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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879126

ABSTRACT

Isatidis Radix is the dried root of the Isatis indigotica, with pharmacological effects such as heat-clearing and detoxification, cooling blood and pharyngeal relief, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. It is often used clinically to prevent and treat influenza and other diseases. In this paper, relevant domestic and foreign literatures in recent years were summarized, and it was found that Isatidis Radix lignans, indole alkaloids, polysaccharides, etc. were the main active components against influenza virus. Then its pharmacological effects and the mechanism of action were reviewed, providing a basis for in-depth research on the antiviral effect of Isatidis Radix.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Isatis , Orthomyxoviridae , Plant Roots , Polysaccharides
2.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(2): 101-111, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340779

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La investigación y el interés por el virus influenza aviar han aumentado considerablemente en las últimas décadas en respuesta a los brotes de influenza aviar de alta patogenicidad en aves de corral y a su potencial zoonótico. Las aves silvestres acuáticas son el principal reservorio del virus en la naturaleza, por lo tanto, la comprensión de la dinámica de infección del virus influenza A (VIA) en estas poblaciones es fundamental para entender su potencial de persistencia en el ambiente y sus posibilidades de transmisión hacia aves domésticas y humanos. Se ha identificado que factores ambientales (como temperatura, precipitaciones, vegetación y características del paisaje, entre otros) pueden tener un importante rol en el mantenimiento y diseminación del virus en las zonas de concentración de aves silvestres. Sin embargo, los estudios que incluyen aspectos ecológicos del virus y que exploran la interacción entre la prevalencia del VIA en aves silvestres y el ambiente, continúan siendo escasos. En esta revisión se resumen los esfuerzos de investigación que se han realizado para identificar a los factores ambientales involucrados en la persistencia y transmisión del VIA en lugares de concentración de aves silvestres y cómo estos factores pueden incidir en la prevalencia del virus en estas poblaciones, generando diferencias en la presentación de la infección entre distintas zonas geográficas.


ABSTRACT Research and interest in avian influenza virus have increased considerably in recent decades in response to highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in poultry and its zoonotic potential. Wild waterfowl are the main reservoir of the virus, therefore studying the dynamics of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in these populations is essential in order to understand its potential persistence in the environment and transmission to poultry and humans. It has been identified that environmental factors (such as temperature, rainfall, vegetation and landscape characteristics, among others) can play an important role in the maintenance and dissemination of the virus in the areas of concentration of wild birds. However, studies that include ecological aspects of the virus and explore the interaction between the prevalence of IAV in wild birds and environmental factors remain scarce. This review summarizes research efforts that have been made to identify the environmental factors involved in the persistence and transmission of IAV in areas of wild bird concentration and how these factors may influence the prevalence of the virus in these populations, generating differences in the presentation of the infection among different geographical areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Orthomyxoviridae , Birds
3.
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1087250

ABSTRACT

As mais diversas pandemias passadas deixaram um legado na história com um número significativo de óbitos e de pessoas enfermas. Essa experiência é capaz de mostrar a necessidade de elaboração de Planos de Preparação para Enfrentamento de Pandemias, flexíveis e capazes de dar resposta que o problema requer. Assim, o propósito desta revisão é proporcionar informações relativas a preparação e respostas antes, durante e depois de uma pandemia de influenza, cumprir seu papel na organização do Sistema Único de Saúde, além de servir como guia aos gestores das unidades federadas, subsidiando-os na estratégia para enfrentamento de situações de emergência. O plano contém diretrizes gerais que são essenciais à ação dos serviços de saúde. O processo e as respostas a uma possível pandemia de influenza devem ser mais importantes que os detalhes específicos que podem ser inaplicáveis a uma nova situação. De acordo com essa afirmativa é que procuramos apresentar um plano conciso com a certeza de que uma ameaça ou uma pandemia de influenza aumenta o nível de exigência de necessidade de uma ação integrada. Pelo caráter genérico, o Plano Nacional apresenta orientações gerais necessárias à intervenção não só do setor saúde e específicas, face a uma situação de emergência. A conseqüência, a conveniência e as respostas específicas devem ser continuamente revisadas e atualizadas. De modo geral, o Plano reúne as diretrizes de acordo com os períodos e fases e os planos específicos por área, contendo as medidas e os procedimentos que devem ser adotados, encontram-se anexos sob forma de links.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthomyxoviridae , Disease Outbreaks , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Environmental Health Surveillance , Brazil/epidemiology , Sanitary Control of Airports and Aircrafts , Sanitary Control of Harbors and Crafts , Sanitary Control of Borders , Health Communication/methods
5.
Edumecentro ; 11(2): 5-18, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001882

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: las enfermedades tipo influenza son de fácil contagio y sus vías de transmisión difíciles de controlar si no son tratadas adecuadamente. Objetivo: determinar los conocimientos que poseen los estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil sobre las enfermedades tipo influenza. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal durante el mes de febrero de 2018. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción, y empíricos: la encuesta en forma de cuestionario para indagar sobre el conocimiento de los estudiantes sobre la influenza. Resultados: la totalidad de ellos refirió poseer conocimientos sobre el tema. El 96,32 % de los de pregrado identificaron como más frecuentes la transmisión de tipo viral y el contagio por contacto con persona enferma; mientras en posgrado el 100 % expresó conocimientos al respecto; la complicación habitual más señalada fue la automedicación referida por el 72 % en pregrado y en el posgrado por el 57 %. En relación con las medidas preventivas, manifestaron conocerlas el 87 % y 89 % en el pregrado y posgrado respectivamente. Conclusiones: se comprobó que el grado de conocimientos sobre las enfermedades tipo influenza en cuanto a transmisión, etiología, acciones de protección y medidas preventivas en estos estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil es aceptable, pero aún persisten algunas carencias identificadas en el estudio realizado.


ABSTRACT Background: influenza is an easily transmitted disease and its way of transmission is difficult to control if it is not properly treated. Objective: to determine the knowledge undergraduate and graduate students have on influenza-like disease at Guayaquil University Medical Sciences Faculty. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at Guayaquil University Medical Sciences Faculty, during the month of February 2018. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction, and empirical methods: the survey in the form of a questionnaire to inquire about students' knowledge on influenza. Results: all the students reported having knowledge on influenza. 96,32 % of the undergraduates identified the transmission of viral type by contact with the sick person as more frequent; in postgraduate studies 100 % expressed knowledge in this regard; the most common complication was self-medication referred by 72 % of undergraduate students in 72 % and in postgraduate students by 57 %. In relation to preventive measures, 87 % and 89 % expressed knowledge in undergraduate and postgraduate respectively. Conclusions: it was found that the degree of knowledge on the influenza-like disease in terms of transmission, etiology, protective actions and preventive measures in these students at Guayaquil University Medical Sciences Faculty is acceptable. There are still some shortcomings identified in the study carried out.


Subject(s)
Orthomyxoviridae , Students, Medical , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Education, Medical
6.
Infectio ; 23(2): 148-154, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989946

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar los factores sociodemográficos y fisiopatológicos de la neurotuberculosis (NTB) en los pacientes registrados en el Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis (PCT) del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico, desarrollado entre Julio del 2014 y Julio del 2017. Se diseñó una ficha que incluyó datos sociodemográficos, fisiopatológicos y las características al diagnóstico. Se obtuvieron las razones de prevalencia (RP) crudos y ajustados, con intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Participaron 1038 pacientes. El 16% de toda la población y de 34% de las tuberculosis extra pulmonares tenia NTB. La forma clínica más frecuente fue la meningoencefalitis tuberculosa (MEC TB) (96%). Dentro de las manifestaciones clínicas destacaron las convulsiones (22%), cefalea (20%), signos meníngeos (18%) y trastorno del sensorio (16%). La presencia de NTB estuvo asociada al diagnóstico de VIH (RPa: 2,06; IC95%: 1,53-2,76; Valor p<0,001), condición de alcoholismo (RPa: 1,53; IC95%: 1,04-2,25; Valor p=0,030) y género femenino (RPa: 1,40; IC95%: 1,06-1,84; Valor p=0,019). Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de VIH, condición de alcoholismo y el género femenino son factores asociados a mayor frecuencia de NTB en el Hospital Dos de Mayo.


Abstract Objective: To determine the sociodemographic and physiopathological factors of neurotuberculosis (NTB) in the patients registered in the Tuberculosis Control Program (TCP) of the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Materials and Methods: Analytical cross- sectional study, developed between July 2014 and 2017 July. We designed a card that included data sociodemographic, pathophysiological and the diagnostic characteristics. Were obtained prevalence ratio (RP) raw and adjusted, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: 1038 patients participated. 16% of the entire population and 34% of the extrapulmonary tuberculosis had NTB. The most common clinical form was tuberculous meningoencephalitis (MEC TB) (96%). Within the clinical manifestations emphasized the seizures (22%), headache (20%), meningeal signs (18%) and sensory disorder (16%). The presence of NTB was associated with the diagnosis of HIV (aPR: 2.06, 95%CI: 1.53-2.76, P value <0.001), alcoholism (aPR: 1.53, 95%CI: 1.04-2.25, p value = 0.030) and female gender (aPR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06-1.84, p value = 0.019). Conclusions: The diagnosis of HIV, condition of alcoholism and the female gender are factors associated with increased frequency of NTB in the Hospital Dos de Mayo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections , Demography , Epidemiological Monitoring , Orthomyxoviridae , Mortality , Colombia , Influenza, Human
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786188

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of influenza among infants and adolescents attending kindergartens and schools, proper quarantining of those who are ill is necessary. In this study, the rapid antigen test (RAT) was performed in patients to investigate the factors affecting the duration of virus shedding. The study included pediatric patients who were diagnosed with influenza by RAT at Daedong Hospital between November 2016 and April 2019. We identified the influenza subtype, age, gender, fever duration, oseltamivir medications, and time gap between fever subsided and RAT examination through chart review. A total of 330 patients were examined at discharge. The average age for RAT positive and negative patients was 6.32 ± 4.26 years and 8.47 ± 4.54 years, respectively. The average duration of fever for the RAT positive patients was 3.84 ± 1.09 days, and for those who were RAT negative was 4.191 ± 1.39. The average number of doses oseltamivir for RAT positive and negative patients was 7.68 ± 1.57 and 8.72 ± 1.37, respectively. The RAT was performed 24 to 48 hours after fever subsided (TG 24–48H group). At this time, 60 patients were positive and the rate of positive expression was 55.56%. Of the TG 48–72H group, 36 patients (26.09%) were positive. Of the TG 72–96H group, 18 patients (21.43%) were positive. Age, fever duration, number of doses oseltamivir and time gap after fever subsided were the factors that influenced the duration of influenza virus shedding. These factors should be considered during the quarantining influenza patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Fever , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Oseltamivir , Pediatrics , Rats , Virus Shedding
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of fine dust concentrations in the air on the incidence of viral respiratory infections in the Republic of Korea.METHODS: A time series analysis using R statistics was performed to determine the relationship between weekly concentrations of fine dust in the air and the incidences of acute respiratory tract infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (HAdV), rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV), human bocavirus (HBoV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and influenza virus (IFV), from the beginning of 2016 to the end of 2017. Correlations between various meteorological factors and the amount of fine dust were analyzed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. To analyze the relationship between viral infections and fine dust, a quasi-poisson analysis was performed.RESULTS: The incidence of the HAdV was proportional to fine dust and air temperature. The IFV was proportional to fine dust and relative humidity and was inversely proportional to temperature. The HMPV was proportional to fine dust, wind speed, and inversely proportional to relative humidity. The HCoV was proportional to micro dust, relative humidity, and inversely proportional to temperature. Both the HBoV and HPIV were directly proportional to fine dust, temperature, wind speed, and inversely proportional to relative humidity. The RSV was inversely proportional to fine dust, temperature, wind speed. A lag effect was observed for the influenza virus, in that its incidence increased 2–3 weeks later on the cumulative lag model.CONCLUSION: As the weekly average concentration of fine dust increases, the incidence of HAdV, HMPV, HCoV, HBoV, HPIV, and influenza increase.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Air Pollution , Coronavirus , Dust , Human bocavirus , Humans , Humidity , Incidence , Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Meteorological Concepts , Orthomyxoviridae , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Particulate Matter , Republic of Korea , Respiration Disorders , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinovirus , Wind
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719523

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Croup is a common respiratory disease in children. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, etiology, and seasonal variations of respiratory virus infections in children with croup. METHODS: From October 2009 to September 2017, children admitted with croup to Gachon University Gil Medical Center under the age of 18 years were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed patients' medical records. RESULTS: A total of 1,053 of 27,330 patients (3.9%) infected with lower respiratory infections were diagnosed as having croup. In the age distribution, croup was most common (50.0%) in children aged 1 to <2 years. There were 2 peaks, the major in summer (July to August) and the minor in spring (March to May). Parainfluenza virus type 1 (15.8%) was most prevalent and coincided with the summer peaks of croup. Influenza virus type B and parainfluenza virus type 3 were the most frequent etiologic agents in a spring peak of croup. Although parainfluenza virus type 1 was predominant of all ages, human coronavirus was a significant cause of croup in children younger than 1 year, whereas influenza virus played an important role in children above the age of 3 years. CONCLUSION: Seasonality and epidemiology of croup varied with age and regions. Two peaks of seasonal fluctuation were in summer and spring, which were related to the seasonality of respiratory viruses in croup. These results may be helpful in planning clinical and research needs.


Subject(s)
Age Distribution , Child , Coronavirus , Croup , Epidemiology , Humans , Medical Records , Orthomyxoviridae , Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used in the diverse field to evaluate influenza virus infection; for the surveillance, diagnosis, efficacy evaluation, and development of the vaccine. The aim of this study was to establish an ELISA for detecting HA strain-specific antibodies using recombinant pandemic A H1N1 (pH1N1) HA1 (rHA1) protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: rHA1 was produced in baculovirus system. The clinical performance of the developed ELISA was validated using human serum samples, by comparison with standard methods for detecting a neutralizing antibody; hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and microneutralization test (MNT). The ability of the ELISA system to evaluate the efficacy test of an influenza vaccine was explored by measuring antibody levels in the serum of vaccinated mice. RESULTS: Our ELISA could detect anti-rHA1 antibody in influenza-infected patients and vaccinated subjects. Compared to HI assay and MNT as reference methods, our method showed good performance in detection of anti-rHA1 antibody. Detection of the anti-rHA1 antibody in vaccinated mice and its correlation with titers in HI assay was also proved in a mice model. CONCLUSION: An ELISA system using rHA1 of pH1N1 influenza virus was developed, and showed good clinical performance in diagnosis of influenza virus infection and evaluation of the vaccination efficacy in both human and animal models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Baculoviridae , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Orthomyxoviridae , Pandemics , Vaccination
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The association between the spread of infectious diseases and climate parameters has been widely studied in recent decades. In this paper, we formulate, exploit, and compare three variations of the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model incorporating climate data. The SIR model is a well-studied model to investigate the dynamics of influenza viruses; however, the improved versions of the classic model have been developed by introducing external factors into the model. METHODS: The modification models are derived by multiplying a linear combination of three complementary factors, namely, temperature (T), precipitation (P), and humidity (H) by the transmission rate. The performance of these proposed models is evaluated against the standard model for two outbreak seasons. RESULTS: The values of the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) improved as they declined from 8.76 to 7.05 and from 98.12 to 93.01 for season 2013/14, respectively. Similarly, for season 2014/15, the RMSE and AIC decreased from 8.10 to 6.45 and from 117.73 to 107.91, respectively. The estimated values of R(t) in the framework of the standard and modified SIR models are also compared. CONCLUSIONS: Through simulations, we determined that among the studied environmental factors, precipitation showed the strongest correlation with the transmission dynamics of influenza. Moreover, the SIR+P+T model is the most efficient for simulating the behavioral dynamics of influenza in the area of interest.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , Climate , Communicable Diseases , Epidemiology , Humidity , Influenza, Human , Iran , Least-Squares Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae , Seasons
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760360

ABSTRACT

Equine influenza (EI) is the main cause of respiratory illness in equines across the globe and is caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV-A), which has impacted the equine industry internationally because of the marginal mortality and high morbidity. In the present study, the immune responses after equine influenza vaccination were evaluated in 4,144 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza virus (EIV), A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8), was used as the antigen in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 89.2% (97.4% in 2016, 77.6% in 2017, and 92.4% in 2018). This paper highlights the advances in understanding the effects of vaccines and control strategies for mitigating the emerging menace by EIV.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Hemagglutination , Horses , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Vaccination , Vaccines
13.
Immune Network ; : e33-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764027

ABSTRACT

Viperin is an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG)-encoded protein that was identified in human primary macrophages treated with IFN-γ and in human primary fibroblasts infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV). This protein plays multiple roles in various cell types. It inhibits viral replication, mediates signaling pathways, and regulates cellular metabolism. Recent studies have shown that viperin inhibits IFN expression in macrophages, while it enhances TLR7 and TLR9-mediated IFN production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, suggesting that viperin can play different roles in activation of the same pathway in different cell types. Viperin also controls induction of ISGs in macrophages. However, the effect of viperin on induction of ISGs in cell types other than macrophages is unknown. Here, we show that viperin differentially induces ISGs in 2 distinct cell types, macrophages and fibroblasts isolated from wild type and viperin knockout mice. Unlike in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), viperin downregulates the expression levels of ISGs such as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-2, Isg15, Isg54, myxovirus resistance dynamin like GTPase 2, and guanylate binding protein 2 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with type I or II IFN. However, viperin upregulates expression of these ISGs in both BMDMs and MEFs stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid or CpG DNA and infected with murine CMV. The efficiency of viral entry is inversely proportional to the expression levels of ISGs in both cell types. The data indicate that viperin differentially regulates induction of ISGs in a cell type-dependent manner, which might provide different innate immune responses in distinct cell types against infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carrier Proteins , Cytomegalovirus , Dendritic Cells , DNA , Dynamins , Fibroblasts , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , Macrophages , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae , Poly I-C
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763368

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Canine influenza virus (CIV), H3N2, carries potentiality for zoonotic transmission and genetic assortment which raises a concern on possible epidemics, and human threats in future. To manage possible threats, the development of rapid and effective methods of CIV vaccine production is required. The plant provides economical, safe, and robust production platform. We investigated whether hemagglutinin (HA) antigen from Korea-originated CIV could be produced in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce, Lactuca sativa by a DNA viral vector system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used DNA sequences of the HA gene from Korean CIV strain influenza A/canine/Korea/S3001/2015 (H3N2) for cloning into a geminiviral expression vectors to express recombinant HA (rHA) antigen in the plant. Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration was performed to introduce HA-carrying vector into host plants cells. Laboratory-grown N. benthamiana, and grocery-purchased or hydroponically-grown lettuce plant leaves were used as host plants. RESULTS: CIV rHA antigen was successfully expressed in host plant species both N. benthamiana and L. sativa by geminiviral vector. Both complex-glycosylated and basal-glycosylated form of rHA were produced in lettuce, depending on presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. In terms of rHA expression level, canine HA (H3N2) showed preference to the native signal peptide than ER retention signal peptide in the tested geminiviral vector system. CONCLUSION: Grocery-purchased lettuce leaves could serve as an instant host system for the transient expression of influenza antigen at the time of emergency. The geminiviral vector was able to induce expression of complex-glycosylated and basal-glycosylated rHA in lettuce and tobacco.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , DNA , Emergencies , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Influenza, Human , Lettuce , Orthomyxoviridae , Plant Leaves , Plants , Protein Sorting Signals , Tobacco
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The titer of influenza vaccine-induced antibodies declines over time, and younger children have lower immunogenicity and shorter duration of immunity. This study aimed to compare persistence of antibody at 6 months after influenza vaccination according to influenza virus strains, vaccine type, antigen dose, and primed status in children aged 6 to 35 months. METHODS: A total 124 healthy children aged 6 to 35 months were enrolled from September to December 2016 at 10 hospitals in Korea and randomly assigned to either a full dose of quadrivalent influenza vaccine or a half dose of trivalent influenza vaccine with Victoria B strain group. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers (that measure the seroprotection rates) were assessed for the recommended influenza strains at 6 months post vaccination. RESULTS: The seroprotection rates at 6 months for strains A (H1N1), A (H3N2), B/Yamagata, and B/Victoria were 88.7%, 97.4%, 36.6%, and 27.6%, respectively. The seroprotection rates for A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B (Victoria) were 91.4%, 98.7% and 27.5% in a full dose of quadrivalent vaccine vs. 83.7%, 94.6% and 27.9% in a half dose trivalent vaccine, respectively. The seroprotection rate for the B (Yamagata) strain was 23.8% in the quadrivalent group and 14.0% in the trivalent group. CONCLUSION: Persistence of antibodies at 6 months was more favorable against the influenza A strains than against the B strains. Persistence of antibodies to additional B strain at 6 months was superior in the quadrivalent vaccine group. The immunity of primed children with different B strains was not superior to that of the unprimed group with another B strain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Child , Hemagglutination , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Orthomyxoviridae , Vaccination , Victoria
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the frequency of respiratory viral infection in patients with pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not uncommon, clinical significance of the condition remains to be further elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics and outcomes of patients with pulmonary ARDS infected with influenza and other respiratory viruses. METHODS: Clinical data of patients with pulmonary ARDS infected with respiratory viruses January 2014–June 2018 were reviewed. Respiratory viral infection was identified by multiplex reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Among 126 patients who underwent multiplex RT-PCR, respiratory viral infection was identified in 46% (58/126): 28 patients with influenza and 30 patients with other respiratory viruses. There was no significant difference in baseline and clinical characteristics between patients with influenza and those with other respiratory viruses. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was more frequent in patients with influenza than in those with other respiratory viruses (32.1% vs 3.3%, p=0.006). Co-bacterial pathogens were more frequently isolated from respiratory samples of patients with pulmonary ARDS infected with influenza virus than those with other respiratory viruses. (53.6% vs 26.7%, p=0.036). There were no significant differences regarding clinical outcomes. In multivariate analysis, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II was associated with 30-mortality (odds ratio, 1.158; 95% confidence interval, 1.022–1.312; p=0.022). CONCLUSION: Respiratory viral infection was not uncommon in patients with pulmonary ARDS. Influenza virus was most commonly identified and was associated with more co-bacterial infection and ECMO therapy.


Subject(s)
APACHE , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Influenza, Human , Multivariate Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Distress Syndrome
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180249, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041556

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of influenza A virus (Flu-A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was assessed in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates and throat swabs were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect RSV and Flu-A and to conventional PCR to detect hMPV. RESULTS: Of the 156 children assessed, 93 (59.6%) carried at least one virus, with 35.9% positive for RSV, 14.1% for hMPV, and 9.6% for Flu-A. The prevalence of co-infections was 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high detection rate may reflect increased sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to traditional PCR and viral culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Iran/epidemiology
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 216-222, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The most common cause of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is respiratory infection. Most studies of bacterial or viral cause in AECOPD have been conducted in Western countries. We investigated bacterial and viral identification rates in AECOPD in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed medical records of 736 cases of AECOPD at the Korea University Guro Hospital. We analyzed bacterial and viral identification rates and classified infections according to epidemiological factors, such as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage, mortality, and seasonal variation. RESULTS: The numbers of AECOPD events involving only bacterial identification, only viral identification, bacterial-viral co-identification, and no identification were 200 (27.2%), 159 (21.6%), 107 (14.5%), and 270 (36.7%), respectively. The most common infectious bacteria identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.0%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (11.4%), and Haemophilus influenzae (5.3%); the most common viruses identified were influenza virus (12.4%), rhinovirus (9.4%), parainfluenza virus (5.2%), and metapneumovirus (4.9%). The bacterial identification rate tended to be higher at more advanced stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.020 overall, p=0.011 for P. aeruginosa, p=0.048 for S. pneumoniae). Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified more in mortality group (p=0.003 for S. aureus, p=0.009 for K. pneumoniae). All viruses were seasonal (i.e., greater prevalence in a particular season; p < 0.050). Influenza virus and rhinovirus were mainly identified in the winter, parainfluenza virus in the summer, and metapneumovirus in the spring. CONCLUSION: This information on the epidemiology of respiratory infections in AECOPD will improve the management of AECOPD using antibiotics and other treatments in Korea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Medical Records , Metapneumovirus , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Prevalence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinovirus , Seasons , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Estimating influenza-associated mortality is important since seasonal influenza affects persons of all ages, causing severe illness or death. This study aimed to estimate influenza-associated mortality, considering both periodic changes and age-specific mortality by influenza subtypes. METHODS: Using the Microdata Integrated Service from Statistics Korea, we collected weekly mortality data including cause of death. Laboratory surveillance data of respiratory viruses from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After adjusting for the annual age-specific population size, we used a negative binomial regression model by age group and influenza subtype. RESULTS: Overall, 1 859 890 deaths were observed and the average rate of influenza virus positivity was 14.7% (standard deviation [SD], 5.8), with the following subtype distribution: A(H1N1), 5.0% (SD, 5.8); A(H3N2), 4.4% (SD, 3.4); and B, 5.3% (SD, 3.7). As a result, among individuals under 65 years old, 6774 (0.51%) all-cause deaths, 2521 (3.05%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 1048 (18.23%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. Among those 65 years of age or older, 30 414 (2.27%) all-cause deaths, 16 411 (3.42%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 4906 (6.87%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was the major contributor to influenza-associated all-cause and respiratory or circulatory deaths in both age groups. However, influenza A(H1N1) virus–associated influenza or pneumonia deaths were more common in those under 65 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza-associated mortality was substantial during this period, especially in the elderly. By subtype, influenza A(H3N2) virus made the largest contribution to influenza-associated mortality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cause of Death , Cost of Illness , Humans , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Pneumonia , Population Density , Seasons
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