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1.
Ann. afr. med ; 22(4): 420-425, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1537689

ABSTRACT

Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is common worldwide. Its incidence and prevalence have been declining in recent years in developed countries, and a similar trend has been observed in many parts of Africa including Nigeria. Aim: This study aimed to provide an endoscopic update on PUD in the Northern Savannah of Nigeria and compare with past reports from the region and recent reports from Nigeria, Africa, and the rest of the world. Methods: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy records of consecutive patients diagnosed with PUD between January 2014 and September 2022 at an endoscopy unit of a tertiary institution in North West Nigeria were retrieved and demographic data, types of peptic ulcer, and their characteristics were extracted and analyzed. Results: Over a 9 year period, 171/1958 (8.7%) patients were diagnosed with PUD: mean age 48.8 years (range 14­85), 68.4% male, and 70% >40 years. 59.6% were gastric ulcers (GU), 31.6% duodenal ulcers (DU), and 8.8% were both. The mean age of patients with GU was slightly higher than those with DU (49.9 years vs. 46.6 years, P = 0.29); patients aged 40 years significantly more GU than DU (74.6% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.016). There were no significant gender differences between GU and DU. Conclusion: The prevalence and pattern of PUD in Northern Savannah of Nigeria have changed ­ patients were predominantly male and older, and GU predominated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer , Duodenal Ulcer
2.
Med. UIS ; 35(1): 31-42, ene,-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394430

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por Helicobacter pylori se asocia con enfermedades gastroduodenales como gastritis crónica, úlcera péptica y adenocarcinoma gástrico. Actualmente se dispone de diferentes esquemas terapéuticos, sin embargo, el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos generó resistencia en este agente, razón para estudiar alternativas y reevaluar los criterios que determinan la selección de un esquema en específico. El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir los principios generales de tratamiento de acuerdo a guías de referencia y recomendaciones de autores independientes, y exponer el uso de la rifabutina como alternativa terapéutica. En la búsqueda bibliográfica se usaron los términos "Helicobacter pylori" AND "rifabutin", en las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO y el motor de búsqueda Google Scholar®. La evidencia actual sugiere que el uso de rifabutina como terapia de rescate es apropiado y seguro, y sería la alternativa ideal en casos de multirresistencia o difícil acceso a pruebas de susceptibilidad antibiótica. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 31-42.


Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastroduodenal diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Nowadays, there are different therapeutic regimens, however, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics generated resistance in this agent, reason to study alternatives and reevaluate the criteria that determines the selection of a specific regimen. The aim of this review was to describe the general principles of treatment according to reference guidelines and recommendations of independent authors, and to present the use of rifabutin as a therapeutic alternative. The bibliographic search was performed using the terms "Helicobacter pylori" AND "rifabutin" in the databases PubMed, SciELO and the search engine Google Scholar®. Current evidence suggests that the use of rifabutin as rescue therapy is appropriate and safe, and would be an ideal alternative in cases of multidrug resistance or difficult access to antibiotic susceptibility tests. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 31-42.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori , Rifabutin , Peptic Ulcer , Stomach Neoplasms , Gastritis
3.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 67-74, mar. 2022. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362702

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia del tracto digestivo superior (HTDS) es el sangrado originado por encima del ángulo de Treitz. A pesar del aumento en las estrategias de prevención, del incremento en los tratamientos con Inhibidor de bomba de protones (IBP) y de la intervención endoscópica temprana, esta patología sigue siendo una causa frecuente de consulta a urgencias, con una morbimortalidad no despreciable y alta carga para el sistema de salud. Esta revisión se enfoca en la HTDS de causa diferente a las varices. La principal causante de esta entidad es la enfermedad ácido-péptica, que es consecuencia del gran consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) y de la infección por Helicobacter Pylori. Otras causas son el síndrome de Mallory Weiss, la esofagitis erosiva, las malformaciones arteriovenosas y la malignidad.


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) refers to any bleeding originating above the angle of Treitz. Despite an increase in prevention strategies, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and early endoscopic intervention, this pathology continues to be an important cause of admission to the emergency department for gastrointestinal causes, having a pretty high morbidity and mortality in addition to a high burden on the health system. This review focuses on non-variceal UGIB. The main cause of this entity being peptic acid disease, due to great consumption of NSAIDs and Helicobacter Pylori infection. Other causes are Mallory Weiss syndrome, erosive esophagitis, arteriovenous malformations, and malignancy.


A hemorragia do trato digestivo superior (HTDS) é o sangrado originado acima do ângulo de Treitz. Apesar do aumento nas estratégias de prevenção, do incremento nos tratamentos com Inibidor da bomba de prótons (IBP) e da intervenção endoscópica precoce, esta patologia segue sendo uma causa frequente de consulta a urgências, com uma morbimortalidade não depreciável e alta carga para o sistema de saúde. Esta revisão se enfoca na HTDS de causa diferente às varizes. A principal causante desta entidade é a doença ácido-péptica, que é consequência do grande consumo de anti-inflamatórios não esteróideos (AINES) e da infecção por HelicobacterPylori. Outras causas são a síndrome de Mallory Weiss, a esofagites erosiva, as malformações arteriovenosas e a malignidade. Palavras-chave: hemorragia gastrointestinal; úlcera péptica; endoscopia gastrointestinal; inibidores da bomba de prótons; medicina geral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Peptic Ulcer , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Helicobacter pylori , Gastrointestinal Tract , Emergency Service, Hospital , Esophagitis , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Mallory-Weiss Syndrome , Neoplasms
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18630, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364418

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present investigation was to design, optimize and characterize the gastro retentive floating levofloxacin tablets and perform in-vivo evaluation using radiographic imaging. The floating tablets were prepared by using polymers i.e hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K4M) and carbopol-940 individually and in combination by nonaquous granulation method. All the Formulations were evaluated for swelling index (S.I), floating behavior and in-vitro drug release kinetics. The compatibility study of levofloxacin with other polymers was investigated by FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD. Results from FTIR and DSC revealed no chemical interaction amongst the formulation components. The optimized formulation (F11) showed floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) swelling index (S.I) of 60 sec, >16h and approximately 75 %, respectively. Moreover, F11 showed zero order levofloxacin release in simulated gastric fluid over the period of 6 h. X-ray studies showed that total buoyancy time was able to delay the gastric emptying of levofloxacin floating tablets in rabbits for more than 4 hours. In conclusion the optimized formulation (F11) can be used for the sustained delivery of levofloxacin for the treatment of peptic ulcer.


Subject(s)
Drug Liberation , Peptic Ulcer/classification , Tablets/pharmacology , X-Rays/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Process Optimization/analysis , Levofloxacin/analysis , Gastric Emptying/drug effects
5.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 23(3): 238-247, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1377772

ABSTRACT

Background: Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative agent of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, presently affects approximately one half of the world population. This study was conducted to assess the epidemiology and risk factors for acquisition of H. pylori among individuals with and without peptic ulcer symptoms in Owerri, Nigeria, in order to provide baseline data and create awareness for effective management and prevention of infection caused by this pathogen. Methodology: A total of 384 participants, symptomatic and asymptomatic for peptic ulcer, were recruited from the three Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The symptomatic participants were randomly recruited among patients attending outpatient clinics with symptoms of peptic ulcer disease at the Federal Medical Center Owerri, general hospitals and primary healthcare centers across Owerri LGAs, while asymptomatic patients were recruited from the community. Information on socio-demographic characteristics of each participant and potential risk factors were collected with a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for detection of antibodies (IgG) using a one-step H. pylori test device while faecal samples were collected for detection of occult blood (from peptic ulceration) using faecal occult blood (FOB) test. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 and association of risk factors with H. pylori sero-prevalence was determined by the Chi-square or Fisher Exact test (with Odds ratio). P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: The sero-prevalence of H. pylori infection among the study participants was 72.4% (285/384) while the prevalence of ulcer by FOB test was 71.1% (273/384). A total of 78.4% (214/273) of those with ulcers were seropositive for H. pylori while 64.0% (71/111) of those without ulcers were sero-positive for H. pylori (p=0.0045).Factors significantly associated with high sero-prevalence of H. pyloriwere age groups 41-50 (100%), 21-30 (78.4%) and 31-40 (67.6%) years (X 2=66.964, p<0.0001), illiteracy (OR=6.888, p<0.0001), unemployment (OR=2.427, p<0.0001), low social class status (X2=28.423, p=0.0003), drinking of unclean water (OR=5.702, p<0.0001), living in crowded rooms (OR=2.720, p<0.0001), eating food bought from food vendors (OR=3.563, p<0.0001), family history of ulcer (OR=12.623, p<0.0001), habits of eating raw vegetables and unwashed fruits (OR=6.272, p<0.0001), non-regular hand washing practices before meal (OR=2.666, p<0.0001) and presence of ulcer (OR=2.043, p=0.0045). However, smoking (OR=0.7581, p=0.2449) and gender (OR=0.6538, p=0.0796) were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence of H. pylori. Conclusion: There is need for comprehensive strategy including public health education campaign to create awareness on H. pylori, improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, provision of safe drinking water by the government to the populace, and discourage indiscriminate and open defecation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Quality of Life , Public Health , Risk Factors
6.
Afr. health sci. (Online) ; 22(2): 125-134, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400236

ABSTRACT

Background: Various international guidelines have been developed regarding Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) management, as it is infecting more than half of the world's population. Sudan's health system lacks guidelines regarding H. pylori management, leading to a discrepancy in practice. Investigating the current approach could be a step forward in the formulation of a national consensus in the management of H. pylori. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical doctors currently working in Khartoum, Sudan. Participants were enrolled from platforms of medical associations through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was scored out of 25 points, and scoring 13 or above considered a good approach. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: A total of 358 medical doctors participated in the study. The mean (±SD) score was 12.9(±4.5). Those who were using textbooks, campaigns, symposiums or general medical information to their primary Source of knowledge significantly scored higher. The most selected indication for both diagnosis (76.8%) and treatment (67.6%) was an active peptic ulcer. Stool antigen test (SAT) was the most preferred test (70.7%). The majority of respondents selected triple therapy (82.1%) as a first-line regimen. Only 37.7% confirmed the eradication after four weeks of stopping the treatment. They ensure eradication mainly through SAT (29%). Conclusion: A suboptimal approach was noted among medical doctors of Khartoum, Sudan, regarding H. pylori management. Efforts should be invested in forming national guidelines and the implementation of continuous medical education programs.


Subject(s)
Peptic Ulcer , Therapeutics , Health Systems , Cross-Sectional Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Antigens , Diagnosis
7.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 161-165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the relationship between high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) and peptic ulcer bleeding, in order to provide the evidence for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease in Tibet of China.@*METHODS@#A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Patients who hospitalized in the Department of Gastroenterology with the diagnosis of peptic ulcer bleeding from January 1, 2015 to April 30, 2021 in Tibet Autonomous Region People's Hospital were enrolled in the case group, and patients who hospitalized in the Department of Urology without tumor and without the history of peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal bleeding during the same period were selected as the control group. In the study, 1 ∶ 1 case matching was conducted between the two groups according to the gender, age (±2 years), ethnic group (Tibetan, Han), and the residence altitude level (grouped by < 4 000 m or ≥4 000 m), and 393 cases were included in the case group and the control group respectively. All the patients had lived in Tibet with the altitude >2 500 m for more than 1 year, and with age ≥ 18 years. The risk factors of peptic ulcer bleeding (place of residence, smoking, alcohol, the use of NSAIDs/anticoagulants, and combined with chronic diseases, such as HAPC, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, joint disease) were analyzed and compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#There were 28 (7.1%) patients with HAPC in the case group, and 5 (1.3%) in the control group. The incidence of HAPC in the case group was significantly higher than those in the control group, P < 0.001, and the OR value was 5.953. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that HAPC (OR=5.270, 95%CI: 1.806-15.380), living in cities and towns (OR=2.369, 95%CI: 1.559-3.602), alcohol (OR=3.238, 95%CI: 1.973-5.317) and the use of NSAIDs/anticoagulants (OR=20.584, 95%CI: 2.639-160.545) were the independent risk factors for peptic ulcer bleeding in Tibet. After adjusting for the possible confounding factors, such as living in cities and towns, alcohol, and the use of NSAIDs/anticoagulants, HAPC was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in Tibet, and the OR value was 5.270.@*CONCLUSION@#HAPC was associated with a significantly increased risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in Tibet. Patients with HAPC and peptic ulcer should be diagnosed and treated actively, in order to avoid gastrointestinal bleeding and other serious complications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Altitude , Case-Control Studies , Peptic Ulcer/epidemiology , Polycythemia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Más Vita ; 3(4): 33-40, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355015

ABSTRACT

La gastritis es una enfermedad con una alta morbilidad a nivel mundial, el principal factor de riesgo es la infección por Helicobacter pylori. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, histopatológica y endoscópicas en una población con gastritis crónica. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo, retrospectivo, se incluyeron 49 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta externa del área de gastroenterología, de 18 a 65 años, a quienes se realizó el estudio histopatológico y endoscópico en el Servicio de Gastroenterología en el Hospital General Quevedo, de Los Ríos-Ecuador, durante septiembre 2017 ­ septiembre 2018. Resultados: Se observó predominio del género masculino (65%); en mayores de 40 años (55%), la epigastralgía y la sensación de acidez estomacal, 39% y 35% respectivamente, fueron los síntomas más frecuentes, La positividad para Helicobacter pylori, alcanzó el 86%, y la lesión no erosiva un 73%, existió mayor presencia de la forma no atrófica (84%) sobre la atrófica. Conclusiones: La gastritis crónica predominó en el grupo etario mayor a 40 años y de género masculino, siendo los factores de riesgo de mayor prevalencia la infección por Helicobacter pylori y los asociados al consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, mala alimentación, alcohol y tabaco, los síntomas como epigastralgía y la sensación de acidez estomacal fueron los más frecuentes. El hallazgo endoscópico fue mayor para las formas no erosivas, y de acuerdo a la histopatología la gastritis no atrófica antral moderada fue la más frecuente(AU)


Gastritis is a disease with high morbidity worldwide, the main risk factor is Helicobacter pylori infection. Objective: To describe the clinical, histopathological and endoscopic characteristics in a population with chronic gastritis. Material and methods: An observational, descriptive, retrospective study was carried out, including 49 patients who attended the outpatient consultation of the gastroenterology area, aged 18 to 65 years, who underwent a histopathological and endoscopic study in the Gastroenterology Service at the Quevedo General Hospital, Los Ríos-Ecuador, during September 2017 - September 2018. Results: A predominance of the male gender was observed (65%); In people over 40 years of age (55%), epigastralgia and the sensation of heartburn, 39% and 35% spectively, were the most frequent symptoms, the positivity for Helicobacter pylori, reached 86%, and the non-erosive lesion 73 %, there was a greater presence of the non-atrophic form (84%) over the atrophic one. Conclusions: Chronic gastritis predominated in the age group over 40 years of age and male, the most prevalent risk factors being Helicobacter pylori infection and those associated with the consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, poor diet, alcohol and tobacco. symptoms such as epigastric pain and the sensation of heartburn were the most frequent. The endoscopic finding was greater for non-erosive forms, and according to histopathology, moderate antral non-atrophic gastritis was the most frequent(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Dyspepsia/etiology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Gastritis/physiopathology , Peptic Ulcer , Signs and Symptoms , Biopsy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Acidity , Gastroenterology
9.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 693-699, dic. 2021. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397265

ABSTRACT

La estomatitis aftosa recurrente (EAR) es un trastorno ulcerativo doloroso cíclico que comúnmente afecta la mucosa oral. Factores locales y sistémicos como trauma, sensibilidad alimentaria, deficiencias nutricionales, condiciones sistémicas y desórdenes inmunológicos están asociados con el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Debido a las similitudes en las características de las úlceras pépticas y las úlceras aftosas orales, parece razonable suponer que Helicobacter pylori podría desempeñar un papel en el desarrollo de la EAR. Las especies de Piper son plantas aromáticas que se utilizan como especias en la cocina, pero sus metabolitos secundarios también han mostrado efectos biológicos sobre la salud humana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la relación entre H. pylori y EAR y el efecto cicatrizante del extracto Matico sobre las ulceras bucales. Se reclutó a cuarenta sujetos con EAR. Los participantes fueron asignados al azar al grupo de prueba o al grupo de control. El tamaño y número de las úlceras se registraron el día 1 (valor inicial) y el día 30 (valor final). El tamaño de la ulceras, presencia de pseudomembranas y halos eritematosos fueron estadisticamente significativas en relación a la positividad de H. pylori (p <0,05). No hubo diferencias significativas entre la morfología, número y localización de las aftas (p> 0,05). El grupo que recibió el extracto tuvo un porcentaje de mejoría en la reducción del número de aftas del 65% el día final de evaluación en comparación de sólo un 25% del grupo que no recibió el extracto Matico(AU)


Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a cyclic painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Because of similarities in the characteristics of peptic ulcers and oral aphthous ulcers, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that Helicobacter pylori could play a role in the development of RAS. Piper species are aromatic plants used as spices in the kitchen, but their secondary metabolites have also shown biological effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between H. pylori and RAS and the healing effect of Matico extract on mouth ulcers. Fuorty subjects with RAS were recruited. The participants were randomly allocated to the test group or the control group. The size and number of ulcers were recorded on day 1 (initial value) and day 30 (final value). The size of the ulcers, the presence of pseudomembranes and erythematous halos were statistically significant in relation to the positivity of H. pylori (p <0.05). There were no significant differences between the morphology, number and location of the canker sores (p> 0.05). The group that received the extract had a percentage improvement in the reduction of the number of canker sores of 65% on the final day of evaluation compared to only 25% of the group that did not receive the Matico extract(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer , Stomatitis, Aphthous , Matico/therapeutic use , Helicobacter pylori , Piper , Plants , Students , Biological Products , Control Groups , Dentists
10.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 728-743, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388889

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA) es una emergencia médico-quirúrgica común que debe ser tratada precozmente por su alta morbimortalidad. Corresponde a sangrado del esófago, estómago o del duodeno proximal, y se divide en etiología no variceal y variceal. Dentro de las no variceales destaca la úlcera péptica como la más frecuente, siendo esta producida por un desbalance entre factores protectores y agresivos. Por otro lado, en las hemorragias variceales destacan las várices gastroduodenales, las cuales son consecuencia del aumento de la presión portal. La incidencia de la HDA a nivel mundial varía entre 37 a 172 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes por año y la mortalidad entre un 5 y un 14% según diferentes estudios. Lamentablemente, no existen cifras nacionales fidedignas de incidencia y prevalencia. El médico debe conocer bien la presentación clínica y la fisiopatología para ser asertivo en la sospecha, diagnóstico y manejo de esta patología. En cuanto al tratamiento, el enfrentamiento se divide en el manejo de urgencias y luego endoscópico, puesto que la resucitación temprana intensiva puede reducir la morbimortalidad en pacientes con HDA. A continuación se hará una revisión actualizada enfocada en los aspectos más relevantes del manejo de esta patología. Se obtuvieron los datos de Pubmed y Scielo, específicamente la búsqueda de artículos originales y de revisiones sistemáticas con las palabras "hemorragia digestiva alta", "úlcera péptica", "várices esofágicas" y otras relacionadas. Los criterios usados fueron artículos preferentemente menores a 5 años de publicación en revistas científicas de alto índice de impacto.


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UHD) is a common medical-surgical emergency that must be treated early due to its high morbidity and mortality. It corresponds to bleeding from the esophagus, stomach, or proximal duodenum, and is divided into non-variceal and variceal etiology. Among the non-variceal, the peptic ulcer stands out as the most frequent, being this produced by an imbalance between protective and aggressive factors. On the other hand, in variceal hemorrhages gastroduodenal varices stand out, are a consequence of increased portal pressure. The incidence of HDA worldwide varies between 37 to 172 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year and mortality between 5 to 14% according to different studies. Unfortunately, there are no reliable national statistics of incidence and prevalence. The physician must have a good understanding of the clinical presentation and pathophysiology to be assertive in the suspicion, diagnosis, and management of this pathology. Regarding treatment, the confrontation is divided into emergency management and then endoscopic, because early intensive resuscitation can reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with UHD. This is an updated review which will be focused on the most relevant aspects of the management of this pathology. Data were obtained from Pubmed and Scielo, specifically searching for original articles and systematic reviews with the words "upper gastrointestinal bleeding", "peptic ulcer", "esophageal varices" and other related words. The criteria used were articles preferably less than 5 years old in scientific journals with a high impact index.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophagus/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Jejunum/surgery , Peptic Ulcer , Stomach/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Endoscopy/methods , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
11.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3293, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289613

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Como consecuencia del desarrollo del tratamiento médico de la úlcera péptica duodenal, el tratamiento quirúrgico ha disminuido notablemente. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio es describir la progresión del tratamiento de la úlcera péptica duodenal. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, de corte, desde finales del siglo XIX hasta la actualidad. Se utilizó el método histórico-lógico y un análisis deductivo-inductivo de múltiples fuentes bibliográficas. Desarrollo: A pesar de ser la úlcera una entidad clínica reconocida desde la antigüedad, los cirujanos la consideraron causada por el ácido, y todos los esfuerzos fueron concentrados en eliminar el ácido por medio de una operación. A partir de 1881, se comenzaron a conocer las complicaciones. En la década de los años 30 del pasado siglo, se tratan las complicaciones y también la enfermedad. Desde 1940, además, se conserva el funcionamiento digestivo y aparecen las tres formas básicas de vagotomía. En la década de 1970, se desarrollaron novedosas técnicas quirúrgicas, la endoscopía, la radiología intervencionista y la cirugía mínimamente invasiva. Sin embargo, el tratamiento médico llegó con los poderosos supresores del ácido y el descubrimiento del Helicobacter pylori. Nuevamente la cirugía ha quedado relegada a tratar las úlceras refractarias y las complicadas. Conclusiones: El tratamiento médico, por medio de la terapia anti-Helicobacter asociada a potentes inhibidores de la secreción gástrica ha conseguido su curación; sin embargo, la cirugía todavía tiene un importante papel en el tratamiento de la úlcera refractaria o complicada(AU)


Introduction: Surgical treatment of duodenal peptic ulcer has notably decreased as a consequence of the development of medical treatment. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the advances in the treatment of duodenal peptic ulcer. Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from the end of the 19th century to the present. The historical-logical method and a deductive-inductive analysis of multiple bibliographic sources were used. Development: Despite ulcer has been recognized as a clinical entity since ancient times, surgeons considered that it is caused by acid; therefore, all efforts were concentrated on removing the acid through an operation. From 1881 on, complications began to be treated. In the decade of the 30s of the last century, complications and the disease were treated. Since 1940, the digestive function has also been preserved and the three basic forms of vagotomy appeared. In the 1970s, novel surgical techniques such as endoscopy, interventional radiology, and minimally invasive surgery were developed. However, powerful acid suppressants as well as the discovery of Helicobacter pylori were taken into consideration for medical treatment. Once again, surgery was relegated to the treatment of refractory ulcers and complicated ulcers. Conclusions: Medical treatment with anti-Helicobacter therapy associated with potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion has managed its healing; however, surgery still plays an important role in the treatment of refractory or complicated ulcer(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer/therapy , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Gastric Acid
12.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 202-209, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) secondary to peptic ulcer disease is a medical digestive emergency and could be one of the most serious adverse drug reactions. OBJECTIVE: To identify the frequency of diagnosis of NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease. METHODS: Prospective and epidemiological study conducted in a tertiary referral Brazilian hospital, from July 2016 to December 2019. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (UGE) reports were evaluated daily. The diagnosis of NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease was defined through endoscopic findings of peptic ulcer and erosive gastric lesions, and clinical symptoms. The frequency of diagnosis of NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease was estimated through the ratio between the number of patients diagnosed and the number of patients underwent UGE in the same period. RESULTS: A total of 2,779 endoscopic reports (2,503 patients) were evaluated, and 178 patients were eligible. The total frequency of diagnosis of NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease was 7.1%. The annual frequency of diagnosis between 2017 and 2019 ranged from 9.3% to 5.7%. Most patients were men (72.8%); self-declared white (71.8%); older people (56.7%); and, had no familiar or personal history of gastrointestinal diseases (60.1%). 90% of the patients had a peptic ulcer and melena (62.8%). Patients made chronic use of low-dose aspirin (29.3%), other antiplatelet agents (21.9%) and, oral anticoagulants (11.2%); and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories use in the week a prior to the onset of clinical symptoms (25.8%). CONCLUSION: Seven in every 100 patients admitted and underwent UGE in a tertiary hospital were diagnosed with NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hemorragia digestiva alta não varicosa (HDANV) secundária à úlcera péptica é uma emergência médica digestiva e pode ser uma reação adversa a medicamento severa. OBJETIVO: Estimar a frequência de HDANV secundária à doença péptica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e epidemiológico realizado em um hospital brasileiro terciário de referência, no período de julho de 2016 a dezembro de 2019. Os laudos de endoscopia gastrointestinal alta foram avaliados diariamente. O diagnóstico de HDANV secundária para úlcera péptica foi definido por achados endoscópicos de úlcera péptica e lesões gástricas erosivas e sintomas clínicos. A frequência de diagnóstico de HDANV secundária à úlcera péptica foi estimada por meio da razão entre o número de pacientes diagnosticados e o número de pacientes submetidos à endoscopia gastrointestinal alta no mesmo período. RESULTADOS: Um total de 2.779 laudos endoscópicos (2.503 pacientes) foram avaliados e 178 pacientes foram elegíveis. A frequência total de diagnóstico de HDANV secundária à úlcera péptica foi de 7,1%. A frequência anual de diagnósticos entre 2017 e 2019 variou de 9,3% a 5,7%. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (72,8%); auto-declarado branco (71,8%); idoso (56,7%); e não possuía histórico familiar ou pessoal de doenças gastrointestinais (60,1%). 90% dos pacientes apresentaram úlcera péptica e melena (62,8%). Os pacientes faziam uso crônico de ácido acetilsalicílico como antiagregante plaquetário (29,3%), outros antiplaquetários (21,9%) e anticoagulantes orais (11,2%); e fizeram uso e uso de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais na semana anterior ao início dos sintomas clínicos de HDANV (25,8%). CONCLUSÃO: Cerca de sete em cada 100 pacientes admitidos em um hospital terciário e submetidos à endoscopia gastrointestinal alta foram diagnosticados com HDANV secundária à úlcera péptica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Peptic Ulcer/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 354-357, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292286

ABSTRACT

La obstrucción de la salida gástrica es una afección infrecuente en la edad pediátrica. Tradicionalmente, la cirugía ha sido el modo de tratamiento estándar, pero está asociada a mayor morbimortalidad. El tratamiento endoscópico ha surgido como una alternativa al tratamiento convencional. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 4 años con estenosis prepilórica secundaria a enfermedad ulceropéptica. El cuadro clínico empezó con vómitos y dolor abdominal de 2 meses de evolución. Frente a la falta de respuesta al tratamiento médico y a la dilatación endoscópica con balón, se realizaron incisiones radiadas con electrocauterio e inyecciones de esteroides. La terapéutica endoscópica con balón debería ser el primer gesto terapéutico en este tipo de estenosis refractarias al tratamiento médico


Gastric outlet obstruction is an uncommon condition in children. Traditionally, surgery has been the standard mode of treatment, but it is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic treatment has emerged as an alternative to conventional treatment. We present the case of a 4-year-old patient with refractory prepyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease. The picture begins with vomiting and abdominal pain of 2 months of evolution. Pre-pyloric stenosis was confirmed. Faced with the lack of response to medical treatment and balloon dilation, radiated incisions were made with electrocautery and steroid injections. When medical treatment is not sufficient, endoscopic balloon therapy should be the first therapeutic gesture in this type of stenosis; given its refractoriness, we believe it is important to highlight the usefulness of endoscopic treatment, which could prevent surgery and associated morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Peptic Ulcer , Pyloric Stenosis/surgery , Gastric Outlet Obstruction/surgery , Gastric Outlet Obstruction/etiology , Pylorus , Constriction, Pathologic
14.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 37(1): e1288, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280311

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por H. pylori es considerada como la enfermedad bacteriana crónica más prevalente en el ser humano, pues infecta a más del 50 por ciento de la población mundial. Objetivo: Describir las características clínico epidemiológicas de la infección por H. pylori en pacientes con diagnóstico endoscópico de úlcera péptica. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado en el Policlínico Camilo Cienfuegos; durante el año 2018, en 42 pacientes de 18 y más años, con diagnóstico endoscópico de úlcera péptica e informe del resultado de estudio histológico para el diagnóstico de infección por H. pylori. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y se confeccionó una planilla de recolección de datos que incluyó las variables: grupo de edades, sexo, manifestaciones clínicas, tipo de úlcera, número de lesiones, úlcera activa y metaplasia intestinal. Se utilizó la media y la desviación estándar (DE) y se identificaron los límites de clases superior e inferior. Se calcularon los porcentajes con IC = 95 por ciento. Se estimó la prevalencia general y específica de infección por H. pylori por grupo de edades y sexo. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 46,7 años ± 12,02 años. La prevalencia fue de 59,5 por ciento, superior en mayores de 65 años y en hombres. Conclusiones: El estudio permitió describir las características clínico epidemiológicas de la infección por H. pylori en pacientes con diagnóstico endoscópico de úlcera péptica. Fue más frecuente la presencia de síndrome dispéptico, con una única úlcera duodenal en fase activa y sin metaplasia intestinal(AU)


Introduction: Helicobacter pylori infection is considered the chronic bacterial disease most prevalent in humans, since it infects more than 50% of the world population. Objective: To describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of H. pylori infection in patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer. Methods: Descriptive study carried out at Camilo Cienfuegos Polyclinic, during 2018. The study included 42 patients aged 18 and over who had an endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer and a histological study result positive for H. pylori infection. The medical records were reviewed and a data collection form was prepared, which included the following variables: age group, sex, clinical manifestations, type of ulcer, number of lesions, active ulcer, and intestinal metaplasia. The mean and standard deviation (SD) were used, and the upper and lower class limits were identified. The percentages were calculated, with confidence interval at 95 percent. The general and specific prevalence of H. pylori infection was estimated by age group and sex. Results: The mean age was 46.7 years ± 12.02 years. The prevalence was 59.5 percent, higher among those over 65 years of age and among men. Conclusions: The study permitted to describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of H. pylori infection in patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer. The presence of dyspeptic syndrome was more frequent, with a single duodenal ulcer in the active phase and no intestinal metaplasia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342393

ABSTRACT

The burden of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders (GIDD) remains high in Nigeria and varies across regions. This study wa s therefore designed to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders over a period of 5-years from January 2014 to December 2018 in Akure South of Ondo state, Nigeria. Descriptive retrospective study was employed and the medical records of all patients diagnosed for GIDD in the two selected health facilities were reviewed within the study period. In total, 12,323 medical records of patients with GIDD were included in this study. The prevalence of GIDD were 44.9% in the year 2014 with the lowest prevalence of 6.7% occurring in the year 2018. Over the 5-years period, lower GIDD cases were 91% compared to upper GIDD that was 9%. Peptic ulcer had the highest prevalence (55%) of lower GIDD followed by gastroenteritis (30%). Hiatal hernia had the highest prevalence (84%) for upper GIDD followed by dyspepsia (11%) and Gastroesophageal reflux disease (5%). Over a 5-year period, the prevalence of gastrointestinal disease and disorders in Akure south in this study shows that lower GIDD is more prevalent in the study area with peptic ulcer as the most predominant GIDD among the study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gastroenteritis , Hernia
16.
Artemisa; I Jornada Científica de Farmacología y Salud. Fármaco Salud Artemisa 2021; 2021. [1-14] p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1284587

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La tradición y la sabiduría popular promueven el empleo de la medicina natural debido a su bajo costo y fácil acceso. En la actualidad la medicina herbolaria retoma espacios dentro de la sociedad, sobre todo en los países con mayores índices de ingresos. Objetivo: realizar una revisión bibliográfica para profundizar en los aspectos fisiopatológicos de la úlcera péptica y las acciones que posee Rhizophora mangle L sobre esta afección. Material y Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las principales aplicaciones terapéuticas de Rhizophora mangle L. a través de diversas búsquedas en materiales impresos y digitales Desarrollo: La úlcera péptica, una afección universal de origen multifactorial con etiología diversa y compleja que sufre, aproximadamente, del 8 al 10 % de la población El ácido gástrico ha dominado las teorías acerca de la enfermedad. Varios estudios han demostrado que las plantas producen potentes antioxidantes y representan una importante fuente natural. La caracterización química del extracto acuoso de la corteza de Rhizophora mangle L reveló la presencia de polifenoles, las estructuras no tánicas, se refiere la presencia de carbohidratos libres y enlazados; ácidos grasos de cadena larga, saturados e insaturados; fitoesteroles; componentes volátiles o semivolátiles y aromas o aceites esenciales no volátiles A esta planta se le atribuyen varias propiedades en medicina tradicional, entre ellas las propiedades citoprotectoras sobre la mucosa gástrica. Conclusiones: la medicina natural y tradicional ofrece una solución alternativa más racional e inocua al tratamiento de la úlcera gástrica, pudiendo representar un gran aporte a la medicina humana.


Subject(s)
Peptic Ulcer , Rhizophoraceae , Databases, Bibliographic , Cytoprotection , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4522-4530, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888154

ABSTRACT

Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex(Houpo) can treat peptic ulcer disease(PUD), the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, network pharmacology and molecular docking were employed to predict the mechanism of Houpo in the treatment of PUD. Through literature review and TCMSP screening, 15 main active ingredients were obtained. The SwissTargetPrediction database was used to predict the potential targets of the ingredients, and Therapeutic Target Database(TTD), DrugBank, and Human Phenotype Ontology(HPO) to screen the disease-related targets. A total of 49 potential targets were obtained by the intersection of active ingre-dients-related targets and disease-related targets. Cytoscape 3.6.1 was employed to construct the protein-protein interaction network for the targets with high confidence(score>0.700) screened out by STRING. The DAVID database was used for GO and KEGG pathway enrichment of potential targets. GO enrichment analysis showed that the treatment mechanism was mostly related to nuclear receptor activity, ligand-activated transcription factor activity, and G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor activity. KEGG enrichment analysis found that Houpo could regulate material metabolism, endocrine system, p53 signaling pathway, and PPAR signaling pathway. Molecu-lar docking verified that all 15 ingredients had good binding activities with key targets(CHRM1, CHRM2, FABP1, mTOR, and STAT3). The results mean that Houpo can treat PUD by participating in cell metabolism, inhibiting inflammatory cytokines, and regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptic Ulcer , Protein Interaction Maps , Receptor, Muscarinic M1 , Signal Transduction
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 366-374, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: During the Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, the infiltration of the leukocytes into stomach mucosa is directed by locally produced chemokines that play a decisive role in infection outcome. The CagA is the most potent virulence factor of HP, so that the infection with CagA + strains is associated with more severe complications than infection with CagA - HP. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the expression of chemokines CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 and CCL22, and their receptors by CagA + HP- and CagA - HP-derived crude extract (HP-CE)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from peptic ulcer (PU) patients. METHODS: The serum and the PBMCs were collected from 20 HP-infected PU patients, 20 HP-infected asymptomatic subjects (HIA) and 20 non-infected healthy subjects (NHS). The PBMCs were cultured in absence of stimulator or with 10 µg CagA + HP crude extract (CagA + CE), 10 µg CagA - HP crude extract (CagA - CE). Chemokines and receptors were measured by ELISA and real time-PCR respectively. RESULTS: In PU patients, the production of chemokines CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 and CCL22, and the expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR4 and CCR6 by CagA + CE-induced PBMCs were significantly higher than non-stimulated and CagA - CE stimulated cultures. The CXCL10 production by CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from HIA subjects was significantly higher than the equal cultures from PU and NHS groups. The CCL17 and the CCL20 production by non-stimulated, CagA + CE stimulated, and CagA - CE stimulated PBMCs from PU subjects were significantly higher than the equal cultures from NHS and HIA groups. The CCL22 production by non-stimulated, CagA + CE stimulated and CagA - CE stimulated PBMCs from NHS group were significantly higher than the equal cultures from HIA and PU groups. The CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from HIA subjects expressed lower amounts of CCR6 in comparison with CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from NHS and PU groups. The serum levels CXCL10 and CCL20 in PU and HIA groups were significantly higher than NHS subjects. NHS and HIA groups displayed higher serum levels of CCL22 in comparison with PU patients. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that the CagA status of bacterium influence the expression of chemokines and receptors by HP-CE stimulated PBMCs from PU patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Durante a infecção por Helicobacter pylori (HP), a infiltração dos leucócitos na mucosa estomacal é dirigida por quimiocinas produzidas localmente que desempenham um papel decisivo no resultado da infecção. O CagA é o fator de virulência mais potente do HP, de modo que a infecção com cepas CagA + está associada a complicações mais graves do que a infecção com CagA - HP. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi determinar a expressão das quimiocinas CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 e CCL22, e seus receptores por CagA + HP- e CagA - extrato bruto (EB) derivado de HP (HP-EB) de células mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) de pacientes com úlcera péptica (UP). MÉTODOS: O soro e as CMSP foram coletados de 20 pacientes com UP infectados pelo HP, 20 indivíduos assintomáticos infectados pelo HP (AI-HP) e 20 indivíduos saudáveis não infectados pelo HP (NI-HP). As CMSP foram cultivadas na ausência de estimulador ou com extrato bruto CagA + HP de 10 μg (CagA + EB), 10 μg CagA - extrato bruto HP (CagA - EB). Quimiocinas e receptores foram medidos por ELISA e PCR em tempo real, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Em pacientes com UP a produção de quimiocinas CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 e CCL22, e a expressão dos receptores de quimiocina CXCR3, CCR4 e CCR6 por CagA + CMSP induzidos pelo EB foram significativamente maiores do que as culturas não estimuladas e CagA - EB estimulados. A produção de CXCL10 por CagA + EB estimulou as CMSP de sujeitos AI-HP em proporção significativamente maior do que as culturas iguais dos grupos UP e NI-HP. A produção de CCL17 e CCL20 por grupos não estimulados, CagA + EB estimulado, e CagA - EB estimulou CMSP de sujeitos com UP e foram significativamente superiores às culturas iguais dos grupos NI-HP e AI-HP. A produção de CCL22 por grupos não estimulados, CagA + EB estimulado e CagA - EB estimulado pelo grupo NI-HP foram significativamente maiores do que as culturas iguais dos grupos AI-HP e PU. O CagA + EB estimulou as CMSP dos sujeitos do AI-HP, expressando menores quantidades de CCR6 em comparação com as CMSP estimuladas pelo CagA + EB de grupos NI-HP e UP. Os níveis sanguíneos de CXCL10 e CCL20 nos grupos UP e AI-HP foram significativamente superiores aos dos sujeitos do NI-HP. Os grupos NI-HP e AI-HP apresentaram níveis sanguíneos mais elevados de CCL22 em comparação com pacientes com UP. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que o estado CagA da bactéria influencia a expressão de quimiocinas e receptores por HP-EB estimulados CMSP de pacientes com UP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer , Helicobacter pylori , Bacterial Proteins , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Helicobacter Infections , Virulence Factors , Chemokine CCL17 , Chemokine CCL20 , Chemokine CCL22 , Leukocytes , Antigens, Bacterial
19.
Más Vita ; 2(2): 68-75, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1290734

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia digestiva alta aguda (HDAA) es la emergencia gastrointestinal más frecuente. En los ancianos se asocia con tasas de internación, morbilidad y mortalidad más elevadas que en las personas jóvenes, probablemente por la prevalencia más elevada de múltiples comorbilidades, como las enfermedades pulmonares y cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Describir los fundamentos teóricos de los factores de riesgos asociados a hemorragia digestivas altas. Metodología: Documental, descriptiva. Resultados: diversos estudios demuestran que los factores de riesgos asociados a las hemorragias digestivas altas son: la úlcera péptica gastroduodenal y várices esofágicas, complicaciones graves con alto riesgo de mortalidad en pacientes de edades avanzadas, por lo que se debe actuar con rapidez, eficacia y efectividad. Conclusión: la bibliografía consultada revela: que a pesar de los avances de la tecnología y de la farmacología, la tasa de mortalidad global por hemorragia digestiva alta no ha mejorado. Esta realidad se explica por el aumento significativo en la edad de los pacientes que hoy ingresan a los servicios de urgencias con esta complicación. En la HDAA es fundamental intentar identificar y tratar la fuente del sangrado, para lo cual resulta esencial la endoscopia temprana(AU)


Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (HDAA) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency. In the elderly, it is associated with higher hospitalization, morbidity and mortality rates than in young people, probably due to the higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To describe the theoretical foundations of the risk factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methodology: Documentary, descriptive. Results: various studies show that the risk factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding are, gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and esophageal varices, serious complications with a high risk of mortality in elderly patients, therefore, it is necessary to act quickly, efficiently and effectiveness. Conclusion: the bibliography consulted reveals: that despite advances in technology and pharmacology, the overall mortality rate from upper gastrointestinal bleeding has not improved. This reality is explained by the significant increase in the age of patients who today enter the emergency services with this complication. In HDAA it is essential to try to identify and treat the source of the bleeding, for which early endoscopy is essential(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Angiodysplasia , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/mortality , Aged , Risk Factors , Endoscopy , Esophagitis
20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 37-42, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138451

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão ao protocolo de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse em pacientes críticos de um hospital universitário terciário. Métodos: Neste estudo de coorte prospectiva, incluímos todos os pacientes adultos admitidos às unidades de terapia intensiva clínica e cirúrgica de um hospital terciário acadêmico. Nosso único critério de exclusão foi a presença de sangramento gastrointestinal alto quando da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva. Colhemos as variáveis basais e indicações de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse, segundo o protocolo institucional, assim como o uso de profilaxia. Nosso desfecho primário foi a adesão ao protocolo de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse. Os desfechos secundários foram uso apropriado da profilaxia de úlcera de estresse, incidência de sangramento gastrointestinal superior e fatores associados com o uso apropriado da profilaxia de úlcera de estresse. Resultados: Foram incluídos 234 pacientes no período compreendido entre 2 de julho e 31 de julho de 2018. Os pacientes tinham idade de 52 ± 20 anos, sendo 125 (53%) deles cirúrgicos, e o SAPS 3 médio foi de 52 ± 20. No seguimento longitudinal, foram estudados 1.499 pacientes-dias; 1.069 pacientes-dias tiveram indicação de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse, e 777 pacientes-dias tiveram uso profilático (73% de adesão ao protocolo de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse). Dentre os 430 pacientes-dias sem indicações de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse, 242 envolveram profilaxia (56% de uso impróprio de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse). O total de uso apropriado de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse foi de 64%. Fatores associados com prescrição adequada de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse foram ventilação mecânica, com RC 2,13 (IC95% 1,64 - 2,75), e coagulopatia, com RC 2,77 (IC95% 1,66 - 4,60). A incidência de sangramento do trato gastrointestinal superior foi de 12,8%. Conclusão: A adesão ao protocolo de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse foi baixa, e o uso inadequado de profilaxia de úlcera de estresse foi frequente nesta coorte de pacientes críticos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol in critically ill patients at a tertiary university hospital. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we included all adult patients admitted to the medical and surgical intensive care units of an academic tertiary hospital. Our sole exclusion criterion was upper gastrointestinal bleeding at intensive care unit admission. We collected baseline variables and stress ulcer prophylaxis indications according to the institutional protocol and use of prophylaxis. Our primary outcome was adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol. Secondary outcomes were appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding incidence and factors associated with appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis. Results: Two hundred thirty-four patients were enrolled from July 2nd through July 31st, 2018. Patients were 52 ± 20 years old, 125 (53%) were surgical patients, and the mean SAPS 3 was 52 ± 20. In the longitudinal follow-up, 1499 patient-days were studied; 1069 patient-days had stress ulcer prophylaxis indications, and 777 patient-days contained prophylaxis use (73% stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol adherence). Of the 430 patient-days without stress ulcer prophylaxis indications, 242 involved prophylaxis (56% inappropriate stress ulcer prophylaxis use). The overall appropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis was 64%. Factors associated with proper stress ulcer prophylaxis prescription were mechanical ventilation OR 2.13 (95%CI 1.64 - 2.75) and coagulopathy OR 2.77 (95%CI 1.66 - 4.60). The upper gastrointestinal bleeding incidence was 12.8%. Conclusion: Adherence to the stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol was low and inappropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis was frequent in this cohort of critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Peptic Ulcer/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology
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