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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e201150, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513810

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate two semi-solid pharmaceutical forms containing 0.1% tacrolimus: cream (CRT01) and gel (GLT01). For the evaluation of physicochemical stability, at times 0, 30, 60 and 90 days, at 23°C and at 40°C, High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) was employed. This method was developed and validated for tacrolimus quantification. The occlusivity test and skin permeation assay were also performed, using an animal model (Wistar rats), and the CRT01 and GLT01 were compared to the 0.1% tacrolimus ointment (PFU01) obtained from the University Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. CRT01 and GLT01 presented a homogeneous aspect and consistency adequate for topical products, along with sensory characteristics above PFU01. They also presented adequate physicochemical stability for 90 days and a lower occlusive effect than PFU01 (p<0.05). CRT01 showed greater affinity for the skin when compared to PFU01 and GLT01, with low systemic absorption. The CRT01 semi-solid formulation was considered the most adequate one to treat patients with atopic dermatitis or other dermatologic inflammatory diseases, promoting rational use of tacrolimus


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chemistry, Physical/classification , Tacrolimus/agonists , Ointments/analysis , Disease/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Dermatitis, Atopic/pathology , Absorption, Physiological/drug effects
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1085-1105, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425435

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas causada pelo parasita Trypanosoma cruzi acomete milhões de pessoas no mundo e não conta com um medicamento de ação efetiva para o seu tratamento etiológico. As drogas disponíveis, o nifurtimox e o benznidazol possuem índices de cura baixos com efeitos colaterais e toxidade que dificultam a adesão dos pacientes à terapia. Este fato impulsiona a busca por alternativas de tratamento que sejam mais efetivas e menos agressivas. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação dos efeitos clínicos apresentados por Rattus norvergicus infectados por T. cruzi e tratados com soluções ultradiluídas de Lycopodium clavatum ou Phosphorus. O estudo envolveu 93 ratos com quarenta e cinco dias de idade infectados intraperitonealmente com 5x106 formas tripomastigotas sanguíneos da cepa Y de T. cruzi, distribuídos nos grupos: Sadio SD (n=13) - controle não infectado e não tratado, grupo CI (n=27) - controle infectado e tratado com solução hidroalccólica 7% (etanol ­ água), grupo LY diluição 1:1x1026 (n=27) - infectado e tratado com Lycopodium, grupo PH diluição 1:1x1026 (n=26) - infectado e tratado com Phosphorum. Os animais foram avaliados clinicamente através dos parâmetros peso, temperatura, consumo de água e ração, quantidade de excretas, diâmetro e comprimento intestinal, aspecto da pelagem e consistência das fezes. Este estudo mostrou que os parâmetros utilizados foram importantes para a definição clínica da infecção de Rattus novergicus, linhagem Wistar pelo T. cruzi. Mostrou que os medicamentos LY e PH apresentam efeitos benéficos na evolução da clínica dos animais tratados. A utilização de Lycopodium clavatum e Phosphorus diluídos na proporção de 1:1x1026, apresentaram efeitos diferentes. Oito e seis parâmetros de quatorze analisados mostraram efeitos positivos para LY e PH, respectivamente. Os parâmetros consumo de água e ração, quantidade de excretas, diarreia, alopecia difusa e comprimento intestinal apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação ao controle infectado mostrando que mais estudos são necessários com o uso de medicamentos ultradiluídos na infecção pelo T. cruzi.


Chagas disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi affects millions of people worldwide and does not have an effective drug for its etiological treatment. The available drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, have low cure rates with side effects and toxicity that make it difficult for patients to adhere to therapy. This fact drives the search for treatment alternatives that are more effective and less aggressive. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the clinical effects presented by Rattus norvergicus infected by T. cruzi and treated with ultradiluted solutions of Lycopodium clavatum or Phosphorus. The study involved 93 forty five day old rats intraperitoneally infected with 5x106 blood trypomastigotes forms of the Y strain of T. cruzi, distributed in the following groups: Healthy SD (n=13) - non-infected and untreated control, CI group (n =27) - infected control and treated with 7% hydroalcoholic solution (ethanol ­ water), LY group dilution 1:1x1026 (n=27) - infected and treated with Lycopodium, PH group dilution 1:1x1026 (n=26) - infected and treated with Phosphorum. The animals were clinically evaluated through the parameters weight, temperature, water and feed consumption, amount of excreta, intestinal diameter and length, coat appearance and feces consistency. This study showed that the parameters used were important for the clinical definition of infection of Rattus novergicus, Wistar lineage by T. cruzi. It showed that LY and PH drugs have beneficial effects on the clinical evolution of treated animals. The use of Lycopodium clavatum and Phosphorus diluted in the ratio of 1:1x1026, showed different effects. Eight and six parameters out of fourteen analyzed showed positive effects for LY and PH, respectively. The parameters water and feed consumption, amount of excreta, diarrhea, diffuse alopecia and intestinal length showed significant differences in relation to the infected control, showing that more studies are needed with the use of ultradiluted drugs in T. cruzi infection.


La enfermedad de Chagas causada por el parásito Trypanosoma cruzi afecta a millones de personas en todo el mundo y no cuenta con un fármaco eficaz para su tratamiento etiológico. Los fármacos disponibles, nifurtimox y benznidazol, presentan bajas tasas de curación con efectos secundarios y toxicidad que dificultan la adherencia terapéutica de los pacientes. Este hecho impulsa la búsqueda de alternativas de tratamiento más eficaces y menos agresivas. Por lo tanto, este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos clínicos presentados por Rattus norvergicus infectados por T. cruzi y tratados con soluciones ultradiluidas de Lycopodium clavatum o Fósforo. En el estudio participaron 93 ratas de cuarenta y cinco días de edad infectadas intraperitonealmente con 5x106 formas tripomastigotes sanguíneas de la cepa Y de T. cruzi, distribuidos en los siguientes grupos: SD sano (n=13) - control no infectado y no tratado, grupo CI (n =27) - control infectado y tratado con solución hidroalcohólica al 7% (etanol - agua), grupo LY dilución 1:1x1026 (n=27) - infectado y tratado con Lycopodium, grupo PH dilución 1:1x1026 (n=26) - infectado y tratado con Phosphorum. Los animales fueron evaluados clínicamente mediante los parámetros peso, temperatura, consumo de agua y pienso, cantidad de excrementos, diámetro y longitud intestinal, aspecto del pelaje y consistencia de las heces. Este estudio demostró que los parámetros utilizados eran importantes para la definición clínica de la infección de Rattus novergicus, linaje Wistar por T. cruzi. Demostró que los fármacos LY y PH tienen efectos beneficiosos en la evolución clínica de los animales tratados. El uso de Lycopodium clavatum y Phosphorus diluidos en la proporción de 1:1x1026, mostró efectos diferentes. Ocho y seis parámetros de los catorce analizados mostraron efectos positivos para LY y PH, respectivamente. Los parámetros consumo de agua y pienso, cantidad de excretas, diarrea, alopecia difusa y longitud intestinal mostraron diferencias significativas en relación al control infectado, mostrando que son necesarios más estudios con el uso de fármacos ultradiluidos en la infección por


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phosphorus/therapeutic use , Lycopodium clavatum/therapeutic use , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Clinical Evolution/veterinary
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e18705, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505839

ABSTRACT

Abstract Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most effective drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer. Nonetheless, the appearance of MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) in tumor cells has become a significant hindrance for efficacious chemotherapy. In this study, we show that the expression level of Egr-1 (early growth response gene-1) in cancer tissues (from paclitaxel chemotherapy failure patients) and MCF-7/PTX cells (the breast cancer cell line that was resistant to paclitaxel) was increased. Cell proliferation assay and apoptosis assay revealed that Egr-1 could promote cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in MCF-7/PTX. Mechanistic studies indicated that Egr-1 could bind to the proximal MDR1 promoter and enhance MDR1 transcription. These findings indicate that paclitaxel induced Egr-1 accumulation and upregulated the expression of MDR1, thereby inducing the drug resistance in MCF-7/PTX. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which paclitaxel induces MDR1 expression, possibly illuminating a potential target pathway for the prevention of MDR1-mediated drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Resistance , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e221000, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505841

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is a bioactive compound with promising anti-inflammatory results but has low aqueous solubility. Complexation of drugs with this characteristic in carriers is an alternative to improve their efficiency. This study aimed to prepare and characterize CBD complexes in different carriers, and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of such preparations using an experimental model of edema induction in rat paws. The results were compared to a reference drug, ibuprofen (IBU). The carriers evaluated were beta cyclodextrin (bCD) and activated charcoal (AC). Quantification of the drugs in the complexes was determined, and different qualitative analyses were also performed. Oral treatments in single doses with CBD showed inhibitory effects similar to that of IBU, potentiating its bioactivity without significant adverse effects. CBD*bCD doses at 4.375, 8.75, 17.5, and 35 mg/kg significantly reduced the intensity of edema compared to equivalent doses of pure bioactive. In contrast, CBD*AC did not generate benefits. There was no significant inhibitory effect on myeloperoxidase activity, requiring more specific analyses to assess this parameter. The results suggest that the CBD*bCD complexation is perfectly feasible, increasing its anti-edematogenic efficacy in the experimental model used.


Subject(s)
Cannabidiol/agonists , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Charcoal/pharmacology , beta-Cyclodextrins/agonists
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22690, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505850

ABSTRACT

Abstract Improving vaccine immunity and reducing antigen usage are major challenges in the clinical application of vaccines. Microneedles have been proven to be painless, minimally invasive, highly efficient, and have good patient compliance. Compared with traditional transdermal drug delivery, it can effectively deliver a large-molecular-weight drug into the skin, resulting in a corresponding immune response. However, few studies have examined the relationship between microneedle loading dose and immune effects. In this study, the hyaluronic acid (HA) conical and pyramidal dissolving microneedles were prepared by the two-step vacuum drying method, respectively. The model drug ovalbumin (OVA) was added to HA to prepare dissolving microneedles with different loading amounts. The mass ratios of HA to OVA were 5:1, 5:3, and 5:5. The mechanical properties of the dissolving microneedles were characterized using nanoindentation and in vitro puncture studies. The immune effects of the matrix and drug content were studied in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Finally, the diffusion behavior of OVA and the binding mode of HA and OVA in the microneedles were simulated using Materials Studio and Autodocking software. The experimental results showed that the conical microneedles exhibited better mechanical properties. When the mass ratio of HA to OVA was 5:3, the immune effect can be improved by 37.01% compared to subcutaneous injection, and achieved a better immune effect with relatively fewer drugs. This conclusion is consistent with molecular simulations. This study provides theoretical and experimental support for the drug loading and efficacy of microneedles with different drug loadings


Subject(s)
Injections, Subcutaneous/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Vaccines/analysis , Immunization/classification , Mechanical Tests/instrumentation , Hyaluronic Acid/agonists , Antigens/adverse effects
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22045, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439519

ABSTRACT

Abstract The genus Candida represents the main cause of infections of fungal origin. Some species stand out as disease promoters in humans, such as C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. This study evaluated the antifungal effects of propyl (E)-3-(furan-2-yl) acrylate. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the synthetic compound, amphotericin B and fluconazole alone against four species of Candida ranged from 64 to 512 µg/mL, 1 to 2 µg/mL, and 32 to 256 µg/mL, respectively. The synergistic effect of the test substance was observed when associated with fluconazole against C. glabrata, there was no antagonism between the substances against any of the tested strains. The potential drug promoted morphological changes in C. albicans, decreasing the amount of resistance, virulence, and reproduction structures, such as the formation of pseudohyphae, blastoconidia, and chlamydospores, ensuring the antifungal potential of this substance. It was also possible to identify the fungicidal profile of the test substance through the study of the growth kinetics of C. albicans. Finally, it was observed that the test compound inhibited the ergosterol biosynthesis by yeast


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/drug effects , Ergosterol/agonists , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Candida/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22320, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439541

ABSTRACT

Abstract Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the seed of a multipurpose plant of pharmaceutical interest, as its mucilage can be used as a natural matrix to develop extended-release dosage forms and potentially replace synthetic polymers. In this study, a 3² factorial design with two replicates of the central point was applied to optimize the development of extended-release granules of metformin HCl. The total fiber content of the mucilage as well as the friability and dissolution of the formulations were evaluated. The lyophilized mucilage presented a high total fiber content (42.63%), which suggests a high efficiency extraction process. Higher concentrations of the mucilage and metformin HCl yielded less friable granules. In addition, lower concentrations of metformin HCl and higher concentrations of the mucilage resulted in slower drug release during the dissolution assays. The release kinetics for most formulations were better represented by the Hixson-Crowell model, while formulations containing a higher concentration of the mucilage were represented by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Nonetheless, five formulations showed a longer release than the reference HPMC formulation. More desirable results were obtained with a higher concentration of the mucilage (13-18%) and a lower concentration of metformin (40%).


Subject(s)
Flax/classification , Plant Mucilage/agonists , Metformin/analysis , Plants/adverse effects , Polymers/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21109, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429952

ABSTRACT

Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism are rare disorders with few therapeutic options for their treatments, which can make patients suffer with complications. Therefore, compounded drugs might be a promising option given that they have the ability of meeting the patient's specific needs, (i) identification of the main drugs described in the literature; (ii) proposal of compounding systems and (iii) calculation of the budgetary addition for the inclusion of these drugs into the Brazilian Unified Health System. The research conducted a literature review and used management data as well as data obtained from official Federal District government websites. The study identified 31 drugs for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism. Fifty eight percent (58%) (18) of the medicines had their current demand identified, which are currently unmet by the local Health System. The estimated budget for the production of compounded drugs was of R$363,16.98 per year for approximately 300 patients. This estimated cost represents a budgetary addition of only 0.17% from the total of expenditures planned for drug acquirement. There is a therapeutic gap for inborn errors of metabolism and compounding pharmacies show potential in ensuring access to medicine therapy with a low-cost investment.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Metabolism , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Patients/classification , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/classification
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e201120, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429961

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of the present study was to develop stable lyophilized formulation of peginterferon alfa-2b which is acquiescent to the short lyophilization process. The present study evaluates the effect of buffering components and cryoprotectant(s) on depegylation of the peginterferon alfa-2b in combination with lyophilization process. Finally, a short lyophilization process was identified which can produce a stable pharmaceutical form of peginterferon alfa-2b without any depegylation during long-term storage. Formulations were analyzed mainly for depegylation by HP-size exclusion chromatography and in-vitro antiviral activity. Residual moisture content in the lyophilized product was also used as a key indicating parameter to check its role with respect to depegylation upon storage under various temperature conditions. It was observed that the peginterferon alfa-2b when formulated in presence of cryoprotectant like sucrose requires longer lyophilization process of about 5 days, irrespective of the buffering components used, to reduce the level of residual moisture content and thereby to produce the stable formulation without depegylation. A stable formulation in presence of high concentration of lactose as a cryoprotectant was developed which can withstand stresses exerted to protein-polymer conjugate during lyophilization phases without any significant depegylation. A short lyophilization process of about 48 hours can be utilized for peginterferon alfa-2b when formulated in presence of lactose as a cryoprotectant through which a stable lyophilized formulation can be produced as against longer process required when sucrose is used a cryoprotectant, which is essential from commercial point of view as lyophilization is a costly process.


Subject(s)
Freeze Drying/methods , Interferon alpha-2/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, Gel/methods
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21461, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429963

ABSTRACT

Abstract he innate immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, no drug has been proven to be beneficial in the management of ARDS. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using combined sedatives on systemic inflammatory responses in patients with ARDS. A total of 90 patients with ARDS and an intubation time of > 120 h were randomly divided into the propofol group (group P), midazolam group (group M), and combined sedation group (group U). Patients in groups P and M were sedated with propofol and midazolam, respectively, whereas patients in group U were sedated with a combination of propofol, midazolam, and dexmedetomidine. The dosage of sedatives and vasoactive drugs, duration of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of sedative adverse reactions were documented. The dosage of sedatives and vasoactive drugs, as well as the incidence of sedative adverse reactions in group U, was significantly lower than those in groups P and M. Similarly, the duration of mechanical ventilation in group U was significantly shorter than that in groups P and M. Hence, inducing sedation through a combination of multiple drugs can significantly reduce their adverse effects, improve their sedative effect, inhibit systemic inflammatory responses, and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients/classification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Conscious Sedation/adverse effects , Midazolam/agonists , Propofol/agonists , Cytokines/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/agonists
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21217, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429971

ABSTRACT

Abstract Solid dispersions (SDs) of ursolic acid (UA) were developed using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) in combination with non-ionic surfactants, such as D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) or poloxamer 407 (P407) with the aim of enhancing solubility and in vitro release of the UA. SDs were investigated using a 24 full factorial design, subsequently the selected formulations were characterized for water solubility, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle diameter, scanning electron microscopy, drug content, physical-chemical stability and in vitro release profile. SDs showed higher UA water-solubility than physical mixtures (PMs), which was attributed by transition of the drug from crystalline to amorphous or molecular state in the SDs, as indicated by XRD and DSC analyses. SD1 (with P407) and SD2 (with TPGS) were chosen for further investigation because they had higher drug load. SD1 proved to be more stable than SD2, revealing that P407 contributed to ensure the stability of the UA. Furthermore, SD1 and SD2 increased UA release by diffusion and swelling-controlled transport, following the Weibull model. Thus, solid dispersions obtained with PVP k-30 and P407 proved to be advantageous to enhance aqueous solubility and stability of UA.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Solubility , Poloxamer/adverse effects , Diffusion , X-Rays/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22725, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447572

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the dissolution properties of ibuprofen solid oral dosage forms commercially available in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to estimate the influence of dissolution medium composition on the drug release. Eight products (A-H) were subjected to in vitro dissolution test using experimental conditions described in USP42-NF37. Dissolution properties of one selected product were examined in the presence of alcohol (22.2% v/v) and fruit juice (22.2% v/v). Products marked B-H complied with the pharmacopeial criteria. Dissolution profile of product B was similar with dissolution profiles of products D, E, F and G and similarity was also found between products A-D, C-G, D-G and E-F. Drug release from most of the examined preparations fitted best to the Weibull kinetic model. In the presence of alcohol in the medium, higher amount of ibuprofen was dissolved. Contrary, ibuprofen dissolved in the presence of fruit juice was significantly lower. Differences in the dissolution profiles of investigated preparations suggest that their interchangeability should be additionally considered and demonstrated with in vivo bioequivalence studies. Presence of different substances in the medium can affect dissolution properties of ibuprofen, emphasizing the importance of the patient's compliance.


Subject(s)
Ibuprofen/analysis , Interchange of Drugs , Dissolution , Tablets , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Drug Liberation/drug effects
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20692, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system, in which the nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed causing seizures. The objective was to develop an RP-HPLC method for consistent simultaneous quantitation of four antiepileptic drugs Levetiracetam (LVT), Lamotrigine (LTG), Phenobarbital (PBT) and Phenytoin (PTY). An isocratic method was developed on C18 column in JASCO HPLC using 5 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1ml/min and detected at 230 nm using UV detector. The mean retention time for LVT, LTG, PBT and PTY were found as 2.55, 3.55, 4.65 and 5.99 minutes respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and was found to be acceptable. The %RSD value was <2.0 % thus stating the developed method was precise for the drugs in the given range. The accuracy values were within 85-115% of the recovery range. The specificity of the method was evaluated by an assay of marketed formulation, and it showed a percent content between 90-110% w/w for all the four drugs. The proposed analytical method was simple, accurate and robust and was precisely able to resolve the four major antiepileptic drugs. Hence, the current method can be applied successfully for routine examination of these drugs


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/methods , Anticonvulsants/analysis , Epilepsy/pathology
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22764, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439499

ABSTRACT

Abstract Remifentanil is a modern fentanyl analogue with ultrashort-action granted by an esterase-labile methyl propanoate chain. Here, we present the development of a continuous flow methodology for the key N-alkylation step of remifentanil preparation in a biphasic, "slug-flow" regime. We screened parameters under microwave-assisted reactions, translated conditions to flow settings, and obtained remifentanil under 15-min residence time in a 1-mL microreactor, with a space-time yield of 89 mg/mL·h and 94% yield.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Remifentanil/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/antagonists & inhibitors , Continuous Flow
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22111, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease is a neglected parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose treatment has remained unsatisfactory for over 50 years, given that it is limited to two drugs. Benznidazole (BZN) is an efficient antichagasic drug used as the first choice, although its poor water-solubility, irregular oral absorption, low efficacy in the chronic phase, and various associated adverse effects are limiting factors for treatment. Incorporating drugs with such characteristics into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) is a promising alternative to overcome these limiting obstacles, enhancing drug efficacy and bioavailability while reducing toxicity. Therefore, this study proposed NLC-BZN formulations in different compositions prepared by hot-melt homogenization followed by ultrasound, and the optimized formulation was characterized by FTIR, DRX, DSC, and thermogravimetry. Biological activities included in vitro membrane toxicity (red blood cells), fibroblast cell cytotoxicity, and trypanocidal activity against epimastigotes of the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. The optimized NLC-BZN had a small size (110 nm), negative zeta potential (-18.0 mV), and high encapsulation (1.64% of drug loading), as shown by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis. The NLC-BZN also promoted lower in vitro membrane toxicity (<3% hemolysis), and 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) for NLC-BZN in L929 fibroblast cells (110.7 µg/mL) was twice the value as the free BZN (51.3 µg/mL). Our findings showed that the NLC-BZN had higher trypanocidal activity than free BZN against the epimastigotes of the resistant Colombian strain, and this novel NLC-BZN formulation proved to be a promising tool in treating Chagas disease and considered suitable for oral and parenteral administration


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Chagas Disease/pathology , Neglected Diseases/classification , Parasitic Diseases/pathology , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Sprains and Strains/classification , Thermogravimetry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20229, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439493

ABSTRACT

Abstract Malaria, a disease of public health concern is a known cause of kidney failure, and dependence on herbal medicines for its treatment is increasing due to the high cost of drugs. So this study is designed to evaluate the ameliorating effect of ethanol extract from Salacia nitida root bark on electrolyte and renal perturbations in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Thirty malariainfected mice divided into five groups of six mice each and another group of six uninfected mice were used for the study. 280, 430, and 580 mg/kg of extract were given to infected mice in groups B, C, and D, 4 mg/kg of artesunate given to group E mice, and 4 ml/kg of physiological saline given to group A and uninfected group F mice for five days. Serum Na+, K+, HCO3, Cl-, TB, urea, creatinine, BUN concentrations, and BUN/creatinine ratio were determined using standard methods. Results showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in Na+, K+, and HCO3 and decreases in Cl-, TB, urea, creatinine, BUN, and BUN/creatinine ratio in the infected treated mice in groups B - E. This study showed that ethanol extract of S. nitida root bark is efficient in the treatment of renal disorders and blood electrolyte perturbations


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Plant Roots/adverse effects , Salacia/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Malaria/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Costs and Cost Analysis/classification , Electrolytes/agonists , Artesunate/antagonists & inhibitors
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 643-656, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399314

ABSTRACT

O Diabetes Mellitus (DM) é uma doença crônica, que tem elevada prevalência na sociedade e representa um problema de saúde pública devido à natureza de suas complicações, acredita-se que a dificuldade na manutenção do tratamento, pode estar relacionada a deficiência ou falta de adesão. O estudo teve como objetivo relatar à adesão ao tratamento do Diabetes Mellitus na Atenção Primária a Saúde. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, realizado com 30 pacientes diabéticos de uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde de Guaiúba-CE, no período de agosto a outubro de 2021. A coleta de dados deu-se por entrevista semiestruturada utilizando questões norteadoras sobre adesão ao tratamento, adoção de práticas promotoras de saúde e posteriormente sujeita a análise de conteúdo. Observou-se que a adesão ao tratamento do diabetes envolve inúmeros desafios, relacionados principalmente ao usuário e sistemas de saúde/profissionais. Os maiores desafios encontrados foram em relação a supervalorização do tratamento medicamentoso frente a adoção de hábitos saudáveis e de ações promotoras de autocuidado. Nesse cenário, nota-se a importância de conhecer os fatores que influenciam na adesão ao tratamento com o intuito de se lançar estratégias para aperfeiçoar o planejamento de ações e intervenções a esses pacientes.


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that is highly prevalent in society and represents a public health problem due to the nature of its complications. The study aimed to report on the adherence to treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care. This is a descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, conducted with 30 diabetic patients from a Primary Health Care Unit in Guaiúba-CE, in the period from August to October 2021. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews using guiding questions about adherence to treatment, adoption of health-promoting practices and later subjected to content analysis. It was observed that diabetes treatment adherence involves numerous challenges, mainly related to the user and health systems/professionals. The biggest challenges found were related to the overvaluation of drug treatment against the adoption of healthy habits and self-care promoting actions. In this scenario, it is important to know the factors that influence treatment adherence in order to develop strategies to improve the planning of actions and interventions for these patients.


La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad crónica, que tiene una alta prevalencia en la sociedad y representa un problema de salud pública debido a la naturaleza de sus complicaciones, se cree que la dificultad para mantener el tratamiento puede estar relacionada con la deficiencia o falta de adherencia. El estudio tenía como objetivo informar sobre la adherencia al tratamiento de la Diabetes Mellitus en Atención Primaria. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo con enfoque cualitativo, realizado con 30 pacientes diabéticos de una Unidad de Atención Primaria de Salud de Guaiúba-CE, en el período de agosto a octubre de 2021. La recogida de datos se llevó a cabo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en las que se utilizaron preguntas orientativas sobre la adherencia al tratamiento y la adopción de prácticas de promoción de la salud, y posteriormente se sometieron a un análisis de contenido. Se ha observado que el acceso al tratamiento de la diabetes conlleva numerosos desafíos, relacionados principalmente con el usuario y los sistemas de salud/profesionales. Los mayores retos encontrados estaban relacionados con la sobrevaloración del tratamiento farmacológico frente a la adopción de hábitos saludables y acciones de promoción del autocuidado. En este escenario, se constata la importancia de conocer los factores que influyen en la adherencia al tratamiento para poner en marcha estrategias que mejoren la planificación de las acciones e intervenciones para estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patients , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Self Care/instrumentation , Unified Health System , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Exercise/physiology , Public Health , Chronic Disease/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Diet, Healthy , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Nursing Care/methods
18.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 681-692, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399322

ABSTRACT

Com o avanço da medicina e o aumento do uso de antimicrobianos, a resistência microbiana vem se tornando um problema sério na saúde pública. Para que uma bactéria se torne resistente, são necessários vários fatores, entre eles, o uso indiscriminado e prolongado de antimicrobianos e as resistências intrínsecas e adquiridas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho foi explorar os mecanismos de ação dos antimicrobianos, de resistência e a sua importância na saúde pública. Foram utilizadas para a presente pesquisa, as bases de dados Pubmed, Google acadêmico e Scielo. Segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde define-se resistência ao antibiótico quando o mesmo não produz mais efeito. A inserção cada vez mais frequente de antimicrobianos favorece a resistência, onde provocam uma pressão seletiva sobre os microrganismos, tornando-os resistentes a diversas drogas. O uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos é o principal fator de resistência microbiana, assim como o uso de antimicrobianos sem exame de cultura e teste de sensibilidade. Neste sentido, conclui-se que é de suma importância a atualização de protocolos que contenham os mecanismos de resistência bacteriana a fim de minimizar o uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos, assim como capacitar os profissionais da saúde para este problema na saúde pública.


With the advance of medicine and the increase in the use of antimicrobials, microbial resistance has become a serious problem in public health. For a bacterium to become resistant, several factors are necessary, among them, the indiscriminate and prolonged use of antimicrobials and the intrinsic and acquired resistance. In this context, the objective of the work was to explore the mechanisms of action of antimicrobials, resistance and their importance in public health. Pubmed, Google academic and Scielo databases were used for this research. According to the World Health Organization, resistance to antibiotics is defined when it no longer has an effect. The increasingly frequent insertion of antimicrobials favors resistance, where they put selective pressure on microorganisms, making them resistant to various drugs. The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials is the main factor of microbial resistance, as well as the use of antimicrobials without culture examination and sensitivity test. In this sense, it is concluded that it is extremely important to update protocols that contain the mechanisms of bacterial resistance in order to minimize the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, as well as to train health professionals for this problem in public health.


Con los avances de la medicina y el mayor uso de antimicrobianos, la resistencia microbiana se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud pública. Para que una bacteria se vuelva resistente son necesarios varios factores, entre ellos, el uso indiscriminado y prolongado de antimicrobianos y la resistencia intrínseca y adquirida. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar los mecanismos de acción de los antimicrobianos, la resistencia y su importancia en la salud pública. Para esta investigación se utilizaron las bases de datos Pubmed, Google Scholar y Scielo. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la resistencia a un antibiótico se define cuando deja de producir efecto. El uso cada vez más frecuente de antimicrobianos favorece la resistencia, ya que provocan una presión selectiva sobre los microorganismos, haciéndolos resistentes a varios fármacos. El uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos es el principal factor de resistencia microbiana, así como el uso de antimicrobianos sin pruebas de cultivo y sensibilidad. En este sentido, se concluye que es de suma importancia actualizar los protocolos que contienen los mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana para minimizar el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos, así como capacitar a los profesionales de la salud para este problema en la salud pública.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Cell Wall/drug effects , Review , Biofilms/drug effects , Libraries, Digital , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1398-1411, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414511

ABSTRACT

Pelas características anatômicas e fisiológicas dos rins, a lesão renal aguda tem sua origem nefrotóxica pela alta circulação local, o que favorece a alta concentração de substâncias tóxicas e seus metabólitos no tecido. A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum em internações hospitalares e principalmente em internações em unidades de terapia intensiva. A ciclofosfamida, um quimioterápico utilizado no tratamento de doenças autoimunes e neoplasias sólidas, pode causar nefrotoxicidade com disfunção glomerular e tubular. O uso de plantas medicinais, pelas suas potentes ações antioxidantes, tem sido usado para prevenção ou tratamento de lesões celulares induzidas pelo desequilíbrio entre enzimas antioxidantes e oxidantes. Por esse motivo, o objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o potencial efeito protetor da Echinodorus grandiflorus na prevenção da nefrotoxidade induzida pela ciclofosfamida. Para isso, foi realizado o experimento com a utilização de 35 ratos machos, Wistar, divididos em seis grupos experimentais, sendo administrado a ciclofosfamida na dose de 150mg/kg nos grupos G2 a G6 e diferentes doses da Echinodorus grandiflorus, com posterior análise de parâmetros sanguíneos e histológicos. A administração de ciclofosfamida na dose de 150mg/kg de massa corporal, em dose única, foi capaz de induzir a nefrotoxicidade aguda em todos os ratos. O extrato bruto de Echinodorus grandiflorus apresentou potencial efeito renoprotetor ao uso da ciclofosfamida, na dose de 300mg/kg de massa corporal, sendo possível observar redução dos efeitos nefrotóxicos do quimioterápico, pela redução dos danos tubulares e pela diminuição dos espaços capsulas, nitidamente encontradas alterados no grupo que recebeu apenas ciclofosfamida, denotando resultados promissores para utilização desta planta medicinal na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade induzida pelo fármaco. Contudo, novos estudos dos efeitos renoprotetor do chapéu de couro, poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação do extrato bruto do chapéu de couro. A utilização de extrato bruto de plantas medicinais torna-se um adjuvante aos tratamentos pelo baixo custo e pela facilidade de acesso das diferentes populações as plantas desde que devidamente orientados pelos profissionais habilitados.


Due to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the kidneys, acute kidney injury has its nephrotoxic origin due to the high local circulation, which favors the high concentration of toxic substances and their metabolites in the tissue. Acute kidney injury is a common complication in hospital admissions and especially in intensive care unit admissions. Cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and solid neoplasms, can cause nephrotoxicity with glomerular and tubular dysfunction. The use of medicinal plants, due to their potent antioxidant actions, has been used for the prevention or treatment of cellular injuries induced by the imbalance between antioxidant and oxidant enzymes. For this reason, the aim of the experiment was to evaluate the potential protective effect of Echinodorus grandiflorus in preventing cyclophosphamide-induced nephrotoxicity. For this, the experiment was carried out with the use of 35 male Wistar rats, divided into six experimental groups, being administered cyclophosphamide at a dose of 150mg/kg in groups G2 to G6 and different doses of Echinodorus grandiflorus, with subsequent analysis of parameters blood and histology. The administration of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 150mg/kg of body weight, in a single dose, was able to induce acute nephrotoxicity in all rats. The crude extract of Echinodorus grandiflorus showed a potential renoprotective effect with the use of cyclophosphamide, at a dose of 300mg/kg of body mass, and it was possible to observe a reduction in the nephrotoxic effects of the chemotherapy, due to the reduction of tubular damage and the reduction of capsule spaces, clearly found altered in the group that received only cyclophosphamide, showing promising results for the use of this medicinal plant in the prevention of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. However, further studies of the renoprotective effects of the leather hat may elucidate the mechanisms involved in the action of the crude extract of the leather hat. The use of raw extract of medicinal plants becomes an adjuvant to treatments due to the low cost and ease of access of different populations to plants, provided that they are properly guided by qualified professionals.


Debido a las características anatómicas y fisiológicas de los riñones, la lesión renal aguda tiene su origen nefrotóxico por la elevada circulación local, que favorece la alta concentración de sustancias tóxicas y sus metabolitos en el tejido. La lesión renal aguda es una complicación frecuente en los ingresos hospitalarios y principalmente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. La ciclofosfamida, un quimioterápico utilizado en el tratamiento de enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias sólidas, puede causar nefrotoxicidad con disfunción glomerular y tubular. El uso de plantas medicinales, debido a sus potentes acciones antioxidantes, se ha utilizado para la prevención o el tratamiento de lesiones celulares inducidas por el desequilibrio entre enzimas antioxidantes y oxidantes. Por este motivo, el objetivo del experimento era evaluar el posible efecto protector del Echinodorus grandiflorus en la prevención de la nefrotoxicidad inducida por la ciclofosfamida. Para ello, se realizó el experimento utilizando 35 ratas Wistar macho, divididas en seis grupos experimentales, administrándoseles ciclofosfamida a una dosis de 150mg/kg en los grupos G2 a G6 y diferentes dosis de Echinodorus grandiflorus, con posterior análisis de sangre y parámetros histológicos. La administración de ciclofosfamida a una dosis de 150mg/kg de masa corporal, en dosis única, fue capaz de inducir nefrotoxicidad aguda en todas las ratas. El extracto crudo de Echinodorus grandiflorus presentó un potencial efecto renoprotector al uso de ciclofosfamida, a una dosis de 300mg/kg de masa corporal, siendo posible observar una reducción de los efectos nefrotóxicos de la quimioterapia, por la reducción del daño tubular y por la disminución de los espacios capsulares, encontrándose claramente alterados en el grupo que recibió solamente ciclofosfamida, denotando resultados promisorios para el uso de esta planta medicinal en la prevención de la nefrotoxicidad inducida por el fármaco. Sin embargo, nuevos estudios sobre los efectos renoprotectores del sombrero de cuero podrían dilucidar los mecanismos implicados en la acción del extracto crudo de sombrero de cuero. El uso de extractos crudos de plantas medicinales se convierte en un coadyuvante de los tratamientos por su bajo coste y la facilidad de acceso de las diferentes poblaciones a las plantas desde que son guiadas adecuadamente por profesionales cualificados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cyclophosphamide/analysis , Alismataceae/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Mesna/toxicity , Rats, Wistar
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18637, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364416

ABSTRACT

Abstract The therapeutic drugs to treat Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have toxic side effects and there has been an emergence of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new treatments for HSV infections is mounting. In the present study, semi-solid formulations containing a crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from Schinus terebinthifolia were developed. Skin irritation, cutaneous permeation, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the formulations were investigated. Treatment with the ointment formulations did not result in any signs of skin irritation while the emulsions increased the thickness of the epidermis in Swiss mice. The cutaneous permeation test indicated that the CHE incorporated in the formulations permeated through the skin layers and was present in the epidermis and dermis even 3 h after topical application. In vivo antiviral activity in BALB/c mice treated with the CHE ointments was better than those treated with the CHE emulsions and did not significantly differ from an acyclovir-treated group. Taken together, this suggests that the incorporation of CHE in the ointment may be a potential candidate for the alternative topical treatment of herpetic lesions.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Simplexvirus/classification , Herpesvirus 1, Human/classification , Anacardiaceae/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Acyclovir/antagonists & inhibitors , Efficacy , Emulsions/adverse effects
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