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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1322, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347541

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La COVID-19 es una enfermedad que ha mostrado una baja morbilidad y mortalidad en pediatría. Las crisis febriles constituyen una de las causas más frecuentes de admisión en los servicios de urgencia y de interconsultas con el neuropediatra. Objetivo: Interpretar la presencia de crisis febril simple en pacientes admitidos en servicios de urgencia pediátricos como manifestación inicial de COVID-19. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenina de un año de edad, con antecedentes de salud anterior que acude al cuerpo de guardia con fiebre de 38 ℃; y crisis motora, de inicio generalizada, tónico-clónica, que cedió con medidas antitérmicas. Por protocolo se realiza punción lumbar la cual resulta negativa. Se ingresa, 24 horas después comienza con manifestaciones catarrales, se hace otoscopia y se diagnostica una otitis media aguda, por lo que se inicia tratamiento antibiótico. Se realiza la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la COVID-19 con resultado positivo, por lo que se remite para el Hospital Pediátrico "San Miguel del Padrón". Conclusiones: Se debe sospechar la presencia de COVID-19 ante paciente que acude a servicio de urgencias por una crisis febril, como único problema de salud. LA COVID-19 es una enfermedad que ha demostrado que se puede presentar de diversas formas(AU)


Introduction: COVID-19 is a disease that has shown low morbidity and mortality in pediatrics. Febrile crises are one of the most common causes of admission to emergency services and consultations with the neuropediatrician. Objective: Interpret the presence of simple febrile crisis in patients admitted to pediatric emergency services as an initial manifestation of COVID-19. Case presentation: One-year-old female patient, with a previous health history, who is attended in the emergency service with a fever of 38 ℃; and motor crisis, of widespread onset, with tonic-clonic seizures, which yielded with antypiretic measures. By protocol, lumbar puncture is performed which is negative. She was admitted, and 24 hours later there is an onset of catarrhal manifestations; an otoscopy is performed and acute otitis media is diagnosed, so antibiotic treatment is initiated. The polymerase chain reaction test for COVID-19 (PCR) is performed with a positive result, so, the patient is referred to the "San Miguel del Padrón" Pediatric Hospital. Conclusions: COVID-19 should be suspected in patients who attend to the emergency services due to a febrile crisis as the only health problem. COVID-19 is a disease that has been shown to occur in a variety of ways(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Otitis Media/diagnosis , Seizures, Febrile/diagnosis , Emergencies , COVID-19/epidemiology
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 218-224, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339260

ABSTRACT

Resumen. La otitis media es una infección frecuente en la infancia, la cual puede producir complicaciones, incluidas las neurológicas graves, en cuatro de cada 100 niños en países en desarrollo. Se presenta el caso de una niña de nueve años sin antecedentes de enfermedad que consultó por otitis media derecha, otorrea, síndrome de hipertensión intracraneal y parálisis del VI nervio craneal contralateral a la lesión. La tomografía computarizada de cráneo y la resonancia magnética cerebral revelaron otomastoiditis crónica, apicitis petrosa, y trombosis de los senos transverso y sigmoide, el bulbo yugular y la vena yugular interna derecha. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico y quirúrgico. Este caso refleja el espectro de complicaciones intracraneales y extracraneales asociadas con la otitis media aguda en la era antibiótica. El examen físico permite la detección precoz de la hipertensión intracraneal, con signos como el papiledema y la parálisis del VI par contralateral como hallazgo inusual.


Abstract. Otitis media is a frequent infection during childhood. Complications may be present in up to 4 of 100 children including serious neurological complications, particularly in developing countries. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with no disease history who presented with otitis media, otorrhea, intracranial hypertension syndrome, and paralysis of the VI cranial nerve contralateral to the lesion. A computed tomography scan of the skull and a brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed chronic otomastoiditis, petrous apicitis, and thrombosis of the transverse and sigmoid sinus, the jugular bulb, and the right internal jugular vein. She received antibiotics and surgical treatment. This case shows the spectrum of intra and extracranial complications associated with acute otitis media in the antibiotic era. The physical examination allows early identification of intracranial hypertension with signs such as papilledema and sixth contralateral nerve palsy as an unusual finding.


Subject(s)
Otitis Media , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Intracranial Hypertension , Abducens Nerve Diseases , Petrositis , Mastoiditis
3.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1362627

ABSTRACT

Introduction : La tympanoplastie en technique underlay vise à mettre un greffon en dessous des reli quats tympaniques. Le but de l'étude était d'en évaluer les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels au Bénin. Méthode : il s'est agi d'une étude rétrospective réalisée dans le service d'ORL-CCF de l'Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées de Cotonou de novembre 2016 à octobre 2018. Ont été inclus tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une tympanoplastie en technique underlay pour une otite moyenne chronique simple à tympan ouvert. Les données anatomiques et fonctionnelles pré et post-opératoires ont été comparées à trois mois post-opératoire. Résultat : En deux ans, 10 patients ont bénéficié d'une tympanoplastie soit une incidence de 5 cas par an. L'âge moyen des patients était de 26 ans avec des extrêmes de 17 et 39 ans et une sex-ratio de 0,66. L'abord chirurgical retro-auriculaire et la technique underlay ont été utilisés pour tous les patients. Aucun patient n'a été opéré des deux oreilles. La fermeture de la perfo ration tympanique a été objectivée chez 8 patients sur 10 avec 2 cas de surinfection post-opératoire. Le gain audiométrique moyen a été de 25 dB. Le rinne audiométrique était supérieur à 20 dB chez tous les patients en pré-opératoire et chez 3 patients en post-opératoire. Conclusion : La tympanoplastie est une chirurgie rare au Bénin. Réalisée par la voie retro-auriculaire et la technique underlay, elle a permis d'obtenir d'excellents résultats en termes de fermeture anatomique du tympan mais aussi un gain auditif significatif. C'est une technique à recommander dans nos contextes au Bénin


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Otitis Media , Tympanoplasty , Tympanic Membrane Perforation
4.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1054-1061, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921845

ABSTRACT

Otitis media is one of the common ear diseases, and its accurate diagnosis can prevent the deterioration of conductive hearing loss and avoid the overuse of antibiotics. At present, the diagnosis of otitis media mainly relies on the doctor's visual inspection based on the images fed back by the otoscope equipment. Due to the quality of otoscope equipment pictures and the doctor's diagnosis experience, this subjective examination has a relatively high rate of misdiagnosis. In response to this problem, this paper proposes the use of faster region convolutional neural networks to analyze clinically collected digital otoscope pictures. First, through image data enhancement and preprocessing, the number of samples in the clinical otoscope dataset was expanded. Then, according to the characteristics of the otoscope picture, the convolutional neural network was selected for feature extraction, and the feature pyramid network was added for multi-scale feature extraction to enhance the detection ability. Finally, a faster region convolutional neural network with anchor size optimization and hyperparameter adjustment was used for identification, and the effectiveness of the method was tested through a randomly selected test set. The results showed that the overall recognition accuracy of otoscope pictures in the test samples reached 91.43%. The above studies show that the proposed method effectively improves the accuracy of otoscope picture classification, and is expected to assist clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Computers , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Otitis Media/diagnosis
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281082

ABSTRACT

La otitis media aguda (OMA) es una patología muy común en pediatría y constituye la indicación más frecuente de prescripción de antibióticos en la infancia. Para el diagnóstico se tienen en cuenta hallazgos en la otoscopia, diversos signos clínicos y el tiempo de evolución de los síntomas principales. La decisión de iniciar antibioticoterapia debe determinarse según cada paciente. La espera vigilante como alternativa a la antibioticoterapia inmediata en casos seleccionados reduce el uso de antibióticos sin aumentar el riesgo de daño al paciente y ha demostrado ser una medida costo-efectiva. El fármaco de elección para el tratamiento empírico de la OMA es la amoxicilina, aunque según nuestros resultados es la amoxicilina-IBL la utilizada como primera línea en ambos servicios.


Acute otitis media (AOM) is a pathology commonly found in pediatrics, and the most frequent cause of antibiotics prescription in infants. For its diagnostics, several criteria are taken in consideration, such as otoscopy observations, diverse clinical signs, and the time of evolution of the main symptoms. The decision to initiate antibiotic therapy must be determined particularly for each patient. As an alternative to immediate antibiotic therapy, watchful waiting is preferred in certain cases to reduce the antibiotic use without elevating the patients' risk and has been proven to be a cost-effective approach. The preferred drug for empiric antibiotic therapy in AOM is amoxicillin, although we have observed that the first choice in both our services, pediatrics and otorhinolaryngology, is amoxicillin-IBL.


Subject(s)
Otitis Media , Otoscopy , Amoxicillin , Otolaryngology , Pediatrics , Signs and Symptoms , Diagnosis
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 767-773, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142594

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Acute otitis media is a disease with high global prevalence, that can lead to several acute complications and auditory sequelae. Data regarding the auditory evaluation in the acute phase of acute otitis media are scarce. Objective: To evaluate the main audiometric changes (air and bone conduction thresholds) in the initial phase of an acute otitis media episode. Methods: A case-control study was performed. Patients diagnosed with acute otitis media with less than 7 days of evolution in relation to the complaint onset were selected, and healthy volunteers were selected as controls. The acute otitis media and control groups were submitted to pure tone and vocal audiometry. Results: The acute otitis media group included a total of 27 patients (30 ears). Hearing loss was present in 90.0% of the ears with acute otitis media, with conductive loss in 14 (46.67%) and mixed loss in 13 (43.33%). Both the air and bone conduction thresholds obtained with the tonal audiometry in the acute otitis media group were significantly worse than the controls at all tested frequencies (p< 0.05). In patients with acute otitis media, we observed that the thresholds for frequency >1 kHz (bone conduction) and 3 kHz (air conduction) were significantly worse in patients with tinnitus compared to patients without tinnitus. Conclusion: During the first 7 days of evolution after the onset of an isolated episode of acute otitis media, we observed significant increases in bone and air thresholds at all frequencies, especially >2 kHz, compared to healthy ears.


Resumo Introdução: A otite média aguda é uma doença de elevada incidência global, que pode levar a diversas complicações agudas e sequelas auditivas. Dados referentes à avaliação auditiva na fase aguda da otite média aguda são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar as principais alterações audiométricas (limiares em via aérea e óssea) na fase inicial de um episódio de otite média aguda. Método: Realizou-se estudo de caso-controle. Selecionamos pacientes com diagnóstico de otite média aguda, com menos de sete dias de evolução em relação ao início das queixas, e voluntários saudáveis foram selecionados como controles. Os grupos otite média aguda e controle foram submetidos a audiometria tonal, vocal e audiometria. Resultados: O grupo otite média aguda incluiu 27 pacientes (30 orelhas). Observou-se presença de perda auditiva em 90% das orelhas com otite média aguda, condutiva em 14 (46,67%) e mista em 13 (43,33%). Tanto os limiares auditivos por via aérea quanto os limiares por via óssea obtidos com audiometria tonal do grupo otite média aguda eram significativamente piores em relação aos controles, em todas as frequências testadas (p < 0,05). Em pacientes com otite média aguda, observamos que os limiares das frequências acima de 1 kHz (via óssea) e 3 kHz (via aérea) eram significantemente piores entre pacientes com zumbido em comparação a pacientes sem zumbido. Conclusão: Nos primeiros sete dias de evolução do quadro inicial de um episódio isolado de otite média aguda, observamos aumentos significativos dos limiares ósseos e aéreos em todas as frequências, principalmente nas acima de 2 kHz, em comparação a orelhas sadias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media/complications , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/etiology , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Threshold , Bone Conduction , Case-Control Studies
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 568-578, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132642

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Evidences of possible effects of early age otitis media with effusion in the central auditory processing, emphasize the need to consider such effects also in subjects with chronic otitis media. Aim: To investigate and analyze the impact of non-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media on central auditory processing in teenagers. Methods: This is a study in which 68 teenagers were recruited, 34 with a diagnosis of non-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media (study group) and 34 without otological disease history (control group). The evaluation of the subjects consisted of: anamnesis, pure-tone threshold audiometry, speech audiometry and a behavioral test battery for assessment of central auditory processing. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the means observed in the study and control groups in all tests performed. An association was found between the control group and subgroups of the study group with unilateral alterations in all tests. An association was shown between the results for the control group and study group for family income, with a greater impact on subjects with a lower income. Conclusions: Non-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media affects the central auditory processing in teenagers suffering from the disorder, and monaural low-redundancy hearing is the most affected auditory mechanism. Unilateral conductive changes cause more damage than bilateral ones, and lower family income seems to lead to more changes to the central auditory processing of subjects with non-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media.


Resumo Introdução: As evidências de prováveis efeitos de otite média com efusão precoce no proces-samento auditivo central, ressaltam a necessidade de se considerar tais efeitos também em sujeitos com otite média crônica. Objetivo: Investigar e analisar o impacto da otite média crônica não colesteatomatosa no processamento auditivo central em adolescentes. Método: Estudo para o qual foram recrutados 68 adolescentes, 34 com diagnóstico de otite média crônica não colesteatomatosa (grupo de estudo) e 34 sem história otológica (grupo controle). A avaliação dos indivíduos consistiu de: anamnese, audiometria do limiar auditivo para tons puros, audiometria vocal e bateria de testes comportamentais para avaliação do processamento auditivo central. Resultados: Foi encontrada uma diferença estatisticamente significante entre as médias observadas nos grupos de estudo e controle em todos os testes. Foi encontrada uma associação entre o grupo controle e os subgrupos do grupo de estudo com alterações unilaterais em todos os testes. Houve associação entre os resultados dos grupos controle e de estudo para a renda familiar, com maior impacto nos indivíduos com menor renda. Conclusões: A otite média crônica não colesteatomatosa afeta o processamento auditivo central em adolescentes, a audição monoaural de baixa redundância é o mecanismo auditivo mais afetado. Alterações condutivas unilaterais causam mais danos do que as bilaterais e a menor renda familiar parece conduzir a mais alterações no processamento auditivo central de indivíduos com otite média crônica não colesteatomatosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Otitis Media , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Audiometry, Speech , Chronic Disease , Hearing
8.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(3): 352-359, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144900

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los pacientes trasplantados presentan mayor vulnerabilidad a complicaciones infecciosas, no solo debido al uso de drogas inmunosupresoras, sino que también, a las enfermedades subyacentes que presentan y a la falla de órganos primarios. A pesar de que las infecciones otorrinolaringológicas no son frecuentes en estos pacientes, es importante establecer un adecuado estudio y tratamiento de ellas. A través del siguiente artículo se aportan directrices en el estudio pretrasplante desde un enfoque otorrinolaringológico, generando recomendaciones de acuerdo a la patología del paciente y el órgano a trasplantar. Si bien, las recomendaciones se realizan según evaluación rinosinusal, otológica y faringoamigdalina, una adecuada anamnesis y examen físico son los pilares de la evaluación pretrasplante en otorrinolaringología, reservándose el estudio con imágenes para aquellos pacientes con alteraciones sospechosas.


Abstract Transplanted patients have higher frequency of infectious complications, not only due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs, but also the underlying diseases that present and the failure of primary organs. Although ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections are not frequent in these patients, it is important to establish an adequate study and treatment of them. Through the following article, guidelines are provided in the pretransplant study from an ENT approach, generating recommendations according to the pathology of the patient and the organ to be transplanted. Although, the recommendations are made according to rhinosinusal, otological and pharyngotonsiline evaluation, adequate anamnesis and physical examination are the pillars of the pretransplant evaluation in otolaryngology, reserving the study with images for patients with suspicious alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/surgery , Organ Transplantation , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Otitis Media/therapy , Sinusitis/therapy , Rhinitis/therapy , Surgical Clearance/methods , Infections
9.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(2): 59-66, 20200800.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119422

ABSTRACT

La otitis media crónica es una inflamación crónica del mucoendostio del oído medio y anexos, con o sin perforación de la membrana del tímpano, con o sin exudado. Según los datos obtenidos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud posterior al análisis de trabajos de investigación publicados, la prevalencia para Sudamérica y América Central se encuentra alrededor del 1,5%. El Paraguay no cuenta con un estudio similar al presente que haya sido publicado. Por tal motivo nos propusimos a determinar la carga de la enfermedad y las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de los pacientes con otitis media crónica operados en el Hospital de Clínicas en el período 2015-2019. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de corte transverso, retrospectivo. De 41885 pacientes operados (9,42%) fueron pacientes de la Cátedra y Servicio de Otorrinolaringología y de estos, 274 tenían otitis media crónica, lo que representa el 6,94% del total de pacientes operados por la Cátedra y Servicio de Otorrinolaringología y el 0,65% del total de pacientes operados en el Hospital en el mencionado periodo de tiempo. Pudimos concluir que la otitis media crónica es una patología de alta prevalencia para el servicio de otorrinolaringología del Hospital de Clínicas, no obstante, representa una baja carga para la administración hospitalaria total.


Chronic otitis media is a chronic inflammation of the mucoendostium of the middle ear and annexes, with or without perforation of the eardrum, with or without exudate. According to data obtained by the World Health Organization after the analysis of published research papers, the prevalence for South America and Central America is around 1.5%. Paraguay does not have a study similar to this one that has been published. For this reason, we set out to determine the burden of the disease and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with chronic otitis media operated at the Hospital of Clinics in the period 2015-2019. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted. Of 41885 patients operated 9.42% were patients of the Chair and Department of Otolaryngology and of these, 274 had chronic otitis media, which represents 6.94% of the total of patients operated by the Chair and Department of Otolaryngology and 0,65% of the total of patients operated in the Hospital in the mentioned period of time. We could conclude that chronic otitis media is a pathology of high prevalence for the otolaryngology service of the Hospital of Clinics, however, it represents a low burden for total hospital administration.


Subject(s)
Otitis Media/epidemiology , Prevalence
10.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(1): 92-101, ene.-feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099148

ABSTRACT

Introducción : La osteomielitis es la infección de estructuras óseas ya sea por inoculación directa a través de heridas, por vía hematógena a través de focos distantes o por contigüidad con estructuras vecinas como los oídos. Objetivo: Reportar un caso que demuestra la necesidad de seguimiento de las otitis medias con vistas a evitar recurrencias y complicaciones. Presentación del Caso: Paciente femenina, de 62 años de edad, tez blanca y ama de casa de la localidad de Baracoa, provincia Guantánamo, Cuba. Con antecedentes de otitis de un año de evolución que desarrolló osteomielitis crónica cervical y un cuadro neurológico caracterizado por cuadriparesia y dificultad para la acción asociado a la osteomielitis cervical. Se trató con vancomicina y levofloxacino durante 6 semanas y oxigenación hiperbárica con lo cual egresó totalmente rehabilitada. Conclusiones: El manejo inadecuado de la otitis puede desencadenar complicaciones graves y poco frecuentes como la osteomielitis cervical tal y como se presenta en este caso(AU)


Introduction: Osteomyelitis is the infection of the osseous structures associated with the direct inoculation of microorganisms through wounds, hematogenous route from distant focus of infection or the contiguity with neighboring structures like the ears. Objective: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the need for medical follow-up of otitis media in order to avoid recurrence and complications of this disease. Case presentation: Sixty-two-year-old white woman, housewife, from Baracoa, Guantanamo Province, Cuba. The patient had antecedents of one-year history of otitis media. She developed cervical chronic osteomyelitis and a neurological picture that was characterized by quadriparesis and difficulty to carry out actions, which was associated with cervical osteomyelitis. She was treated with Vancomycin and Levofloxacin during 6 months and hyperbaric oxygenation that helped her to be totally recovered after discharge from hospital. Conclusions: Inadequate treatment of otitis can cause very serious and less frequent complications such as cervical osteomyelitis, as it is presented in this case(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/complications , Otitis Media/complications , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 49-55, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089363

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The goal of ossiculoplasty is to improve hearing and the success of this procedure depends on several factors. Objective Analyze the hearing results in patients with chronic otitis media undergoing ossicular chain reconstruction, as well as predictive factors for successful surgery. Methods Charts of patients undergoing ossiculoplasty between 2006 and 2016 were reviewed. Sixty-eight patients were included, totaling 72 ears. The following data was analyzed: gender, age, smoking status, laterality, pathology, audiometric exams, type of surgery, previous surgery, characteristics of the middle ear, otorrhea and ossicular chain status. Patients were also classified according to two indices: middle ear risk index and ossiculoplasty outcome parameter staging. The results were evaluated by comparing the air-bone gap before and after surgery. The success of reconstruction was defined as air-bone gap ≤20 dB and the improvement of speech reception Thresholds, calculated through the mean frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz. Results Reconstruction success rate was 61%. The mean preoperative air bone gap was 34.63 dB and decreased to 17.26 dB after surgery. There was a correlation between low risk in middle ear risk index and ossiculoplasty outcome parameter staging indices with postoperative success. The most frequently eroded ossicle was the incus and the type of prosthesis most used was tragal cartilage. In the patients without incus, we achieved success in 74.2% of the surgeries. In the absence of the stapes, the success rate decreased to 63.3%. In the absence of the malleus, 85% of the patients had and air bone gap ≤20 dB. Conclusion We achieved good audiometric outcomes in ossiculoplasty and the results are comparable to other centers. Ossicle status influenced postoperative results, especially in the presence of stapes. We also concluded that the indexes analyzed may help to predict the success of the surgery.


Resumo Introdução A ossiculoplastia tem como objetivo a melhoria da audição e o sucesso desse procedimento depende de diversos fatores. Objetivo Analisar os resultados auditivos em pacientes com otite média crônica submetidos a reconstrução da cadeia ossicular, bem como os fatores preditivos de sucesso cirúrgico. Método Prontuários de pacientes submetidos a ossiculoplastia entre 2006 e 2016 foram revistos. Sessenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos, total de 72 orelhas. Os seguintes dados foram analisados: sexo, idade, tabagismo, lateralidade, doença, exames audiométricos, tipo de cirurgia, cirurgia prévia, características da orelha média, otorreia e estado da cadeia ossicular. Os pacientes também foram classificados de acordo com dois índices: índice de risco da orelha média e estadiamento do parâmetro de desfecho da ossiculoplastia. Os resultados foram avaliados comparando o gap aéreo-ósseo antes e após a cirurgia. O sucesso da reconstrução foi definido como gap aéreo-ósseo ≤ 20 dB e a melhoria dos limiares de recepção de fala, calculados pelas frequências médias de 0,5, 1, 2 e 3 kHz. Resultados A taxa de sucesso da reconstrução foi de 61%. O gap aéreo-ósseo pré-operatório médio foi de 34,63 dB e diminuiu para 17,26 dB após a cirurgia. Houve correlação entre baixo risco no índice de risco para orelha média e os índices de estadiamento do parâmetro de desfecho da ossiculoplastia com sucesso pós-operatório. O ossículo com erosão mais frequente foi a bigorna e o tipo de prótese mais utilizada foi a cartilagem tragal. Nos pacientes sem bigorna o sucesso foi alcançado em 74,2% das cirurgias. Na ausência do estribo, a taxa de sucesso diminuiu para 63,3%. Na ausência do martelo, 85% dos pacientes apresentaram gap aéreo-ósseo ≤ 20 dB. Conclusão Melhora significativa da audição foi observada em pacientes submetidos à ossiculoplastia, os resultados foram comparáveis aos de outros centros. O "status" dos ossículos influenciou os resultados pós-operatórios, principalmente a presença do estribo. Também concluímos que os índices analisados podem ajudar a prever o sucesso da cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Otitis Media/surgery , Ossicular Prosthesis/standards , Ear Ossicles/surgery , Hearing/physiology , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , Audiometry , Tympanoplasty , Severity of Illness Index , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment , Recovery of Function
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 966-972, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136326

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Sclerostin is a glycoprotein that plays a catabolic role in bone and is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism by increasing the osteoclastic bone resorption. In this study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in chronic otitis media (COM) with and without cholesteatoma, assuming that it might have a role in the aetiopathogenesis of bone resorption. METHODS A total of 44 patients with cholesteatomatous COM (cCOM) (n = 22) and non-cholesteatomatous COM (ncCOM) (n = 22) were included in this study, and 26 healthy volunteers without any chronic ear disease problem(s) constituted the control group (n = 26). RESULTS No significant difference was not found in terms of serum iPTH, ALP, and vitamin D levels between ncCOM, cCOM, and the control groups. A significant difference was found in terms of serum sclerostin, Ca, and P levels between ncCOM, cCOM, and the control groups (p<0.05). Serum sclerostin levels in the study groups were significantly higher but their serum Ca and P levels were significantly lower compared to the control group. CONCLUSION We think that serum sclerostin concentrations, which were significantly higher in patients with cCOM and ncCOM compared to healthy controls are associated with bone erosion. There is a need for further studies with larger samples in order to determine the relationship between sclerostin and bone erosion in cholesteatoma to help in establishing preventive measures against cholesteatoma and set new targets for the development of non-surgical treatments.


RESUMO OBJETIVO A esclerostina é uma glicoproteína que desempenha um papel catabólico no osso e também envolve a regulação do metabolismo ósseo, aumentando a reabsorção óssea osteoclástica. Neste estudo, os níveis séricos de esclerostina foram medidos em otite média crônica (OMC) com e sem colesteatoma, e presumiu-se se que ela poderia ter um papel na etiopatogênese da reabsorção óssea. MÉTODOS Um total de 44 pacientes com otite média crônica colesteatomatosa (OMCc) (n=22), não colesteatomatosa (OMCnc)(n=22) foram incluídos neste estudo, e 26 voluntários saudáveis e sem doenças crônicas do ouvido constituíram o grupo de controle (n=26). RESULTADOS Não foi encontrada diferença significativa em termos de níveis séricos de iPTH, ALP e vitamina D entre OMCnc, OMCc e o grupo de controle. Foi encontrada uma diferença significativa em termos de níveis séricos de esclerostina, Ca e P entre OMCnc, OMCc e o grupo de controle (p<0,05). Os níveis séricos de esclerostina nos grupos de estudo foram significativamente mais altos, mas os níveis séricos de Ca e P foram significativamente mais baixos em comparação com o grupo de controle. CONCLUSÃO Acreditamos que as concentrações séricas de esclerostina, significativamente maiores em pacientes com OMCc e OMCnc em relação aos controles saudáveis, estão associadas à erosão óssea. Há necessidade de mais estudos com amostras maiores para determinar a relação entre esclerostina e erosão óssea no colesteatoma, já que essas pesquisas podem ajudar a estabelecer medidas preventivas contra o colesteatoma e novas metas para o desenvolvimento de tratamentos não cirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media , Bone Resorption , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/blood , Chronic Disease
13.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 440-444, Out.-Dez. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024425

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Middle ear surgeries, including myringoplasty, have increasingly utilized endoscopes as an adjunct to or as a replacement for the operative microscope. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the graft uptake rate and to evaluate the hearing results. Methods: This is a prospective study. We have analyzed 139 patients who underwent surgery for chronic otitis media (COM) of the mucosal type. All of the surgeries were performed exclusively under total endoscopic transcanal approach using tragal cartilage as graft, underlay technique. We have evaluated the postoperative graft uptake and performed a hearing evaluation at 6 weeks, at 12 weeks, and at 6 months. Results: During the study period, 139 patients were included, out of which 13 were lost to follow-up; therefore, only 126 patients were assessed. All of the cases were performed under total endoscopic approach. As for the surgical outcome at the postoperative otoscopy, 3 cases had initial uptake at 3 months and failed later; therefore, complete closure of the perforation was observed in 97.6% ( n = 123) of the patients 6 months after the intervention. Four patients presented with preoperative anacusis; therefore, only 122 patients were included for hearing evaluation. The preoperative air conduction threshold (ACT) and airbone gap (ABG) were 43.34 ± 11.53 and 24.73 ± 7.89, respectively. Postoperatively, the ACT and ABG closure were 28.73 ± 15.75 and 11.91 ± 8.41, respectively. This difference was statistically significant ( p < 0.001). Conclusion: The endoscopic approach for myringoplasty offers excellent visualization; avoids postaural approach, enables a faster recovery, requires less hospital stay, with excellent graft closure rate and improved functional outcomes (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Ear Cartilage/transplantation , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Myringoplasty/methods , Otitis Media , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hearing Tests
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(6): 724-732, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Acute mastoiditis remains the most common complication of acute otitis media. It may rarely appear also in cochlear implant patients. However, the treatment recommendations for this disease are not precisely defined or employed, and in the current literature the differences regarding both the diagnosis and management are relatively substantial. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine a standard and safe procedure to be applied in case of pediatric acute mastoiditis. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 73 patients with 83 episodes of acute mastoiditis hospitalized at our tertiary-care center between 2001 and 2016 was conducted. Bacteriology, methods of treatment, hospital course, complications, and otologic history were analyzed. Based on our experience and literature data, a protocol was established in order to standardize management of pediatric acute mastoiditis. Results: All the patients treated for acute mastoiditis were submitted to an intravenous antibiotic regimen. In the analyzed group pharmacological treatment only was applied in 11% of children, in 12% myringotomy/tympanostomy was added, and in the vast majority of patients (77%) mastoidectomy was performed. In our study recurrent mastoiditis was noted in 8% of the patients. We also experienced acute mastoiditis in a cochlear implant child, and in this case, a minimal surgical procedure, in order to protect the device, was recommended. Conclusions: The main points of the management protocol are: initiate a broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic treatment; mastoidectomy should be performed if the infection fails to be controlled after 48 h of administering intravenous antibiotic therapy. We believe that early mastoidectomy prevents serious complications, and our initial observation is that by performing broad mastoidectomy with posterior attic and facial recess exposure, recurrence of acute mastoiditis can be prevented.


Resumo Introdução: A mastoidite aguda continua a ser a complicação mais comum da otite média aguda. Pode ocorrer também, embora raramente, em pacientes com implante coclear. Entretanto, as recomendações de tratamento para essa doença não são bem definidas ou usadas e, na literatura corrente, as diferenças em relação ao diagnóstico e ao manejo são relativamente significativas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar um procedimento padrão e seguro a ser aplicado em caso de mastoidite aguda pediátrica. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão retrospectiva de prontuários de 73 pacientes com 83 episó-dios de mastoidite aguda hospitalizados em nosso centro terciário entre os anos de 2001 a 2016. Foram analisados a bacteriologia, métodos de tratamento, evolução hospitalar, complicações e histórico otológico. Com base em nossa experiência e dados da literatura, foi estabelecido um protocolo para padronizar o tratamento da mastoidite aguda pediátrica. Resultados: Todos os pacientes tratados para mastoidite aguda foram submetidos a antibioticoterapia endovenosa. No grupo analisado, o tratamento farmacológico só foi aplicado em 11% das crianças, em 12% a miringotomia/timpanostomia foi adicionada e na maior parte dos pacientes (77%) foi feita a mastoidectomia. Em nosso estudo, mastoidite recorrente foi observada em 8% dos pacientes. Também observamos mastoidite aguda em criança usuária de implante coclear e, nesse caso, foi recomendada a minimização de procedimentos cirúrgicos, a fim de proteger o dispositivo. Conclusões: Os principais pontos do protocolo de conduta são: iniciar um tratamento antibiótico endovenoso de amplo espectro; a mastoidectomia deve ser feita caso a infecção não seja controlada após 48 horas da administração de antibioticoterapia intravenosa. Acreditamos que a mastoidectomia precoce previne complicações graves e nossa observação inicial é que, com uma mastoidectomia ampla com exposição do ático posterior e do recesso facial, a recorrência de mastoidite aguda pode ser evitada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Mastoiditis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Otitis Media/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Mastoiditis/etiology
15.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 262-266, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040033

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Chronic otitis media is a widely prevalent condition in developing countries and is a cause of correctable hearing loss. The most frequent ossicular chain defect found during surgery for chronic otitis media has been a discontinuity of the incudostapedial joint. This study observes the effect of incudostapedial reconstruction using conchal cartilage on the hearing of the patient. Objectives To evaluate improvement in hearing by incudostapedial reconstruction using conchal cartilage interposition graft in tympanoplasty and to identify the independent factors associated with erosion of the long process of incus among patients with chronic suppurative otitis media tubotympanic type. Methods This study was conducted in the department of ear, nose and throat (ENT) amongst 22 patients with tubotympanic-type chronic suppurative otitis media who were found to have erosion of the long process during tympanoplasty. These patients underwent incudostapedial reconstruction using conchal cartilage. Their hearing was again reassessed at 12 weeks postsurgery, and the changes were observed. Results A statistically significant improvement in air conduction by 15.14 dB was found after undergoing incudostapedial reconstruction using conchal cartilage (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant change in bone conduction (p value > 0.05). A total of 59.1% of patients in the study had an improvement in hearing ranging from11 to 20 dB. It was also found that 50% of the patients had a postoperative hearing of 10 to 20 dB. Conclusion Conchal cartilage interposition graft effectively improved hearing when used for the reconstruction of the incudostapedial joint during tympanoplasty in patients of chronic suppurative otitis media.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Otitis Media/surgery , Ear Cartilage/transplantation , Incus/surgery , Stapes/transplantation , Tympanoplasty , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Controlled Before-After Studies , Hearing Loss/surgery
17.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(4): 456-464, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019579

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction can cause several symptoms and middle ear conditions that can impact patient quality of life. It is estimated to be relatively frequent, affecting approximately 5% of adults. The diagnostic tools for this condition are still inadequate. In 2012, McCoul et al. published a questionnaire for the evaluation of Eustachian tube dysfunction named ETDQ-7. They established its replicability and validity. The cutoff point for the diagnosis of chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction was equal to or greater than 14.5, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Objective: To translate, adapt and validate the ETDQ-7 questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods: We translated the questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese and applied it to 50 patients, 20 of whom had chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction, and 30 controls. Results: The results obtained with the North-American questionnaire were confirmed in its Brazilian version. The cut-off point for the diagnosis of chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction was ≥14, also exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity, very similar to that of ETDQ-7. Conclusion: It is recommended that ETDQ-7 be used to complement the clinical history of patients with chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction; it can also be used as an important tool for diagnosis, patient follow-up and treatment management.


Resumo Introdução: A disfunção crônica da tuba auditiva pode causar diversos sintomas e doenças de orelha média e impactar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Estima-se que é uma morbidade relativamente frequente, acomete cerca de 5% dos adultos. Os instrumentos diagnósticos para essa afecção ainda são insuficientes. Em 2012 McCoul et al. publicaram um questionário para a avaliação da disfunção da tuba auditiva denominado ETDQ-7. Eles demonstraram sua reprodutibilidade e validade. O ponto de corte para o diagnóstico de disfunção de disfunção crônica da tuba auditiva foi de maior ou igual a 14,5 com 100% de sensibilidade e 100% de especificidade. Objetivo: Traduzir, adaptar e validar o questionário ETDQ-7 para o português brasileiro. Método: Traduzimos o questionário para o português do Brasil e o aplicamos em 50 pacientes, 20 com disfunção crônica da tuba auditiva e 30 controles. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos no questionário americano foram confirmados na versão brasileira. O ponto de corte para o diagnóstico de disfunção crônica da tuba auditiva foi maior ou igual a 14, também com alta sensibilidade e especificidade, muito semelhante ao ETDQ-7. Conclusão: Recomenda-se que o ETDQ-7 seja usado como um complemento na história clínica do paciente com disfunção crônica da tuba auditiva e pode ser usado também como uma importante ferramenta para fins de diagnóstico, seguimento de pacientes e manejos no tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Otitis Media/diagnosis , Translations , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Eustachian Tube/physiopathology , Otitis Media/physiopathology , Psychometrics/methods , Quality of Life , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Educational Status
18.
Arch. med ; 19(2): 216-226, 2019/07/30.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022880

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las características clínicas y resultados obtenidos en pacientes a los cuales se les realizó reparación de perforación timpánica secundaria a otitis media crónica no colesteatomatosa con hueso mastoideo esclerótico, con y sin mastoidectomía. Materiales y métodos: estudio de tipo trasversal comparativo, con un muestreo no probabilístico por serie consecutiva de casos. Se revisaron los expedientes de pacientes que cumplan con los criterios de inclusión en el periodo comprendido enero del 2015 a mayo 2016. Se tomarón datos como; edad, sexo, estado de procedencia,a la otoscopia, presencia de otorrea transoperatoria y postoperatoria, estado de la mucosa, presencia de timpanoesclerosis o miringoesclerosis, perforación o retracción del injerto. Resultados: un total de 48 pacientes fueron seleccionados; 31 del sexo femenino y 17 del sexo masculino, con edad promedio de 43,25 años, el seguimiento fue de 3 meses. Al comparar al grupo de paciente con mastoidectomía y sin esta, no se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a éxito de la cirugía (perforación de injerto RR 1,2, p 1, otorrea posoperatoria RR 2,26, p 0;68 y retracción del injerto RR 0;76, p 1). Se encontró que las características durante y previa a la cirugía no influyeron en el resultado final, presentando un promedio global del 94% de integración del injerto. Conclusión: la mastoidectomía no muestra beneficio adicional en la reparación de la membrana timpánica, las características durante y previa a la cirugía no influyeron en el resultado final..(AU)


Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and results obtained in patients who underwent repair of tympanic perforation secondary to chronic non-cholesteatomatous otitis media with sclerotic mastoid bone, with and without mastoidectomy. Material and methods: comparative cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sampling by consecutive series of cases. We reviewed the files of patients who meet the inclusion criteria in the period from January 2015 to May 2016. Data was collected such as; age, sex, state of origin, history of smoking, cause of perforation, duration of dry ear, data to otoscopy, presence of transoperative and postoperative otorrhea, state of the mucosa, presence of tympanosclerosis or miringoesclerosis, perforation or retraction of the graft. Results: a total of 48 patients were selected; 31 of the female sex and 17 of the male sex, with an average age of 43.25 years, the follow-up was 3 months. When comparing the group of patients with and without mastoidectomy, no statistically significant difference was found in the success of the surgery (graft perforation RR 1.2, p 1, postoperative otorrhea RR 2.26, p 0.68 and graft retraction RR 0.76, p 1). We found that the characteristics during and before surgery did not influence the final result, presenting an overall average of 94% of graft integration. Conclusions: the mastoidectomy shows no additional benefit in tympanic membrane repair, the characteristics during and prior to surgery did not influence the final result..(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media , Tympanoplasty
19.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 92-94, jul. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015009

ABSTRACT

Primary Ciliary Diskinesia (PCD) is a heterogeneous, rare genetic disease that can be present in up to 5% of the patients with recurrent respiratory infections. The underlying pathogenesis is disrupted ciliary function which results in delayed mucus transportation leading to chronic inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Almost all PCD patients have otolaryngologic manifestations, characterized by recurrent ear and sinus infections, chronic inflammation at this level, sensorioneural and conductive hearing loss, and sleep-disordered breathing. This article reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these manifestations.


La Disquinesia Ciliar Primaria (DCP) es una enfermedad genética heterogénea rara que puede estar presente en hasta un 5% de los pacientes que presentan infecciones respiratorias a repetición. La patogenia es secundaria a una alteración de la función ciliar que a su vez provoca una alteración del transporte de moco, resultando en una condición inflamatoria crónica en la vía aérea superior e inferior. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la esfera otorrinolaringológica en los pacientes portadores de DCP están presentes prácticamente en la totalidad de los mismos, y se caracterizan por infecciones recidivantes de oídos y cavidades perinasales, inflamación crónica a este nivel, hipoacusia neurosensorial y conductiva, y alteraciones respiratorias durante el sueño. En este artículo se revisarán los aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de dicho compromiso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Kartagener Syndrome/epidemiology , Otitis Media/therapy , Rhinitis/therapy , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
20.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 173-178, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014434

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La otomastoiditis tuberculosa es una presentación extremadamente rara de la forma extrapulmonar de la enfermedad y puede ser difícil llegar a su diagnóstico. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 35 años con otomastoiditis tuberculosa bilateral acompañado de vértigo, hipoacusia mixta bilateral y paresia del nervio facial bilateral, como debut de una tuberculosis. Cultivos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) y prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) de otorrea fueron inicialmente negativos. La tomografía computarizada de oídos y resonancia magnética mostraron cambios inflamatorios otomastoídeos bilaterales sin evidencia de erosión ósea ni extensión a partes blandas. Se realizó una mastoidotomía, las muestras del tejido obtenido evidenciaron osteomielitis crónica, bacterias ácido-alcohol resistentes y PCR positiva para MTB. La paciente recibió tratamiento con drogas antituberculosas durante 12 meses logrando una recuperación completa de la otalgia y vértigo, y mejoría parcial de audición y paresia facial. En resumen, los hallazgos clínicos e imagenológicos de la otomastoiditis tuberculosa son inespecíficos por lo cual se requiere de un alto índice de sospecha clínica para lograr el diagnóstico adecuado e iniciar el tratamiento de la infección subyacente.


ABSTRACT Tuberculous otomastoiditis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary disease that can be easily misdiagnosed. We hereby report the case of a previously healthy 35-yearold female with bilateral tuberculous otomastoiditis associated with vertigo, bilateral mixed hearing loss, and bilateral facial nerve palsy as the initial clinical presentation. Repeated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture and molecular testing of otorrhea aspirates were initially negative. High-resolution temporal bone computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed partial opacification of the mastoid air cells without signs of bone erosion. A mastoidotomy was performed with mastoid tissue showing chronic osteomyelitis, positivity in acid-fast staining and MTB PCR. The patient was treated with a 12 month antituberculous treatment, with complete recovery of otalgia and vertigo, and improvement in hearing levels and facial nerve palsy. In summary, clinical and imaging findings for tuberculous otomastoiditis are non-specific, hence a high degree of suspicion is required in order to diagnose and promptly treat the underlying infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Mastoiditis/diagnosis , Otitis Media/etiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mastoiditis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
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