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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248828, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339354

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serum toxic metals have been implicated in development of many diseases. This study investigated the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of osteoporosis. Sixty Saudi male adults age matching were assigned into two groups: A healthy control group (n = 30) and osteoporosis patients diagnosed according to T-score (n = 30). Serum calcium, vitamin D, osteocalcin, lead, cadmium were measured. Osteoporotic group showed a highly significant elevation of blood lead and cadmium levels compared to the control group (p <0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with serum osteocalcin level compared with control. There was a significant negative correlation between the cadmium and lead levels (r=-0.465 and p-value = 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.004). Our findings suggested that high cadmium and lead were negative correlated to BMD and increased the risk factor for osteoporosis.


Resumo Os metais tóxicos do soro têm sido implicados no desenvolvimento de muitas doenças. Este estudo investigou a associação entre os níveis sanguíneos de chumbo e cádmio com densidade mineral óssea anormal (DMO) e incidência de osteoporose. Sessenta adultos sauditas do sexo masculino com idades iguais foram divididos em dois grupos: um grupo de controle saudável (n = 30) e pacientes com osteoporose diagnosticados de acordo com o T-score (n = 30). Cálcio sérico, vitamina D, osteocalcina, chumbo, cádmio foram medidos. O grupo osteoporótico apresentou elevação altamente significativa dos níveis de chumbo e cádmio no sangue em comparação ao grupo controle (p < 0,001). A DMO foi negativamente correlacionada com o nível de osteocalcina sérica em comparação com o controle. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis de cádmio e chumbo (r = -0,465 ep = 0,01) e cálcio (p < 0,004). Nossos achados sugeriram que cádmio e chumbo elevados foram correlacionados negativamente à DMO e aumentaram o fator de risco para osteoporose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Lead , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Osteocalcin , Incidence
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 335-337, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction One of the evaluation factors of human health is bone health, and an evaluation index of bone health is osteoporosis. Sports are an effective way to improve the human body. Objective The paper discusses the effects of different exercise intensities on human bone health. Methods The thesis selected 51 female college students, designed different exercise intensities of fitness running intervention programs, and conducted a 12-month exercise intervention. We divide female college students into three groups. The subjects' bone mineral density (BMD), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum osteocalcin (BGP) were tested before and after the experiment. Results The differences in femoral BMD, serum ALP, serum BGP, and lumbar spine BMD of the three groups of volunteers were significant (P<0.05), while the differences in ulna and radius BMD were not significant. Conclusions Sports can promote human bone health. At the same time, the effect of fitness running on human BMD is site-specific. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução Um dos fatores de avaliação da saúde humana é a saúde óssea, e um índice de avaliação da saúde óssea é a osteoporose. Os esportes são uma forma eficaz de melhorar o corpo humano. Objetivo o artigo discute os efeitos de diferentes intensidades de exercício na saúde óssea humana. Métodos A tese selecionou 51 universitárias, elaborou diferentes intensidades de exercícios em programas de intervenção de corrida de aptidão e conduziu uma intervenção de exercícios de 12 meses. Dividimos as universitárias em três grupos. A densidade mineral óssea (BMD), fosfatase alcalina sérica (ALP) e osteocalcina sérica (BGP) dos indivíduos foram testadas antes e depois do experimento. Resultados As diferenças na DMO femoral, ALP sérica, BGP sérica e DMO da coluna lombar dos três grupos de voluntários foram significativas (P <0,05), enquanto as diferenças na DMO da ulna e rádio não foram significativas. Conclusão O esporte pode promover a saúde óssea humana. Ao mesmo tempo, o efeito da corrida adaptativa na DMO humana é específico do local. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Uno de los factores de evaluación de la salud humana es la salud ósea y un índice de evaluación de la salud ósea es la osteoporosis. Los deportes son una forma eficaz de mejorar el cuerpo humano. Objetivo El artículo analiza los efectos de diferentes intensidades de ejercicio en la salud ósea humana. Métodos La tesis seleccionó a 51 estudiantes universitarias, diseñó diferentes intensidades de ejercicio de programas de intervención para correr y realizó una intervención de ejercicio de 12 meses. Dividimos a las estudiantes universitarias en tres grupos. La densidad mineral ósea (DMO), la fosfatasa alcalina sérica (ALP) y la osteocalcina sérica (BGP) de los sujetos se analizaron antes y después del experimento. Resultados Las diferencias en la DMO femoral, la ALP sérica, la BGP sérica y la DMO de la columna lumbar de los tres grupos de voluntarios fueron significativas (P <0,05), mientras que las diferencias en la DMO del cúbito y del radio no fueron significativas. Conclusión Los deportes pueden promover la salud ósea humana. Al mismo tiempo, el efecto de la actividad física en la DMO humana es específico del sitio. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bone and Bones/physiology , Bone Density , Osteocalcin/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , High-Intensity Interval Training
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation between the genotypes and metabolic markers and microstructure of bones in children with Gitelman syndrome (GS).@*METHODS@#For 15 children with GS and 10 healthy individuals, baseline data and bone metabolic markers including parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, beta isomer of the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography indicators (volumetric bone mineral density, bone microstructure indicators) were collected. Genetic testing was carried out to determine their genotypes.@*RESULTS@#The volumetric bone mineral density, bone geometry and bone microstructure parameters of the GS group were better than those of the healthy controls (P<0.05). Variants of the SLC12A3 gene were identified in 9 of the 15 patients but none of the 10 healthy controls.@*CONCLUSION@#The phenotype of GS children is influenced by the interaction of genetic variants, though the phenotype associated with high frequency mutations showed no specificity. There is also a correlation between their genotype and the bone microstructure.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Bone and Bones , Child , Collagen Type I/genetics , Genotype , Gitelman Syndrome , Humans , Osteocalcin/genetics , Peptide Fragments , Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 3
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(2): 143-151, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132278

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute sepsis in the periodontal ligament, alveolar and furcation bone in absence of periodontitis induction through histological and immunohistochemical analyses. A septic rat model was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Twelve rats were randomly divided into CLP (n=6) and Sham (n=6) groups. The animals were euthanized at 24 h and hemimandibles were submitted to histomorfometric (bone matrix, collagenous fibers, fibroblasts, osteocytes, inflammatory cells, and blood vessels) and immunohistochemical (BMP-2/4, RANKL and osteocalcin) evaluation in alveolar bone, furcation bone and periodontal ligament. Our results demonstrated that histomorphometric parameters were similar in alveolar bone, furcation bone and periodontal ligament of Sham and CLP rats. Regarding to immunohistochemical analyses, the number of BMP-2/4 and RANKL immunolabeled cells was also similar in both groups. Furthermore, it was detected a reduction in the osteocalcin immunolabeled cells in periodontal ligaments of CLP compared to Sham rats (p=0.0014). In conclusion, the acute sepsis induction resulted in reduced number of osteocalcin labelled cells in periodontal ligament region. Moreover, no significant histological differences were observed in the periodontium of rats under acute sepsis. Considering the role of osteocalcin in bone remodeling, the study contributes to revealing the importance of careful periodontal evaluation in the presence of sepsis.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da sepse aguda no ligamento periodontal, osso alveolar e osso da furca por meio de análise histológica e imunohistoquímica. O modelo de sepse em ratos foi estabelecido pelo procedimento de ligação e perfuração do ceco (CLP). Doze ratos foram divididos de forma randomizada em ratos sépticos (n=6) e controle - grupo Sham (n=6). Os animais foram eutanasiados após 24 horas e suas hemimandíbulas foram submetidas aos procedimentos histotécnicos para análise histomorfométricos (matriz óssea, fibras colágenas, fibroblastos, osteócitos, células inflamatórias e vasos sanguíneos) e imunohistoquímicos (BMP-2/4, RANKL e osteocalcina) no osso alveolar, osso de furca e ligamento periodontal. Nossos resultados demonstraram que os parâmetros histomorfométricos foram similares no osso alveolar, osso de furca e ligamento periodontal dos animais do grupo sepse e do grupo Sham. Em relação à análise por imunohistoquímica, o número de células imunomarcadas para BMP-2/4 e RANKL também foi similar em ambos os grupos. Entretanto, houve redução (p=0.0014) no número de células imunomarcadas para osteocalcina no ligamento periodontal de ratos sépticos em relação ao grupo Sham. Como conclusão, o estabelecimento de sepse aguda resultou em um número reduzido de células imunomarcadas para osteocalcina na região do ligamento periodontal (p=0,0014). Além disso, não foram observadas diferenças histológicas significativas no periodonto de ratos na presença de sepse aguda. Considerando o papel da osteocalcina na remodelação óssea, este estudo contribui para revelar a importância da avaliação periodontal cuidadosa na presença de sepse.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Periodontal Ligament , Osteocalcin , Sepsis , Disease Models, Animal , Ligation
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adequate suppression of bone turnover rate is important to decrease fracture risk without mineralization defect due to oversuppression. This study was performed to determine reference intervals (RIs) for 2 bone turnover markers, serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin, in Korean women.METHODS: A total of 461 Korean women (287 premenopausal and 174 postmenopausal) without any disease or drug history affecting bone metabolism was included. Serum CTX and osteocalcin were measured after overnight fasting. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the 1st to 4th lumbar vertebra using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects with normal spinal BMD (T-score ≥−1.0) were included in this study.RESULTS: After stable concentrations were maintained, both CTX and osteocalcin were abruptly increased in 50 to 59 years, and then decreased with increasing age. Median levels and interquartile range of serum CTX and osteocalcin in all subjects were 0.322 (0.212–0.461) ng/mL and 15.68 (11.38–19.91) ng/mL. RIs for serum CTX and osteocalcin in all subjects were 0.115 to 0.861 ng/mL and 6.46 to 36.76 ng/mL. Those were higher in postmenopausal women (CTX, 0.124–1.020 ng/mL, osteocalcin, 5.42–41.57 ng/mL) than in premenopausal women (CTX, 0.101–0.632 ng/mL, osteocalcin, 6.73–24.27 ng/mL). If we use target reference levels as lower half of premenopausal 30 to 45 years in patients with antiresorptive drugs, those were 0.101 to 0.251 ng/mL and 6.40 to 13.36 ng/mL.CONCLUSIONS: We established RIs for serum CTX and osteocalcin in healthy Korean women with normal lumbar spine BMD. Premenopausal RIs for serum CTX and osteocalcin would be useful to monitor patients with low bone mass using osteoporosis drugs.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Biomarkers , Bone Density , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Bone Remodeling , Collagen Type I , Fasting , Female , Humans , Metabolism , Miners , Osteocalcin , Osteoporosis , Reference Values , Spine
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811182

ABSTRACT

In terms of management of Paget's disease of bone (PDB), early diagnosis and proper management achieving remission is essential with lifelong specialist follow-up. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with PDB affecting mainly the distal extremities (ankle and wrist). The patient visited our hospital in 2012 with heel pain. Plain radiography revealed osteoporosis, and a bone scan revealed hot uptake. Initial laboratory investigations showed normal serum calcium, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels; however, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated. A bone mineral density scan showed T- and Z-scores of −2.5 and −2.7, respectively, and bisphosphonate treatment was initiated. Biopsy performed on the calcaneal lateral wall revealed inconclusive findings. Follow-up biopsy on the left distal radius was performed 7 years later to investigate wrist pain, and this examination led to a final diagnosis as PDB. We suggest inconclusive biopsy result during the early phase of PDB and highly recommend follow-up evaluation in osteoporosis with atypical behavior.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alkaline Phosphatase , Biopsy , Bone Density , Calcium , Collagen Type I , Diagnosis , Diphosphonates , Early Diagnosis , Extremities , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heel , Humans , Osteitis Deformans , Osteocalcin , Osteoporosis , Parathyroid Hormone , Radiography , Radius , Specialization , Wrist
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e014, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089383

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although dental implants and bone regenerative procedures are important approaches for the reestablishment of esthetics and function in young patients with a history of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), no predictable outcomes have been reported, and the host osteo-immunoinflammatory response may play a relevant role in this context. In view of the lack of molecular investigations into the bone tissue condition of young patients with periodontitis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of bone-related factors in this population. Bone biopsies were obtained from the posterior mandible in 16 individuals previously diagnosed with GAP and on periodontal support therapy and from 17 periodontally healthy (PH) patients. The gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and type I collagen (COL-I), important biomarkers of bone turnover, was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Lower TGF-β and OPG mRNA levels were observed in GAP patients compared to PH individuals (p ≤ 0.05). There were no between-group differences in levels of TNF-α, BSP, RANKL, OC, or COL-I mRNA (p>0.05). In young adults, a history of periodontal disease can negatively modulate the gene expression of important bone-related factors in alveolar bone tissue. These molecular outcomes may contribute to the future development of therapeutic approaches to benefit bone healing in young patients with history of periodontitis via modulation of osteo-immuno-inflammatory biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Aggressive Periodontitis/genetics , Gene Expression , Aggressive Periodontitis/metabolism , Reference Values , Biomarkers , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/genetics , Single-Blind Method , Cross-Sectional Studies , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/genetics , RANK Ligand/analysis , RANK Ligand/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/analysis , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/genetics , Alveolar Process/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e007, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055531

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cyclosporine administration on the repair of critical-sized calvaria defects (CSDs) in rat calvaria filled with diverse biomaterials. Sixty animals were divided into two groups: the control (CTR) group (saline solution) and the cyclosporine (CCP) group (cyclosporine, 10 mg/kg/day). These medications were administered daily by gavage, beginning 15 days before the surgical procedure and lasting until the day the animals were euthanized. A CSD (5 mm Ø) was made in the calvaria of each animal, which was allocated to one of 3 subgroups, according to the biomaterial used to fill the defect: coagulum (COA), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), or biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of hydroxyapatite and β-phosphate tricalcium (HA/TCP). Euthanasia of the animals was performed 15 and 60 days after the surgical procedure (n = 5 animals/period/subgroup). Bone repair (formation) assessment was performed through microtomography and histometry, while the analyses of the expression of the BMP2, Osteocalcin, and TGFβ1 proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry. The CSDs not filled with biomaterials demonstrated lower bone formation in the CCP group. At 15 days, less bone formation was observed in the CSDs filled with DBB, a smaller volume of mineralized tissue was observed in the CSDs filled with HA/TCP, and the expression levels of BMP2 and osteocalcin were lower in the CCP group compared to the CTR group. The use of cyclosporine impaired bone repair in CSD, and this effect can be partially explained by the suppression of BMP2 and osteocalcin expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Skull/drug effects , Skull/pathology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Osteocalcin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e007, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089397

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cyclosporine administration on the repair of critical-sized calvaria defects (CSDs) in rat calvaria filled with diverse biomaterials. Sixty animals were divided into two groups: the control (CTR) group (saline solution) and the cyclosporine (CCP) group (cyclosporine, 10 mg/kg/day). These medications were administered daily by gavage, beginning 15 days before the surgical procedure and lasting until the day the animals were euthanized. A CSD (5 mm Ø) was made in the calvaria of each animal, which was allocated to one of 3 subgroups, according to the biomaterial used to fill the defect: coagulum (COA), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), or biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of hydroxyapatite and β-phosphate tricalcium (HA/TCP). Euthanasia of the animals was performed 15 and 60 days after the surgical procedure (n = 5 animals/period/subgroup). Bone repair (formation) assessment was performed through microtomography and histometry, while the analyses of the expression of the BMP2, Osteocalcin, and TGFβ1 proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry. The CSDs not filled with biomaterials demonstrated lower bone formation in the CCP group. At 15 days, less bone formation was observed in the CSDs filled with DBB, a smaller volume of mineralized tissue was observed in the CSDs filled with HA/TCP, and the expression levels of BMP2 and osteocalcin were lower in the CCP group compared to the CTR group. The use of cyclosporine impaired bone repair in CSD, and this effect can be partially explained by the suppression of BMP2 and osteocalcin expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Skull/drug effects , Skull/pathology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Osteocalcin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190409, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090768

ABSTRACT

Abstract Menopause induces oral bone loss, leading to various oral diseases. Mastication importantly affects bone metabolism in the jawbone. Objective: To analyze the effect of enhanced masticatory force on osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), and mechano-growth factor (MGF) in alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats and to study the mechanics mechanism of the alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats response to enhanced masticatory force. Methodology: Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation group (fat around the removed ovary + normal hard diet), model group (ovariectomy + normal hard diet), and experimental group (ovariectomy + high hard diet). It was a 2-month experiment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected serum estradiol (E2), osteocalcin (BGP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in rats. Bone histomorphometric indices in the third molar region of maxilla were detected by micro-CT; protein expressions of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in the third molar region of maxilla was detected by Western blot; and gene expression of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in the third molar region of maxilla was detected by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. Results: Comparing with model group, serum E2 in experimental group increased but not significantly, serum BGP and serum ALP in experimental group decreased but not significantly, OPG in experimental group in alveolar bone increased significantly, RANKL in experimental group in alveolar bone decreased significantly, RANKL/OPG ratio in experimental group decreased significantly, MGF in experimental group in alveolar bone increased significantly, bone volume to total volume fraction increased significantly in experimental group, trabecular thickness increased significantly in experimental group, and trabecular separation decreased significantly in experimental group. Conclusion: Enhanced masticatory force affected the expression of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats, improved the quality of jaw bone of ovariectomized rats, and delayed oral bone loss by ovariectomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Bite Force , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Ovariectomy , RANK Ligand/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Alveolar Process/physiopathology , Osteocalcin/blood , Blotting, Western , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Estradiol/blood , X-Ray Microtomography , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190594, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132264

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important health problem across the world affecting the adult population with an enormous social and economic burden. Calcium regulation is also affected in patients with CKD, and related to several disorders including vascular calcifications, mineral bone disorders, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Upper zone of growth plate and cartilage matrix (UCMA) is vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP) and acts as a calcification inhibitor in the cardiovascular system. The molecular mechanism of UCMA action remains unclear in CKD. In the current study, we aimed to investigate serum total UCMA levels and its association with calcium metabolism parameters in CKD patients including hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-seven patients with CKD stage 3-5, 41 HD patients, and 34 healthy individuals were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum UCMA and calcification related protein levels (Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), Osteocalcin (OC), and Fetuin-A) were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Calcium mineral disorder parameters (Serum Ca, P, iPTH) were quantified with routine techniques. We, for the first time, report the potential biomarker role of UCMA in CKD including HD. Serum total UCMA levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD including HD patients than the healthy controls. Also, serum UCMA levels showed negative correlations with serum calcium, and eGFR, while showed positive relationships with P, iPTH, MGP, OC. Increased total UCMA levels may have a role in the Ca metabolism disorder and related to the pathogenesis of Vascular Calcification in patients with CKD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteocalcin/blood , Calcium/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Matrilin Proteins/blood , Growth Plate/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism
13.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 567-574, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives on bone metabolism in adolescents for one year. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. The adolescents were divided into three groups: oral contraceptives 1 (n = 42) (20 µg EE/150 µg desogestrel), oral contraceptives 2 (n = 66) (30 µg EE/3 mg drospirenone), and a control group (n = 70). Adolescents underwent anthropometric assessment and densitometry (dual-energy X-ray). Bone age and bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) were evaluated. The oral contraceptives users were evaluated again after 12 months. Linear regression analysis was used to indirectly study the effect of each additional year of chronological age on anthropometric and densitometric variables as well as on bone markers in the control group. Results: At study entry, no significant differences were observed between the oral contraceptives 1, oral contraceptives 2, and controls in the analyzed variables. Linear regression analysis showed an increase in bone mineral density and bone mineral content for each additional year. There was a significant reduction in bone alkaline phosphatase levels; no significant difference was observed for osteocalcin in control individuals. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray variables at baseline and after one year showed no significant differences in the oral contraceptives 1 or oral contraceptives 2 groups. A significant reduction in bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels was observed in both the oral contraceptives 1 and oral contraceptives 2 groups. Conclusion: Adolescent women gain peak bone mass during this phase of life. Two low-dose combined oral hormonal contraceptives were associated with lower bone gain and lower bone formation markers than in untreated controls.


Resumo: Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de dois contraceptivos orais combinados de baixa dosagem por um ano sobre o metabolismo ósseo em adolescentes. Métodos: Este foi um estudo quase experimental. As adolescentes foram divididas em três grupos: contraceptivos orais 1 (n = 42) (20 µg de EE/150 µg de desogestrel), contraceptivos orais 2 (n = 66) (30 µg EE/3 mg de drospirenona) e grupo controle (n = 70). As adolescentes foram submetidas à avaliação antropométrica e densitometria (raio-X de dupla energia). Foram avaliados a idade óssea e os marcadores de formação óssea (osteocalcina e fosfatase alcalina óssea). As usuárias de contraceptivos orais foram novamente avaliadas após 12 meses. A análise de regressão linear foi utilizada para estudar, indiretamente, o efeito de cada ano adicional da idade cronológica sobre as variáveis antropométricas e densitométricas e sobre os marcadores ósseos no grupo de controle. Resultados: No início do estudo, não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis analisadas entre as usuárias de contraceptivos orais 1, contraceptivos orais 2 e o grupo controle. A análise de regressão linear mostrou um aumento na densidade mineral óssea e no conteúdo mineral ósseo para cada ano adicional. Houve uma redução significativa nos níveis de fosfatase alcalina óssea e não foi observada diferença significativa para osteocalcina nos indivíduos controles. A comparação das variáveis do raio-X de dupla energia no início e após um ano não mostrou diferença significativa no grupo de contraceptivos orais 1 ou contraceptivos orais 2. Foi observada uma redução significativa nos níveis de fosfatase alcalina óssea e osteocalcina nos dois grupos contraceptivos orais 1 e contraceptivos orais 2. Conclusão: As adolescentes atingiram o pico de massa óssea durante essa fase da vida. Duas formulações de contraceptivos hormonais orais de baixa dosagem, após um ano de uso, se associaram a menor incremento na densidade mineral óssea e menor concentração de marcadores de formação óssea quando confrontados com resultados de adolescentes não usuárias de contraceptivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Bone Density/drug effects , Desogestrel/administration & dosage , Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Ethinyl Estradiol/administration & dosage , Androstenes/administration & dosage , Osteogenesis/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bone Density/physiology , Linear Models , Osteocalcin/analysis , Anthropometry , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
14.
Actual. osteol ; 15(2): 78-93, mayo - ago. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048450

ABSTRACT

Los hallazgos osteológicos se intensi!caron en los últimos años. Se demostró que el esqueleto se comporta, además de sus funciones clásicas, como un órgano de secreción endocrina que sintetiza al menos dos hormonas: el factor de crecimiento de !broblastos 23 (FGF-23) y la osteocalcina (Ocn). La Ocn es un péptido pequeño que contiene 3 residuos de ácido glutámico. Estos residuos se carboxilan postraduccionalmente, quedando retenida en la matriz ósea. La forma decarboxilada en el primer residuo de ácido glutámico (GluOcn) fue reportada por poseer efectos biológicos; la resorción ósea es el mecanismo clave para su bioactivación. La presente revisión se centra en los conocimientos actuales sobre la función hormonal de la Ocn. A la fecha se reporta que la Ocn regularía el metabolismo energético aumentando la proliferación de células ` pancreáticas, y la secreción de insulina y de adiponectina. Sobre el músculo esquelético actuaría favoreciendo la absorción y el catabolismo de nutrientes. La función reproductiva masculina estaría regulada mediante el estímulo a las células de Leydig para sintetizar testosterona; en el desarrollo cerebral y la cognición, la Ocn aumentaría la síntesis de neurotransmisores monoaminados y disminuiría el neurotransmisor inhibidor GABA. Si bien son indispensables mayores evidencias para dilucidar los mecanismos reguladores por medio de los cuales actuaría la Ocn, los resultados enumerados en los distintos estudios experimentales establecen la importancia de este novedoso integrante molecular. Dilucidar su rol dentro de estos procesos interrelacionados en seres humanos abriría la posibilidad de utilizar a la Ocn en el tratamiento de enfermedades endocrino-metabólicas. (AU)


Osteological !ndings have intensi!ed in recent years. The skeleton behaves as an endocrine secretion organ that synthesizes at least two hormones: osteocalcin (Ocn) and !broblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). Ocn is a small peptide that contains 3 glutamic acid residues. After translation, these residues are carboxylated to make possible its retention into the bone matrix. Decarboxylation on the !rst glutamic acid residue (GluOcn) has been reported to have biological effects. Bone resorption is the key mechanism for its bioactivation. This review focuses on current knowledge on Ocn hormonal function. It has been reported that Ocn regulates energy metabolism by increasing the proliferation of pancreatic ` cells, and the secretion of insulin and adiponectin. On the skeletal muscle, it may act by favoring the absorption and catabolism of nutrients. Male reproductive function might be regulated by stimulating Leydig cells to synthesize testosterone. Regarding brain development and cognition, Ocn would increase monoamine neurotransmitters synthesis and decrease inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Although more evidence is needed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of Ocn, different experimental studies establish the importance of this novel molecular mediator. Clarifying its role within interrelated processes in humans, might open the possibility of using Ocn in different treatments of endocrine-metabolic diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Osteocalcin/therapeutic use , Skeleton/physiology , Skeleton/metabolism , Skeleton/pathology , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Osteocalcin/biosynthesis , Osteocalcin/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/physiology , Fertility , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Genitalia, Male/metabolism , Infertility/prevention & control , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential effects of sclerostin (SOST) on the biological funtions and related mechanisms of cementoblasts under mechanical stress.@*METHODS@#OCCM-30 cells were treated with varying doses of SOST (0, 25, 50, and 100 ng·mL⁻¹) and were loaded with uniaxial compressive stress (2 000 μ strain with a frequency of 0.5 Hz) for six hours. Western blot was utilized to detect the expressions of β-catenin, p-smad1/5/8, and smad1/5/8 proteins. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoproteins (BSP), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA.@*RESULTS@#The expression of p-smad
1/5/8 was significantly downregulated with increasing SOST. β-catenin and smad1/5/8 exhibited no difference. ALP activity decreased under mechanical compressive stress with increasing SOST concentrations. Runx-2 expression was reduced with increasing SOST concentrations, and a similar trend was observed for the BSP and OCN expressions. When the SOST concentration was enhanced, RANKL expression gradually increased, whereas the expression of OPG decreased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Under mechanical comprehensive stress, SOST can adjust the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) /smad signal pathway. Osteosclerosis inhibits the mineralization of cementoblasts under mechanical compressive stress, which may be achieved by inhibiting the expressions of osteogenesis factors (Runx2, OCN, BSP, and others) and by promoting the ratio of cementoclast-related factors (RANKL/OPG) through BMP signal pathways.


Subject(s)
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins , Metabolism , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Dental Cementum , Osteocalcin , Smad Proteins , Metabolism , Stress, Mechanical
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772271

ABSTRACT

Genetic studies have revealed a critical role of Distal-homeobox (Dlx) genes in bone formation, and our previous study showed that Dlx2 overexpressing in neural crest cells leads to profound abnormalities of the craniofacial tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and the underlying molecular mechanisms of Dlx2 in osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Initially, we observed upregulation of Dlx2 during the early osteogenesis in BMSCs and MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, Dlx2 overexpression enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and extracellular matrix mineralization in BMSCs and MC3T3-E1 cell line. In addition, micro-CT of implanted tissues in nude mice confirmed that Dlx2 overexpression in BMSCs promoted bone formation in vivo. Unexpectedly, Dlx2 overexpression had little impact on the expression level of the pivotal osteogenic transcription factors Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Osterix, but led to upregulation of Alp and Osteocalcin (OCN), both of which play critical roles in promoting osteoblast maturation. Importantly, luciferase analysis showed that Dlx2 overexpression stimulated both OCN and Alp promoter activity. Through chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay and site-directed mutagenesis analysis, we provide molecular evidence that Dlx2 transactivates OCN and Alp expression by directly binding to the Dlx2-response cis-acting elements in the promoter of the two genes. Based on these findings, we demonstrate that Dlx2 overexpression enhances osteogenic differentiation in vitro and accelerates bone formation in vivo via direct upregulation of the OCN and Alp gene, suggesting that Dlx2 plays a crucial role in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Homeodomain Proteins , Metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Nude , Osteoblasts , Metabolism , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Physiology , Transcription Factors , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adequate bone formation around titanium alloy implants is integral to successful implantation surgery. Stem cell-coated implants may accelerate peri-implant bone formation. This study investigates the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) pretreatment on a titanium-alloy surface in terms of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). METHODS: Allogenic leukocyte-depleted PRP was obtained from blood supernatants. The hADSCs were isolated from thigh subcutaneous fat tissue. Grit-blasted titanium plugs were used in two different groups. In one group, 200 µL of PRP was added to the grit-blasted titanium plugs. The hADSCs were seeded in two groups: grit-blasted titanium plugs with or without PRP. The number of hADSCs was measured after 4 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of culture using Cell Counting Kit-8. Osteogenesis of hADSCs was measured by using an alkaline phosphatase activity assay on days 7 and 14, and a calcium assay on days 14 and 21. Osteogenic gene expression was measured by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen mRNA. The microscopic morphology of grit-blasted titanium plugs with or without PRP was examined with a field-emission scanning electron microscope using a JSM-7401F apparatus on days 1 and 7. RESULTS: Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs were found to be significantly higher on the grit-blasted titanium alloy preprocessed with PRP than the same alloy without pretreatment. Furthermore, a structural fibrillar mesh developed compactly on the grit-blasted titanium alloy with the PRP pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a hADSC-based approach can be used for tissue-engineered peri-implant bone formation and that PRP pretreatment on the grit-blasted titanium alloy can improve proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Alloys , Calcium , Cell Count , Collagen Type I , Gene Expression , Humans , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Subcutaneous Fat , Thigh , Titanium
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bone plays a role in glucose metabolism through the release of uncarboxylated osteocalcin into the systemic circulation. The identified novel roles for osteocalcin include increasing insulin secretion and sensitivity, energy expenditure, reduction of fat mass, and mitochondrial proliferation and functional enhancement. This study aimed to determine serum osteocalcin levels in overweight children and to investigate the relationships of osteocalcin with glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: After overnight fasting, serum osteocalcin levels were measured in overweight (n=50) children between 6.0 and 12.9 years of age and nonoverweight controls (n=60). Height, weight, fasting serum glucose, insulin, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and 25 hydroxy vitamin D₃ (25(OH)VitD₃) were also measured in all subjects. RESULTS: There were significant differences in serum osteocalcin levels between the overweight and control groups (64.00±20.44 vs. 89.56±28.63, P<0.001). Serum osteocalcin levels were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r=-0.283, P=0.003), weight standard deviation score (SDS) (r=-0.222, P=0.020), BMI SDS (r=-0.297, P=0.002), insulin (r=-0.313, P=0.001), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (r=-0.268, P=0.005). In the subsequent multiple regression analyses, BMI, HOMA-IR, and age were determined to be independent predicting factors for serum osteocalcin. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed associations of serum osteocalcin with glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight children, but we could not establish a causal relationship.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Child , Cholesterol , Energy Metabolism , Fasting , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Metabolism , Osteocalcin , Overweight , Vitamins
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1174-1180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762067

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bone markers can be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of skeletal diseases in children and adolescents. Owing to high skeletal growth velocity and rapid bone turnover, children and adolescents have higher bone marker levels than adults. Thus, a valid age- and sex-specific reference should be established for pediatric populations living in similar environments. We aimed to assess the associations of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and osteocalcin with age and sex in a group of healthy Korean children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants (290 boys and 290 girls, age range 0–18 years) were Korean outpatients. Serum P1NP and osteocalcin levels were measured in control materials and patient samples by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay using an automated Cobas e411 analyzer. RESULTS: Significant age-dependent variations in bone marker levels were observed in both sexes (p<0.001). The highest P1NP levels were observed during the first year of life; thereafter, levels decreased until puberty. There was no postnatal peak for osteocalcin; however, its levels remained higher than the adult reference range throughout childhood. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls (p<0.05), especially between the ages of 12 and 17 years. Cobas e411 results for P1NP showed satisfactory precision and linearity. CONCLUSION: We established reference data for P1NP and osteocalcin levels in healthy Korean children and adolescents, as the first and only study of these parameters in pre-adulthood in Korea. Cobas e411-quantified bone markers may be useful for determining bone metabolism indices.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bone Remodeling , Child , Collagen Type I , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Korea , Metabolism , Osteocalcin , Outpatients , Procollagen , Puberty , Reference Values
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine whether postburn reduction of bone formation occurred earlier than 2–3 weeks after burn injury and whether that reduction was inversely related to marrow adiposity. METHODS: Using a rat model of burn injury with sacrifice at 3 days postburn, we measured serum osteocalcin, a biomarker of bone formation, as well as a regulator of glucose metabolism, and counted tibial marrow adipocytes. RESULTS: Serum osteocalcin was reduced as early as 3 days postburn, coinciding with a trend toward decline in marrow adipocyte number rather than demonstrating an inverse relationship with adipocyte count. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that may be responsible for the dissociation include lack of circulating sclerostin, previously reported, increased energy demands following burn injury, increased sympathetic tone and perhaps oxidative stress. The relationship between bone formation and marrow adiposity is complex and subject to a variety of influences.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adiposity , Animals , Bone Marrow , Burns , Child , Glucose , Humans , Metabolism , Models, Animal , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Oxidative Stress , Rats
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