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1.
Femina ; 51(9): 557-563, 20230930. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532481

ABSTRACT

O hormônio antimulleriano é secretado pelas células da granulosa dos folículos que estão em desenvolvimento no ovário. Por meio da sua dosagem, é possível avaliar a reserva ovariana. A mulher tem seu número máximo de oócitos no perío- do fetal, mas, conforme o tempo passa, existe uma queda do número de células germinativas. Desse modo, para mulheres que têm o desejo de engravidar, a dosa- gem de hormônios e a avaliação da reserva ovariana podem ajudar no processo. O objetivo do estudo foi encontrar evidências na literatura que comprovem que o hormônio antimulleriano é o melhor marcador da reserva ovariana. Para isso, foi realizada uma revisão integrativa, classificada como qualitativa; a busca de da- dos foi realizada no PubMed, utilizando a seguinte palavra-chave: "hormônio anti- mulleriano (HAM)". Foram encontrados oito artigos que abordavam diretamente o tema, e há evidências que corroboram a hipótese de que o hormônio antimulleria- no é um bom marcador da reserva ovariana, sendo necessários mais estudos para determinar a sua superioridade.


The anti-mullerian hormone is secreted by the granulosa cells of follicles that are developing in the ovary. Though its dosage is possible to evaluate the ovarian re- serve. Women have their maximum number of oocytes in the fetal period, but there is a decrease in the number of germinative cells as time goes by. Thus, women that desire to get pregnant can have hormones dosed and the ovarian reserve evalua- ted to help them with this process. The objective of this study was to find evidence in the literature that proves that the anti-mullerian hormone is the best marker of ovarian reserve. For this purpose, an integrative review was conducted, using the key word: "anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)". Eight articles were found on the subject and there is evidence that proves the hypothesis of the anti-mullerian hormone as a good marker, however more studies are needed to determine its superiority.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Anti-Mullerian Hormone/chemistry , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Oocytes , Cell Count/methods , Women's Health , Fertility
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(7): 393-400, July 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Endometriosis causes a decrease in oocyte quality. However, this mechanism is not fully understood. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of endometriosis on cumulus cell adenosine triphosphate ATP level, the number of mitochondria, and the oocyte maturity level. Methods A true experimental study with a post-test only control group design on experimental animals. Thirty-two mice were divided into control and endometriosis groups. Cumulus oocyte complex (COC) was obtained from all groups. Adenosine triphosphate level on cumulus cells was examined using the Elisa technique, the number of mitochondria was evaluated with a confocal laser scanning microscope and the oocyte maturity level was evaluated with an inverted microscope. Results The ATP level of cumulus cells and the number of mitochondria in the endometriosis group increased significantly (p < 0.05; p < 0.05) while the oocyte maturity level was significantly lower (p < 0.05). There was a significant relationship between ATP level of cumulus cells and the number of mitochondrial oocyte (p < 0.01). There was no significant relationship between cumulus cell ATP level and the number of mitochondrial oocytes with oocyte maturity level (p > 0.01; p > 0.01). The ROC curve showed that the number of mitochondrial oocytes (AUC = 0.672) tended to be more accurate than cumulus cell ATP level (AUC = 0.656) in determining the oocyte maturity level. Conclusion In endometriosis model mice, the ATP level of cumulus cells and the number of mitochondrial oocytes increased while the oocyte maturity level decreased. There was a correlation between the increase in ATP level of cumulus cells and an increase in the number of mitochondrial oocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oocytes , Adenosine Triphosphate , Endometriosis , Cumulus Cells , Reproductive Health , Mitochondria
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 361-367, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982272

ABSTRACT

Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), generally defined as a decreased number or quality of oocytes, has a significant impact on quality of life and fertility in women. In recent years, the incidence of DOR has been increasing and the ages of patients are younger. The search for an effective DOR treatment has emerged as one of the preeminent research topics in reproductive health. An effective DOR therapy would improve ovarian function, fertility, and quality of life in patients. In this review we evaluated DOR treatment progress both in Western medicine and Chinese medicine, and elucidated the characteristics of each treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Ovarian Reserve , Quality of Life , Oocytes , Treatment Outcome , Infertility, Female/therapy
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 91-98, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970109

ABSTRACT

The ovary is the reproductive organ of female mammals, which is responsible for producing mature eggs and secreting sex hormones. The regulation of ovarian function involves the ordered activation and repression of genes related to cell growth and differentiation. In recent years, it has been found that histone posttranslational modification can affect DNA replication, damage repair and gene transcriptional activity. Some regulatory enzymes mediating histone modification are co-activators or co-inhibitors associated with transcription factors, which play important roles in the regulation of ovarian function and the development of ovary-related diseases. Therefore, this review outlines the dynamic patterns of common histone modifications (mainly acetylation and methylation) during the reproductive cycle and their regulation of gene expression for important molecular events, focusing on the mechanisms of follicle development and sex hormone secretion and function. For example, the specific dynamics of histone acetylation are important for the arrest and resumption of meiosis in oocytes, while histone (especially H3K4) methylation affects the maturation of oocytes by regulating their chromatin transcriptional activity and meiotic progression. Besides, histone acetylation or methylation can also promote the synthesis and secretion of steroid hormones before ovulation. Finally, the abnormal histone posttranslational modifications in the development of two common ovarian diseases (premature ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovary syndrome) are briefly described. It will provide a reference basis for understanding the complex regulation mechanism of ovarian function and further exploring the potential therapeutic targets of related diseases.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Histone Code , Histones , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Ovary , Oocytes , Mammals
5.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 997-1004, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008158

ABSTRACT

Melatonin,an endocrine hormone synthesized by the pineal gland,plays an important role in the reproduction.The growth and development of follicles is the basis of female mammalian fertility.Follicles have a high concentration of melatonin.Melatonin receptors exist on ovarian granulosa cells,follicle cells,and oocytes.It regulates the growth and development of these cells and the maturation and atresia of follicles,affecting female fertility.This paper reviews the protective effects and regulatory mechanisms of melatonin on the development of ovarian follicles,granulosa cells,and oocytes and makes an outlook on the therapeutic potential of melatonin for ovarian injury,underpinning the clinical application of melatonin in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Melatonin/pharmacology , Ovarian Follicle , Oocytes , Granulosa Cells/physiology , Mammals
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249158, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339346

ABSTRACT

Abstract The knowledge of the testicular and ovarian morphology of a particular fish species is of paramount importance. Such analyze enables the development of studies and techniques aiming the improvement of their reproduction, management, commercialization and even their conservation. This study performed the ovarian and testicular characterization of the ornamental Amazon fish Serrapinnus kriegi. A total of three males and three females had their gonads analyzed by optical microscopy. Females present ovaries filled with oocytes in asynchronous development, indicating partial spawning in the species. Moreover, the micropyle and micropilar cell formation was observed in primary growing oocytes, representing a precocious oocyte development; and the zona radiata in the final vitellogenic oocytes is thicker than other related species, evidencing the development of a better protection to the embryos in function of the waters' turbulence that characterize it spawning sites in the Amazonian streams. The male specimens' present anastomosed tubular testes with unrestricted spermatogonia spread along the entire seminiferous tubules. The present data elucidate the dynamic of spermatogenesis and oogenesis of an ornamental Amazonian species, through the description of the male and female germ cells development.


Resumo O conhecimento da morfologia testicular e ovariana de uma determinada espécie de peixe é de suma importância, pois através destas análises é possível o desenvolvimento de estudos e técnicas visando o melhoramento de sua reprodução, manejo e comercialização e até mesmo auxiliar em sua conservação. Este estudo realizou a caracterização ovariana e testicular do peixe Amazônico ornamental Serrapinnus kriegi. Um total de três machos e três fêmeas tiveram suas gônadas analisadas através de microscopia óptica. As fêmeas apresentam ovários preenchidos por oócitos em desenvolvimento assincrônico, indicando desova parcelada da espécie. Além disso, observou-se a formação de micrópila e célula micropilar em oócitos em crescimento primário, representando o desenvolvimento precoce do oócito; a zona radiata nos oócitos vitelogênicos finais é mais espessa em comparação a outras espécies relacionadas, evidenciando o desenvolvimento de uma melhor proteção aos embriões, em função das águas turbulentas que caracterizam seu local de desova nos córregos amazônicos. Os machos apresentam testículos do tipo tubular anastomosado com espermatogônias irrestritas, espalhadas por todo o túbulo seminífero. Os dados apresentados elucidam a dinâmica da espermatogênese e oogênese de uma espécie de peixe ornamental amazônica, por meio da descrição das células germinativas masculinas e femininas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Characidae , Oocytes , Oogenesis , Ovary , Testis , Gonads
7.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1313-1324, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414506

ABSTRACT

A manipulação de oócitos inclusos em folículos ovarianos pré-antrais (MOIFOPA) vem sendo estudada pensando na perspectiva futura de aplicação direta na reprodução humana, principalmente para mulheres que sofrem de doenças ou que precisam passar por tratamentos que interferem na função ovariana. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é revisar aspectos relacionados com a biotécnica de MOIFOPA e a importância dos antioxidantes no cultivo in vitro de folículos pré-antrais. Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, buscando artigos sobre a biotécnica, principalmente relacionados com a necessidade do uso de antioxidantes no cultivo. A grande maioria dos estudos sobre a biotécnica utilizam como modelo experimental os folículos ovarianos de diferentes espécies de animais. A MOIFOPA compreende o isolamento e o resgate de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais provenientes de ovários, seguido da conservação através da técnica de resfriamento ou congelação e o cultivo folicular in vitro, a fim de promover o crescimento, a maturação e a fecundação in vitro (FIV) dos oócitos inclusos nesses folículos, maximizando o potencial reprodutivo feminino e diminuindo a atresia folicular que acontece in vivo. Um aspecto que pode interferir no sucesso do cultivo in vitro de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais é a produção em excesso de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs). Os ácidos ascórbico e alfa lipóico vem demonstrando resultados interessantes para reduzir os efeitos que as EROs causam sobre os folículos ovarianos pré-antrais cultivados in vitro.


The manipulation of oocytes included in preantral ovarian follicles (MOEPF) has been studied considering the future perspective of direct application in human reproduction, especially for women who suffer from diseases or who need to undergo treatments that interfere with ovarian function. In this context, the objective of this paper is to review aspects related to the biotechnology of MOIFOPA and the importance of antioxidants. A search was carried out in the PubMed database, searching for articles on biotechnology, mainly related to the need to use antioxidants in cultivation. The vast majority of studies on biotechnology use ovarian follicles from different species of animals as an experimental model. MOIFOPA comprises the isolation and rescue of preantral ovarian follicles from ovaries, followed by conservation through the cooling or freezing technique and in vitro follicular cultivation, in order to promote growth, maturation and in vitro fertilization ( IVF) of the oocytes included in these follicles, maximizing the female reproductive potential and decreasing the follicular atresia that occurs in vivo. One aspect that may interfere with the success of in vitro culture of preantral ovarian follicles is the excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ascorbic and alpha lipoic acids have shown interesting results in reducing the effects that ROS cause on in vitro cultured preantral ovarian follicles.


manipulación de ovocitos incluidos en folículos ováricos preantrales (MOIFOPA) se ha estudiado con la perspectiva futura de su aplicación directa en la reproducción humana, especialmente en mujeres que padecen enfermedades o que necesitan someterse a tratamientos que interfieren en la función ovárica. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los aspectos relacionados con la biotécnica de MOIFOPA y la importancia de los antioxidantes en el cultivo in vitro de los folículos pré-antrais. Se realizó una investigación en la base de datos PubMed, buscando artículos sobre la biotecnología, principalmente relacionados con la necesidad del uso de antioxidantes en el cultivo. La mayoría de los estudios sobre biotecnología utilizan como modelo experimental los folículos ováricos de diferentes especies de animales. El MOIFOPA incluye el aislamiento y rescate de los folículos ováricos preantrales de los ovarios, seguido de su conservación mediante la técnica de enfriamiento o congelación y el cultivo folicular in vitro, con el fin de promover el crecimiento, la maduración y la fecundación in vitro (FIV) de los ovocitos incluidos en estos folículos, maximizando el potencial reproductivo femenino y disminuyendo la atresia folicular que se produce in vivo. Un aspecto que puede interferir en el éxito del cultivo in vitro de folículos ováricos preantrales es la producción excesiva de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS). El ácido ascórbico y el ácido alfa lipoico han mostrado resultados interesantes para reducir los efectos que causan las ERO en los folículos ováricos preantrales cultivados in vitro.


Subject(s)
Oocytes , Ovarian Follicle , Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid , Biotechnology , Fertilization in Vitro , Oxidative Stress , Follicular Atresia , Lipoproteins
8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(3): 245-250, Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387877

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the effectiveness of single-dose gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist administration, the day after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) triggering for final oocyte maturation, on the prevention of premature luteinization in patients with diminished ovarian reserve in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The secondary objective of the study was to search the effect of this protocol on pregnancy outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective study including 267 infertile patients who have single antral follicle seen with ultrasonography on the 2nd or 3rd day of the menstrual cycle before starting IVF treatment. We randomized patients into two groups. The case group comprised patients who had single-dose GnRH antagonist injection the day after hCG triggering formed, and the patients who had the standard treatment regime formed the control group. In both groups, the oocytes were collected 36 hours after hCG injection. Results The premature ovulation rate was significantly low in the case group compared with the control group (6.86 versus 20.6% per scheduled cycle) (p=0.022). Also, the oocyte retrieval rate (93.14 versus 67.87% per scheduled cycle) (p=0.013), the oocyte maturity rate (79.42 versus 47.87%) (p=0.041), the fertilization rate (65.68 versus 34.54%) (p=0.018), and the embryo transfer rate per scheduled cycle (44.11 versus 18.78%) (p=0.003) were higher in the GnRH antagonist group than in the control group. Conclusion The administration of GnRH antagonist the day after hCG trigger in IVF treatments of patients with diminished ovarian reserve enabled a significant decrease in the rate of premature ovulation but had no effect on live birth rate.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo retrospectivo foi investigar a eficácia da administração do antagonista do hormônio liberador da gonadotrofina (GnRH) em dose única no dia seguinte ao desencadeamento da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG) para a maturação final do oócito, na prevenção da luteinização prematura em pacientes com diminuição do ovário reserva em ciclos de fertilização in vitro (FIV). O objetivo secundário do estudo foi pesquisar o efeito deste protocolo nos resultados da gravidez. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo incluindo 267 pacientes inférteis que apresentam um único folículo antral visto por ultrassonografia no 2° ou 3° dia do ciclo menstrual antes de iniciar o tratamento de FIV. Nós randomizamos os pacientes em dois grupos. Os pacientes que receberam injeção de antagonista de GnRH em dose única no dia seguinte ao desencadeamento do hCG formaram o grupo caso, e os pacientes que receberam o regime de tratamento padrão formaram o grupo controle. Em ambos os grupos, os oócitos foram coletados 36 horas após a injeção de hCG. Resultados A taxa de ovulação prematura foi significativamente baixa no grupo caso em comparação com o grupo controle (6,86 versus 20,6% por ciclo programado) (p=0,022). Além disso, a taxa de recuperação de oócitos (93,14 versus 67,87% por ciclo programado) (p=0,013), a taxa de maturidade do oócito (79,42 versus 47,87%) (p=0,041), a taxa de fertilização (65,68 versus 34,54%) (p=0,018) e a taxa de transferência de embriões por ciclo programado (44,11 versus 18,78%) (p=0,003) foram maiores no grupo antagonista de GnRH do que no grupo controle. Conclusão A administração de antagonista de GnRH, no dia seguinte ao desencadeamento de hCG em tratamentos de FIV de pacientes com reserva ovariana diminuída permitiu uma redução significativa na taxa de ovulação precoce,mas não teve efeito na taxa de nascidos vivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Oocytes , Receptors, LHRH , Pregnancy Rate
10.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 142-148, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927858

ABSTRACT

Aurora kinase A (AURKA),a family member of aurora kinases,is involved in mitotic entry,maturation and separation of centrosome,assembly and stabilization of bipolar spindle,and condensation and separation of chromosome.Studies have demonstrated that AURKA plays a similar role in meiosis,while the specific mechanism and the similarities and differences in its role between meiosis and mitosis remain unclear.Therefore,we reviewed the studies about the localization and activation of AURKA in oocyte meiosis,and compared the role of AURKA in regulating spindle formation,activating spindle assembly checkpoint,and correcting the kinetochore-microtubule attachment between the meiosis of oocytes and the mitosis of somatic cells.This review will lay a theoretical foundation for revealing the mechanism of AURKA in the regulation of cell division and for the clinical research related to cancer and reproduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aurora Kinase A/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Chromosome Segregation , Meiosis , Oocytes
11.
Biol. Res ; 55: 34-34, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The assessment of oocyte quality is, nowadays, a major challenge in aquaculture, oocyte cryopreservation, and environmental science. Oocyte quality is a determining factor in fertilization and embryo development; however, there is still a lack of rapid and sensitive cellular markers for its assessment. Currently, its estimation is pre-dominantly based on morphological analysis, which is subjective and does not consistently reflect the developmental competence of the oocytes. Despite several recent studies investigating molecular markers related to oocyte quality, methods currently available for their determination pose various technical challenges and limitations. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on fluorescence spectroscopy to assess different intrinsic physiological parameters that can be employed to evaluate egg quality in marine invertebrates that are widely used as animal models such as sea urchins and mussels. RESULTS: Different physiological parameters, such as viability, mitochondrial activity, intracellular ROS levels, plasma membrane lipid peroxidation, and intracellular pH, for egg quality evaluation have been successfully assessed in sea urchins and mussels by using specific fluorescent dyes and detecting the fluorescent signals in eggs through fluorescence spectroscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we propose these physiological markers as useful predictors of egg quality in marine invertebrates; they can be estimated rapidly, selectively, and sensitively by employing this novel approach, which, due to the speed of analysis, the low cost, and easy use can be considered a powerful analytical tool for the egg quality assessment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oocytes/metabolism , Embryonic Development , Sea Urchins , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Cryopreservation/methods
12.
In. Kimelman Flechner, Dana; Taranto González, Fernando Carlos. Oncofertilidad: aspectos prácticos y abordaje interdisciplinario. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro FEFMUR, c2022. p.167-173.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1413662
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1269-1277, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355673

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to quantify the number and frequency of monocyte (MnOF) and multi-oocyte (MtOF) follicles in ovaries of bitches subjected to ovary salpingohysterectomy (OSH). Right and left ovaries of 38 bitches were collected after OSH, prepared, and a histological analysis was carried out. The ovaries were subjected to surface and deep histological cuts; the follicles were classified, and the number of follicles and cumulus oophorus complexes (COC) per follicle were quantified for each histological cut. MnOF and MtOF were found in all ovaries, at different developmental stages; primary follicles were grouped in the ovarian cortex, and follicles at other follicular stages presented a random distribution. MtOF containing two, three, four, or more COC were found in the ovaries of bitches, with a decreasing frequency trend, according to the number of COC in the MtOF. The effect of the age, number of estrus, estrus interval, and number of progenies per delivery was not significant for the number and frequency of MtOF in the ovaries of the bitches, whereas the size, number of pregnancies, use and number of contraceptive applications had some effect on the number and frequency of MtOF in the ovaries of the bitches.(AU)


Objetivou-se, com este estudo, quantificar o número e a frequência de folículos monocitários (MOF) e polioocitários (POF) provenientes de ovários de cadelas submetidas à ovariossalpingo-histerectomia (OSH). Para tanto, coletaram-se os ovários (direito e esquerdo) de 38 cadelas após OSH, com posterior preparação e análise histológica. Cada ovário foi submetido a dois cortes histológicos (superficial e profundo) onde se quantificou o número e a classificação dos folículos, bem como o número de complexos cumulus oophorus (COCs) por folículo em cada corte histológico. Observaram-se MOF e POF em todos os ovários estudados, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento, sendo os folículos primários agrupados no córtex ovariano, frente a uma distribuição aleatória dos outros estádios foliculares. FOPs contendo dois, três, quatro ou mais COCs foram observados nos ovários de todas as fêmeas estudadas, e sua frequência tendeu a diminuir de acordo com o número de COC presente no POF. Não se observou influência da idade, do número e do intervalo de estros, assim como do número de filhotes por gestação sobre o número/frequência de FOP nos ovários das cadelas estudadas, enquanto o porte, o número de gestações, o uso e o número de contraceptivo apresentaram algum grau de influência sobre o número/frequência de FOP nos ovários das cadelas estudadas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats , Oocytes/classification , Cumulus Cells/classification , Ovarian Follicle , Periodicity , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
14.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 29(2): 1-10, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364280

ABSTRACT

Resumen El consumo crónico de alcohol es un problema de salud mundial que afecta particularmente a la población femenina. Sin embargo, los efectos de la ingesta semicrónica en cantidades moderadas a bajas en el ovario y el oocito son poco conocidos. En un modelo murino, se administró etanol al 10% en agua de bebida (hembras tratadas) o agua (hembras control) por 15 días, y luego de la superovulación o no (ovulación espontánea), se analizó el ciclo estral y la calidad ovárico-gamética. En las hembras tratadas, la frecuencia y duración del diestro aumentó, y las frecuencias de folículos y cuerpos lúteos disminuyeron vs hembras controles, valores que se restauraron luego de la superovulación. Sin embargo, en las hembras tratadas, la tasa de proliferación celular folicular y el desbalance de la expresión ovárica de VEGF (factor de crecimiento endotelial) persistieron luego de la superovulación. El número de ovocitos ovulados con metafase II anormal, fragmentados y activados partenogenéticamente fue mayor en las hembras tratadas respecto las controles. En conclusión, el consumo semicrónico moderado de alcohol produce anestro, ciclo estral irregular, foliculogénesis deficiente y anomalías núcleo-citoplasmáticas en los oocitos ovulados. Estas alteraciones podrían constituirse en un factor etiológico de pérdida gestacional temprana y desarrollo embrionario anormal luego del consumo de alcohol.


Abstract Chronic alcohol consumption is a global health problem that particularly affects the female population. However, the ef-fects of semi-chronic ethanol intake in low-moderate amounts on the ovary and oocyte are poorly understood. In a mouse model, 10% ethanol was administered in drinking water (treated females) or water (control females) for 15 days, and after superovulation or not (spontaneous ovulation), the estrous cycle and ovarian-gametic quality were analyzed. In treated females, the frequency and duration of the diestrus increased, and the frequencies of follicles and corpus luteum decreased vs control females, values that restored after superovulation. However, in treated females, the follicular cell proliferation rate and the imbalance in ovarian expression of VEGF (endothelial growth factor) persisted after superovulation. The number of ovulated oocytes with abnormal metaphase II, fragmented and parthenogenetically activated was higher in treated females than in control ones. In conclusion, moderate semi-chronic alcohol consumption produces anestrum, irregular estrous cycle, poor folliculogenesis, and nuclear-cytoplasmic abnormalities in ovulated oocytes. These alterations could constitute an etiological factor of early gestational loss and abnormal embryonic development after alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mice , Oocytes/drug effects , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Ethanol/adverse effects , Ovarian Follicle/drug effects , Ovary/cytology , Ovary/drug effects , Oviducts/cytology , Oviducts/drug effects , Ovulation/drug effects , Models, Animal , Estrous Cycle/drug effects , Cell Proliferation , Germ Cells/cytology , Germ Cells/drug effects , Ovarian Follicle/cytology
15.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(6): 480-486, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341135

ABSTRACT

Abstract The process of ovulation involves multiple and iterrelated genetic, biochemical, and morphological events: cessation of the proliferation of granulosa cells, resumption of oocyte meiosis, expansion of cumulus cell-oocyte complexes, digestion of the follicle wall, and extrusion of the metaphase-II oocyte. The present narrative review examines these interrelated steps in detail. The combined or isolated roles of the folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are highlighted. Genes indiced by the FSH genes are relevant in the cumulus expansion, and LH-induced genes are critical for the resumption ofmeiosis and digestion of the follicle wall. A nonhuman model for follicle-wall digestion and oocyte release was provided.


Resumo O processo de ovulação envolve modificações genéticas, bioquímicas e morfológicas múltiplas e interrelacionadas: suspensão da proliferação das células da granulosa, reinício da meiose do oócito, expansão das células do complexo cumulus-oócito, digestão da parede folicular, e extrusão do oócito. Esta revisão narrativa examina em detalhes cada um desses eventos e os principais genes e proteínas envolvidos. Mais importante, a ação combinada ou isolada do hormônio folículo-estimulante (HFE) e do hormônio luteinizante (HL) é destacada. Detalha-se o papel do HFE na expansão do cumulus e do HL na digestão da parede folicular, permitindo a extrusão do oócito na superfície ovariana. Proveu-se um modelo não humano para explicar a digestão da parede folicular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Ovulation/physiology , Luteinizing Hormone/physiology , Oocytes/growth & development , Ovulation/genetics , Luteinizing Hormone/genetics , Signal Transduction , Models, Animal , Cumulus Cells/physiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/physiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/genetics , Ovarian Follicle/growth & development , Granulosa Cells/physiology , Meiosis/physiology , Meiosis/genetics
16.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 119-125, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156088

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To investigate whether follicular fluid (FF) from infertile women with mild endometriosis (ME) alters in vitro bovine embryo development, and whether the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and/or L-carnitine (LC) could prevent such damages. Methods Follicular fluid was obtained from infertile women (11 with ME and 11 control). Bovine oocytes were matured in vitro divided in: No-FF, with 1% of FF from control women (CFF) or ME women (MEFF); with 1.5mM NAC (CFF + NAC, MEFF + NAC), with 0.6mg/mL LC (CFF + LC, MEFF + LC), or both antioxidants (CFF + NAC + LC, MEFF + NAC + LC). After in vitro fertilization, in vitro embryo culture was performed for 9 days. Results A total of 883 presumptive zygotes were cultured in vitro. No differences were observed in cleavage rate (p = 0.5376) and blastocyst formation rate (p = 0.4249). However, the MEFF group (12.5%) had lower hatching rate than the No-FF (42.1%, p = 0.029) and CFF (42.9%, p = 0.036) groups. Addition of antioxidants in the group with CFF did not alter hatching rate (p ≥ 0.56), and in groups with MEFF, just NAC increased the hatching rate [(MEFF: 12.5% versus MEFF + NAC: 44.4% (p = 0.02); vs MEFF + LC: 18.8% (p = 0.79); versus MEFF + NAC + LC: 30.8% (p = 0.22)]. Conclusion Therefore, FF from infertile women with ME added to medium of in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes impairs hatching rate, and NAC prevented these damages, suggesting involvement of oxidative stress in worst of oocyte and embryo quality of women with ME.


Resumo Objetivo Investigar se o fluido folicular (FF) de mulheres inférteis com endometriose leve (ME, na sigla eminglês) altera o desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões bovinos, e se os antioxidantes N-acetil-cisteína (NAC) e/ou L-carnitina (LC) poderiam prevenir possíveis danos. Métodos O FF foi obtido de mulheres inférteis (11 com ME e 11 controles). Oócitos bovinos foram maturados in vitro divididos em: sem FF (No-FF), com 1% de FF de mulheres controle (CFF) ou mulheres comME (MEFF); com 1,5mMde NAC (CFF + NAC, MEFF + NAC), com 0,6mg/mL de LC (CFF + LC, MEFF + LC), ou ambos antioxidantes (CFF + NAC + LC, MEFF + NAC + LC). Depois da fertilização in vitro, o cultivo in vitro de embriões foi realizado por 9 dias. Resultados Um total de 883 zigotos presumidos foram cultivados in vitro. Nenhuma diferença foi observada na taxa de clivagem (p = 0,5376) e na taxa de formação de blastocistos (p = 0,4249). Entretanto, o grupo MEFF (12.5%) teve menor taxa de eclosão de blastocistos do que os grupos No-FF (42,1%, p = 0,029) e CFF (42,9%, p = 0,036). Adição de antioxidantes no grupo comCFF não alterou a taxa de eclosão (p ≥ 0.56), e nos grupos com MEFF, somente a NAC aumentou a taxa de eclosão [(MEFF: 12.5% versus MEFF + NAC: 44.4% (p = 0.02); versus MEFF + LC: 18.8% (p = 0.79); versus MEFF + NAC + LC: 30.8% (p = 0.22)]. Conclusão Portanto, o FF de mulheres inférteis com ME adicionado ao meio de maturação in vitro de oócitos bovinos prejudica a taxa de closão embrionária, e a NAC preveniu esses danos, sugerindo o envolvimento do estresse oxidativo na piora da qualidade oocitária e embrionária de mulheres com ME.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Endometriosis , Infertility, Female , Oocytes , Follicular Fluid/metabolism , Embryonic Development , Disease Models, Animal
17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(1): 60-66, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152880

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 (ADAMTS-4) and ADAMTS-5 normal expression levels are essential for ovulation and subsequent fertilization. The objective of the present study was to assess expression pattern of these genes in cumulus cells (CCs) taken from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate any possible relationship with the oocyte quality. Subjects and methods: ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression levels within CCs containing oocytes at the metaphase II (MII) and germinal vesicle (GV) stages, taken from 35 patients with PCOS and 35 women with normal ovarian function, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Moreover, possible correlations between ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, and progesterone receptors (PRs) expression as well as oocyte quality were evaluated. Results: ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression levels were dramatically diminished in the CCs of the PCOS patients when compared to the controls. ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression levels were correlated with each other and with the oocyte quality. Furthermore, lower expression levels of ADAMTS-4 and -5 in the PCOS patients were strongly correlated with the diminished PRs expression levels. Conclusions: Downregulation of ADAMTS-4 and -5 in the human CCs of the PCOS patients correlated with the decline in the PRs expression, and impaired oocyte quality may cause lower oocyte recovery, maturation, and fertilization rate.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Oocytes , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics , ADAMTS4 Protein/genetics , ADAMTS5 Protein/genetics , Down-Regulation
18.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 7-28, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880895

ABSTRACT

Mammalian fertilization begins with the fusion of two specialized gametes, followed by major epigenetic remodeling leading to the formation of a totipotent embryo. During the development of the pre-implantation embryo, precise reprogramming progress is a prerequisite for avoiding developmental defects or embryonic lethality, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. For the past few years, unprecedented breakthroughs have been made in mapping the regulatory network of dynamic epigenomes during mammalian early embryo development, taking advantage of multiple advances and innovations in low-input genome-wide chromatin analysis technologies. The aim of this review is to highlight the most recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of epigenetic remodeling during early embryogenesis in mammals, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and 3D chromatin organization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA Methylation , DNA Transposable Elements , Embryo, Mammalian , Embryonic Development/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenome , Fertilization/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Histone Code , Histones/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Spermatozoa/metabolism
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 947-964, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922496

ABSTRACT

Parthenogenetic embryos, created by activation and diploidization of oocytes, arrest at mid-gestation for defective paternal imprints, which impair placental development. Also, viable offspring has not been obtained without genetic manipulation from parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) derived from parthenogenetic embryos, presumably attributable to their aberrant imprinting. We show that an unlimited number of oocytes can be derived from pESCs and produce healthy offspring. Moreover, normal expression of imprinted genes is found in the germ cells and the mice. pESCs exhibited imprinting consistent with exclusively maternal lineage, and higher X-chromosome activation compared to female ESCs derived from the same mouse genetic background. pESCs differentiated into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) and formed oocytes following in vivo transplantation into kidney capsule that produced fertile pups and reconstituted ovarian endocrine function. The transcriptome and methylation of imprinted and X-linked genes in pESC-PGCLCs closely resembled those of in vivo produced PGCs, consistent with efficient reprogramming of methylation and genomic imprinting. These results demonstrate that amplification of germ cells through parthenogenesis faithfully maintains maternal imprinting, offering a promising route for deriving functional oocytes and having potential in rebuilding ovarian endocrine function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Parthenogenesis
20.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 144-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880953

ABSTRACT

Oocyte cryopreservation is widely used for clinical and social reasons. Previous studies have demonstrated that conventional slow-freezing cryopreservation procedures, but not storage time, can alter the gene expression profiles of frozen oocytes. Whether vitrification procedures and the related frozen storage durations have any effects on the transcriptomes of human metaphase II oocytes remain unknown. Four women (30-32 years old) who had undergone IVF treatment were recruited for this study. RNA-Seq profiles of 3 fresh oocytes and 13 surviving vitrified-thawed oocytes (3, 3, 4, and 3 oocytes were cryostored for 1,2, 3, and 12 months) were analyzed at a single-cell resolution. A total of 1987 genes were differentially expressed in the 13 vitrified-thawed oocytes. However, no differentially expressed genes were found between any two groups among the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 12-month storage groups. Further analysis revealed that the aberrant genes in the vitrified oocytes were closely related to oogenesis and development. Our findings indicated that the effects of vitrification on the transcriptomes of mature human oocytes are induced by the procedure itself, suggesting that long-term cryostorage of human oocytes is safe.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Cryopreservation , Metaphase , Oocytes , RNA-Seq , Vitrification
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