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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 202-209, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) secondary to peptic ulcer disease is a medical digestive emergency and could be one of the most serious adverse drug reactions. OBJECTIVE: To identify the frequency of diagnosis of NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease. METHODS: Prospective and epidemiological study conducted in a tertiary referral Brazilian hospital, from July 2016 to December 2019. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (UGE) reports were evaluated daily. The diagnosis of NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease was defined through endoscopic findings of peptic ulcer and erosive gastric lesions, and clinical symptoms. The frequency of diagnosis of NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease was estimated through the ratio between the number of patients diagnosed and the number of patients underwent UGE in the same period. RESULTS: A total of 2,779 endoscopic reports (2,503 patients) were evaluated, and 178 patients were eligible. The total frequency of diagnosis of NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease was 7.1%. The annual frequency of diagnosis between 2017 and 2019 ranged from 9.3% to 5.7%. Most patients were men (72.8%); self-declared white (71.8%); older people (56.7%); and, had no familiar or personal history of gastrointestinal diseases (60.1%). 90% of the patients had a peptic ulcer and melena (62.8%). Patients made chronic use of low-dose aspirin (29.3%), other antiplatelet agents (21.9%) and, oral anticoagulants (11.2%); and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories use in the week a prior to the onset of clinical symptoms (25.8%). CONCLUSION: Seven in every 100 patients admitted and underwent UGE in a tertiary hospital were diagnosed with NVUGIB secondary to peptic ulcer disease.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hemorragia digestiva alta não varicosa (HDANV) secundária à úlcera péptica é uma emergência médica digestiva e pode ser uma reação adversa a medicamento severa. OBJETIVO: Estimar a frequência de HDANV secundária à doença péptica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e epidemiológico realizado em um hospital brasileiro terciário de referência, no período de julho de 2016 a dezembro de 2019. Os laudos de endoscopia gastrointestinal alta foram avaliados diariamente. O diagnóstico de HDANV secundária para úlcera péptica foi definido por achados endoscópicos de úlcera péptica e lesões gástricas erosivas e sintomas clínicos. A frequência de diagnóstico de HDANV secundária à úlcera péptica foi estimada por meio da razão entre o número de pacientes diagnosticados e o número de pacientes submetidos à endoscopia gastrointestinal alta no mesmo período. RESULTADOS: Um total de 2.779 laudos endoscópicos (2.503 pacientes) foram avaliados e 178 pacientes foram elegíveis. A frequência total de diagnóstico de HDANV secundária à úlcera péptica foi de 7,1%. A frequência anual de diagnósticos entre 2017 e 2019 variou de 9,3% a 5,7%. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (72,8%); auto-declarado branco (71,8%); idoso (56,7%); e não possuía histórico familiar ou pessoal de doenças gastrointestinais (60,1%). 90% dos pacientes apresentaram úlcera péptica e melena (62,8%). Os pacientes faziam uso crônico de ácido acetilsalicílico como antiagregante plaquetário (29,3%), outros antiplaquetários (21,9%) e anticoagulantes orais (11,2%); e fizeram uso e uso de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais na semana anterior ao início dos sintomas clínicos de HDANV (25,8%). CONCLUSÃO: Cerca de sete em cada 100 pacientes admitidos em um hospital terciário e submetidos à endoscopia gastrointestinal alta foram diagnosticados com HDANV secundária à úlcera péptica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Peptic Ulcer/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 354-357, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292286

ABSTRACT

La obstrucción de la salida gástrica es una afección infrecuente en la edad pediátrica. Tradicionalmente, la cirugía ha sido el modo de tratamiento estándar, pero está asociada a mayor morbimortalidad. El tratamiento endoscópico ha surgido como una alternativa al tratamiento convencional. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 4 años con estenosis prepilórica secundaria a enfermedad ulceropéptica. El cuadro clínico empezó con vómitos y dolor abdominal de 2 meses de evolución. Frente a la falta de respuesta al tratamiento médico y a la dilatación endoscópica con balón, se realizaron incisiones radiadas con electrocauterio e inyecciones de esteroides. La terapéutica endoscópica con balón debería ser el primer gesto terapéutico en este tipo de estenosis refractarias al tratamiento médico


Gastric outlet obstruction is an uncommon condition in children. Traditionally, surgery has been the standard mode of treatment, but it is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic treatment has emerged as an alternative to conventional treatment. We present the case of a 4-year-old patient with refractory prepyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease. The picture begins with vomiting and abdominal pain of 2 months of evolution. Pre-pyloric stenosis was confirmed. Faced with the lack of response to medical treatment and balloon dilation, radiated incisions were made with electrocautery and steroid injections. When medical treatment is not sufficient, endoscopic balloon therapy should be the first therapeutic gesture in this type of stenosis; given its refractoriness, we believe it is important to highlight the usefulness of endoscopic treatment, which could prevent surgery and associated morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Peptic Ulcer , Pyloric Stenosis/surgery , Gastric Outlet Obstruction/surgery , Gastric Outlet Obstruction/etiology , Pylorus , Constriction, Pathologic
3.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342393

ABSTRACT

The burden of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders (GIDD) remains high in Nigeria and varies across regions. This study wa s therefore designed to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders over a period of 5-years from January 2014 to December 2018 in Akure South of Ondo state, Nigeria. Descriptive retrospective study was employed and the medical records of all patients diagnosed for GIDD in the two selected health facilities were reviewed within the study period. In total, 12,323 medical records of patients with GIDD were included in this study. The prevalence of GIDD were 44.9% in the year 2014 with the lowest prevalence of 6.7% occurring in the year 2018. Over the 5-years period, lower GIDD cases were 91% compared to upper GIDD that was 9%. Peptic ulcer had the highest prevalence (55%) of lower GIDD followed by gastroenteritis (30%). Hiatal hernia had the highest prevalence (84%) for upper GIDD followed by dyspepsia (11%) and Gastroesophageal reflux disease (5%). Over a 5-year period, the prevalence of gastrointestinal disease and disorders in Akure south in this study shows that lower GIDD is more prevalent in the study area with peptic ulcer as the most predominant GIDD among the study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gastroenteritis , Hernia
4.
Artemisa; I Jornada Científica de Farmacología y Salud. Fármaco Salud Artemisa 2021; 2021. [1-14] p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1284587

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La tradición y la sabiduría popular promueven el empleo de la medicina natural debido a su bajo costo y fácil acceso. En la actualidad la medicina herbolaria retoma espacios dentro de la sociedad, sobre todo en los países con mayores índices de ingresos. Objetivo: realizar una revisión bibliográfica para profundizar en los aspectos fisiopatológicos de la úlcera péptica y las acciones que posee Rhizophora mangle L sobre esta afección. Material y Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las principales aplicaciones terapéuticas de Rhizophora mangle L. a través de diversas búsquedas en materiales impresos y digitales Desarrollo: La úlcera péptica, una afección universal de origen multifactorial con etiología diversa y compleja que sufre, aproximadamente, del 8 al 10 % de la población El ácido gástrico ha dominado las teorías acerca de la enfermedad. Varios estudios han demostrado que las plantas producen potentes antioxidantes y representan una importante fuente natural. La caracterización química del extracto acuoso de la corteza de Rhizophora mangle L reveló la presencia de polifenoles, las estructuras no tánicas, se refiere la presencia de carbohidratos libres y enlazados; ácidos grasos de cadena larga, saturados e insaturados; fitoesteroles; componentes volátiles o semivolátiles y aromas o aceites esenciales no volátiles A esta planta se le atribuyen varias propiedades en medicina tradicional, entre ellas las propiedades citoprotectoras sobre la mucosa gástrica. Conclusiones: la medicina natural y tradicional ofrece una solución alternativa más racional e inocua al tratamiento de la úlcera gástrica, pudiendo representar un gran aporte a la medicina humana.


Subject(s)
Peptic Ulcer , Rhizophoraceae , Databases, Bibliographic , Cytoprotection , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 366-374, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: During the Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, the infiltration of the leukocytes into stomach mucosa is directed by locally produced chemokines that play a decisive role in infection outcome. The CagA is the most potent virulence factor of HP, so that the infection with CagA + strains is associated with more severe complications than infection with CagA - HP. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the expression of chemokines CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 and CCL22, and their receptors by CagA + HP- and CagA - HP-derived crude extract (HP-CE)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from peptic ulcer (PU) patients. METHODS: The serum and the PBMCs were collected from 20 HP-infected PU patients, 20 HP-infected asymptomatic subjects (HIA) and 20 non-infected healthy subjects (NHS). The PBMCs were cultured in absence of stimulator or with 10 µg CagA + HP crude extract (CagA + CE), 10 µg CagA - HP crude extract (CagA - CE). Chemokines and receptors were measured by ELISA and real time-PCR respectively. RESULTS: In PU patients, the production of chemokines CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 and CCL22, and the expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR4 and CCR6 by CagA + CE-induced PBMCs were significantly higher than non-stimulated and CagA - CE stimulated cultures. The CXCL10 production by CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from HIA subjects was significantly higher than the equal cultures from PU and NHS groups. The CCL17 and the CCL20 production by non-stimulated, CagA + CE stimulated, and CagA - CE stimulated PBMCs from PU subjects were significantly higher than the equal cultures from NHS and HIA groups. The CCL22 production by non-stimulated, CagA + CE stimulated and CagA - CE stimulated PBMCs from NHS group were significantly higher than the equal cultures from HIA and PU groups. The CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from HIA subjects expressed lower amounts of CCR6 in comparison with CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from NHS and PU groups. The serum levels CXCL10 and CCL20 in PU and HIA groups were significantly higher than NHS subjects. NHS and HIA groups displayed higher serum levels of CCL22 in comparison with PU patients. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that the CagA status of bacterium influence the expression of chemokines and receptors by HP-CE stimulated PBMCs from PU patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Durante a infecção por Helicobacter pylori (HP), a infiltração dos leucócitos na mucosa estomacal é dirigida por quimiocinas produzidas localmente que desempenham um papel decisivo no resultado da infecção. O CagA é o fator de virulência mais potente do HP, de modo que a infecção com cepas CagA + está associada a complicações mais graves do que a infecção com CagA - HP. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi determinar a expressão das quimiocinas CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 e CCL22, e seus receptores por CagA + HP- e CagA - extrato bruto (EB) derivado de HP (HP-EB) de células mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) de pacientes com úlcera péptica (UP). MÉTODOS: O soro e as CMSP foram coletados de 20 pacientes com UP infectados pelo HP, 20 indivíduos assintomáticos infectados pelo HP (AI-HP) e 20 indivíduos saudáveis não infectados pelo HP (NI-HP). As CMSP foram cultivadas na ausência de estimulador ou com extrato bruto CagA + HP de 10 μg (CagA + EB), 10 μg CagA - extrato bruto HP (CagA - EB). Quimiocinas e receptores foram medidos por ELISA e PCR em tempo real, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Em pacientes com UP a produção de quimiocinas CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 e CCL22, e a expressão dos receptores de quimiocina CXCR3, CCR4 e CCR6 por CagA + CMSP induzidos pelo EB foram significativamente maiores do que as culturas não estimuladas e CagA - EB estimulados. A produção de CXCL10 por CagA + EB estimulou as CMSP de sujeitos AI-HP em proporção significativamente maior do que as culturas iguais dos grupos UP e NI-HP. A produção de CCL17 e CCL20 por grupos não estimulados, CagA + EB estimulado, e CagA - EB estimulou CMSP de sujeitos com UP e foram significativamente superiores às culturas iguais dos grupos NI-HP e AI-HP. A produção de CCL22 por grupos não estimulados, CagA + EB estimulado e CagA - EB estimulado pelo grupo NI-HP foram significativamente maiores do que as culturas iguais dos grupos AI-HP e PU. O CagA + EB estimulou as CMSP dos sujeitos do AI-HP, expressando menores quantidades de CCR6 em comparação com as CMSP estimuladas pelo CagA + EB de grupos NI-HP e UP. Os níveis sanguíneos de CXCL10 e CCL20 nos grupos UP e AI-HP foram significativamente superiores aos dos sujeitos do NI-HP. Os grupos NI-HP e AI-HP apresentaram níveis sanguíneos mais elevados de CCL22 em comparação com pacientes com UP. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que o estado CagA da bactéria influencia a expressão de quimiocinas e receptores por HP-EB estimulados CMSP de pacientes com UP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer , Helicobacter pylori , Bacterial Proteins , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Helicobacter Infections , Virulence Factors , Chemokine CCL17 , Chemokine CCL20 , Chemokine CCL22 , Leukocytes , Antigens, Bacterial
6.
Más Vita ; 2(2): 68-75, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290734

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia digestiva alta aguda (HDAA) es la emergencia gastrointestinal más frecuente. En los ancianos se asocia con tasas de internación, morbilidad y mortalidad más elevadas que en las personas jóvenes, probablemente por la prevalencia más elevada de múltiples comorbilidades, como las enfermedades pulmonares y cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Describir los fundamentos teóricos de los factores de riesgos asociados a hemorragia digestivas altas. Metodología: Documental, descriptiva. Resultados: diversos estudios demuestran que los factores de riesgos asociados a las hemorragias digestivas altas son: la úlcera péptica gastroduodenal y várices esofágicas, complicaciones graves con alto riesgo de mortalidad en pacientes de edades avanzadas, por lo que se debe actuar con rapidez, eficacia y efectividad. Conclusión: la bibliografía consultada revela: que a pesar de los avances de la tecnología y de la farmacología, la tasa de mortalidad global por hemorragia digestiva alta no ha mejorado. Esta realidad se explica por el aumento significativo en la edad de los pacientes que hoy ingresan a los servicios de urgencias con esta complicación. En la HDAA es fundamental intentar identificar y tratar la fuente del sangrado, para lo cual resulta esencial la endoscopia temprana(AU)


Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (HDAA) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency. In the elderly, it is associated with higher hospitalization, morbidity and mortality rates than in young people, probably due to the higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To describe the theoretical foundations of the risk factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methodology: Documentary, descriptive. Results: various studies show that the risk factors associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding are, gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and esophageal varices, serious complications with a high risk of mortality in elderly patients, therefore, it is necessary to act quickly, efficiently and effectiveness. Conclusion: the bibliography consulted reveals: that despite advances in technology and pharmacology, the overall mortality rate from upper gastrointestinal bleeding has not improved. This reality is explained by the significant increase in the age of patients who today enter the emergency services with this complication. In HDAA it is essential to try to identify and treat the source of the bleeding, for which early endoscopy is essential(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Angiodysplasia , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/mortality , Aged , Risk Factors , Endoscopy , Esophagitis
7.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 62-73, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098373

ABSTRACT

Resumen El carcinoma gástrico hoy en día es una de las principales causas de mortalidad a nivel mundial por neoplasias y especialmente en países como Costa Rica, que se cataloga como un país de alta incidencia. Existen múltiples factores de riesgo, siendo el primero y más importante la infección por Helicobacter pylori, que desencadena una cascada de diferentes lesiones, iniciando en atrofia gástrica, que puede llegar a finalizar en cáncer invasivo. Existen otros factores que pueden influir en un ambiente pro-carcinogénico tales como fumado, obesidad, la dieta, entre otros. Múltiples naciones han desarrollado diferentes guías de tamizaje para disminuir la mortalidad; sin embargo, en países con alta incidencia sigue siendo el estándar realizar estudios de imagen y endoscopia luego de determinada edad dependiendo de factores de riesgo.


Abstract Gastric carcinoma is nowadays one of the main causes of mortality worldwide due to neoplasms and especially in countries such as Costa Rica, which is classified as a high incidence country. There are multiple risk factors, starting with Helicobacter pylori infection being the most important one; after the infection a cascade with different lesions is triggered, first it begins with gastric atrophy and then eventually lead to an invasive cancer. There are other factors that can influence a pro-carcinogenic environment such as smoking, obesity, diet, among others. Multiple nations have developed different screening guidelines to reduce mortality, however in countries with high incidence it is still the gold-standard to perform imaging and endoscopy studies after a certain age and depending on risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Peptic Ulcer/complications , Gastritis, Atrophic/diagnosis , Metaplasia
8.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(5): 1192-1204, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094122

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva alta ocurre por una lesión sangrante localizada entre el esfínter esofágico superior y el ángulo de Treitz. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento del tratamiento endoscópico del sangrado digestivo alto por úlcera péptica, en el departamento de Gastroenterología del Hospital Universitario Comandante "Faustino Pérez". Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo para evaluar el resultado del tratamiento endoscópico en el sangrado digestivo alto por úlcera péptica en el Hospital Universitario Comandante "Faustino Pérez" de Matanzas, de enero del 2016 a febrero del 2018. El tratamiento endoscópico fue la inyectoterapia con epinefrina al 1:10000. Se analizaron las variables: grupo de edades, sexo, resultado del tratamiento endoscópico, estigmas endoscópicos de sangrado, recidiva hemorrágica, mortalidad directa, necesidad de cirugía, estadía hospitalaria y cantidad de unidades transfusionales. Resultados: se constató un predominio de pacientes masculinos (87.5 %), menores de 60 años (70%). Prevalecieron los pacientes con estigmas endoscópicos de sangrado activo venoso (45%). La terapia endoscópica tuvo un resultado satisfactorio (92.5%) en su mayoría. La ocurrencia de resangrado (45%), mortalidad directa por hemorragia digestiva, promedio de estadía hospitalaria, cantidad de unidades transfusionales y necesidad de intervención quirúrgica de urgencia (17.5%), resultó similar a los estudios reportados, demostrando que la inyectoterapia endoscópica aún constituye una opción eficaz si no se cuenta con otras terapias endoscópicas. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los casos tratados con inyectoterapia endoscópica tuvieron un sangrado activo venoso o Forrest IB que fue satisfactoria. La inyectoterapia no satisfactoria fue en pacientes con sangrado activo. La mortalidad directa relacionada con el sangrado fue infrecuente y en relación con el sangrado arterial. Se demostró que la inyectoterapia endoscópica aún constituye una opción eficaz si no se cuenta con otras terapias endoscópicas (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: high digestive bleeding happens due to a bleeding lesion located between the upper anatomical sphincter of the esophagus and the angle of Treitz. Objective: to determine the endoscopic treatment behavior of high digestive bleeding caused by peptic ulcer, in the department of Gastroenterology of the University Hospital "Comandante Faustino Perez". Materials and methods: a prospective descriptive study was carried out to evaluate the result of the endoscopic treatment in high digestive bleeding caused by peptic ulcer in the University Hospital "Comandante Faustino Perez", of Matanzas, from January 2016 to February 2018. The endoscopic treatment was injecto-therapy with epinephrine at 1:10000. The analyzed variables were: age group, sex, result of the endoscopic treatment, bleeding endoscopic stigma, hemorrhagic relapse, direct mortality, surgery necessity, hospital staying, and quantity of transfusion units. Results: male patients (87.5 %), aged less than 60 years predominated. Patients with endoscopic stigma of venous active bleeding (45 %) prevailed. In most of cases, endoscopic therapy achieved satisfactory results (92.5 %). The authors found that bleeding relapse (45 %), direct mortality by digestive hemorrhage, average hospital staying, quantity of transfusion units and necessity of urgent surgeries (17.5 %) were similar to those reported in other studies. Conclusions: most cases treated with endoscopic injectotherapy had active venous or Forrest IB bleeding and treatment was satisfactory. Therapy was unsatisfactory in patients with active bleeding. The direct mortality related to bleeding was infrequent, and related to arterial bleeding. It was showed that endoscopic injectotherapy is still an efficacious option if other endoscopic therapies are not available (AU).


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Aged , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Hemorrhage/therapy , Peptic Ulcer/etiology , Behavior , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/epidemiology
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 979-992, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094102

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La infección por helicobacter pylori afecta aproximadamente al 50% de la población mundial, es causante de gastritis crónica, úlcera péptica, cáncer gástrico y linfoma del tejido linfoide asociado a la mucosa. Desde su descubrimiento, la erradicación ha sido uno de los más importantes retos en Gastroenterología. En muchos países se desconoce la prevalencia de resistencia primaria del microorganismo a los diferentes antibióticos que empíricamente se utilizan, y por no realizar pruebas de rutina que verifican su erradicación en la práctica diaria, se ignora la efectividad de los esquemas prescritos. El incremento progresivo de la resistencia a la claritromicina y metronidazol, unido a una ausencia de antibioticoterapia alternativa, desafía la capacidad para eliminar de manera efectiva a ésta bacteria. El subcitrato de bismuto ha resurgido y su adición en la terapia ha permitido aumentar las tasas de curación por encima del 90%. Actualmente se invoca que para mejorar la eficacia en el tratamiento se debe combinar una supresión potente del ácido gástrico en tratamientos combinados cuádruples con una duración de 14 días, para la mayoría de los casos. La adherencia al tratamiento es crucial para obtener buenos resultados terapéuticos.


ABSTRACT The infection for helicobacter pylori affects approximately to the world population's 50%, it is causing of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and linfoma associated to the mucous one. From their discovery, the eradication has been one of the most important challenges in Gastroenterología. In many countries the prevalencia of primary resistance is ignored from the microorganism to the different antibiotics that empirically they are used, and for not carrying out routine tests that verify its eradication in the daily practice, the effectiveness of the prescribed outlines it is ignored. The progressive increment of the resistance to the claritromicina and metronidazol, together to an absence of alternative antibioticotherapy, challenges the capacity to eliminate from an effective way to this bacteria. The bismuth subcitrato has resurged and its addition in the therapy has allowed to increase the cure rates above 90%. At the moment it is invoked that to improve the effectiveness in the treatment, that is should combine a potent suppression of the gastric acid in combined quadruple treatments with a duration of 14 days, for most of the cases. The adherence to the treatment is crucial to obtain therapeutic good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Risk Factors , Helicobacter Infections/etiology , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Disease Eradication , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Bismuth/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Clarithromycin , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/diagnosis , Acidity Regulator , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Gastritis/diagnosis , Gastroenterology , Metronidazole , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(1): 5-14, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003629

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O paciente crítico corre risco de desenvolver úlceras de estresse do trato gastrintestinal. Antiácidos e antiulcerosos de diferentes classes são frequentemente prescritos para reduzir a incidência de hemorragia gastrintestinal clinicamente significativa associada à úlcera de estresse. No entanto, o uso indiscriminado deste tipo de profilaxia em todos os pacientes admitidos a unidades de terapia intensiva não só não se justifica, como tem potenciais efeitos adversos e implicações de custo. As presentes diretrizes da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cuidados Intensivos resume a evidência atual e fornece seis afirmações clínicas e um algoritmo com o objetivo de fornecer uma política padronizada para prescrição de profilaxia da úlcera estresse em unidades de terapia intensiva.


ABSTRACT Critically ill patients are at risk of developing stress ulcers in the upper digestive tract. Agents that suppress gastric acid are commonly prescribed to reduce the incidence of clinically important stress ulcer-related gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the indiscriminate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis in all patients admitted to the intensive care unit is not warranted and can have potential adverse clinical effects and cost implications. The present guidelines from the Sociedade Portuguesa de Cuidados Intensivos summarizes the current evidence and gives six clinical statements and an algorithm aiming to provide a standardized prescribing policy for the use of stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Stress, Physiological , Algorithms , Critical Illness , Critical Care/methods , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
12.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 401-406, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763482

ABSTRACT

Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) refers to blood loss from the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz due to lesions that are non-variceal in origin. The distinction of the bleeding source as non-variceal is important in numerous aspects, but none more so than endoscopic approaches for successful hemostasis. When a patient presents with acute overt blood loss, NVUGIB is a medical emergency, which requires immediate intervention. There have been major strides in pharmacologic and endoscopic interventions for successful induction and remission of hemostasis in the last two decades. Despite achieving tangible improvements, the burden of the disease and the consequent mortality remain high. To address endoscopic outcomes better, several new technologies have emerged and have been subsequently incorporated to the armamentarium of hemostatic tools. This study aims to provide a succinct review on novel technologies for endoscopic hemostasis.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Ligaments , Mortality , Peptic Ulcer
13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 416-418, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763480

ABSTRACT

Bleeding peptic ulcers remained as one of the commonest causes of hospitalization worldwide. While endoscopic hemostasis serves as primary treatment for bleeding ulcers, rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis becomes more and more difficult to manage as patients are usually poor surgical candidates with multiple comorbidities. Recent advances in management of bleeding peptic ulcers aimed to further reduce the rate of rebleeding through—(1) identification of high risk patients for rebleeding and mortality; (2) improvement in primary endoscopic hemostasis and; (3) prophylactic angiographic embolization of major arteries. The technique and clinical evidences for these approaches will be reviewed in the current article.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Comorbidity , Endoscopy , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Hospitalization , Humans , Mortality , Peptic Ulcer , Ulcer
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760162

ABSTRACT

Cholecystocolic fistula (CCF) is a rare and late complication of gallbladder disease. The cause of CCF is known to be peptic ulcer, gallbladder disease, malignant tumor, trauma, and postoperative complications. The proper treatment method is to perform cholecystectomy and to identify and alleviate the CCF. However, cholecystectomy is not always possible owing to technical difficulties and disease severity. CCF is difficult to diagnose preoperatively, and CCF operation without an accurate preoperative diagnosis can lead to a more complicated surgery and cause surgeons to face more difficult situations or to endanger patients' lives. We report a case of asymptomatic CCF successfully treated with laparoscopic surgery after accurate diagnosis before surgery.


Subject(s)
Cholecystectomy , Diagnosis , Fistula , Gallbladder Diseases , Laparoscopy , Methods , Peptic Ulcer , Postoperative Complications , Surgeons
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Compared to the general population, patients with end-stage renal disease have more gastrointestinal symptoms and a higher prevalence of peptic ulcer. Risk factors for peptic ulcer disease in patients with end-stage renal disease, however, remain poorly defined. This study aims to better identify those risk factors. METHODS: We analyzed 577 patients with end-stage renal disease from 2004 to 2016. We excluded patients with life-threatening conditions. All patients underwent upper endoscopy. We analyzed patient medical records, medication history, and endoscopic findings. Independent sample t test, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Of the 577 patients with end-stage renal disease, 174 had peptic ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal ulcer). Patients on hemodialysis had a higher prevalence of peptic ulcer disease than those on peritoneal dialysis. Patients with peptic ulcer disease had lower serum albumin level and higher blood urea nitrogen level than those without peptic ulcer disease. Positive scores on two or more nutritional indices (albumin, serum cholesterol, uric acid, and creatinine levels) were associated with peptic ulcer disease in end-stage renal disease. CONCLUSION: Hemodialysis, hypoalbuminemia, and multiple malnutrition indices were associated with the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis.


Subject(s)
Blood Urea Nitrogen , Cholesterol , Creatinine , Dialysis , Endoscopy , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Logistic Models , Malnutrition , Medical Records , Nutrition Assessment , Peptic Ulcer , Peritoneal Dialysis , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , Serum Albumin , Uric Acid
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760875

ABSTRACT

The policies developed for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in adults may not be the most suitable ones to treat children and adolescents. Methods used to treat children and adolescents in Europe and North America may not be appropriate for treating children and adolescents in Korea due to differences in epidemiological characteristics of H. pylori between regions. Moreover, the agreed standard guidelines for the treatment of H. pylori infection in children and adolescents in Korea have not been established yet. In this study, the optimal treatment strategy for H. pylori infection control in children and adolescents in Korea is discussed based on these guidelines, and recent progress on the use and misuse of antimicrobial agents is elaborated. Non-invasive as well as invasive diagnostic test and treatment strategy for H. pylori infection are not recommendable in children aged less than ten years or children with body weight under 35 kg, except in cases of clinically suspected or endoscopically identified peptic ulcers. The uncertainty, whether enough antimicrobial concentrations to eradicate H. pylori can be maintained when administered according to body weight-based dosing, and the costs and adverse effects outweighing the anticipated benefits of treatment make it difficult to decide to eradicate H. pylori in a positive non-invasive diagnostic test in this age group. However, adolescents over ten years of age or with a bodyweight of more than 35 kg can be managed aggressively as adults, because they can tolerate the adult doses of anti-H. pylori therapy. In adolescents, the prevention of future peptic ulcers and gastric cancers is expected after the eradication of H. pylori. Bismuth-based quadruple therapy (bismuth-proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin/tetracycline-metronidazole) with maximal tolerable doses and optimal dose intervals of 14 days is recommended, because in Korea, the antibiotic susceptibility test for H. pylori is not performed at the initial diagnostic evaluation. If the first-line treatment fails, concomitant therapy plus bismuth can be attempted for 14 days as an empirical rescue therapy. Finally, the salvage therapy, if needed, must be administered after the H. pylori antibiotic susceptibility test.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Infective Agents , Bismuth , Body Weight , Child , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Europe , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Infection Control , Korea , North America , Peptic Ulcer , Salvage Therapy , Stomach Neoplasms , Uncertainty
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719607

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to assess the clinical usefulness of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) in detecting peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in children. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (19 boys, 5 girls; mean age, 10.6±4.5 years [range, 3.0–17.9 years]) who were admitted to the hospital for acute abdomen or gastrointestinal bleeding and diagnosed with PUD by endoscopy and who underwent TUS were included. Clinical data were retrospectively collected by reviewing patient medical records. Gastric ulcer (GU) was suspected when the gastric wall exceeded 8 mm in thickness and had lost its five-layer structure on TUS. Duodenal ulcer (DU) was suspected if the duodenal wall thickness exceeded 5 mm. RESULTS: Sensitivity of TUS in diagnosing PUD was 66.7% for GU and 38.9% for DU. Mean age and body weight of the 11 patients suspected with PUD on TUS were 10.9±4.4 years and 38.1±17.2 kg, respectively. For 13 patients without suspected PUD, they were 12.1±4.1 years and 39.6±17.0 kg, respectively. There was a significant difference in height, weight, and body mass index between patients who were suspected to have PUD and those who were not suspected on TUS (p=0.014, 0.008, and 0.005, respectively). A significant difference in the sensitivity of TUS in diagnosing PUD was found between patients under 30 kg and those over 30 kg (88.9% and 20.0%, respectively; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: TUS investigation of the stomach and duodenum is an efficient method for PUD detection in children with low body weight. TUS can be used in preliminary diagnostic work-up before further invasive tests.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Child , Diagnosis , Duodenal Ulcer , Duodenum , Endoscopy , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Medical Records , Methods , Peptic Ulcer , Retrospective Studies , Stomach , Stomach Ulcer , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719436

ABSTRACT

Intramural hematoma of the duodenum is a relatively unusual complication associated with the endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Intramural hematomas are typically resolved spontaneously with conservative treatment alone. We report a case of an intramural duodenal hematoma following endoscopic hemostasis with epinephrine injection therapy, which was associated with transient obstructive jaundice in a patient undergoing hemodialysis. The patient developed biliary sepsis due to obstruction of the common bile duct secondary to the huge hematoma. He was treated with fluoroscopy-guided drainage catheter insertion, which spontaneously resolved the biliary sepsis through conservative treatment in 6 weeks. Fluoroscopy-guided drainage may impact the treatment of intramural hematomas that involve life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Cholestasis , Common Bile Duct , Drainage , Duodenal Ulcer , Duodenum , Epinephrine , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Jaundice, Obstructive , Peptic Ulcer , Renal Dialysis , Sepsis
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786613

ABSTRACT

The eradication of Helicobacter pylori and the widespread use of effective antisecretory therapies, including proton pump inhibitors, have improved the management of peptic ulcer disease. However, in some patients, peptic ulcer disease is refractory to 8 to 12 weeks of standard antisecretory drug treatment. For refractory peptic ulcer disease, further evaluation of the risk factors and causes of refractory peptic ulcer disease, including patient risk factors and noncompliance (smoking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and noncompliance with medical treatment), persistent H. pylori infection, and non-H. pylori-related factors (giant ulcer, gastrinoma, infections other than H. pylori, and malignancy), is essential. The treatment should focus on the cause of the refractory peptic ulcer disease, avoiding smoking and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, the treatment of persistent H. pylori, use of high-dose proton pump inhibitors, or surgical excision of gastrinomas. Surgery should be considered in patients who are at high risk for complications and recurrent peptic ulcer disease despite medical treatment. In this review, I describe the diagnosis and treatment of refractory peptic ulcer disease.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Diagnosis , Gastrinoma , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Peptic Ulcer , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Ulcer
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