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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247433, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339336

ABSTRACT

Abstract The life cycle of stink bug, Glyphepomis dubia and the development of two egg parasitoids (Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis) were studied at the Federal University of Maranhão, at 26 ± 2oC, relative humidity (RH) of 60 ± 10% and 12h photophase. Individuals used in the study were collected from seven rice fields located around the municipality of Arari, Maranhão, Brazil, and maintained in greenhouse and laboratory for the life cycle studies. From egg to adult, G. dubia took 35.2 days to complete the life cycle. The oviposition period was 37 days, with egg masses of about 12 eggs each and viability of 93.1%. Longevity was 53 and 65 days for females and males, respectively. The egg parasitoids Te. podisi and Tr. basalis parasitized and developed in G. dubia eggs; however, the biological characteristics of Tr. basalis were affected. Emergence of the parasitoids was higher for Te. podisi (83.5%) compared to the records for Tr. basalis (50.4%). Therefore, G. dubia may potentially achieve a pest status and Te. podisi is a promising biological control agent for G. dubia management in Brazil due to its higher longevity and better reproductive parameters.


Resumo O ciclo de vida do percevejo, Glyphepomis dubia e a biologia de dois parasitoides de ovos (Telenomus podisi e Trissolcus basalis) foram estudados na Universidade Federal do Maranhão, a 26 ± 2oC, umidade relativa (UR) de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12h. Sete indivíduos de G. dubia foram coletados em lavoura de arroz localizada no município de Arari, Maranhão, Brasil e mantidos em casa de vegetação e laboratório para estudos de ciclo de vida. Do ovo ao adulto, G. dubia levou 35.2 dias para completar o ciclo de vida. O período de oviposição foi de 37 dias com massas de ovos com cerca de 12 ovos/massa e viabilidade de 93.1%. A longevidade foi de 53 e 65 dias, respectivamente, para fêmeas e machos. Os parasitoides de ovos, Te. podisi e Tr. basalis parasitaram e se desenvolveram em ovos de G. dubia, no entanto as características biológicas de Tr. basalis foi afetada. A emergência dos parasitoides foi maior para Te. podisi (83.5%) em comparação com o registrado para Tr. basalis (50.4%). Portanto, G. dubia poderá apresentar potencial para atingir o status de praga e Te. podisi é um promissor agente de controle biológico para ser utilizado no manejo de G. dubia no Brasil, pois apresentou maior longevidade e os melhores parâmetros reprodutivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oryza , Wasps , Heteroptera , Hemiptera , Hymenoptera , Oviposition , Ovum , Biology
2.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 26(1): 4-14, Jan.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351544

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. This study was conducted to research the effects of different levels of dried white mulberry (Morus alba) pulp supplementation in diets of laying quail on yield performances, egg quality, blood parameters, yolk fatty acid profiles and cholesterol concentrations. Materials and Methods. A completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments and four replicates, was applied. The experimental treatments were M0: control diet; M4: dietary inclusion of 4% mulberry pulp; M8: dietary inclusion of 8% mulberry pulp; M12: dietary inclusion of 12% mulberry pulp. This experiment was carried out for 4 weeks, and 128 7-week-old female quail were used. Results. Addition of dried mulberry pulp to the diet significantly affected weekly feed intake, egg yield, albumin index, yolk weight, triglyceride, LDL, serum cholesterol and yolk cholesterol levels (p<0.05, p<0.01). The feed conversion ratio, egg weight, and egg yolk fatty acid profile were not significantly affected by the dried mulberry pulp in the diet. Conclusions. As a result, it may be stated that adding dried mulberry pulp up to 8% of the diets of laying quail does not cause any adverse effects and may be used without any problems.


RESUMEN Objetivo. El presente estudio tiene por objetivo investigar los efectos de los diferentes niveles de suplemento de la pulpa de mora blanca seca (Morus alba) en las dietas de la codorniz ponedora, el rendimiento, la calidad del huevo, los parámetros sanguíneos, perfiles de los ácidos grasos de la yema y las concentraciones de colesterol. Materiales y Métodos. Fue aplicado un diseño experimental totalmente aleatorio, con cuatro tratamientos y cuatro réplicas. Los tratamientos experimentales fueron M0: dieta de control; M4: introducción de 4% de pulpa de mora en la dieta; M8: introducción de 8% de pulpa de mora en la dieta; M12: introducción de 12% de pulpa de mora en la dieta. Este experimento se llevó a cabo durante 4 semanas, y se utilizaron 128 codornices hembras de 7 semanas de edad. Resultados. La agregación de pulpa de morera seca a la dieta influyó notablemente en la ingesta semanal de piensos, la producción de huevos, el índice de albúmina, el peso de la yema, el triglicérido, LDL, los niveles de colesterol en el suero y el colesterol en la yema (p<0.05, p<0.01). La tasa de proporción de conversión del pienso, el peso del huevo y el perfil de ácidos grasos de la yema de huevo no se vieron afectados significativamente por la pulpa de mora seca en la dieta. Conclusiones. Como resultado, se puede señalar que la agregación de pulpa de more seca hasta el 8% de las dietas de codorniz ponedora no causa ningún efecto adverso y se puede utilizar sin ningún problema.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum , Quail , Morus , Fatty Acids , Animal Feed , Diet
3.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2307, 20200000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129308

ABSTRACT

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of different particle size corn on the performance, egg quality and intestinal morphology of Hisex Brown laying hens. A total of 128 birds were used, in a completely randomized design with four treatments, four replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. Experimental rations had corn with different particle size: 565, 620, 781 and 1085 µm of mean geometric diameter (MGD). Feeding was ad libitum at 8:00 am and 4:00 p.m. The variables analyzed were: feed consumption, laying percentage, egg mass and weight, food conversion (was calculated by dividing the feed consumed by the total egg weight (kg.kg-1) and the number of eggs produced (kg.dozen-1)), shell percentage and thickness, Haugh unit, yolk color index and morphometry analysis of the intestinal mucosa. The use of corn with MGD until to 1085 µm in rations does not affect the performance and eggs quality of Hisex Bronw laying hens. However, there are indications that the intestinal morphometry of laying hens is negatively influenced by the increase in particle size of corn.(AU)


Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de partículas de milho no desempenho, qualidade dos ovos e morfologia intestinal de poedeiras Hisex Brown. Foram utilizadas 128 aves, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. As rações experimentais apresentaram milho de diferentes tamanhos de partículas: 565, 620, 781 e 1085 µm de diâmetro geométrico médio (DGM). A alimentação foi ad libitum às 8:00 e 16:00h. As variáveis analisadas foram: consumo de ração, porcentagem de postura, massa e peso dos ovos, conversão alimentar (calculada dividindo-se a ração consumida pelo peso total de ovos (kg/kg) e número de ovos produzidos (kg/dúzia)), porcentagem e espessura da casca, unidade de Haugh, índice e coloração de gema e análise morfométrica da mucosa intestinal. O uso de milho com DGM até 1085 µm nas rações não afeta o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras Hisex Brown. No entanto, há indicações de que a morfometria intestinal de poedeiras é influenciada negativamente pelo aumento no tamanho das partículas do milho.(AU)


Este estudio ha sido desarrollado con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de diferentes tamaños de partículas de maíz en el rendimiento, calidad de los huevos y la morfología intestinal de gallinas ponedoras Hisex Brown. Se utilizaron 128 aves, distribuidas en un experimento completamente al azar, con cuatro tratamientos, cuatro repeticiones y ocho aves por unidad experimental. Las raciones experimentales fueron elaboradas con maíz de diferentes tamaños de partículas: 565, 620, 781, 1085 µm de diámetro geométrico medio (DGM). La alimentación fue ad libitum a las 8:00 y a las 16:00h. Las variables analizadas fueron: consumo de ración, porcentaje de postura, masa y peso de los huevos, conversión alimenticia (se calculó dividiendo el alimento consumido por el peso total de huevos (kg/kg) y el número de huevos producidos (kg/docena)), porcentaje y espesor de cáscara, unidad Haugh, índice y coloración de yema, y análisis morfométrica de la mucosa intestinal. La utilización de maíz con DGM de hasta 1085 µm en las raciones no perjudica el rendimiento y la calidad de los huevos de las ponedoras Hisex Brown. Sin embargo, hay indicaciones de que la morfometría intestinal de gallinas ponedoras es influenciada de forma negativa por el aumento del tamaño de las partículas del maíz.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Ovum , Birds , Zea mays , Animal Feed/analysis , Particle Size , Efficiency
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811267

ABSTRACT

Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection in humans. The disease is endemic in some parts of the world, including Africa, Australia, and Asia, where cattle grazing is common; the disease is spread by an enteric route following the consumption of food contaminated with the eggs of the parasite. Failure to identify this parasite results in delayed diagnosis and increased morbidity to the patient. Upon diagnosis, every possible step should be taken, both surgical and medical, to prevent anaphylactic reactions from the cystic fluid. Postsurgical long-term follow up along with periodical ultrasonography of the liver and computed tomography scan of the abdomen is essential to rule out possible recurrence.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Africa , Anaphylaxis , Animals , Asia , Australia , Cattle , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Echinococcosis , Eggs , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver , Ovum , Parasites , Recurrence , Ultrasonography , Zoonoses
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Simple and reliable animal models of human diseases contribute to the understanding of disease pathogenesis as well as the development of therapeutic interventions. Although several murine models to mimic human asthma have been established, most of them require anesthesia, resulting in variability among test individuals, and do not mimic asthmatic responses accompanied by T-helper (Th) 17 and neutrophils. As dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play an important role in initiating and maintaining asthmatic inflammation, we developed an asthma model via adoptive transfer of allergen-loaded DCs.METHODS: Ovalbumin (OVA)-loaded bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) (OVA-BMDCs) were injected intravenously 3 times into non-anesthetized C57BL/6 mice after intraperitoneal OVA-sensitization.RESULTS: OVA-BMDC-transferred mice developed severe asthmatic immune responses when compared with mice receiving conventional OVA challenge intranasally. Notably, remarkable increases in systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG1 responses, Th2/Th17-associated cytokines (interleukin [IL]-5, IL-13 and IL-17), Th2/Th17-skewed T-cell responses, and cellular components, including eosinophils, neutrophils, and goblet cells, were observed in the lungs of OVA-BMDC-transferred mice. Moreover, the asthmatic immune responses and severity of inflammation were correlated with the number of OVA-BMDCs transferred, indicating that the disease severity and asthma type may be adjusted according to the experimental purpose by this method. Furthermore, this model exhibited less variation among the test individuals than the conventional model. In addition, this DCs-based asthma model was partially resistant to steroid treatment.CONCLUSIONS: A reliable murine model of asthma by intravenous (i.v.) transfer of OVA-BMDCs was successfully established without anesthesia. This model more accurately reflects heterogeneous human asthma, exhibiting a robust Th2/Th17-skewed response and eosinophilic/neutrophilic infiltration with good reproducibility and low variation among individuals. This model will be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and would serve as an alternative tool for immunological studies on the function of DCs, T-cell responses and new drugs.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Anesthesia , Animals , Asthma , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Eosinophils , Goblet Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Lung , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Neutrophils , Ovalbumin , Ovum , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the severity of olfactory disturbance (OD) in the murine model of allergic rhinitis (AR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR) in mice. We also investigated the therapeutic effect of an intranasal steroid on OD. METHODS: Forty BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 for each). The control group was sensitized intraperitoneally (i.p.) and challenged intranasally (i.n.) with saline. Mice in the AR group got i.p. and i.n. ovalbumin (OVA) administration for AR induction. The LAR group was challenged i.n. with 1% OVA for inducing local nasal allergic inflammation, without inducing the systemic allergy. The OD group got an i.p. methimazole administration (75 mg/kg) to induce total destruction of olfactory mucosa. Mice in the intranasal budesonide group received i.n. budesonide (12.8 μg per time, 30 minutes after the i.n. OVA challenge) while using OVA to cause systemic allergies. We conducted a buried-food pellet test to functionally assess the degree of OD in each group by measuring the time taken until finding hidden food. We evaluated the damage to olfactory epithelium using histopathologic evaluation and compared the degree of olfactory marker protein (OMP) expression in olfactory epithelium using immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: Mice of the AR (81.3 ± 19.8 seconds) and LAR groups (66.2 ± 12.7 seconds) spent significantly more time to detect the pellets than the control group (35.6 ± 12.2 seconds, P < 0.01). After treatment, the intranasal budesonide group exhibited significantly better results (35.8 ± 11.9 seconds) compared with the AR and LAR groups (P < 0.01). The AR and LAR groups showed considerable olfactory epithelial damage and suppression of OMP expression compared with the control group. In the intranasal budesonide group, the olfactory lesions and OMP expression had improved substantially. CONCLUSIONS: OD may be caused by olfactory epithelial damage and suppression of OMP expression in nasal allergic inflammation and could be reversed using an intranasal steroid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Budesonide , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Methimazole , Mice , Olfaction Disorders , Olfactory Marker Protein , Olfactory Mucosa , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic , Steroids
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762177

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alterations in the intestinal microbiota in early life affects the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of gut dysbiosis in early life in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of AD. METHODS: The AD mouse model was developed by serial OVA sensitization and mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail in their drinking water for 2 weeks before primary sensitization. Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 1 × 10⁹ CFU) or 100 µL of fresh fecal supernatant were orally administered daily from 1 week before the first sensitization until the end of the study. RESULTS: The AD mice which received antibiotics had significantly aggravated phenotypes, including clinical score, transepidermal water loss, and histopathology, compared to those treated with healthy feces or probiotics. Total systemic immunoglobulin E production and skin interleukin (IL) 4 levels were significantly increased in the antibiotic-treated mice compared to the other groups. Antibiotic treatment also increased the levels of IL17 and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in the gut and significantly suppressed the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and decreased the number FOXP3⁺ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the status of the gut microbiota in early life in the mouse may play a crucial role in AD development through intestinal SCFA production through regulate the numbers of CD4⁺IL17⁺/CD4⁺FOXP3⁺ regulatory T cells and ILC3s.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Drinking Water , Dysbiosis , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Feces , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Interleukins , Intestines , Lymphocytes , Mice , Microbiota , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Phenotype , Probiotics , Skin , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Water
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 807-811, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection (GIN) are the main constraint to the production of small ruminants. Studies of medicinal plants have been an important alternative in the effort to control these parasites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. The oil was extracted, analyzed by gas chromatography and tested on GIN eggs and larvae in six concentrations, 227.5mg/mL, 113.7mg/mL, 56.8mg/mL, 28.4mg/mL, 14.2mg/mL and 7.1mg/mL. To determine the ovicidal activity, GIN eggs were recovered from sheep feces and incubated for 48h with different concentrations of the oil. For the evaluation of larval migration, third-stage larvae (L3) were obtained by fecal culture, and associated with the essential oil for 24h at the same concentrations, after which they were left for another 24 hours on microsieves, followed by the count of migrating and non-migrating larvae. The assays of R. officinalis oil showed a significant (p<0.05) 97.4% to 100% inhibition of egg hatching and a significant (p<0.05) 20% to 74% inhibition of larval migration. The main constituent revealed by gas chromatography was Eucalyptol. The results indicate that R. officinalis essential oil has ovicidal and larvicidal activity on sheep GINs.


Resumo As infecções por nematódeos gastrintestinais (ING) constituem a maior limitação à produção de pequenos ruminantes. Na busca do controle desses parasitos, estudos com plantas medicinais têm sido uma importante alternativa. Visto isto, o estudo desenvolvido teve como objetivo avaliar a ação ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis. O óleo foi extraído, analisado por cromatografia gasosa e testado sobre ovos e larvas de ING em seis concentrações, 227,5mg/mL; 113,7mg/mL; 56,8mg/mL; 28,4mg/mL; 14,2mg/mL; 7,1mg/mL. Para determinar a ação ovicida, ovos de ING foram recuperados de fezes de ovinos e incubados por 48h com as diferentes concentrações do óleo. Na avaliação da migração das larvas, as larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) foram obtidas por coprocultura, e associadas ao óleo essencial por 24h nas mesmas concentrações, permanecendo por mais 24h em microtamises, seguindo-se a contagem de larvas que migraram e que não migraram. Os testes in vitro com o óleo de R. officinalis mostraram o nível de significância (p<0.05) 97,4% a 100% na inibição da eclodibilidade e 20% a 74% na inibição da migração das larvas. Na análise por cromatografia gasosa o constituinte majoritário foi o eucaliptol. Os resultados apresentados mostram que o óleo essencial de R. officinalis possui ação ovicida e larvicida sobre ING de ovinos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Sheep/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Nematoda/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Gas , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Nematoda/isolation & purification
11.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 504-510, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286551

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a multifactorial disease that constitutes a serious public health problem worldwide. Prostate cancer advanced stages are associated with the development of androgen-independent tumors and an apoptosis-resistant phenotype that progresses to metastasis. By studying androgen-independent lymphoid nodule carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells induced to apoptosis by serum elimination, we identified the activation of a non-selective cationic channel of 23pS conductance that promotes incoming Ca2+ currents, as well as apoptosis final stages. arp2cDNA was isolated and identified to be of the same cell type, and mRNA was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, which was found to be associated with the activation of incoming Ca2+ currents and induction to apoptosis. cDNA, which encodes the ARP2 protein, was overexpressed in LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells, which induced apoptosis. Our evidence suggests that protein ARP2 overexpression and transit to the cell membrane allows an increased Ca2+ incoming current that initiates the apoptosis process in epithelial-type cells whose phenotype shows resistance to programmed cell death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Calcium/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Ovum/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Xenopus laevis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cricetulus , CHO Cells , DNA, Complementary/isolation & purification , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/isolation & purification
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 91-96, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpureocillium lilacinum is a nematophagous fungus used in biological control against some parasites, including Toxocara canis. This study researched the infectivity of embryonated T. canis eggs after exposure to the fungus P. lilacinum. T. canis eggs were exposed to P. lilacinum for 15 or 30 days and subsequently administered to Swiss mice (n=20). Control group consisted of mice who received T. canis embryonated eggs without fungal exposure. Forty-eight hours after infection, heart, lung, and liver from animals of each group were collected to assess larval recovery. The organs of mice that received embryonated eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower average larval recovery (P<0.05) suggesting that exposure of T. canis eggs to P. lilacinum was able to reduce experimental infection. Under the evaluated conditions, the interaction time between the fungus and the parasite eggs was not a significant factor in larvae recovery. P. lilacinum may be considered a promising T. canis biological control agent. However, further studies are needed to determine a protocol for the use of this fungus as a biological control agent.


Resumo Purpureocillium lilacinum é um fungo nematófago com potencial para uso no controle biológico de parasitos, incluindo Toxocara canis. Este estudo pesquisou a infectividade de ovos de T. canis embrionados após exposição ao fungo P. lilacinum . Ovos de T. canis foram expostos ao fungo por 15 ou 30 dias e subsequentemente administrados a camundongos Swiss (n=20). O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos que receberam ovos embrionados do parasita sem exposição ao fungo. Quarenta e oito horas após a infecção, coração, pulmão e fígado dos camundongos foram coletados para avaliar a recuperação larval. Os órgãos dos animais que receberam ovos embrionados expostos ao fungo apresentaram menor média de recuperação larval (P<0,05) do que os infectados com ovos sem exposição ao fungo, sugerindo que a exposição dos ovos de T. canis a P. lilacinum foi capaz de reduzir a infecção experimental. Nas condições avaliadas, o tempo de interação entre o fungo e os ovos do parasito não foi um fator significativo na recuperação das larvas. P. lilacinum pode ser considerado um promissor agente de controle biológico de T. canis, no entanto, mais estudos são necessários para avaliar o emprego deste fungo como um agente de controle biológico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/microbiology , Toxocara canis/microbiology , Biological Control Agents , Hypocreales/physiology , Ovum/ultrastructure , Toxocara canis/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electrochemical, Scanning , Mice
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 104-110, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984011

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered the main fruit pests worldwide. In Brazil, two species are predominant: the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus and the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of artificial diets with variable pH in their larval development and adult performance. The experiments were carried out in the laboratory at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12h (L:D) photoperiod. Semisolid diets with pH values of 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, and 1.0, adjusted by adding hydrochloric acid were tested. Results indicated that the diet with pH 6.0 did not support larval development of both species of fruit fly. Diets with greater acidic pH values did not allow egg, larvae or pupae development and adult reproduction of A. fraterculus. For C. capitata , the pH of artificial diet exerts greater influence compared to A. fraterculus on the duration and viability of the larval stage, number of pupae, sex ratio and longevity of males.


Resumo As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) são consideradas as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. No Brasil, duas espécies são predomindantes: a mosca-das-frutas Sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus e a mosca-do-Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Neste estudo avaliamos o efeito de dietas artificiais com pH variável no seu desenvolvimento larval e performance de adultos. Os experimentos foram realizados em laboratório a 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% UR e fotoperíodo de 12:12 horas. Foram testadas dietas semi-sólidas com valores de pH de 6,0; 5,0; 4,0; 3,0; 2,0; 1,5 e 1,0, ajustados pela adição de ácido clorídrico. Os resultados indicaram que a dieta com pH 6,0 não suportou o desenvolvimento larval de ambas as espécies de mosca-das-frutas. As dietas com pH ácido não permitiram o desenvolvimento de ovos, larvas ou pupas e a reprodução de adultos de A. fraterculus. Para C. capitata o pH da dieta artificial exerceu maior influência do que para A. fraterculus nos parâmetros de duração e viabilidade do estágio larval, número de pupas, razão sexual e longevidade de machos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Insect Control/methods , Tephritidae/physiology , Animal Feed/analysis , Ovum/growth & development , Pupa/growth & development , Species Specificity , Tephritidae/growth & development , Ceratitis capitata/growth & development , Ceratitis capitata/physiology , Diet , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Larva/growth & development
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the prevalence of food allergies and allergenic factors in a selected sample of children living in Seoul, Korea, along with their dietary habits, environmental factors, and diseases as risk factors for food allergy. The results of this study will provide basic data for addressing food allergies.METHODS: We selected 3,004 pre-school and school-age children, aged 0 ~ 12, in the 25 districts of Seoul as the study sample. Structured self-report questionnaires were administered over a two-month period in July-August 2018, and the children's parents recorded the answers on their children's behalf. The research tools in this study included the Korean version of the questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).RESULTS: The physician-diagnosed prevalence rate of food allergies was 14.2%, while 20.4% of the children experienced allergic symptoms at least once and 17.4% reported symptoms within the previous 12 months. The children's symptoms included skin problems (88.1%), gastrointestinal issues (19.2%), oral issues (16.7%), respiratory issues (12.7%), and systemic issues (1.3%). The causes of allergies included eggs, peaches, milk, peanuts, and shrimps. The factors influencing the experience of food allergies were the consumption of cereal (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.09 ~ 2.10; p = 0.013), potatoes (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.33 ~ 2.65; p < 0.001), and fast food (aOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.10 ~ 2.72; p = 0.017). Having food allergy symptoms was associated with a higher risk of experiencing asthma (aOR, 4.22 95% CI, 3.10 ~ 5.76; p < 0.001), allergic rhinitis (aOR, 2.53; 95% CI, 2.03 ~ 3.15; p < 0.001), and atopic dermatitis symptoms (aOR, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.88 ~ 4.40; p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Episodes of food allergies warrant examining regular food consumption and placing dietary restrictions through early diagnosis as these episodes may imply the presence of other allergies. Our findings offer basic insights into the patterns, prevalence and symptoms of children's food allergies in Seoul, and our findings will contribute to identifying effective interventions for food allergies.


Subject(s)
Arachis , Asthma , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Early Diagnosis , Edible Grain , Eggs , Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Milk , Ovum , Parents , Prevalence , Prunus persica , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Seoul , Skin , Solanum tuberosum
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742305

ABSTRACT

Contaminated liver fluke egg in the environment has led to the high prevalence of human opisthorchiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asia. To find the effective lessening methods of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in the contaminated environment, we investigated the temperature conditions for killing of these trematode eggs in vitro. Numerous O. viverrini eggs were obtained in the proximal part of uteri of adult worms from experimental hamsters. Mature eggs with miracidium were allocated by experimental groups (2 control: positive and negative and 4 treatment: 50, 60, 70, and 80°C) with 0.85% saline, and treated by the experimental plan. Eggs in each experimental groups were observed under the confocal microscope after stain with Propidium Iodide (PI) to evaluate the effect of temperatures. Eggs in 70 and 80°C groups were all killed after over 10 min heated. Majority of eggs in 60°C (10, 15, and 30 min heated), 70 and 80°C (5 min heated) groups were inactivated. However in 50°C group, below half of eggs were to be killed in all time lapse (10, 15 and 30 min). In order to prevent O. viverrini infection and cholangiocarcinoma, direct treatment of sewage by heating at 70 or 80°C at least 10 min is essential. Therefore, treatment of O. viverrini eggs at a high temperature is a potential method for controlling egg contamination in sewage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asia, Southeastern , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cricetinae , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Heating , Homicide , Hot Temperature , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Opisthorchiasis , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Prevalence , Propidium , Sewage , Uterus
16.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e3-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750171

ABSTRACT

Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is a rare hereditary disorder with a triad of sparse hair, dental hypoplasia, and anhidrosis. Here we report a case of AED with food allergy and atopic eczema. The patient was a 11-month-old boy admitted to our hospital with pyrexia for 2 weeks. He presented with a history of dry skin, eczema, and food allergy to egg. On clinical examination, his body temperature was 38.8°C, with dry skin and eczema almost all over the body, sparse eyebrows, and scalp hair. Laboratory investigations and physical examination did not show any evidence of infection. Radioallergosorbent test was positive to egg yolk, egg white, ovomucoid, milk, house dust, and house dust mite. As the child did not sweat despite the high fever, we performed the sweat test which revealed a total lack of sweat glands. Genetic examination revealed a mutation of the EDA gene and he was diagnosed as AED. His pyrexia improved upon cooling with ice and fan. His mother had lost 8 teeth and her sweat test demonstrated low sweating, suggestive of her being a carrier of AED. Atopy and immune deficiencies have been shown to have a higher prevalence in patients with AED. Disruption of the skin barrier in patients with AED make them more prone to allergic diseases such as atopic eczema, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy. Careful assessment of the familial history is essential to differentiate AED when examining patients with pyrexia of unknown origin and comorbid allergic diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Body Temperature , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dust , Ectodermal Dysplasia , Eczema , Egg White , Egg Yolk , Eyebrows , Fever , Food Hypersensitivity , Hair , Humans , Hypohidrosis , Ice , Infant , Male , Milk , Mothers , Ovomucin , Ovum , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Pyroglyphidae , Radioallergosorbent Test , Rhinitis, Allergic , Scalp , Skin , Sweat , Sweat Glands , Sweating , Tooth
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The extract of Hizikia fusiformis is known to exhibit anticancer, antiatopic and antioxidant activities. We aimed to investigate the extract of H. fusiformis on allergic rhinitis inflammation in a mouse model. METHODS: The 4-week-old BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into four groups: group A, control group (n=9); group B, allergic rhinitis group (n=10); group C (n=10) received 300 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during nasal challenging period; group D (n=10) received 600 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during general sensitization period and 300 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during nasal challenging period. Allergic inflammation was made with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum then challenged intranasally with OVA. H. fusiformis was intraperitoneally administered 3 hours before the OVA administration. Allergic symptom score and the levels of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, OVA-specific IgE antibodies, levels of cytokines in the nasal mucosa and in spleen cell culture supernatant, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 were assessed. The percentage of regulatory T cell was analyzed by flow cytometry. Eosinophilic infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were also evaluated. RESULTS: H. fusiformis administered groups C and D showed significant inhibitory effects on nasal symptoms, IL-13 mRNA expression and eosinophil infiltration/goblet cell hyperplasia in the nasal tissue; OVA-specific IgE production in serum (P<0.05). In group D, H. fusiformis treatment downregulated IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokine expression in splenocyte culture as well as significantly decreased IgG2a, IgG1 levels in serum compared with group B (P<0.05). However, the expressions of IL-5, interferon-γ and forkhead box P3 mRNA did not change in groups C and D. CONCLUSION: H. fusiformis could induce antiallergic inflammation by suppressing the T-helper type 2 cytokine production (IL-13) locally and systemically, OVA-specific IgE formation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and eosinophilic infiltration in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Thus, H. fusiformis could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent in treating allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Cell Culture Techniques , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Mice , Nasal Mucosa , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Rhinitis, Allergic , RNA, Messenger , Spleen , Th2 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786649

ABSTRACT

An archaeoparasitological analysis of the soil samples from Nadym Gorodok site of Western Siberia has been carried out in this study. The archaeological site was dated as the 13 to 18th century, being characterized as permafrost region ensuring good preservation of ancient parasite eggs. Parasite eggs as Opisthorchis felineus, Alaria alata, and Diphyllobothrium sp. were found in the archaeological soil samples, which made clear about the detailed aspects of Nadym Gorodok people's life. We found the Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs throughout the 14 to 18th century specimens, allowing us to presume that raw or undercooked fish might have been commonly used for the foods of Nadym Gorodok inhabitants and their dogs for at least the past 400 years. Our study on Nadym Gorodok specimens also demonstrate that there might have been migratory interactions and strong economic ties between the people and society in Western Siberia, based on archaeoparasitological results of Opisthorchis felineus in Western Siberia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Archaeology , Asia, Northern , Diphyllobothrium , Dogs , Eggs , Humans , Middle Aged , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Permafrost , Siberia , Soil
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786648

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasites that affected the inhabitants of the city of Acre on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean during the Ottoman Period. This is the first archaeological study of parasites in the Ottoman Empire. We analysed sediment from a latrine dating to the early 1800s for the presence of helminth eggs and protozoan parasites which caused dysentery. The samples were examined using light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. We found evidence for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), fish tapeworm (Dibothriocephalus sp.), Taenia tapeworm (Taenia sp.), lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum), and the protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite taxa recovered demonstrate the breadth of species present in this coastal city. We consider the effect of Ottoman Period diet, culture, trade and sanitation upon risk of parasitism in this community living 200 years ago.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Diet , Dysentery , Eggs , Entamoeba histolytica , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fasciola hepatica , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Microscopy , Ottoman Empire , Ovum , Parasites , Sanitation , Taenia , Toilet Facilities
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786647

ABSTRACT

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine archaeoparasitological specimens from coprolites associated with La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) located near present-day Durango, Mexico. The eggs for 4 different types of parasites recovered from CMC coprolites were imaged using CLSM to assist with identification efforts. While some of the parasite eggs recovered from CMC coprolites were readily identified using standard light microscopy (LM), CLSM provided useful data for more challenging identifications by highlighting subtle morphological features and enhancing visualization of parasite egg anatomy. While other advanced microscopy techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), may also detect cryptic identifying characters, CLSM is less destructive to the specimens. Utilizing CLSM allows for subsequent examinations, such as molecular analyses, that cannot be performed following SEM sample preparation and imaging. Furthermore, CLSM detects intrinsic autofluorescence molecules, making improved identification independent of resource and time-intensive protocols. These aspects of CLSM make it an excellent method for assisting in taxonomic identification and for acquiring more detailed images of archaeoparasitological specimens.


Subject(s)
Eggs , Methods , Mexico , Microscopy , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ovum , Parasites
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