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China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 15-20, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009217


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of bone cement containing recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in percutaneous kyphoplasty(PKP)treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture(OVCF).@*METHODS@#A total of 103 OVCF patients who underwent PKP from January 2018 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed, including 40 males and 63 females, aged from 61 to 78 years old with an average of (65.72±3.29) years old. The injury mechanism included slipping 33 patients, falling 42 patients, and lifting injury 28 patients. The patients were divided into three groups according to the filling of bone cement. Calcium phosphate consisted of 34 patients, aged(65.1±3.3) years old, 14 males and 20 females, who were filled with calcium phosphate bone cement. rhBMP-2 consisted of 34 patients, aged (64.8±3.2) years old, 12 males and 22 females, who were filled with bone cement containing rhBMP-2. And rhbFGF+rhBMP-2 consisted of 35 patients, aged (65.1±3.6) years old, 14 males and 21 females, who were filled with bone cement containing rhbFGF and rhBMP-2. Oswestry disability index (ODI), bone mineral density, anterior edge loss height, anterior edge compression rate of injured vertebra, visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, and the incidence of refracture were compared between groups.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed for 12 months. Postoperative ODI and VAS score of the three groups decreased (P<0.001), while bone mineral density increased (P<0.001), anterior edge loss height, anterior edge compression rate of injured vertebra decreased first and then slowly increased (P<0.001). ODI and VAS of group calcium phosphate after 1 months, 6 months, 12 months were lower than that of rhBMP-2 and group rhbFGF+rhBMP-2(P<0.05), bone mineral density after 6 months, 12 months was higher than that of rhBMP-2 and group calcium phosphate(P<0.05), and anterior edge loss height, anterior edge compression rate of injured vertebra of group rhbFGF+rhBMP-2 after 6 months and 12 months were lower than that of group rhBMP-2 and group calcium phosphate(P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in the incidence of re-fracture among the three groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Bone cement containing rhbFGF and rhBMP-2 could more effectively increase bone mineral density in patients with OVCF, obtain satisfactory clinical and radiological effects after operation, and significantly improve clinical symptoms.

Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Cements/therapeutic use , Fractures, Compression/complications , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/complications , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Kyphoplasty/adverse effects , Vertebroplasty/adverse effects , Calcium Phosphates/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Recombinant Proteins , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 452-456, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981614


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the correlation between bone cement cortical leakage and injury degree of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) after percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), and to provide guidance for reducing clinical complications.@*METHODS@#A clinical data of 125 patients with OVCF who received PKP between November 2019 and December 2021 and met the selection criteria was selected and analyzed. There were 20 males and 105 females. The median age was 72 years (range, 55-96 years). There were 108 single-segment fractures, 16 two-segment fractures, and 1 three-segment fracture. The disease duration ranged from 1 to 20 days (mean, 7.2 days). The amount of bone cement injected during operation was 2.5-8.0 mL, with an average of 6.04 mL. Based on the preoperative CT images, the standard S/H ratio of the injured vertebra was measured (S: the standard maximum rectangular area of the cross-section of the injured vertebral body, H: the standard minimum height of the sagittal position of the injured vertebral body). Based on postoperative X-ray films and CT images, the occurrence of bone cement leakage after operation and the cortical rupture at the cortical leakage site before operation were recorded. The correlation between the standard S/H ratio of the injured vertebra and the number of cortical leakage was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Vascular leakage occurred in 67 patients at 123 sites of injured vertebrae, and cortical leakage in 97 patients at 299 sites. Preoperative CT image analysis showed that there were 287 sites (95.99%, 287/299) of cortical leakage had cortical rupture before operation. Thirteen patients were excluded because of vertebral compression of adjacent vertebrae. The standard S/H ratio of 112 injured vertebrae was 1.12-3.17 (mean, 1.67), of which 87 cases (268 sites) had cortical leakage. The Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the number of cortical leakage of injured vertebra and the standard S/H ratio of injured vertebra ( r=0.493, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of cortical leakage of bone cement after PKP in OVCF patients is high, and cortical rupture is the basis of cortical leakage. The more severe the vertebral injury, the greater the probability of cortical leakage.

Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Kyphoplasty/methods , Bone Cements , Fractures, Compression/surgery , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Vertebroplasty/methods
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 51-51, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880369


BACKGROUND@#The Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study was launched to investigate risk factors for osteoporotic fractures, interactions of osteoporosis with other non-communicable chronic diseases, and effects of fracture on QOL and mortality.@*METHODS@#FORMEN baseline study participants (in 2007 and 2008) included 2012 community-dwelling men (aged 65-93 years) in Nara prefecture, Japan. Clinical follow-up surveys were conducted 5 and 10 years after the baseline survey, and 1539 and 906 men completed them, respectively. Supplemental mail, telephone, and visit surveys were conducted with non-participants to obtain outcome information. Survival and fracture outcomes were determined for 2006 men, with 566 deaths identified and 1233 men remaining in the cohort at 10-year follow-up.@*COMMENTS@#The baseline survey covered a wide range of bone health-related indices including bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture assessment, vertebral imaging for detecting vertebral fractures, and biochemical markers of bone turnover, as well as comprehensive geriatric assessment items. Follow-up surveys were conducted to obtain outcomes including osteoporotic fracture, cardiovascular diseases, initiation of long-term care, and mortality. A complete list of publications relating to the FORMEN study can be found at .

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Density , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cohort Studies , Geriatric Assessment , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Long-Term Care/statistics & numerical data , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Risk Factors
Actual. osteol ; 16(2): [104]-[115], mayo.-ago. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129698


La fosfatasa alcalina baja o hipofosfatasemia, ya sea debida a causas genéticas (hipofosfatasia) o secundarias, presenta correlato clínico. Nuestro objetivo es estimar la prevalencia de hipofosfatasemia crónica persistente y describir sus hallazgos osteometabólicos. Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de afiliados adultos al Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, entre 2013 y 2017, con al menos 2 determinaciones de fosfatasa alcalina igual a 30 UI/l o menor y ninguna mayor de 30 UI/l (rango de referencia 30-100 UI/l). Se excluyeron aquellos con causas secundarias diagnosticadas y se analizaron los correlatos clínico y bioquímico. Se detectó hipofosfatasemia crónica persistente en 78 de 105.925, 0,07% (0,06-0,09) de los afiliados. Solo uno fue excluido por tener causa secundaria. Eran 61,1% mujeres de 44 (34-56) años, fosfatasa alcalina 24 (20-27) UI/L, fosfatemia 4,1 (3,8-4,6) mg/dl. Se observaron osteoartritis, calcificaciones vasculares y fracturas, menos frecuentemente litiasis renal, calcificación del ligamento longitudinal común anterior, pérdida dental y convulsiones. El 63,6% tenían al menos una de las características clínico-radiológicas evaluadas, pero en solo 5,2% fue mencionado el diagnóstico de hipofosfatasemia en la historia clínica. La densitometría evidenció algún grado de afección (osteopenia u osteoporosis) en 76,2%. Se constataron 19 fracturas, con predominio en radio. La prevalencia de hipofosfatasemia fue similar a lo previamente reportado. El reconocimiento fue bajo; sin embargo, se observaron variadas manifestaciones músculo-esqueléticas, similares a las descriptas en la hipofosfatasia del adulto, por lo cual ­ante una hipofosfatasemia sin causa secundaria­ se sugiere considerar este diagnóstico. (AU)

Low alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or hypophosphatasemia either due to genetic (hypophosphatasia) or secondary causes, presents a clinical correlate. Our objectives are to estimate the prevalence of persistent hypophosphatasemia and to describe the clinical findings. We performed a search using the electronic medical records of the members of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires health care system, between 2013 and 2017. Adult members with ≥ 2 ALP ≤ 30 IU/l, no ALP >30 IU/l (normal range 30-100 UI/l) and without diagnosed secondary causes were analyzed. Persistent hypophosphatasemia was detected in 78 of 105.925, 0.07% (0.06-0.09) of members. Only one was excluded due to a secondary cause, 61.1% were women, 44 (34-56) year-old, ALP 24 (20-27) IU/l and phosphatemia 4.1 (3.8-4.6) mg/dl. Osteoarthritis, vascular calcifications and fractures were detected, and nephrolithiasis, DISH (Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), tooth loss, and seizures were less frequently observed. At least one of the mentioned characteristics were present in 63.6 %, but only 5.2% had hypophosphatasemia registered in their clinical record. Densitometry showed osteopenia or osteoporosis in 76.2%. There were 19 fractures, most of them in radius. The prevalence of hypophosphatasemia was similar to what has been previously reported. Hypophosphatasemia finding in medical records was low, but far from being asymptomatic, clinical manifestations were observed. In the presence of hypophosphatasemia without a secondary cause, adult hypophosphatasia should be uspected. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Hypophosphatasia/etiology , Osteoporosis/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Density , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypophosphatemia/diagnosis , Hypophosphatemia/etiology , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Alkaline Phosphatase/deficiency , Alkaline Phosphatase/physiology , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Hypophosphatasia/diagnosis , Hypophosphatasia/genetics
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 46, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088586


Abstract Background: Osteoporosis is a major healthcare concern in Latin America. Factors such as changing demographics, fragmented healthcare systems, and financial considerations may result in a huge increase in the burden of osteoporosis in this region. The aim of this article is to describe the baseline clinical characteristics and fracture history of patients who are prescribed teriparatide in normal clinical practice in Latin America. Methods: We conducted a prospective, multinational, observational study (the Asia and Latin America Fracture Observational Study [ALAFOS]) in 20 countries worldwide to assess the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis receiving teriparatide as a part of routine clinical practice in a real-world setting. In this subregional analysis of the ALAFOS study, we report the clinical characteristics, fracture history, risk factors for osteoporosis, comorbidities, previous osteoporosis therapies and health-related quality of life measures at baseline for patients from the four participant Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. Results: The Latin America subregional cohort included 546 postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age: 71.0 [10.1] years; range: 40-94 years), constituting 18% of the ALAFOS total population. The baseline mean (SD) bone mineral density T-scores were - 3.02 (1.23) at the lumbar spine and - 2.31 (0.96) at the femoral neck; 62.8% of patients had a history of low trauma fracture after the age of 40 years and 39.7% of patients had experienced ≥1 fall in the past year. Osteoporosis medications were used by 70.9% of patients before initiating teriparatide. The median (Q1, Q3) EQ-5D-5 L Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for perceived health status at baseline was 70 (50, 80). The mean (SD) worst back pain numeric rating scale score for the overall Latin American cohort was 4.3 (3.4) at baseline. Conclusions: This baseline analysis of the Latin America subregion of the ALAFOS study indicates that patients who are prescribed teriparatide in the four participant countries had severe osteoporosis and high prevalence of fractures. They also had back pain and poor health-related quality of life. The proportions of patients with severe or extreme problems on the EQ-5D-5 L individual domains were lower than those in the overall ALAFOS study population.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Postmenopause , Teriparatide/therapeutic use , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Pain Measurement , Brazil/epidemiology , Bone Density , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Fractures/etiology , Spinal Fractures/epidemiology , Back Pain/drug therapy , Reproductive History , Colombia/epidemiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Visual Analog Scale , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Latin America , Mexico/epidemiology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eAO4236, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953175


ABSTRACT Objective To assess the ten-year risk of hip and osteoporotic fracture in home care patients using the FRAX® tool. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional observational study including patients aged ≥ 40 and ≤ 90 years and receiving home care from a private provider. The risk of fracture was calculated using an online calculator. High risk was defined as risk of hip fracture greater than 3% or risk of osteoporotic fracture greater than 20%. Data were expressed as absolute number (n), relative frequency (%), mean, standard deviation (±) and probability value (p). Results Eighty-three (37.7%) out of 222 patients were at high risk of fracture. Of these, 81 (36.7%) were at high risk of hip fracture, as follows: 18 patients aged 70-80 years (17 female) and 63 patients aged 80-90 years (51 female). High risk of osteoporotic fracture was limited to two female patients (0.1%) aged over 80 years. Conclusion FRAX® analysis revealed similar fracture risks in the sample and the older adult population overall. Prospective investigation of fracture rates in home care patients, identification of true risk factors and construction of a home care patient-specific clinical score are warranted.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o risco de fratura de quadril e fratura osteoporótica, em 10 anos, em pacientes em atenção domiciliar, de acordo com a ferramenta FRAX®. Métodos Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, observacional realizados com pacientes de uma empresa de Assistência Domiciliar com idade ≥40 e ≤90 anos. Foi avaliado o risco de fratura por meio da calculadora on-line, tendo sido considerado elevado risco de fratura de quadril acima de 3% e elevado risco de fratura osteoporótica quando acima de 20%. Os dados foram expressos em número absoluto (n), frequência relativa (%), média, desvio padrão (±) e valor de significância (p). Resultados Dos 222 pacientes, 83 (37,7%) apresentaram alto risco de fratura, sendo 81 (36,7%) casos por elevado risco de fratura de quadril. Destes, 18 deles tinham idade entre 70 e 80 anos (sendo 17 do sexo feminino) e 63 entre 80 e 90 anos (sendo 51 do sexo feminino). O risco elevado de fratura osteoporótica ocorreu em apenas duas pacientes do sexo feminino (0,1%), ambas com idade acima de 80 anos. Conclusão O risco de fratura óssea verificado pela ferramenta FRAX® foi semelhante na população do estudo em relação ao da população idosa em geral. A avaliação prospectiva da incidência de fraturas nos pacientes em Atenção Domiciliar, a identificação dos reais fatores de risco e a personalização do escore clínico para este grupo de pacientes se fazem necessárias.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Risk Assessment/methods , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Hip Fractures/etiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Algorithms , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Middle Aged
Clinics ; 72(5): 289-293, May 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840079


OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the applicability of a fracture risk assessment tool for the prediction of osteoporotic fractures in middle-aged and elderly healthy Chinese adults. METHODS: A standard questionnaire was administered, and bone mineral density was measured in residents visiting the Dongliu Street Community Health Service Center. Paired t-tests were used to compare the FRAX-based probabilities of fractures estimated with and without consideration of bone mineral density. Risk stratification and partial correlation analyses were applied to analyze the associations between FRAX-based probabilities and body mass index or bone mineral density at different sites. RESULTS: A total of 444 subjects were included in this study. Of these subjects, 175 (39.59%) were diagnosed as osteoporotic, and 208 (47.06%) were diagnosed as osteopenic. The Kappa value for the detection of osteoporosis at the L1-L4 lumbar spine and femoral neck was 0.314. The FRAX-based 10-year major osteoporotic fracture probability and hip osteoporotic fracture probability estimated without considering bone mineral density were 4.93% and 1.64%, respectively; when estimated while considering bone mineral density, these probabilities were 4.97% and 1.54%, respectively. A significant positive association was observed between the FRAX-based fracture probabilities estimated with and without consideration of bone mineral density, while significant negative associations between body mass index and the estimated FRAX-based fracture probabilities after adjustment for age and the estimated FRAX-based fracture probabilities and femoral neck bone mineral density were identified. These results remained the same after controlling for lumbar spine bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese FRAX model could predict osteoporotic fracture risk regardless of whether bone mineral density was considered and was especially appropriate for predicting osteoporotic fractures of the femoral neck.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoporosis/complications , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/physiopathology , Risk Assessment/methods , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Age Factors , Analysis of Variance , Body Mass Index , Bone Density/physiology , China , Femoral Neck Fractures/etiology , Femoral Neck Fractures/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Urban Population
Clinics ; 72(1): 44-50, Jan. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840035


OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Additionally, we aimed to identify the potential risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with a depressive disorder. METHODS: We studied patients listed in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were diagnosed with a depressive disorder by a psychiatrist. The comparison cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without a depressive disorder. The incidence rate and hazard ratios of subsequent vertebral fracture were evaluated. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the risk of vertebral fracture among patients with a depressive disorder. RESULTS: The total number of patients with and without a depressive disorder was 44,812. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) between these 2 cohorts indicated that depressive disorder patients had a higher risk of developing a subsequent vertebral fracture (IRR=1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.26-1.57, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the depressive disorder cohort showed a higher risk of vertebral fracture than the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.11-1.38, p<0.001). Being older than 50 years, having a lower monthly income, and having hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, autoimmune disease, or osteoporosis were considered predictive factors for vertebral fracture in patients with depressive disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive disorders may increase the risk of a subsequent new-onset vertebral fracture.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Depressive Disorder/complications , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Spinal Fractures/etiology , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Spinal Fractures/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 727-735, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767596


PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of vibration therapy on the bone callus of fractured femurs and the bone quality of intact femurs in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Fifty-six rats aged seven weeks were divided into four groups: control with femoral fracture (CON, n=14), ovariectomized with femoral fracture (OVX, n=14), control with femoral fracture plus vibration therapy (CON+VT, n=14), and ovariectomized with femoral fracture plus vibration therapy (OVX+VT, n=14). Three months after ovariectomy or sham surgery, a complete fracture was produced at the femoral mid-diaphysis and stabilized with a 1-mm-diameter intramedullary Kirschner wire. X-rays confirmed the fracture alignment and fixation. Three days later, the VT groups underwent vibration therapy (1 mm, 60 Hz for 20 minutes, three times per week for 14 or 28 days). The bone and callus quality were assessed by densitometry, three-dimensional microstructure, and mechanical test. RESULTS : Ovariectomized rats exhibited a substantial loss of bone mass and severe impairment in bone microarchitecture, both in the non-fractured femur and the bone callus. Whole-body vibration therapy exerted an important role in ameliorating the bone and fracture callus parameters in the osteoporotic bone. CONCLUSION: Vibration therapy improved bone quality and the quality of the fracture bone callus in ovariectomized rats.

Animals , Female , Bony Callus/physiology , Femoral Fractures/therapy , Fracture Healing/physiology , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Ovariectomy/adverse effects , Vibration/therapeutic use , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density/physiology , Femoral Fractures/etiology , Femoral Fractures/physiopathology , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/physiopathology , Osteoporotic Fractures/therapy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 33(3): 258-265, set. 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756183


As fraturas vertebrais são comuns em idosos e em mulheres no período pós-menopausa. Tais fraturas podem ter como etiologia principal a osteoporose ou ser decorrentes de trauma, infecções ou neoplasia.A osteoporose é caracterizada por diminuição da massa e modificação da microarquitetura óssea, sendo a manifestação mais comum a fratura patológica. Apresenta como manifestação clínica dor, diminuição da altura e desalinhamento da coluna vertebral, sintomas neurológicos, bem como alteração na autoestima e problemas sociais. O diagnóstico de osteoporose é dado por meio da realização de densitometria óssea, sendo esse o padrão-ouro, podendo-se lançar mão de outros métodos de imagemem situações específicas. O tratamento da osteoporose inclui métodos para a prevenção de fraturas, tais como reposição de cálcio e vitamina D, uso de bifosfonados, paratormônio e reposição hormonal. Quando em vigência de fratura, a conduta preferida ainda é a abordagem não cirúrgica, sendo feitapor meio de imobilização, uso de analgésicos, fisioterapia e reabilitação motora. Quando em vigência de déficit neurológico, deformidade severa ou ausência de resposta ao tratamento conservador, está indicada a abordagem cirúrgica.

Vertebral fractures are common in the elderly and in women in the post menopausal period. Such fractures can have as cause osteoporosis or be due to trauma, infection or neoplasia. Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and modified microarchitecture, the most common manifestation of a pathological fracture. Presenting clinical manifestation as pain, height loss and misalignment of the spine, neurological symptoms, and change in self-esteem and social problems. The diagnosis of osteoporosis is given by bone densitometry, this being the gold standard, and we can make use of other imaging methods in specific situations. Treatment of osteoporosis includes methods for the prevention of fractures, such as treatment with calcium and vitamin D, use of bisphosphonates, parathyroid hormone and hormone replacement. When in the presence of fracture, the preferred approach is still nonsurgical approach being taken by immobilization, analgesics, physical therapy and motor rehabilitation. Whenin the presence of neurologic deficit, severe deformity or lack of response to conservative treatment require surgical approach.

Osteoporotic Fractures/complications , Osteoporotic Fractures/diagnosis , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/therapy , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(5): 493-503, 07/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719205


The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a new method to describe skeletal microarchitecture from the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) image of the lumbar spine. While TBS is not a direct physical measurement of trabecular microarchitecture, it correlates with micro-computed tomography (µCT) measures of bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, and trabecular separation, and with vertebral mechanical behavior in ex vivo studies. In human subjects, TBS has been shown to be associated with trabecular microarchitecture and bone strength by high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT). Cross-sectional and prospective studies, involving a large number of subjects, have both shown that TBS is associated with vertebral, femoral neck, and other types of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. Data in men, while much less extensive, show similar findings. TBS is also associated with fragility fractures in subjects with secondary causes of osteoporosis, and preliminary data suggest that TBS might improve fracture prediction when incorporated in the fracture risk assessment system known as FRAX. In this article, we review recent advances that have helped to establish this new imaging technology.

TBS (do inglês, “trabecular bone score”) é um novo método que estima a microarquitetura óssea a partir de uma imagem de densitometria óssea (DXA) da coluna lombar. Apesar de o TBS não ser uma medida física direta da microarquitetura trabecular, ele correlaciona-se com o volume ósseo, densidade da conectividade trabecular, número de trabéculas e separação trabecular medidos por microtomografia computadorizada (µCT), e com medidas mecânicas da resistência óssea vertebral em estudos ex vivo. Estudos em humanos confirmaram que o TBS associa-se a microarquitetura trabecular e resistência óssea medidas por tomografia computadorizada quantitativa periférica de alta resolução (HRpQCT). Estudos transversais e prospectivos, envolvendo um grande número de indivíduos, mostraram que o TBS é associado com fratura vertebral, de colo de fêmur e com outros tipos de fraturas osteoporóticas em mulheres na pós-menopausa. Dados em homens, apesar de escassos, mostram resultados semelhantes. Além disso, o TBS foi associado a fraturas por fragilidade em indivíduos com diversas causas secundárias de osteoporose e, dados preliminares, sugerem que o uso do TBS pode melhorar a previsão de fratura quando incorporado ao sistema de avaliação de risco de fratura (FRAX). Este artigo faz uma revisão de avanços recentes que têm ajudado a estabelecer esse novo método de imagem.

Female , Humans , Male , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Bone Density , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Bone and Bones/physiology , Lumbar Vertebrae , Osteoporotic Fractures/diagnosis , Absorptiometry, Photon/trends , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/complications , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/diagnosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/drug therapy , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/prevention & control , Postmenopause/physiology , Risk Factors
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(5): 484-492, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719207


Organ transplantation is the gold standard therapy for several end-stage diseases. Bone loss is a common complication that occurs in transplant recipients. Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are serious complication, mainly in the first year post transplantation. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of bone disease following organ transplantation. This review address the mechanisms of bone loss including the contribution of the immunosuppressive agents as well as the specific features to bone loss after kidney, lung, liver, cardiac and bone marrow transplantation. Prevention and management of bone loss in the transplant recipient should be included in their post transplant follow-up in order to prevent fractures.

Transplantes de órgão é terapia padrão-ouro para várias doenças em estágio terminal. Perda óssea é uma complicação comum que ocorre em pacientes transplantados. Osteoporose e fraturas por fragilidade são complicações sérias, principalmente no primeiro ano pós-transplante. Muitos fatores podem contribuir para patogênese da doença óssea nesses pacientes. Esta revisão aborda os mecanismos de perda óssea incluindo o papel dos agentes imunossupressores, bem como os fatores específicos da perda óssea após rim, pulmão, fígado, coração e transplante de medula óssea. A prevenção e o tratamento da perda óssea nos pacientes transplantados devem ser realizados para evitar fraturas.

Humans , Bone Diseases/etiology , Bone Diseases/prevention & control , Bone Resorption/etiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Transplantation/adverse effects , Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects , Calcium/blood , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Vitamin D/therapeutic use