic effect in A. cepa root cells (20 mg/ml). No genotoxic activity of V. polyantes leaves aqueous extract was observed in the conditions used in this study. Because of the antiproliferative action and no genotoxic activity, V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract may present compounds with potential use for human medicine. However more detailed studies need to be performed to confirm this potential.


Resumo Vernonanthura polyanthes, popularmente conhecida como assa-peixe, é uma planta medicinal amplamente utilizada pela população brasileira do Cerrado para o tratamento doenças, sem uma avaliação detalhada de sua eficácia, toxicidade e dosagem adequada. Dessa forma, são necessários estudos para investigar a segurança do uso do extrato aquoso de V. polyanthes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicidade, citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade do extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes utilizando os ensaios de Artemia salina e Allium cepa. Para o ensaio de A. salina, três grupos de 10 larvas foram expostos ao extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 mg/ml. Para o ensaio de A. cepa, 5 bulbos de cebola foram expostas ao extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes nas concentrações de 10, 20 e 40 mg/ml, e então submetidos a análise macroscópica e microscópica. O ensaio de A. salina sugere que a concentração de 24 mg/ml do extrato de V. polyanthes é capaz de matar 50% dos náuplios; enquanto o ensaio de A. cepa sugere que o extrato aquoso das folhas de V. polyanthes é tóxico em concentrações superiores a 20 mg/ml. O efeito citotóxico nas células da raiz de A. cepa foi observado apenas na concentração de 40 mg/ml. É importante dizer que a concentração de extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes comumente usada na medicina popular é de 20 mg/ml. Assim, a concentração popular utilizada está muito próxima do limite de toxicidade no modelo de A. salina (24 mg/ml) e é a mesma concentração que apresentou efeito tóxico nas células da raiz de A. cepa (20 mg/ml). Não foi observada atividade genotóxica do extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyantes nas condições utilizadas neste trabalho. Por causa da ação antiproliferativa e ausência de atividade genotóxica, o extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes pode ser uma boa fonte natural de compostos antitumorais e pode apresentar potencial para uso na medicina. No entanto, estudos mais detalhados precisam ser realizados para confirmar esse potencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Asteraceae , Brazil , Plant Leaves , Onions
11.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-7, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363276

ABSTRACT

Background: The bulb of Allium cepa Linnaeus (onion) is used in traditional medicine as an antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic, among others. The lack of information or little knowledge about the effects of Allium cepa L. on skin lesions, specifically burn wounds, arouses interest in studying its effects on these skin disorders. Objective: This study assessed the wound healing activity of Allium cepa L. on second-degree burns induced in Holtzman rats. Method: Thirty-two albino rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 8 rats each, including the Healthy group, the Control group, the Experimental group (Alliumcepa L.), and the Standard group (1% silver sulfadiazine). Burn wounds were induced, and topical treatments were performed daily for 21 days. The reduction of the burned body area (mm2) was determined during the experimental time. Albino rats were sacrificed with an excess of surgical anesthesia to obtain tissue samples for histopathological analysis. Results: Standard and experimental groups significantly reduced burned body area (p<0.01) compared to the control group. Histopathological studies showed hyperemic chorion in the Control group, fibroblasts, and collagen in the Standard group, and dermis composed of a reticular stratum of fibroblasts, collagen, and few blood vessels in the Experimental group. Conclusion: Allium cepa L. revealed wound-healing activity on burns induced in Holtzman rats and reduced the damage produced by burns


Antecedentes: El bulbo de Alliumcepa L. (cebolla) se utiliza en medicina tradicional como antidiabético, antioxidante, antihipertensivo, antiinflamatorio, anti hiperlipidémico entre otros. La falta de información o muy poco conocimiento acerca de los efectos de Allium. cepa L. en lesiones cutáneas, específicamente en las heridas por quemaduras, despierta el interés por estudiar sus efectos en estas afectaciones cutáneas. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad cicatrizante de Allium. cepa L. en quemaduras de segundo grado inducidas en ratas Holtzman. Método: Se utilizaron treinta y dos ratas albinas distribuidas al azar en cuatro grupos de ocho ratas cada uno, incluyendo el Grupo sano, el Grupo Control, el Grupo Experimental (Allium cepa L.) y el Grupo Estándar (Sulfadiazina de plata al 1%). Se indujo la herida por quemadura, y los tratamientos tópicos se realizaron diariamente durante 21 días. La reducción del área corporal quemada (mm2) se determinó durante el tiempo de experimentación, luego los animales fueron sacrificados con exceso de anestesia quirúrgica para obtener las muestras de tejidos para el estudio histopatológico. Resultados: Los grupos estándar y experimental mostraron reducción significativa en el área corporal quemada (p<0,01) comparadas al grupo control. El estudio histopatológico evidenció corion hiperémico en el grupo control; fibroblastos y colágeno en el grupo estándar y dermis integrada por un estrato reticular de fibroblastos, colágeno y pocos vasos sanguíneos en el grupo experimental. Conclusión: Alliumcepa L. reveló actividad cicatrizante en quemaduras inducidas en ratas Holtzman, y disminuyó el daño producido por las quemaduras


Subject(s)
Humans , Phytochemicals , Silver Sulfadiazine , Burns , Onions , Histology
12.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342403

ABSTRACT

The burden of hyperlipidemia is on the rise globally especially in many low-income countries like Uganda. Management of this metabolic disorder mainly involves dietary and behavioral therapies, which are often met with poor results as they require time and discipline from the patients. The chemotherapeutic options available are expensive, have many side effects and are rarely available to the average citizen. Thus, an alternative effective remedy which is readily available and cheap is needed to combat the problem of hyperlipidemia. This study sought to establish the effect of the mixture of Allium cepa extract and Camellia sinensis extract on the serum lipid profile of the male Wistar rats. Allium cepa and Camellia sinensis mixture in a ratio of 3:7 had the highest antioxidant activity. It reduced body weight, total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL, and in addition it had no toxicity to the liver of the animal models used. It has thus been recommended as a potential therapy for hyperlipidemia and its associated complication of liver toxicity. A pharmaco-kinetic study regarding the interaction of antioxidants for combinations of Allium cepa and Camellia sinensis extracts in different ratios should be conducted to understand the cause of synergism and antagonism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Onions , Hyperlipidemias , Camellia sinensis , Diet, High-Fat , Lipids , Antioxidants
13.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 43: e53105, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460969

ABSTRACT

The use of genotypes more adapted to climatic conditions can contribute to increase the yield of onion producers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of 15 onion genotypes in the soil and climatic conditions of Guarapuava, state of Paraná. The study was conducted in the experimental area of Horticulture, Cedeteg campus, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Brazil, from July to November 2018. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four replications, and the treatments consisted of four commercial cultivars Optima F1, Bella Dura, Sirius F1, Soberana F1 and eleven experimental genotypes N1, N2, N3, N4, N5, N6, N7, N8, N9, AF4241 and AF4243. Biometric characteristics of the plants, production components and early flowering were evaluated. Plants presented between 6 and 9 leaves, in which N1, N3, N4 and N6 had less than 7 leaves, differing statistically from the others. The cultivar Optima F1 and the genotypes N2, N3, N5, N6, N7 and N8 presented the tallest plants, with 66.1 to 76.0 cm. The pseudostem diameter did not differ significantly between genotypes, showing values between 15.2 and 20.4 mm. Total productivity was higher in genotypes N2, N6, N5, N4, N3, N7 with values from 43.6 to 50.3 t ha-1. The highest average bulb mass was found in N2, N4, N6, Sirius F1, Optima F1 and Soberana F1


Subject(s)
Biometry/instrumentation , Onions/enzymology , Onions/genetics
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 431-436, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Whereas the effects of the substances found in domestic sewage on live organisms is important to evaluate the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. The objective of this study was to assess the phytoremediation activity of Allium cepa L. (onion) roots exposed to raw sewage, as well as the acute toxic activity of this effluent for the bioindicators A. cepa, through a cytotoxicity test, and Artemia salina L., through a mortality/immobility test. The physicochemical assessments of the sewage were conducted in two scenarios: immediately after collection and after being in contact with onion roots (phytoremediation) for 24 hours. The physicochemical data indicate there was a reduction in nitrogen and phosphorus levels and in biochemical oxygen demand in sewage treated. The results from the cytotoxicity test with A. cepa indicated a reduction in the mitotic cell divisions of the onions treated with the raw sewage. The mortality/immobility test with A. salina indicated that the concentrations with 50 and 100% of raw sewage induced the mortality of the nauplii. Thus, the data suggest new studies that seek greater efficiency, efficacy and viability of onion phytoremediation.


Resumo Considerando os efeitos das substâncias encontradas no esgoto doméstico em organismos vivos, é importante avaliar o uso de plantas para remover poluentes do meio ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade de fitorremediação de raízes de Allium cepa L. (cebola) expostas ao esgoto bruto, bem como a atividade tóxica aguda desse efluente para os bioindicadores A. cepa, através de um teste de citotoxicidade, e Artemia salina L., através de um teste de mortalidade/imobilidade. As avaliações físico-químicas do esgoto foram realizadas em dois cenários: imediatamente após a coleta e após contato com raízes de cebola (fitorremediação) por 24 horas. Os dados físico-químicos indicam que houve redução nos níveis de nitrogênio e fósforo e na demanda bioquímica de oxigênio no esgoto tratado. Os resultados do teste de citotoxicidade com A. cepa indicaram uma redução nas divisões celulares mitóticas das cebolas tratadas com o esgoto bruto. O teste de mortalidade/imobilidade com A. salina indicou que as concentrações com 50 e 100% de esgoto bruto induziram a mortalidade dos náuplios. Assim, os dados sugerem novos estudos que busquem maior eficiência, eficácia e viabilidade de fitorremediação das cebolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sewage , Onions , Phosphorus , Biodegradation, Environmental , Plant Roots
15.
São Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1276-1289, july/aug. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048933

ABSTRACT

In this study, leftover roots of Sansing green onions grown without toxic chemicals in Sansing Township, Ilan County, Taiwan were used as a raw material of skincare products. The raw material was extracted from the green onion roots by ultrasound in a low-temperature, safe and pollution-free environment. We hope to develop cleansers and other facial care products made of this natural, environmentally friendly, safe and affordable raw material so that people with sensitive skin can also use these products. We also hope that this study can contribute to circular economy and achieve the goal of green innovation by recycling the leftover roots. In terms of anti-oxidation, the DPPH free radical scavenging ability of 2.5 mg/mL green onion root extract was equivalent to 98% of that of 1 mg/mL BHT; the Fe2+ chelating ability was equivalent to 87.0% of that of 0.02 mg/mL EDTA; the superoxide anions scavenging ability of 2.5 mg/mL green onion root extract was equivalent to 84.2% of that of 1 mg/mL BHT and 80.4% of that of 0.05 mg/mL vitamin C. With respect to melanin synthesis inhibition, the green onion root extract's ability to inhibit dopachrome, the intermediate product of melanin, was positively correlated to its concentration, i.e., the higher the concentration of the green onion root extract, the better the inhibition ability. The IC50 of green onion root extract was 1.83 mg/mL, while, for comparison, the IC50 of vitamin C was 0.62 mg/mL. Furthermore, according to the cell survival assay, no obvious cytotoxic effect was found with the increase in the concentration of the green onion root extract. The whitening effect improved after 30 days of test. The improvement rate was 5.6% for 2.5 mg/mL green onion root extract, 3.1% for 1.25 mg/mL extract, and 1.7% for 0.625 mg/mL extract. The moisture retention also improved after 30 days of test. The moisture retention improvement rate was 22.7% for 2.5 mg/mL green onion root extract, 21.6% for 1.25 mg/mL extract, and 15.4% for 0.625 mg/mL extract. Based on the experiments, the green onion root extract obtained from ultrasound not only did not cause skin allergy and irritation but also showed anti-aging, melanin synthesis inhibition, whitening and moisture retention effects. The results showed that the green onion root extract can improve the moisture retention and whitening effect of the mask.


Neste estudo, restos de raízes de cebolinhas Sansing, cultivadas sem produtos químicos tóxicos no município de Sansing, Condado de Ilan, Taiwan, foram utilizadas como matéria-prima de produtos para a pele. A matéria-prima foi extraída das raízes de cebolinha por ultrassom em um ambiente de baixa temperatura, seguro e livre de poluição. Esperamos desenvolver produtos de limpeza e outros produtos para cuidados faciais produzidos com essa matéria-prima natural, ecologicamente correta, segura e acessível, para Improvement rate (%) Moisture retention Whitening effect 7.65 1.29 que pessoas com pele sensível também possam usar esses produtos. Também esperamos que este estudo possa contribuir para a economia circular e alcançar o objetivo da inovação ecológica, reciclando restos das raízes. Em termos de anti-oxidação, a capacidade de sequestro do radical livre DPPH de 2,5 mg/mL de extrato de raiz de cebolinha foi equivalente a 98% de 1 mg/mL de BHT; a capacidade quelante do Fe2+ foi equivalente a87,0% de 0,02 mg/mL de EDTA; a capacidade de sequestro de ânions superóxidos de 2,5 mg/mL de extrato de raiz de cebolinha foi equivalente a 84,2% de 1 mg/mL BHT e 80,4% de 0,05 mg/mL de vitamina C. No que diz respeito à inibição da síntese de melanina, a capacidade do extrato de raiz de cebolinha de inibir o dopacrômio, o metabolito intermediário de melanina, foi positivamente correlacionada com a sua concentração, ou seja, quanto maior a concentração do extrato de raiz de cebolinha, maior a capacidade de inibição. O IC50 de extrato de raiz de cebolinha foi de 1,83 mg/mL, enquanto que, por comparação, o IC50 de vitamina C foi de 0,62mg/mL. Além disso, de acordo com o ensaio de sobrevivência celular, nenhum efeito citotóxico foi observado com o aumento da concentração do extrato de raiz de cebolinha. O efeito de branqueamento melhora após 30 dias de ensaio. A melhoria foi de 5,6% para 2,5 mg/mL de extrato de raiz de cebolinha, 3,1% para 1,25 mg/mL de extrato e 1,7% para 0,625 mg/mL de extrato. A retenção de umidade também melhorou depois de 30 dias de teste. A taxa de melhoria de retenção de umidade foi de 22,7% para 2,5 mg/mL de extrato de raiz de cebolinha, 21,6% para 1,25 mg/mL de extrato, e 15,4% para 0,625 mg/mL de extrato.Com base nas experiências efetuadas, o extrato de raiz de cebolinha obtida por ultrassom não só não causa alergia nem irritação da pele, mas também demonstrou atividade anti-envelhecimento, inibição da síntese de melanina, capacidade de branqueamento e retenção de umidade. Os resultados mostraram que o extrato de raiz de cebolinha pode melhorar a retenção de umidade e efeito de branqueamento da máscara.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots , Onions , Cosmetics , Antioxidants
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 405-408, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774590

ABSTRACT

Congchi Decoction in Zhouhou Beiji Fang is a prescription commonly used in treating light exterior wind-cold syndrome.Fistular Onion Stalk in the prescription has the effects in inducing sweat and dispelling exogenous evils and accelerating Yang Qi,and has been recorded in many medical books. In addition to be used to treat light exterior wind-cold syndrome,Fistular Onion Stalk is also used extensively and uniquely to treat restlessness after cholera,febrile disease,thoracic obstruction,Yin-Yang toxin syndrome,consumptive disease,bellyache due to spleen Qi deficiency according to Zhouhou Beiji Fang. However,there is still lack of the research on whether Fistular Onion Stalk is derived from shallot or scallion. The authors analyzed the sources of Fistular Onion Stalk in the prescription of Congchi Decoction by consulting ancient books,and studying the plant morphology of shallot,the characteristic and effect of Fistular Onion Stalk and the historical physicians' clinical application of Fistular Onion Stalk,the completion and popularity of Zhouhou Beiji Fang,the ratio of water to medicine of Congchi Decoction and the chemical ingredients of Fistular Onion Stalk. Finally,the authors concluded that Fistular Onion Stalk in the Congchi Decoction refers to Scallion bulbs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Onions , Chemistry , Yin-Yang
18.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 381-392, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761798

ABSTRACT

Sperm function and male fertility are closely related to pH dependent K⁺ current (KSper) in human sperm, which is most likely composed of Slo3 and its auxiliary subunit leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 52 (LRRC52). Onion peel extract (OPE) and its major active ingredient quercetin are widely used as fertility enhancers; however, the effect of OPE and quercetin on Slo3 has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of quercetin on human Slo3 channels. Human Slo3 and LRRC52 were co-transfected into HEK293 cells and pharmacological properties were studied with the whole cell patch clamp technique. We successfully expressed and measured pH sensitive and calcium insensitive Slo3 currents in HEK293 cells. We found that OPE and its key ingredient quercetin inhibit Slo3 currents. Inhibition by quercetin is dose dependent and this degree of inhibition decreases with elevating internal alkalization and internal free calcium concentrations. Functional moieties in the quercetin polyphenolic ring govern the degree of inhibition of Slo3 by quercetin, and the composition of such functional moieties are sensitive to the pH of the medium. These results suggest that quercetin inhibits Slo3 in a pH and calcium dependent manner. Therefore, we surmise that quercetin induced depolarization in spermatozoa may enhance the voltage gated proton channel (Hv1), and activate non-selective cation channels of sperm (CatSper) dependent calcium influx to trigger sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acrosome Reaction , Calcium , Fertility , HEK293 Cells , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Onions , Phosphatidylinositols , Protons , Quercetin , Sperm Capacitation , Spermatozoa
19.
Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association ; : 281-294, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786164

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to develop fermented vegetable juices that possess antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Lactobacillus plantarum MKHA15 (MKHA15) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides MKSR (MKSR) were applied to ferment onion, cabbage, and tomato juices at 37℃ and 30℃ for 72 h, respectively, and their functionality was tested using the 12 h hour-fermented juice by MKHA15, and 48 h hour-fermented juice by MKSR. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity was observed in all fermented juices. The onion juice fermented by MKHA15 showed significantly higher α-glucosidase inhibition activity compared to other juices. All juices showed more than 70% inhibition of α-amylase activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of onion juice fermented by MKSR showed significantly lower activity than cabbage and tomato juices; however, no difference was observed between the types of starter cultures. The SOD-like activity of cabbage juice fermented by MKSR was the highest among the fermented juices. The juices fermented by MKHA15 showed higher reducing power than those by MKSR. Therefore, we believe that cabbage, onion and tomato juice fermented by MKHA15 and MKSR would be useful in probiotic juices, as they possess antidiabetic and antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Brassica , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus , Leuconostoc , Solanum lycopersicum , Onions , Probiotics , Vegetables
20.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(2): 65-70, set. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989213

ABSTRACT

Food flavorings in general are few studied for the toxicological aspect. This condition justifies toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessments of the substances. In the present study, the toxicity of banana, cherry and hazelnut flavorings was evaluated in meristematic cells of roots of Allium cepa, in pure form (as marketed) and in the concentrations of 12.5; 25 and 50%, after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Toxic potential of these food additives was also evaluated against Artemia salina nauplii at concentrations of 0.78; 1.56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 and 50%, after 24 hours of exposure. The three additives, in all treatments and times of analysis considered, caused significant inhibition of cell division in A. cepa, however did not cause cellular alterations to the evaluated meristems. These food flavorings also caused significant mortality to micro crustaceans with LC50<100 μg/mL. From this, under the conditions of mentioned analyzes, cherry, banana and hazelnut flavorings induced significant toxicity and cytotoxicity to the bioassays used.


En general, los aspectos toxicológicos de los saborizantes de los alimentos son poco estudiados. Esta condición justifica las evaluaciones de toxicidad, citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de estas sustancias. En el presente estudio, se evaluó la toxicidad de los aromas de plátano, cereza y avellana en células meristemáticas de raíces de Allium cepa, en forma pura (según comercializa) y en concentraciones de 12.5; 25 y 50%, después de 24 y 48 horas de exposición. El potencial tóxico de estos aditivos alimentarios también se evaluó frente a nauplios de Artemia salina a concentraciones de 0,78; 1,56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 y 50%, después de 24 horas de exposición. Los tres aditivos, en todos los tratamientos y tiempos de análisis considerados, causaron inhibición significativa de la división celular en A. cepa, sin embargo, no causaron alteraciones celulares a los meristemos evaluados. Estos saborizantes alimentarios también causaron una mortalidad significativa a microcrustáceos con LC50 <100 μg/ mL. A partir de esto, bajo las condiciones de los análisis descriptos, los aromatizantes de cereza, plátano y avellana indujeron toxicidad significativa y citotoxicidad para los bioensayos utilizados.


Subject(s)
Artemia/cytology , Meristem/cytology , Onions/cytology , Flavoring Agents/toxicity , Flavoring Agents/chemistry
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