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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880864

ABSTRACT

C18 ceramide plays an important role in the occurrence and development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the function of ceramide synthase 1, a key enzyme in C18 ceramide synthesis, in oral squamous cell carcinoma is still unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between ceramide synthase 1 and oral cancer. In this study, we found that the expression of ceramide synthase 1 was downregulated in oral cancer tissues and cell lines. In a mouse oral squamous cell carcinoma model induced by 4-nitroquinolin-1-oxide, ceramide synthase 1 knockout was associated with the severity of oral malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical studies showed significant upregulation of PCNA, MMP2, MMP9, and BCL2 expression and downregulation of BAX expression in the pathological hyperplastic area. In addition, ceramide synthase 1 knockdown promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Overexpression of CERS1 obtained the opposite effect. Ceramide synthase 1 knockdown caused endoplasmic reticulum stress and induced the VEGFA upregulation. Activating transcription factor 4 is responsible for ceramide synthase 1 knockdown caused VEGFA transcriptional upregulation. In addition, mild endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by ceramide synthase 1 knockdown could induce cisplatin resistance. Taken together, our study suggests that ceramide synthase 1 is downregulated in oral cancer and promotes the aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma and chemotherapeutic drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Down-Regulation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Mice , Mouth Neoplasms , Oxidoreductases
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 593-603, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878584

ABSTRACT

Wheat quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase was expressed in Escherichia coli for developing a new biological flour improver. The synthesized wqsox gene was constructed into the vector pMAL-c5x and expressed in E. coli, then the expression conditions of recombinant protein was optimized. The MBP fusion label in recombinant protein was removed by protease digestion after affinity purification. Moreover, enzymatic properties of the purified wQSOX and its effect on bread quality were investigated. The synthesized wqsox gene contained 1 359 bp and encoded 453 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 51 kDa. The constructed recombinant vector pMAL-c5x-wqsox could successfully express soluble recombinant protein MBP-wQSOX in E. coli Rosetta gamiB(DE3), and the optimal induced expression conditions for recombinant protein were 25 °C, 0.3 mmol/L IPTG and 6 h. MBP fusion tag was cut out by factor Xa protease and wQSOX was prepared after affinity purification. wQSOX could catalyze the oxidation of DTT, GSH and Cys, accompanying the production of H2O2, and exhibited the highest substrate specificity for DTT. Furthermore, enzymatic properties results demonstrated that the optimal temperature and pH for wQSOX catalyzing oxidation of DTT was 50 °C and 10.0, respectively, and wQSOX presented a good stability under high temperature and alkaline environment. The addition of wQSOX with 1.1 U/g flour significantly (P<0.05) increased 26.4% specific volume of the bread, and reduced 20.5% hardness and 24.8% chewiness of bread crumb compared to the control, indicating a remarkable ability to improve the quality of bread.


Subject(s)
Bread , Escherichia coli/genetics , Hydrogen Peroxide , Oxidoreductases , Triticum
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200132, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153298

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Arsenic is considered as one of the highly hazardous elements in the environment and a serious carcinogen for the human health. An enzymatic method has been described by using arsenite oxidase for arsenic detection. Residual activity of the immobilized enzyme was 43% of the initial activity after being recycled 10 times.


Abstract Arsenic is considered as one of the highly hazardous elements in the environment and a serious carcinogen for the human health. More attention has taken towards the arsenic due to its presence in ground water in India, China, Bangladesh, Inner Mongolia and several other regions of the world. It's been a challenge to remove arsenic due to the lack of its efficient detection approach in the complicated environmental matrix. The proposed method describes an enzymatic method for arsenic determination using arsenite oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. Hence, a colorimetric PVC strip with immobilized arsenite oxidase has been developed to detect the arsenic concentration and also having potential for the field-testing. The influence of the optimal conditions i.e. pH, temperature, storage stability, and reusability of free and immobilized enzyme were evaluated and compared. The results have shown that the stabilities were significantly enhanced compared with free counterpart. Residual activity of the immobilized enzyme was 43% of the initial activity after being recycled 10 times. We approve that this novel low cost immobilized carrier presents a new approach in large scale applications and expected to act as a model for establishment of indigenous arsenic sensor in miniature form.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arsenic/analysis , Polyvinyl Chloride/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Groundwater/analysis , Enzymes, Immobilized/analysis , Oxidoreductases , Biodegradation, Environmental
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200180, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1287094

ABSTRACT

Snake venoms are composed of pharmacologically active proteins that are evolutionarily diverse, stable and specific to targets. Hence, venoms have been explored as a source of bioactive molecules in treating numerous diseases. Recent evidences suggest that snake venom proteins may affect the formation of new blood vessels. Excessive angiogenesis has been implicated in several pathologies including tumours, diabetic retinopathy, arthritis, inter alia. In the present study, we have examined the effects of P-I metalloproteinases isolated from Bothrops moojeni (BmMP-1) and Bothrops atrox (BaMP-1) and L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO) isolated from B. moojeni (BmLAAO) and B. atrox (BaLAAO) on biochemical and functional aspects of angiogenesis. Methods: P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO were purified from venom by molecular size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography and subsequently confirmed using mass spectrometry. The P-I metalloproteinases were characterized by azocaseinolytic, fibrinogenolytic and gelatinase activity and LAAO activity was assessed by enzyme activity on L-amino acids. Influence of these proteins on apoptosis and cell cycle in endothelial cells was analysed by flow cytometry. The angiogenic activity was determined by in vitro 3D spheroid assay, Matrigel tube forming assay, and in vivo agarose plug transformation in mice. Results: P-I metalloproteinases exhibited azocaseinolytic activity, cleaved α and partially β chain of fibrinogen, and displayed catalytic activity on gelatin. LAAO showed differential activity on L-amino acids. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that both P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO arrested the cells in G0/G1 phase and further induced both necrosis and apoptosis in endothelial cells. In vitro, P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO exhibited significant anti-angiogenic properties in 3D spheroid and Matrigel models by reducing sprout outgrowth and tube formation. Using agarose plug transplants in mice harbouring P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO we demonstrated a marked disruption of vasculature at the periphery. Conclusion: Our research suggests that P-I metalloproteinases and LAAO exhibit anti-angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxidoreductases , Bothrops/physiology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Crotalid Venoms , Metalloproteases
5.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200196, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1346436

ABSTRACT

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of toxic proteins or peptides encoded by various gene families that function synergistically to incapacitate prey. In the present study, in order to unravel the proteomic repertoire of Deinagkistrodon acutus venom, some trace abundance components were analyzed. Methods Shotgun proteomic approach combined with shotgun nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS were employed to characterize the medically important D. acutus venom, after collected samples were enriched with the combinatorial peptide ligand library (CPLL). Results This avenue helped us find some trace components, undetected before, in D. acutus venom. The results indicated that D. acutus venom comprised 84 distinct proteins from 10 toxin families and 12 other proteins. These results are more than twice the number of venom components obtained from previous studies, which were only 29 distinct proteins obtained through RP-HPLC for the venom of the same species. The present results indicated that in D. acutus venom, the most abundant components (66.9%) included metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, and C-type lectin proteins; the medium abundant components (13%) comprised phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and 5'-nucleotidases and nucleases; whereas least abundant components (6%) were aminopeptidases, L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO), neurotoxins and disintegrins; and the trace components. The last were undetected before the use of conventional shotgun proteomics combined with shotgun nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS, such as cysteine-rich secretory proteins Da-CRPa, phospholipases B-like 1, phospholipases B (PLB), nerve growth factors (NGF), glutaminyl-peptide cyclortransferases (QC), and vascular non-inflammatory molecules 2 (VNN2). Conclusion These findings demonstrated that the CPLL enrichment method worked well in finding the trace toxin proteins in D. acutus venom, in contrast with the previous venomic characterization of D. acutus by conventional LC-MS/MS. In conclusion, this approach combined with the CPLL enrichment was effective for allowing us to explore the hidden D. acutus venomic profile and extended the list of potential venom toxins.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxidoreductases , Peptides , Viper Venoms , Proteome , Neurotoxins
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828747

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828583

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827018

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
10.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190103, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1101265

ABSTRACT

The Brazil's lancehead, Bothrops brazili, is a poorly studied pit viper distributed in lowlands of the equatorial rainforests of southern Colombia, northeastern Peru, eastern Ecuador, southern and southeastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, and northern Bolivia. Few studies have been reported on toxins isolated from venom of Ecuadorian and Brazilian B. brazili. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the qualitative and quantitative protein composition of B. brazili venom from Pará (Brazil), and to carry out a comparative antivenomics assessment of the immunoreactivity of the Brazilian antibothropic pentavalent antivenom [soro antibotrópico (SAB) in Portuguese] against the venoms of B. brazili and reference species, B. jararaca. Methods: We have applied a quantitative snake venomics approach, including reverse-phase and two-dimensional electrophoretic decomplexation of the venom toxin arsenal, LC-ESI-MS mass profiling and peptide-centric MS/MS proteomic analysis, to unveil the overall protein composition of B. brazili venom from Pará (Brazil). Using third-generation antivenomics, the specific and paraspecific immunoreactivity of the Brazilian SAB against homologous (B. jararaca) and heterologous (B. brazili) venoms was investigated. Results: The venom proteome of the Brazil's lancehead (Pará) is predominantly composed of two major and three minor acidic (19%) and two major and five minor basic (14%) phospholipase A2 molecules; 7-11 snake venom metalloproteinases of classes PI (21%) and PIII (6%); 10-12 serine proteinases (14%), and 1-2 L-amino acid oxidases (6%). Other toxins, including two cysteine-rich secretory proteins, one C-type lectin-like molecule, one nerve growth factor, one 5'-nucleotidase, one phosphodiesterase, one phospholipase B, and one glutaminyl cyclase molecule, represent together less than 2.7% of the venom proteome. Third generation antivenomics profile of the Brazilian pentabothropic antivenom showed paraspecific immunoreactivity against all the toxin classes of B. brazili venom, with maximal binding capacity of 132.2 mg venom/g antivenom. This figure indicates that 19% of antivenom's F(ab')2 antibodies bind B. brazili venom toxins. Conclusion: The proteomics outcome contribute to a deeper insight into the spectrum of toxins present in the venom of the Brazil's lancehead, and rationalize the pathophysiology underlying this snake bite envenomings. The comparative qualitative and quantitative immunorecognition profile of the Brazilian pentabothropic antivenom toward the venom toxins of B. brazili and B. jararaca (the reference venom for assessing the bothropic antivenom's potency in Brazil), provides clues about the proper use of the Brazilian antibothropic polyvalent antivenom in the treatment of bites by the Brazil's lancehead.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxidoreductases , Snake Bites , Snake Venoms , Bites and Stings , Antivenins , Bothrops , Proteome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure is a major preventable cause of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol consumption is a well-known risk factor of elevated blood pressure. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism is common in Eastern Asians, and inactive ALDH2 genotypes are associated with both avoiding alcohol consumption and aldehyde accumulation. Therefore, this study assessed the associations between alcohol consumption and hypertension and blood pressure according to the ALDH2 genotypes.METHODS: This study consists of 8,526 participants in the Dong-gu Study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) according to alcohol consumption after stratifying by gender and ALDH2 genotypes. Multivariate linear regression was performed to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) according to the amount of alcohol consumed.RESULTS: In men, alcohol consumption was positively associated with both SBP and DBP in active ALDH2 carriers, but not in inactive ALDH2 carriers. In active ALDH2 carriers, compared to non-drinkers, the OR of hypertension was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91–1.49) for < 1 drink/day, and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.15–1.80) for ≥ 1 drink/day in men. With each 1 drink/day increase, SBP and DBP increased by 3 and 1 mmHg in men, respectively. There was no significant association between ALDH2 genotypes and hypertension and blood pressure in women.CONCLUSION: ALDH2 genotype modified the association between alcohol consumption and blood pressure in men. There was a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure in active ALDH2 carriers, but no significant relationship in inactive ALDH2 carriers.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde , Alcohol Drinking , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Female , Genotype , Humans , Hypertension , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Oxidoreductases , Risk Factors
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1143-1152, july/aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048848

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality allied to biochemical quality of lettuce seeds by germination and enzymes expression at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 42ºC. Germination speed index and percentage of germination were estimated. Isoenzyme expressions were assessed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), catalase (CAT), esterase (EST), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (GOT). The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme 4x6, with four cultivars and six different temperatures, with four replications. The highest germination and vigor were observed for cv. 'Everglades' at 35°C, which proved that this cultivar is thermotolerant. Catalase can be considered a genetic marker for the identification ofthermotolerant lettuce cultivars. Cultivar 'Everglades' has potential to be used in lettuce breeding programs aimed at cultivars tolerant to high temperatures during germination.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e bioquímica de sementes de alface por meio da germinação e expressão de enzimas a 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 42ºC. As variáveis velocidade de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação foram estimadas. As expressões das enzimas alcool desidrogenase (ADH), malato desidrogenase (MDH), catalase (CAT), esterase (EST), piruvate descarboxilase (PDC) e glutamato oxaloacetato transferase (GOT) foram avaliadas. Para análise dos genótipos foi empregado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4x6, testando quatro cultivares e seis diferentes temperaturas, com quatro repetições. A maior germinação e vigor foram observadas para a cv. 'Everglades' a 35°C, o que prova que esta cultivar é termotolerante. A catalase pode ser considerada um marcador para a identificação de cultivares de alface termotolerantes. A cultivar 'Everglades' tem potential para uso em programas de melhoramento visando tolerância à alta temperatura durante a germinação.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Catalase , Lettuce , Esterases , Thermotolerance , Isoenzymes , Oxidoreductases
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761783

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to examine the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) on the cardiac functions and morphology, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, myocardial antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD] and glutathione [GSH]), and expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and connexin 43 (Cx-43) in myocardial muscles in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI). Thirty two adult male Sprague Dawely rats were divided into 4 groups (each 8 rats): normal control (NC) group, ISO group: received ISO at dose of 150 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 2 successive days; ISO + Trizma group: received (ISO) and Trizma (solvent of CoPP) at dose of 5 mg/kg i.p. injection 2 days before injection of ISO, with ISO at day 0 and at day 2 after ISO injections; and ISO + CoPP group: received ISO and CoPP at a dose of 5 mg/kg dissolved in Trizma i.p. injection as Trizma. We found that, administration of ISO caused significant increase in heart rate, corrected QT interval, ST segment, cardiac enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-muscle/brain), cardiac HO-1, Hsp70 with significant attenuation in myocardial GSH, SOD, and Cx-43. On the other hand, administration of CoPP caused significant improvement in ECG parameters, cardiac enzymes, cardiac morphology; antioxidants induced by ISO with significant increase in HO-1, Cx-43, and Hsp70 expression in myocardium. In conclusions, we concluded that induction of HO-1 by CoPP ameliorates ISO-induced myocardial injury, which might be due to up-regulation of Hsp70 and gap junction protein (Cx-43).


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antioxidants , Body Weight , Cobalt , Connexin 43 , Connexins , Creatine , Electrocardiography , Glutathione , Hand , Heart Rate , Heat-Shock Proteins , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Humans , Isoproterenol , Male , Muscles , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardium , Oxidoreductases , Rats , Tromethamine , Up-Regulation
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764041

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus mutans is one of the important bacteria that forms dental biofilm and cause dental caries. Virulence genes in S. mutans can be classified into the genes involved in bacterial adhesion, extracellular polysaccharide formation, biofilm formation, sugar uptake and metabolism, acid tolerance, and regulation. The genes involved in bacterial adhesion are gbps (gbpA, gbpB, and gbpC) and spaP. The gbp genes encode glucan-binding protein (GBP) A, GBP B, and GBP C. The spaP gene encodes cell surface antigen, SpaP. The genes involved in extracellular polysaccharide formation are gtfs (gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD) and ftf, which encode glycosyltransferase (GTF) B, GTF C, and GTF D and fructosyltransferase, respectively. The genes involved in biofilm formation are smu630, relA, and comDE. The smu630 gene is important for biofilm formation. The relA and comDE genes contribute to quorum-sensing and biofilm formation. The genes involved in sugar uptake and metabolism are eno, ldh, and relA. The eno gene encodes bacterial enolase, which catalyzes the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate. The ldh gene encodes lactic acid dehydrogenase. The relA gene contributes to the regulation of the glucose phosphotransferase system. The genes related to acid tolerance are atpD, aguD, brpA, and relA. The atpD gene encodes F1F0-ATPase, a proton pump that discharges H⁺ from within the bacterium to the outside. The aguD gene encodes agmatine deiminase system and produces alkali to overcome acid stress. The genes involved in regulation are vicR, brpA, and relA.


Subject(s)
Agmatine , Alkalies , Antigens, Surface , Bacteria , Bacterial Adhesion , Biofilms , Dental Caries , Glucose , Lactic Acid , Metabolism , Oxidoreductases , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Proton Pumps , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Virulence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742362

ABSTRACT

Finasteride is primarily used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). Five-alpha reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs) could induce male sexual dysfunction due to their effects on testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. There is evidence suggesting that 5α-RIs may independently increase the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, many investigators believe that side effects of 5α-RIs will disappear with continuous treatment. Considerable controversy exists regarding the severity and persistence of side effects of finasteride on ED. The aim of this review was to summarize current research studies on finasteride associated with ED. The search strategy used each term of finasteride and ED against PubMed database to identify related studies. ED data reported from available trials for finasteride were summarized and reviewed. Although there is not enough evidence to prove the relationship between finasteride and ED, most studies in this review found that finasteride for BPH was correlated with ED. However, most studies included in this review revealed that finasteride for MAA was not correlated with ED. On the other hand, some studies reported side effects of finasteride associated with sexual dysfunction, including ED, male infertility, ejaculation problem, and loss of libido, even in MAA patients. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to further determine the mechanism and effects of finasteride on ED. However, physicians should discuss with their patients possible long-term effects of finasteride on sexual function, although we do not have evidence showing that adverse events of sexual dysfunction are absolutely associated with 5α-RIs.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Dihydrotestosterone , Ejaculation , Erectile Dysfunction , Finasteride , Hand , Humans , Infertility, Male , Libido , Male , Male , Oxidoreductases , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Research Personnel , Testosterone
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742353

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current study is aimed to assess whether a longer duration of 5α-reductase inhibitor (5α-RI) exposure was associated with higher rate of permanent erectile dysfunction (ED) in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=76) were assigned to five groups: (i) normal control group; (ii) dutasteride (0.5 mg/rat/d) for 4-weeks group; (iii) dutasteride for 4-weeks plus 2-weeks of resting group; (iv) dutasteride for 8-weeks group; and (v) dutasteride for 8-weeks plus 2-weeks of resting group. In vivo erectile responses to electrical stimulation, and changes of fibrotic factors and smooth muscle/collagen contents in the corpus cavernosum were evaluated in each group. RESULTS: Dutasteride administration for 4 and 8 weeks significantly decreased erectile parameters compared with the control group. Reduced erectile responses were recovered during 2 weeks of drug-free time in the 4-week treatment group, but were not in the 8-week group. Protein levels of fibrosis-related factors transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, and p-Smad/Smad (Smad 2/3) in the corpus cavernosum showed no significant change after 4 weeks of dutasteride oral administration, but were enhanced after 8 weeks. Dutasteride markedly decreased smooth muscle content and increased collagen after 4 and 8 weeks of use, but no nuclear size changes; however, neither group showed significant improvement in the smooth muscle to collagen ratio after the rest period. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that recovery from ED depended on the duration of medication, and administration of dutasteride for more than 8-weeks in rats could result in irreversible ED even after discontinuation of medication.


Subject(s)
5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Animals , Collagen , Dutasteride , Electric Stimulation , Erectile Dysfunction , Finasteride , Humans , Male , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Oxidoreductases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764986

ABSTRACT

We analyzed Clonorchis sinensis ancient DNA (aDNA) acquired from the specimens of the Joseon mummies. The target regions were cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase subunits 2 (NAD2) and 5 (NAD5). The sequences of C. sinensis aDNA was completely or almost identical to modern C. sinensis sequences in GenBank. We also found that ITS1, NAD2 and NAD5 could be good markers for molecular diagnosis between C. sinensis and the other trematode parasite species. The current result could improve our knowledge about genetic history of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Diagnosis , DNA , Electron Transport Complex IV , Hydrogen , Mummies , NAD , Niacinamide , Oxidoreductases , Parasites , Republic of Korea
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal upregulation of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is considered to be a key oncogenic event in the development and progression of inflammation-associated human colon cancer. It has been reported that 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), an enzyme catabolizing PGE₂, is ubiquitously downregulated in human colon cancer. 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J₂ (15d-PGJ₂), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligand, has been shown to have anticarcinogenic activities. In this study, we investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ₂ on expression of 15-PGDH in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. METHODS: HCT116 cells were treated with 15d-PGJ₂ analysis. The expression of 15-PGDH in the treated cells was measured by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In addition, the cells were subjected to a 15-PGDH activity assay. To determine which transcription factor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are involved in 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis of 15d-PGJ₂-treated cells. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To determine whether the AP-1 plays an important role in the 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, the cells were transfected with siRNA of c-Jun, a major subunit of AP-1. To elucidate the upstream signaling pathways involved in AP-1 activation by 15d-PGJ₂, we examined its effect on phosphorylation of Akt by Western blot analysis in the presence or absence of kinase inhibitor. RESULTS: 15d-PGJ₂ (10 μM) significantly upregulated 15-PGDH expression at the mRNA and protein levels in HCT-116 cells. 15-PGDH activity was also elevated by 15d-PGJ₂. We observed that genes encoding C/EBP delta, FOS-like antigen 1, c-Jun, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were most highly induced in the HCT116 cells following 15d-PGJ₂ treatment. 15d-PGJ₂ increased the DNA binding activity of AP-1. Moreover, transfection with specific siRNA against c-Jun significantly reduced 15-PGDH expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. 15d-PGJ₂ activates Akt and a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt, LY294002, abrogated 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression. We also observed that an inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX, also abrogated upregulation of 15-PGDH and down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that 15d-PGJ₂ upregulates the expression of 15-PGDH through AP-1 activation in colon cancer HCT116 cells.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , DNA , Down-Regulation , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , HCT116 Cells , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Humans , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oxidoreductases , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transfection , Up-Regulation , Zinc
20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 612-627, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763785

ABSTRACT

Aldose reductase (AR) protein, a member of the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase family, reduces a wide range of aldehydes and enhances cell survival by inhibition of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known as one of the major pathological factor in ischemia. Since the precise function of AR protein in ischemic injury is fully unclear, we examined the function of AR protein in hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cells and in an animal model of ischemia in this study. Cell permeable Tat-AR protein was produced by fusion of protein transduction domain in Tat for delivery into the cells. Tat-AR protein transduced into HT-22 cells and significantly inhibited cell death and regulated the mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs), Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 under oxidative stress condition. In an ischemic animal model, Tat-AR protein transduced into the brain tissues through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drastically decreased neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 region. These results indicate that transduced Tat-AR protein has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that Tat-AR protein could be used as potential therapeutic agent in ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase , Aldehydes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ischemia , Models, Animal , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Protein Kinases
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