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Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 339-351, 20230303. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425210


Introducción. La pancreatitis aguda es una condición gastrointestinal común que se asocia a una importante morbimortalidad. Se estima que su incidencia es de 34 por cada 100.000 habitantes, afecta principalmente a adultos a partir de la sexta década de la vida y en nuestra región es debida en la mayoría de los casos a cálculos biliares. Métodos. Se hizo una revisión de los aspectos fundamentales de esta patología, común y potencialmente mortal. Resultados. El diagnóstico requiere del hallazgo de manifestaciones clínicas, aumento de las enzimas pancreáticas en suero y, en ocasiones, el uso de imágenes diagnósticas. Se puede clasificar en leve, moderada y severa, lo cual es fundamental para determinar la necesidad de tratamiento y vigilancia en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Conclusión. En la actualidad los pilares de manejo de la pancreatitis aguda son la terapia temprana con líquidos, tratamiento del dolor, inicio precoz de la vía oral y resolución del factor etiológico desencadenante. En presencia de complicaciones o un curso severo de enfermedad, pueden requerirse manejo antibiótico e intervenciones invasivas

Introduction. Acute pancreatitis is a common gastrointestinal condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that its incidence is 34 per 100,000 inhabitants, it mainly affects adults from the sixth decade of life, and in our region, most of the cases are secondary to gallbladder stones. Methods. We present a review of the fundamental aspects of this disease, common and potentially fatal. Results. Diagnosis requires finding clinical manifestations, increased serum pancreatic enzymes, and sometimes the use of diagnostic imaging. It can be classified as mild, moderate and severe, which is essential to determine the need for treatment and monitoring in an intensive care unit. Conclusion. Currently, the pillars of management of acute pancreatitis are early fluid therapy, pain management, early oral food intake, and resolution of the etiology. In the presence of complications or a severe course of the disease, antibiotic management and invasive interventions may be required

Humans , Pancreatitis , Abdomen, Acute , Pancreas , Abdominal Pain , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 567-574, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985810


Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of colon complications in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis(NP). Methods: The clinical data of 403 patients with NP admitted to the Department of General Surgery,Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2014 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 273 males and 130 females,aged (49.4±15.4) years(range: 18 to 90 years). Among them,there were 199 cases of biliary pancreatitis,110 cases of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis,and 94 cases of pancreatitis caused by other causes. A multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment model was used to diagnose and treat patients. Depending on whether the patients had colon complications,they were divided into colon complications group and noncolon complications group. Patients with colon complications were treated with anti-infection therapy,parental nutritional support,keeping the drainage tube unobstructed,and terminal ileostomy. The clinical results of the two groups were compared and analyzed using a 1∶1 propensity score match(PSM) method. The t test,χ2 test, or rank-sum test was used to analyze data between groups,respectively. Results: The incidence of colon complications was 13.2%(53/403),including 15 cases of colon obstruction,23 cases of colon fistula,and 21 cases of colon hemorrhage. After PSM,the baseline and clinical characteristics at admission of the two groups of patients were comparable (all P>0.05). In terms of clinical outcome,compared to patients with NP without colon complications,the number of patients with colon complications who received minimally invasive intervention(88.7%(47/53) vs. 69.8%(37/53),χ2=5.736,P=0.030),the number of minimally invasive interventions (M(IQR))(2(2) vs. 1(1), Z=4.638,P=0.034),the number of patients with multiple organ failure(45.3%(24/53) vs. 32.1%(17/53),χ2=4.826,P=0.041),and the number of extrapancreatic infections(79.2%(42/53) vs. 60.4%(32/53),χ2=4.476,P=0.034) increased significantly. The time required for enteral nutrition support(8(30)days vs. 2(10) days, Z=-3.048, P=0.002), parental nutritional support(32(37)days vs. 17(19)days, Z=-2.592, P=0.009),the length of stay in the ICU(24(51)days vs. 18(31)days, Z=-2.268, P=0.002),and the total length of stay (43(52)days vs. 30(40)days, Z=-2.589, P=0.013) were also significantly prolonged. However,mortality rates in the two groups were similar(37.7%(20/53) vs. 34.0%(18/53),χ2=0.164,P=0.840). Conclusions: Colonic complications in NP patients are not rare,which can lead to prolonged hospitalization and increased surgical intervention. Active surgical intervention can help improve the prognosis of these patients.

Male , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/surgery , Prognosis , Colon , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 556-561, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985808


Acute pancreatitis is one of the common surgical acute abdominal diseases. Since people first recognized acute pancreatitis in the middle of the nineteenth century, a diversified minimally invasive treatment model with standardization has been formed today. According to the main line of surgical intervention of acute pancreatitis treatment,this period can be roughly divided into five stages:exploration stage, conservative treatment stage, pancreatectomy stage, debridement and drainage of the pancreatic necrotic tissue stage, and minimally invasive treatment as the first choice led by the multidisciplinary team mode stage. Throughout history, the evolution and progress of surgical intervention strategies for acute pancreatitis cannot be separated from the progress of science and technology, the update of treatment concepts and the further understanding of the pathogenesis. This article will summarize the surgical characteristics of acute pancreatitis treatment at each stage to explain the development of surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis,to help investigate the development of surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis in the future.

Humans , Acute Disease , Treatment Outcome , Debridement , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/pathology , Drainage
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 33-40, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970170


Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of various types of infected pancreatic necrosis(IPN) and the prognosis of different treatment methods in the imaging classification of IPN proposed. Methods: The clinical data of 126 patients with IPN admitted to the Department of Pancreatic and Biliary Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from December 2018 to December 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 70 males(55.6%) and 56 females(44.4%), with age(M(IQR)) of 44(17)years (range: 12 to 87 years). There were 67 cases(53.2%) of severe acute pancreatitis and 59 cases (46.8%) of moderately severe acute pancreatitis. All cases were based on the diagnostic criteria of IPN. All cases were divided into Type Ⅰ(central IPN)(n=21), Type Ⅱ(peripheral IPN)(n=23), Type Ⅲ(mixed IPN)(n=74) and Type Ⅳ(isolated IPN)(n=8) according to the different sites of infection and necrosis on CT.According to different treatment strategies,they were divided into Step-up group(n=109) and Step-jump group(n=17). The clinical indicators and prognosis of each group were observed and analyzed by ANOVA,t-test,χ2 test or Fisher exact test,respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in mortality, complication rate and complication grade in each type of IPN(all P>0.05). Compared with other types of patients, the length of stay (69(40)days vs. 19(19)days) and hospitalization expenses(323 000(419 000)yuan vs. 60 000(78 000)yuan) were significantly increased in Type Ⅳ IPN(Z=-4.041, -3.972; both P<0.01). The incidence of postoperative residual infection of Type Ⅳ IPN was significantly higher than that of other types (χ2=16.350,P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the mortality of patients with different types of IPN between different treatment groups. The length of stay and hospitalization expenses of patients in the Step-up group were significantly less than those in the Step-jump group(19(20)days vs. 33(35)days, Z=-2.052, P=0.040;59 000(80 000)yuan vs. 122 000(109 000)yuan,Z=-2.317,P=0.020). Among the patients in Type Ⅳ IPN, the hospitalization expenses of Step-up group was significantly higher than that of Step-jump group(330 000(578 000)yuan vs. 141 000 yuan,Z=-2.000,P=0.046). The incidence of postoperative residual infection of Step-up group(17.4%(19/109)) was significantly lower than that of Step-jump group(10/17)(χ2=11.980, P=0.001). Conclusions: Type Ⅳ IPN is more serious than the other three types. It causes longer length of stay and more hospitalization expenses. The step-up approach is safe and effective in the treatment of IPN. However, for infected lesions which are deep in place,difficult to reach by conventional drainage methods, or mainly exhibit "dry necrosis", choosing the step-jump approach is a more positive choice.

Male , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/complications , Acute Disease , Intraabdominal Infections/complications , Necrosis/complications , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 13-17, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970166


Infected pancreatic necrosis(IPN) is the main surgical indication of acute pancreatitis. Minimally invasive debridement has become the mainstream surgical strategy of IPN,and it is only preserved for IPN patients who are not response for adequate non-surgical treatment. Transluminal or retroperitoneal drainage is preferred,and appropriate debridement can be performed. At present,it is reported that video assisted transluminal,trans-abdominal and retroperitoneal approaches can effectively control IPN infection. However,in terms of reducing pancreatic leakage and other complications,surgical and endoscopic transgastric debridement may be the future direction in the treatment of IPN.

Humans , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/complications , Acute Disease , Debridement/methods , Endoscopy/methods , Drainage/methods , Intraabdominal Infections/complications , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1207-1211, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010927


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the predictive value of pancreatitis activity scoring system (PASS) combined with Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of SAP patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2020 to January 2023 were retrospectively collected, including basic information, vital signs at admission, first laboratory indexes within 48 hours of admission. The PASS scores at admission and 24, 48 and 72 hours after admission were calculated. According to the diagnostic criteria of IPN, the patients were divided into the non-IPN group and the IPN group, and the independent risk factors of SAP complicating IPN were determined by using univariate analysis and multifactorial Logistic regression. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was drawn to evaluate the predictive value of NLR, CRP, and PASS score, alone and in combination for IPN in patients with SAP.@*RESULTS@#A total of 149 SAP patients were enrolled, including 102 in the non-IPN group and 47 in the IPN group. The differences in PASS score at each time point, NLR, CRP, procalcitonin (PCT), blood urea nitrogen, blood chloride, and days of hospitalization between the two groups were statistically significant. Multifactorial Logistic regression analysis showed that 72 hours admission PASS score [odds ratio (OR) = 1.034, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.005-1.065, P = 0.022], NLR (OR = 1.284, 95%CI was 1.139-1.447, P = 0.000), and CRP (OR = 1.015, 95%CI was 1.006-1.023, P = 0.001) were independent risk factors for IPN in patients with SAP. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the PASS score at 72 hours of admission, NLR, and CRP alone in predicting IPN in SAP patients were 0.828, 0.771, and 0.701, respectively. The AUC of NLR combined with CRP, PASS combined with NLR, and PASS combined with CRP were 0.818, 0.895, and 0.874, respectively. The combination of PASS score at 72 hours after admission, NLR, and CRP had a better predictive ability for IPN in patients with SAP (AUC = 0.922, 95%CI was 0.877-0.967), and the sensitivity was 72.3% when the cut-off value was 0.539.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The predictive value of the PASS score at 72 hours after admission, NLR and CRP in combination for IPN in SAP patients is better than that of the combination of each two and individual detection and has better test efficacy.

Humans , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Acute Disease , Neutrophils/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Lymphocytes , Prognosis
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408228


Introducción: La necrosectomía pancreática abierta es una técnica quirúrgica empleada en la infección de la necrosis. Objetivo: Identificar los factores relacionados con el pronóstico en pacientes operados con el diagnóstico de pancreatitis aguda necrotizante. Método: Se realizó una cohorte prospectiva en enfermos operados con el diagnóstico de pancreatitis aguda necrotizante, en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Universitario "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" de Bayamo, Granma, en el período 2018 - 2020. Se incluyeron 61 pacientes con este diagnóstico. Se estudiaron variables demográficas, clínicas, humorales y quirúrgicas. Se utilizó una estrategia bivariado y multivariado. Resultados: En el análisis bivariado se destacó la influencia de la edad (RR 3,34 IC 95 por ciento 0,17-0,68) y el índice de severidad tomográfica (RR 1,85 IC 95 por ciento 0,66-2,37), la disfunción múltiple de órganos (RR 5,06 IC 95 por ciento 1,08-2,15), la cirugía precoz (2,78 IC 95 por ciento 1,00-3,34) y la infección de la necrosis (RR 6,60 IC 95 por ciento 1,01-5,23). En el modelo de regresión logística multivariado quedaron incluidos como variables independientes asociadas al pronóstico la disfunción múltiple de órganos (RR 6,58 IC 95 por ciento 2,40-18,08) y la infección de la necrosis (RR, 14,20 IC 95 por ciento 5,93 -34,01) Conclusiones: El análisis de la mortalidad evidenció que los factores que demostraron asociación significativa fueron la disfunción múltiple de órganos y la infección de la necrosis(AU)

Introduction: Open pancreatic necrosectomy is a surgical technique used in necrosis infection. Objective: To identify the factors related to prognosis in patients operated on under the diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out in patients operated on under the diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, in the intensive care unit of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes General University Hospital of Bayamo, Granma, Cuba, in the period 2018-2020. Sixty-one patients with this diagnosis were included. Demographic, clinical, humoral and surgical variables were studied. A bivariate and multivariate strategy was used. Results: In the bivariate analysis, the influence of age (relative risk [RR]=3.34; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.68) and tomographic severity index (RR=1.85; 95 percent CI: 0.66-2.37), as well as multiple organ dysfunction (RR=5.06; 95 percent CI: 1.08-2.15), early surgery (RR=2.78; 95 percent CI: 1.00-3.34) and necrosis infection (RR=6.60; 95 percent CI: 1.01-5.23) were highlighted. In the multivariate logistic regression model, multiple organ dysfunction (RR=6.58; 95 percent CI: 2.40-18.08) and infection of necrosis (RR=14.20; 95 percent CI: 5.93-34.01) were included as independent variables associated with prognosis. Conclusions: Mortality analysis evidenced that the factors that showed significant association were multiple organ dysfunction and necrosis infection(AU)

Humans , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Intensive Care Units , Necrosis/mortality , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/surgery
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(1): 58-64, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376906


Abstract Introduction: Pancreatitis is a frequent pathology in our environment, mostly related to benign biliary pathology. It can progress to severe forms in 10-15 % of cases, where the pancreatic tissue becomes necrotic and forms large collections with risk of infection. We do not have epidemiological data about the incidence or management of this complication in Colombia. Aim: This study aims to study the prevalence of infected pancreatic necrosis and describe the cases identified in a quaternary care hospital between 2014 and 2021. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional observational study. We analyzed records of patients diagnosed with stage 2 pancreatitis. Those cases with infected pancreatic necrosis that underwent debridement plus laparoscopic and open surgical drainage at Hospital Universitario Mayor Méderi in Bogotá, Colombia, between January 2014 and January 2021 were studied. A convenience sampling was carried out without calculating the sample size. We collected the patients' demographic and clinical variables, performing a descriptive statistical analysis in Excel. Qualitative variables were described through absolute and relative frequencies, while quantitative ones were expressed through measures of central tendency and dispersion based on their distribution. Results: We analyzed 1020 episodes of pancreatitis, finding pancreatic necrosis in 30 patients, i.e., a period prevalence of 2.9 %. Of the patients, 83 % (n = 25) underwent open drainage, with 48 % (n = 12) mortality. About laparoscopic management, the reduction in postoperative organ failure was 40 % (n = 2), with a 30 % shorter hospital stay than the open drainage approach. Those patients with a level of procalcitonin (PCT) lower than 1.8 ng/mL had less mortality. Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach shows promising results regarding final morbidity and mortality.

Resumen Introducción: la pancreatitis es una patología frecuente en nuestro medio, mayormente relacionada con la patología biliar benigna. Esta puede progresar a formas severas en 10 %-15 % de los casos, en donde el tejido pancreático se necrosa y forma grandes colecciones, con riesgo de infección. En Colombia no conocemos los datos epidemiológicos acerca de la incidencia de este tipo de complicaciones, ni del manejo de las mismas. Objetivo: este estudio tiene como objetivo estudiar la prevalencia de la necrosis pancreática infectada y describir los casos identificados en un hospital de alto nivel de complejidad entre 2014 y 2021. Métodos: estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se analizaron los registros de pacientes diagnosticados con pancreatitis en segunda etapa. Se estudiaron aquellos casos que presentaron necrosis pancreática infectada y se sometieron a desbridamiento más drenaje quirúrgico por vía laparoscópica y abierta en el Hospital Universitario Mayor Méderi de Bogotá, Colombia, entre enero de 2014 y enero de 2021. Se realizó un muestreo por conveniencia, sin cálculo de tamaño de muestra. Se recolectaron variables demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes. Se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo de las variables obtenidas en Excel. Las variables cualitativas se describieron a través de frecuencias absolutas y relativas; mientras que las cuantitativas se expresaron mediante medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión en función de su distribución. Resultados: se analizaron 1020 episodios de pancreatitis y se evidenció necrosis pancreática en 30 pacientes, es decir, una prevalencia de período de 2,9 %. De los pacientes, 83 % (n = 25) se llevó a drenajes por vía abierta, con un 48 % (n = 12) de mortalidad. En relación con el manejo por vía laparoscópica, la reducción en la falla orgánica posoperatoria fue de 40 % (n = 2), con un 30 % menos de duración en la estancia hospitalaria, comparado con la vía abierta. Aquellos pacientes que presentaron un nivel de procalcitonina (PCT) menor de 1,8 ng/mL tuvieron menos mortalidad. Conclusiones: el abordaje laparoscópico muestra resultados prometedores en cuanto a la morbilidad y mortalidad final observada.

Humans , Male , Female , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Debridement , Infections , Patients , Demography , Incidence , Prevalence , Sampling Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Mortality , Sample Size , Hospitals
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 432-435, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935617


Mini-invasive surgical or endoscopic step-up approach is the first choice of pancreatic necrosectomy for infected wall-off necrosis. Surgical debridement has the advantage of high efficiency,low cost and good accessibility,while the complication rate of pancreatic fistula and incision hernia after endoscopic necrosectomy is low.Laparoscopic transgastric necrosectomy(LTGN) can combine the advantages of surgical and endoscopic debridement,and may become one of the important methods for the surgical treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis in the future. This paper focuses on the technical advantages,surgical points,indications and application status of LTGN,so as to provide reference for the technical promotion.

Humans , Debridement/methods , Drainage/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Necrosis/complications , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(1): 146-150, 20211217. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357602


Introducción. En las hernias paraesofágicas tipo IV se produce la herniación del estómago junto a otros órganos abdominales. La herniación del páncreas es muy infrecuente.Caso clínico. Varón de 57 años que acude por dolor torácico, disnea e intolerancia al decúbito. En la tomografía computarizada toracoabdominal se observa hernia diafragmática que contiene colon transverso, intestino delgado y páncreas, con reticulación de la grasa alrededor del mismo, compatible con pancreatitis aguda. Conclusión. La asociación de hernia hiatal con páncreas herniado y pancreatitis es extremadamente infrecuente. El diagnóstico se estableció mediante tomografía computarizada y el tratamiento fue conservador, con cirugía diferida de la hernia de hiato.

Introduction. In type IV paraesophageal hernias, the stomach is herniated along with other abdominal organs. Herniation of the pancreas is very rare. Clinical case. A 57-year-old man presented with chest pain, dyspnea, and intolerance to decubitus. The thoracoabdominal computed tomography shows a diaphragmatic hernia containing the transverse colon, small intestine and pancreas, with reticulation of fat around it, compatible with acute pancreatitis. Conclusion. The association of hiatal hernia with herniated pancreas and pancreatitis is extremely rare. The diagnosis was established by computerized tomography and the treatment was conservative, with delayed surgery for the hiatal hernia.

Humans , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Hernia, Hiatal , Pancreas , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatitis , General Surgery
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(4): 480-484, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360972


Resumen Se presentan 6 pacientes con disrupción ductal del páncreas (DDP) tratados mediante drenaje percutáneo guiado por imágenes con apoyo de la endoscopia. Inicialmente, los pacientes presentaron necrosis pancreática infectada tratada con drenaje percutáneo transgástrico y luego de resolver la infección desarrollaron DDP. En el estudio por imágenes se diagnosticaron 4 pacientes con disrupción ductal parcial y 2 con disrupción total, a quienes se les indicó la colocación de una prótesis transgástrica percutánea para lograr el drenaje del líquido pancreático hacia el estómago. La duración promedio de la prótesis fue de 183 días; no hubo casos de mortalidad. Se pudo evidenciar que esta opción terapéutica mínimamente invasiva tiene baja morbimortalidad, por lo que se plantea el abordaje percutáneo transgástrico apoyado por la endoscopia como posible tratamiento de la DDP.

Abstract A total of six patients with pancreatic ductal disruption (PDD), treated with image-guided endoscopy percutaneous drainage were enrolled. Initially, patients had infected pancreatic necrosis, treated with transgastric percutaneous drainage, and after the infection was controlled, they developed PDD. In the imaging study process, four patients were diagnosed with partial duct disruption and two patients with complete duct disruption. In both cases the placement of a percutaneous transgastric prosthesis to drain the pancreatic fluids to the stomach was indicated. The prosthesis remained 183 days on average and there were no mortality cases. This therapeutic minimally invasive alternative has low rates of morbimortality and thus, the endoscopy percutaneous transgastric approach is considered as a viable treatment in PPD.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pancreas , Drainage , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Patients , Stomach , Endoscopy , Infections
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(4): 514-518, oct.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360977


Resumen La necrosis en la pancreatitis aguda muestra una mortalidad muy alta a pesar de los avances en cuidados críticos. Después de la etiología biliar y alcohólica, la tercera causa más común de pancreatitis es la idiopática, con un 10 % de los casos secundarios a parásitos, y el áscaris es el parásito más común implicado en la necrosis e inflamación del páncreas. Teniendo en cuenta la alta mortalidad que representa la pancreatitis necrotizante, se describe un reporte de caso por ascariasis, destacando su creciente epidemiología, sus causas, su diagnóstico clínico e imagenológico, y su tratamiento antiparasitario según la evidencia actual.

Abstract Necrosis in acute pancreatitis presents a high mortality rate despite advances in critical care. After biliary and alcoholic etiology, the third most common cause of pancreatitis is idiopathic etiology, with 10% of cases related to parasites, being Ascaris the most common parasite involved in pancreas necrosis and inflammation. Considering the high rates of mortality related to necrotizing pancreatitis, a case of ascariasis is analyzed, including its growing epidemiology, its causes, its clinical and imaging diagnosis, and its antiparasitic treatment based on current evidence.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pancreatitis , Therapeutics , Ascaris lumbricoides , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Diagnosis , Causality , Mortality , Critical Care , Antiparasitic Agents
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 217-221, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388799


Resumen Introducción: Los pseudoquistes pancreáticos (PQP) corresponden al 80% de las lesiones quísticas del páncreas. Se debe descartar un tumor quístico, que representan el 10% al 15% de los quistes del páncreas y 1% de los tumores malignos por lo que es fundamental el estudio y diagnóstico diferencial. El término pseudoquiste pancreático gigante se usa tradicionalmente cuando el tamaño es mayor de 10 cm. Hay pocos casos de PQP gigantes en la literatura nacional. Objetivo: Reportar caso clínico con PQP gigante, analizar el diagnóstico diferencial y las opciones terapéuticas. Materiales y Método: Paciente con distensión abdominal progresiva, pérdida de peso y anorexia, posepisodio de pancreatitis aguda. Tomografía computarizada abdominal y resonancia magnética confirman lesión quística gigante intraabdominal. El paciente fue tratado con una cistoyeyunostomía pancreática abierta en Y de Roux. El análisis del contenido aspirado durante la cirugía sugiere PQP. Para la discusión se revisa la literatura más relevante. Resultados: Excelente resultado clínico postoperatorio, el estudio histopatológico de la pared del quiste confirmó el diagnóstico de pseudoquiste pancreático. Al año de seguimiento, el paciente permanece asintomático. Discusión: El estudio preoperatorio es crucial para determinar el diagnóstico diferencial y descartar lesiones neoplásicas o parasitarias quísticas. Los PSQ gigantes reportados son poco frecuentes y su manejo quirúrgico dependerá fundamentalmente de su tamaño, de las relaciones anatómicas y de la experiencia del equipo tratante.

Introduction: Pancreatic pseudocysts (PQP) correspond to 80% of cystic lesions of the pancreas. A cystic tumor must be ruled out, which represents 10% to 15% of pancreatic cysts and 1% of malignant tumors, so the study and differential diagnosis is essential. The term giant pancreatic pseudocyst is traditionally used when the size is greater than 10 cm. There are few cases of giant PQP in the national literature. Objective: To report a clinical case with giant PQP, to analyze the differential diagnosis and therapeutic options. Materials and Method: Patient with progressive abdominal distension, weight loss and anorexia post episode of acute pancreatitis. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirm a giant intra-abdominal cystic lesion. The patient was treated with an open Roux-en-Y pancreatic cysto-jejunostomy. Analysis of the content aspirated during surgery suggests PQP. The most relevant literature is reviewed for discussion. Results: Excellent postoperative clinical results, the histopathological study of the cyst wall, confirmed the diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocyst. At one year of follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic. Discussion: The preoperative study is crucial to determine the differential diagnosis and rule out neoplastic or cystic parasitic lesions. Reported giant PSQs are rare and their surgical management will depend fundamentally on their size, anatomical relationships, and the experience of the treating team.

Humans , Male , Adult , Pancreatic Pseudocyst/surgery , Pancreatic Pseudocyst/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Pseudocyst/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/complications , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnostic imaging
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 115-118, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287251


Resumen El tratamiento escalonado de la pancreatitis aguda necrotizante infectada consiste en el uso de antibióticos de amplio espectro, drenaje y necrosectomía mínimamente invasiva, si fuese necesaria. Esto ha reemplazado a la cirugía abierta como el estándar de tratamiento. El desbridamiento retroperitoneal video asistido (VARD), es una forma de necrosectomía quirúrgica mínimamente invasiva. Presentamos una serie de 5 casos (2 mujeres y 3 varones) con pancreatitis aguda grave y necrosis pancreática infectada tratados de forma escalonada y VARD. El rango de edad fue de 27 a 60 años. Todos los pacientes tuvieron pancreatitis de etiología biliar. El rango del APACHE II fue de 16 a 20. El rango del tiempo para el drenaje percutáneo lumbar fue de 4 a 7 semanas. Hubo una complicación del drenaje percutáneo (fistula duodenal) que se resolvió con tratamiento médico. Los cultivos de todas las necrosis fueron positivos. El tiempo para la realización del VARD tuvo un rango de 6 a 10 semanas. Un paciente requirió dos procedimientos. Hubo dos fístulas pancreáticas tipo B asociadas al VARD, que se trataron conservadoramente. No hubo mortalidad. A largo plazo, dos pacientes fueron diagnosticados de insuficiencia pancreática exocrina y endocrina. Concluimos que en los pacientes con necrosis pancreática infectada que requieran desbridamiento, el VARD es una alternativa segura, efectiva y con buenos resultados a largo plazo.

Abstract The step-up approach for infected necrotizing pancreatitis, consisting of broad-spectrum antibiotics, drainage followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive necrosectomy, has replaced open surgery as the standard of management. Video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD) is a surgical minimally invasive necrosectomy. This is a 5 cases series (2 female and 3 males) with severe acute pancreatitis and infected pancreatic necrosis who underwent step up approach and VARD. The age ranged from 27 to 60 years old. Al patients had biliary pancreatitis. APACHE II ranged from 16 to 20. The time to percutaneous lumbar drainage ranged from 4 to 7 weeks. There was one complication associated with percutaneous drainage (duodenal fistula) with nonoperative management. All necrotizing pancreatitis had positive cultures. The time to perform VARD ranged from 6 to 10 weeks. One patient required two procedures. There were two type B pancreatic fistulas associated with VARD, managed nonoperatively. There was no mortality. During long-term follow-up two patients were diagnosed with exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We conclude that VARD is a safe and effective procedure in patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis requiring debridement, and with good long-term outcomes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/surgery , Retroperitoneal Space , Acute Disease , Treatment Outcome , Debridement
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(3): 220-224, Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251307


Abstract Acute pancreatitis is a rare condition in pregnancy, associated with a high mortality rate. Hypertriglyceridemia represents its second most common cause.We present the case of a 38-year-old woman in the 24th week of gestation with a history of hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. She was admitted to our hospital with acute pancreatitis due to severe hypertriglyceridemia. She was stabilized and treated with fibrates. Despite her favorable clinical course, she developed a second episode of acute pancreatitis complicated by multi-organ dysfunction and pancreatic necrosis, requiring a necrosectomy. The pregnancy was ended by cesarean section, after which three plasmapheresis sessions were performed. She is currently asymptomatic with stable triglyceride levels. Acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in pregnant women, associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. When primary hypertriglyceridemia is suspected, such as familial chylomicronemia syndrome, the most important objective is preventing the onset of pancreatitis.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/diagnostic imaging , APACHE , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/complications , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I/diagnostic imaging
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 102-108, feb. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385283


SUMMARY: Acute pancreatitis is a frequent life-threatening inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by severe abdominal pain that lasts for days to weeks. We sought to determine whether the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory drug, metformin can substantially protect against acute pancreatitis in an animal model of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis, and whether this is associated with the augmentation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and inhibition of the enzyme that promotes tissue damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO). Rats were either injected with two doses of the amino acid L-arginine (2.5 gm/kg; i.p., at one-hour intervals) before being sacrificed after 48 hours (model group) or were pretreated with metformin (50 mg/kg) daily for two weeks prior to L- arginine injections and continued receiving metformin until the end of the experiment (protective group). Using microscopic examination of the pancreas and blood chemistry, we observed that L-arginine induced acute pancreatic injury. This is demonstrated by an enlarged pancreas with patchy areas of haemorrhage, vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei in the acini, disorganized lobular architecture with infiltration of inflammatory cells within the interlobular connective tissue (CT) septa, and the presence of congested blood vessels that were substantially ameliorated by metformin. Metformin also significantly (p<0.05) inhibited L-arginine-induced MPO, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the inflammatory biomarker tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Whereas, metformin significantly (p<0.05) increased IL-10 levels that were inhibited by pancreatitis induction. We further demonstrated a significant (p<0.001) correlation between the scoring of the degree of pancreatic lobules damage tissue damage and the blood levels of TNF-α, IL-10, LDH, and MPO. Thus, metformin effectively protects against L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis, which is associated with the inhibition of MPO and augmentation of IL-10.

RESUMEN: La pancreatitis aguda es una enfermedad inflamatoria del páncreas que amenaza la vida y se caracteriza por un dolor abdominal intenso que dura de días a semanas. Buscamos determinar si la metformina, fármaco antidiabético y antiinflamatorio, puede proteger contra la pancreatitis aguda en un modelo animal de pancreatitis aguda inducida por L-arginina. Además se estudió la asociación con el aumento de la citocina antiinflamatoria interleucina-10. (IL-10) e inhibición de la enzima que promueve el daño tisular, mieloperoxidasa (MPO). Las ratas se inyectaron con dos dosis del aminoácido L-arginina (2,5 g / kg; ip, a intervalos de una hora) antes de ser sacrificadas des- pués de 48 horas (grupo modelo) o se pre trataron con metformina (50 mg / kg) durante dos semanas antes del tratamiento de L- arginina y continuaron recibiendo metformina hasta el final del experimento (grupo protector). Mediante el examen microscópico del páncreas y la química sanguínea, se observó que la L- arginina inducía una lesión pancreática aguda. Se observó un aumento significativo de tamaño del páncreas con áreas hemorrágicas, citoplasma vacuolado y núcleos picnóticos en los acinos, arquitectura desorganizada con infiltración de células inflamatorias dentro de los tabiques del tejido conjuntivo interlobulillar (TC) y la presencia de vasos sanguíneos congestionados mejorados por metformina. Se observó que la metformina inhibió significativamente (p <0,05) la MPO inducida por L- arginina, la lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH) y el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α). Además, demostramos una correlación significativa (p <0,001) entre la puntuación del grado de daño tisular de los lóbulos pancreáticos y los niveles sanguíneos de TNF-α, IL-10, LDH y MPO. Por tanto, la metformina protege eficazmente contra la pancreatitis aguda inducida por L-arginina, que se asocia con la inhibición de MPO y el aumento de IL-10.

Animals , Rats , Arginine/toxicity , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/chemically induced , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/drug therapy , Metformin/administration & dosage , Pancreas/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents , Disease Models, Animal , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 227-230, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361636


A ansa pancreática é uma variação anatômica rara dos ductos pancreáticos. Consiste numa comunicação entre o ducto pancreático principal (Wirsung) e o ducto pancreático acessório (Santorini). Recentemente, estudos têm demonstrado estar essa variação anatômica implicada como fator predisponente e significativamente associada a episódios recorrentes de pancreatite aguda. A pancreatite é uma entidade clínica pouco frequente na infância. Diferente dos adultos, as causas mais comuns incluem infecções virais, por ascaris, medicamentosas, traumas e anomalias estruturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de pancreatite aguda grave não alcoólica e não biliar, em um paciente jovem de 15 anos, em cuja propedêutica imagenológica evidenciou-se alça, comunicando com os ductos pancreáticos ventral e dorsal, compatível com ansa pancreática.

Ansa pancreatica is a rare anatomical variation of the pancreatic ducts. It consists of communication between the main pancreatic duct (Wirsung) and the accessory pancreatic duct (Santorini). Recently, studies have shown that this anatomical variation is implicated as a predisposing factor and significantly associated with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is a rare clinical entity in childhood. Different from that in the adults, the most common causes include viral and ascaris infections, drugs, traumas, and structural abnormalities. The objective of this study was to report a case of a severe non-alcoholic and non-biliary acute pancreatitis in a 15-year-old patient, whose propedeutic imaging showed a loop communicating with the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts, consistent with ansa pancreatica.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pancreatic Ducts/abnormalities , Pancreatic Ducts/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Pseudocyst/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatitis/complications , Pancreatitis/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ichthyosis Vulgaris/diagnosis , Ultrasonography , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic/pathology , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/etiology , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnostic imaging , Amylases/blood , Lipase/blood
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 95-100, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008970


A 44-year-old woman was transferred to the ICU of the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University for 2 days of persistent epigastric pain and 7 hours of unconsciousness. Her admission diagnosis was severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis (hypertriglyceridemia type) with multiple organ dysfunctions. The results of CT revealed a small area of necrotizing pancreatitis, which was not consistent with the severe clinical manifestations. Considering lack of hair and history of postpartum hemorrhage, hormone examination was carried out. According to the results of the examination, she was further diagnosed as Sheehan's syndrome and pituitary crisis. After hormone replacement therapy, her condition improved rapidly.

Adult , Female , Humans , Acute Disease , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Hypopituitarism/drug therapy , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Rev. venez. cir ; 73(2): 389-394, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1292292


La pancreatitis aguda (PA) se define como un proceso inflamatorio agudo del páncreas el cual puede comprometer otros órganos y tejidos. El diagnóstico requiere al menos 2 de las siguientes características: dolor abdominal de moderada a fuerte intensidad, acompañado de náuseas y vómito; evidencia bioquímica de pancreatitis y/o evidencia por imágenes a través de tomografía axial computarizada dinámica (TACD) y/o la resonancia magnética (RM) del páncreas. Es la enfermedad gastrointestinal aguda más común que requiere ingreso hospitalario, siendo la evolución favorable en la mayoría de los casos (80%). Sin embargo, la pancreatitis necrotizante puede desarrollarse en hasta el 20% de los pacientes y se asocia con tasas significativas de insuficiencia orgánica temprana (38%). Los trastornos metabólicos y el ayuno comprometen el estado nutricional lo que podría agravar el curso de la enfermedad, por ello la vía de administración de la terapia nutricional ha demostrado tener un impacto en la evolución de los pacientes. Ahora existe una mejor definición de cuales pacientes con PA necesitan una terapia nutricional agresiva y cuales son aquellos que probablemente se beneficiarán de una nutrición enteral temprana(AU)

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is defined as an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas which can compromise other organs and tissues. The diagnosis requires at least 2 of the following characteristics: moderate to severe abdominal pain, accompanied by nausea and vomiting; biochemical evidence of pancreatitis and/or imaging evidence through dynamic computed axial tomography (TACD) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pancreas. It is the most common acute gastrointestinal disease that requires hospital admission, with a favorable evolution in most cases (80%). However, necrotizing pancreatitis can develop in up to 20% of patients and is associated with significant rates of early organ failure (38%). Metabolic disorders and fasting compromise the nutritional status which could aggravate the course of the disease, therefore the route of administration of nutritional therapy has been shown to have an impact on the evolution of patients. There is now a better definition of which AP patients need aggressive nutritional therapy and which are likely to benefit from early enteral nutrition(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Pancreas/surgery , Pancreatitis/complications , Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , General Surgery , Diagnostic Imaging , Enteral Nutrition , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Inflammation
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 37(2): 21-29, Septiembre 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025014


Objetivo: aplicar la escala Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) a los expedientes clínicos de pacientes con diagnóstico de pan-creatitis aguda en el hospital Homero Castanier Crespo, Azogues enero de 2016 a diciembre de 2017.Metodología: se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y retrospectivo, se trabajó con el universo de expedientes clínicos con reporte de pan-creatitis aguda de 2016 a 2017. Los datos se analizaron con los programas SPSS versión 20 y Excel, utilizando distribuciones de frecuencia y porcen-tajes. Resultados: se estudiaron 79 casos, encontrando una edad media de 48.5 años; el 57% correspondió al sexo femenino. Se obtuvo una mortalidad en general del 12.7%; siendo la forma leve el 79.7% de los casos sin fallecimientos; contrastando con la forma grave con el 20.3%, de los cuales el 62.5% fallecieron.Conclusiones: BISAP demostró ser un predictor de mortalidad, accesible, rápido y útil. Se aprecia una tendencia al incremento de la mortalidad conforme se eleva el puntaje de la escala, siendo esta directamente proporcional a la aparición de complicaciones locales y sistémicas propias de la enfermedad.

Objective: to apply the Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) scale to the clinical records of patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis at the Hospital Homero Castanier Crespo, Azogues January 2016 to December 2017. Methodology: a quantitative, descriptive and retrospective study was carried out; the universe of clinical records with reports of acute pancreatitis was worked from 2016 to 2017. The data were analyzed with the SPSS version 20 and Excel programs, using frequency distributions and percentages. Results: a total of 79 cases were studied, finding an average age of 48.5 years; the 57% corresponded to the female sex. A general mortality of 12.7% was obtained; being the mild form 79.7% of the cases without deaths; and contrasting with the serious form with 20.3%, of which 62.5% died.Conclusions: BISAP proved to be a mortality predictor; it is accessible, fast and useful. A tendency to increase mortality at the same time in the score of the escalation was observed, being this directly proportional to the incidence of local and systemic complications of the disease.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Disease , Mortality , Hospitalization