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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253599, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355891


Abstract The antioxidant activity of Tetragonisca angustula honey (TAH) and its ethanolic extract (TAEE) were investigated. The total levels of phenolic (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) were also evaluated. The results for TPC were 19.91 ± 0.38 and 29.37 ± 1.82 mg GAE g-1 and for TFC 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.01 mg QE g-1 of TAH and TAEE, respectively. Antioxidant activities were 73.29 ± 0.49% and 93.36 ± 0.27% in the DPPH● assay and 71.73 ± 4.07% and 97.86 ± 0.35% in ABTS●+ for TAH and TAEE, respectively. The total reducing activity was determined by the method of reducing power (PR) and iron ion (Fe III) and the results varied in PR from 151.7 ± 25.7 and 230.7 ± 25.2 mg GAE L-1, for TAH and TAEE respectively and for (Fe III) in EC50 0.284 in TAEE and 0.687 in TAH. Chemical analysis by HPLC-DAD of the ethanolic extract (TAEE) revealed the presence of ferulic acid as majority phenolic component in the extract. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed this structure and showed the also presence of glucose, citric acid, succinic acid, proline and hydrocarbon derivatives. In addition, the botanical origin was also investigated and showed a multifloral characteristic, having found 19 pollen types with a botanical predominance of the Anacardiaceae family, with Tapirira pollen occurring as predominant (42.6%) and Schinus as secondary (25.7%). The results showed that T. angustula honey is an interesting source of antioxidant phenolic compounds due to its floral origin and can act as a protector of human health when consumed.

Resumo A atividade antioxidante do mel de Tetragonisca angustula (TAH) e seu extrato etanólico (TAEE) foram investigados. Os níveis totais de fenólicos (TPC) e flavonóides (TFC) também foram avaliados. Os resultados para TPC foram 19,91 ± 0,38 e 29,37 ± 1,82 mg GAE g-1 e para TFC 0,20 ± 0,02 e 0,14 ± 0,01 mg QE g-1 de TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. As atividades antioxidantes foram 73,29 ± 0,49% e 93,36 ± 0,27% no ensaio DPPH● e 71,73 ± 4,07% e 97,86 ± 0,35% no ABTS●+ para TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. A atividade redutora total foi determinada pelo método de poder redutor (PR) e íon ferrico (Fe III) e os resultados variaram em PR de 151,7 ± 25,7 e 230,7 ± 25,2 mg GAE L-1, para TAH e TAEE respectivamente e para (Fe III) em EC50 0,284 em TAEE e 0,687 em TAH. A análise química por HPLC-DAD do extrato etanólico (TAEE) revelou a presença de ácido ferúlico como componente majoritário no extrato. A análise de RMN 1H confirmou esta estrutura e mostrou a presença de glicose, ácido cítrico, ácido succínico, prolina e derivados de hidrocarbonetos no TAEE. Além disso, a origem botânica também foi investigada e apresentou característica multifloral, tendo encontrado 19 tipos polínicos com predomínio botânico da família Anacardiaceae, sendo o pólen Tapirira predominante (42,6%) e o Schinus secundário (25,7%). Os resultados mostraram que o mel de T. angustula é uma interessante fonte de compostos fenólicos antioxidantes devido à sua origem floral e pode atuar como protetor da saúde humana quando consumido.

Humans , Animals , Honey/analysis , Antioxidants , Phenols/analysis , Brazil , Coumaric Acids
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928022


This study investigated the effect of salidroside on phenotypic transformation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells(PASMCs) induced by hypoxia. Rat pulmonary arteries were isolated by tissue digestion and PASMCs were cultured. The OD values of cells treated with salidroside at different concentrations for 48 hours were measured by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) to determine the appropriate concentration range of salidroside. The cells were divided into a normal(normoxia) group, a model(hypoxia) group, and three hypoxia + salidroside groups(40, 60, and 80 μg·mL~(-1)). Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of cell contractile markers in each group, such as α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), smooth muscle 22(SM22), and calcium-binding protein(calponin), and synthetic marker vimentin. The expression levels of cell phenotypic markers and proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) were detected by Western blot. The proliferation of cells in each group was detected by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine(EdU) assay. Cell migration was measured by Transwell assay. As revealed by results, compared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased mRNA and protein expression of contractile phenotypic markers of PASMCs and increased mRNA and protein expression of synthetic markers. Compared with the conditions in the model group, salidroside could down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of synthetic markers in PASMCs and up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of contractile phenotypic markers. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed potentiated proliferation and migration. Compared with the model group, the hypoxia + salidroside groups showed blunted proliferation and migration of cells after phenotypic transformation. The results suggest that salidroside can inhibit the expression of synthetic markers in PASMCs and promote the expression of contractile markers to inhibit the hypoxia-induced phenotypic transformation of PASMCs. The mechanism of salidroside in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of PASMCs is related to the inhibition of the phenotypic transformation of PASMCs.

Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Glucosides , Hypoxia , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Phenols , Pulmonary Artery , Rats
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236151, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249247


Abstract Galls, neo-formed plant structures that can occur in different organs, are generated by species-specific interaction with an inducing organism. Inducers manipulate the metabolism of its host. Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Copel. is a Neotropical epiphytic fern that hosted two stem galls, one induced by a midge species (Diptera) and other by a micromoth species (Lepidoptera). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of these two gall-inducing insects on the biochemistry of phenolic acids and the cyanogenesis in galls, stems and leaves of M. vacciniifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated a total of 14 phenol derivatives, including caffeic and coumaric acid. Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) of the phenolic substances indicated three groups consisting (1) non-galled stems and micromoth-induced galls; (2) midge-induced galls; (3) midge-induced galls with parasitoids. Regarding the frequency of cyanogenesis assessed by the picrate paper test, the chi-squared test showed significant difference between fertile leaves (8.3%), sterile leaves (27.7%), non-galled stems (0%) and galls. Among galls, only the midge-induced galls analyzed were cyanogenic (15%). Our results indicated that the different gall-inducers (midge and micromoth) promote species-specific alterations to the phenolic substance composition of the host fern.

Resumo Galhas são estruturas vegetais neo-formadas que ocorrem em diferentes órgãos. Elas são geradas por uma interação espécie-específica com um organismo indutor. Os indutores manipulam o metabolismo do hospedeiro. Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch.) Copel. é uma samambaia epífita neotropical que hospeda duas galhas caulinares, uma induzida por uma espécie de mosquito (Diptera) e outra por uma micromariposa (Lepidoptera). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto desses dois insetos indutores de galhas na bioquímica dos ácidos fenólicos e da cianogênese em galhas, caules e folhas de M. vacciniifolia. Em análise de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE) foi possível indicar a presença de um total de 14 derivados fenólicos, incluindo ácido cafeico e ácido cumárico. Análise das Coordenadas Principais (ACoP) indicou três grupos (1) caules não galhados e galhas induzidas pela micromariposa; (2) galhas induzidas pelo mosquito; (3) galhas induzidas pelo mosquito com parasitoides. Em relação a frequência da cianogênese analisada com o teste do papel picrato, o teste do qui-quadrado apresentou diferença significativa entre as folhas férteis (8,3%), folhas estéreis (27,7%), caules não galhados (0%) e galhas. Entre as galhas, somente aquelas induzidas pelo mosquito foram cianogênicas (15%). Os resultados encontrados indicam, ao menos para as substâncias fenólicas, que os insetos indutores de galha (mosquito e micromariposa) promovem alterações espécie-específica na composição química da samambaia hospedeira.

Animals , Ferns , Diptera , Lepidoptera , Phenols , Plant Tumors , Plant Leaves , Insecta
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e254291, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355847


Abstract Medicinal plants have long been prescribed in Thailand for centuries. Different constituents of extracts have been used for treating of various infectious diseases. However, there is even less information available regarding the use in fungal skin infection. In order to assess traditional Thai claims about the therapeutic potential, this study is focused on exploring the anti-dermatophyte property of the plants that are currently used as traditional medicines. The potential of four different plant species were selected for investigate in vitro anti-dermatophyte activity. Ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata (L.), Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.), Eclipta prostrate (Linn.), and Acorus calamus (L.). were analysed for their total phenolic content as well as total flavonoid content and were then subjected to test of their anti-dermatophyte properties using agar well diffusion method. Qualitative flavonoids and phenolics analysis of the extracts showed their biologically active constituents. Among the species examined, the result indicated that most of the extracts demonstrated anti-dermatophyte activity. In particular, A. calamus showed the highest efficacy against test organisms. The experiment confirmed the chemical constituents and efficacy of some selected plants and provides a scientific confirmation of the use of Thai plants in traditional medicine for fungal skin infections.

Resumo As plantas medicinais são prescritas há muito tempo na Tailândia, há séculos. Diferentes constituintes de extratos têm sido usados para o tratamento de várias doenças infecciosas. No entanto, existem ainda menos informações disponíveis sobre o uso em infecções fúngicas da pele. A fim de avaliar as alegações tradicionais tailandesas sobre o potencial terapêutico, este estudo está focado em explorar a propriedade antidermatófita das plantas que são usadas atualmente como medicamentos tradicionais. O potencial de quatro espécies de plantas diferentes foi selecionado para investigar a atividade antidermatófita in vitro. Extratos etanólicos de Chromolaena odorata (L.), Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.), Eclipta prostrate (Linn.) e Acorus calamus (L.) foram analisados quanto ao seu conteúdo fenólico total, bem como ao conteúdo de flavonoides totais. E então submetidos ao teste de suas propriedades antidermatófitas usando o método de difusão em ágar bem. A análise qualitativa de flavonoides e fenólicos dos extratos mostrou seus constituintes biologicamente ativos. Entre as espécies examinadas, o resultado indicou que a maioria dos extratos demonstrou atividade antidermatófita. Em particular, A. calamus mostrou a maior eficácia contra organismos de teste. O experimento confirmou os constituintes químicos e a eficácia de algumas plantas selecionadas e fornece uma confirmação científica do uso de plantas tailandesas na medicina tradicional para infecções fúngicas da pele.

Plants, Medicinal , Phenols/analysis , Thailand , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Medicine, Traditional
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256927, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355848


Abstract The total phenolic compound and fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. The present study was designed to investigate aqueous, ethanolic and acetone extracts of several algae (Spirogyra sp., Spirulina sp.,Chlorella sp and Chara sp.) for their antioxidant capacities of the crude extracts and fractions by radical scavenging activity against the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH as well; total phenolic content. The results showed that Spirulina sp. indicated significantly higher total phenolic compound and antioxidant activities compared to the other species (P < 0.05) and acetone extracts showed higher quantity among three extracts. The fatty acids analysis using High performance liquid chromatography -HPLC showed the presence of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, palmitic acid showed high quantity than other fatty acid classes in all studied algae. This study concluded that high antioxidant capacity of microalgae could be inspected for different industrial applications.

Resumo O composto fenólico total e os perfis de ácidos graxos dos lipídios das microalgas são únicos. O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar extratos aquosos, etanólicos e acetona de várias algas (Spirogyra sp., Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp. e Chara sp.) Quanto às suas capacidades antioxidantes dos extratos brutos e frações por atividade de eliminação de radicais contra o radical estável 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil DPPH também; fenólico total. Os resultados mostraram que a Spirulina sp. indicaram atividade antioxidante e compostos fenólicos totais significativamente maiores em relação às outras espécies (P <0,05), e os extratos de acetona apresentaram maior quantidade entre os três extratos. A análise de ácidos graxos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência - HPLC mostrou a presença de ácido palmítico, ácido esteárico, ácido oleico e ácido linoleico; o ácido palmítico apresentou maior quantidade do que outras classes de ácidos graxos em todas as algas estudadas. Este estudo concluiu que a alta capacidade antioxidante pode ser inspecionada para diferentes aplicações industriais.

Chlorella , Microalgae , Phenols , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fatty Acids , Antioxidants
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964079


ABSTRACT@#Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites of plants metabolism and can be found in olive oil. They exhibit antimicrobial activity towards both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However, little is known about the antibacterial activity of the compounds towards periodontopathogens. The study aimed to investigate the potential of these compounds as antibacterial agents towards pathogens, specifically Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Phenolic compounds were extracted from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) through liquid-liquid separation using methanol:water (70:30), and hexane. It was then prepared in various concentrations to determine its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against the periodontopathogens. The anti-adhesion activity was quantified using crystal violet staining while the effects on the morphology were examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The MICs of the phenolic compounds on A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were 31.25 mg/mL, 62.5 mg/mL and 125 mg/mL, respectively. The MBCs of the phenolic compounds on A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum were 62.5 mg/mL and 125 mg/mL, respectively suggesting this compound can eradicate these bacteria. There was no bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis. The adhesion of all the bacteria was interrupted by the compounds at the lowest concentration (1.95 mg/mL). SEM findings showed disruption of bacterial cell surfaces such as blebs and disintegration of cells after exposure to this extract. Phenolic compounds of olive oil exhibited antibacterial activity against the tested pathogens, with bactericidal effects on A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum and bacteriostatic effects on P. gingivalis.

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Phenols , Periodontal Diseases , Olive Oil
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935318


Objective: To explore the relationship between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and obesity/overweight in children and adolescents through Dose-response Meta analysis. Methods: Articles published up to September 1st 2021 were systematically searched in PubMed, Web of science, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane library, CNKI, Wanfang databases and VIP Chinese Science and Technology Journal by using "bisphenol A" "BPA" "obesity" "weight" "fat""overweight" "body mass index" "BMI" "waist circumference" (both in English and in Chinese) as keywords. Use Stata 15.1 software to calculate the pooled OR (95%CI), perform heterogeneity test, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, publication bias and the exposure-response relationship fitting. Results: A total of 9 English articles were included from 1 948 articles retrieved, including 8 articles from American and 1 article from China. 15 614 children/adolescents and 3 446 obese/overweight cases were further used for Meta-analysis of dose-response relationship. Meta-analysis results showed that there was heterogeneity among the highest dose groups in different studies(I2=52.1%, P=0.033). The random effect model-analysis found that compared with those in the lowest group, the OR(95%CI) for those in the highest group of urine BPA was 1.56(1.18-1.94)for the risk of obesity/overweight in children and adolescents, but there was no linear or nonlinear dose-response relationship. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were robust, Egger's test(P=0.263) and Begg's test(P=0.348) showed that there was no publication bias. Conclusion: Bisphenol A exposure may increase the risk of obesity/overweight epidemics in children and adolescent.

Adolescent , Benzhydryl Compounds , Child , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Phenols
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1106-1114, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153439


Abstract Medicinal plants have a significant role in preventing and curing several diseases, and Tanacetum L. is one of these plants. The aim of the present study is to determine the fatty acid, lipid-soluble vitamin, sterol, phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum and Tanacetum densum subsp. amani, to compare the effect of altitude on the biochemical content and to compare systematically by using fatty acids and phenolics. This study showed that palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) are major sources of saturated fatty acid and oleic acid (C18:1 n9), and linoleic acid (18:2 n6c) and a-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3) are the principal unsaturated fatty acids in the two endemic Tanacetum densum taxa. Also, this study found that the unsaturated fatty acid content (60.11±1.61%) of Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum was higher than the unsaturated fatty acid content (44.13±1.28%) of Tanacetum densum subsp. amani. And also, the ω6/ω3 ratio of Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum (1.74) and Tanacetum densum subsp. amani (1.60) was found to be similar. However, this study determined that the lipid soluble vitamin and sterol content of two endemic Tanacetum taxa are low except for stigmasterol. Present study showed that catechin is principal phenolic in the Tanacetum densum taxa. This study also found that Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum and Tanacetum densum subsp. amani had the highest levels of catechin, vanillic acid, and caffeic acid content though the phenolic amounts, particularly catechin and quercetin, were dissimilar in the T. densum taxa. This study suggested that ecological conditions such as altitude may affect the biochemical content of two endemic Tanacetum densum taxa. Furthermore, the current study determined that two endemic Tanacetum L. taxa had potent radical scavenging capacities and found a correlation between total phenolics and antioxidant activity.

Resumo As plantas medicinais têm um papel significativo na prevenção e cura de várias doenças, e Tanacetum L. é uma dessas plantas. O objetivo do presente estudo é determinar o conteúdo de ácido graxo, vitamina lipossolúvel, esterol, estrutura fenólica e capacidade antioxidante de Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum e Tanacetum densum subsp. amani, comparar o efeito da altitude sobre o conteúdo bioquímico e realizar uma comparação sistemática usando ácidos graxos e fenólicos. Esta pesquisa mostrou que o ácido palmítico (C16:0) e o ácido esteárico (C18:0) são as principais fontes de ácido graxo saturado e que o ácido oleico (C18:1 n9), o ácido linoleico (18:2 n6c) e o ácido a-linolênico (C18: 3 n3) são os principais ácidos graxos insaturados nos dois táxons endêmicos de Tanacetum densum. Além disso, este estudo descobriu que o conteúdo de ácidos graxos insaturados (60,11±1,61%) de Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum foi superior ao conteúdo de ácidos graxos insaturados (44,13±1,28%) de Tanacetum densum subsp. amani, e também que a razão ω6/ω3 de Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum (1,74) e Tanacetum densum subsp. amani (1,60) foi semelhante. No entanto, este trabalho determinou que o conteúdo de vitamina lipossolúvel e esterol de dois táxons endêmicos de Tanacetum é baixo, exceto o estigmasterol, além de descobrir que Tanacetum densum subsp. laxum e Tanacetum densum subsp. amani apresentaram os mais altos níveis de conteúdo de catequina, ácido vanílico e ácido cafeico, embora as quantidades fenólicas, especialmente catequina e quercetina, sejam diferentes nos táxons de T. densum. Este estudo sugere que condições ecológicas, como a altitude, podem afetar o conteúdo bioquímico de dois táxons endêmicos de Tanacetum densum. Ainda, esta pesquisa determinou que dois táxons de Tanacetum L. endêmicos possuíam potentes capacidades de sequestro de radicais e que houve correlação entre fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante.

Tanacetum , Phenols/analysis , Turkey , Fatty Acids , Antioxidants
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 53(4): 51-60, Dec. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376421


RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la fermentación láctica como bioestrategia para potenciar la actividad antioxidante de la avena. Se evaluó la capacidad de 31 cepas de bacterias lácticas (BL) para adaptarse a un sistema de avena/agua (SAA) mediante la determinación del crecimiento, la acidificación y la actividad fermentativa (método impedimétrico; tiempo de detección [DT], velocidad máxima de cambio de conductabilidad [VMCC] y porcentaje de cambio de conductabilidad [PCC]). Además, se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos (CF) mediante el método de Folin-Ciocalteu (equivalentes de ácido gálico [EAG]), así como de péptidos, de aminoácidos libres y de actividad antirradicalaria (métodos DPPH•y ABTS•+) de los extractos metanólicos y acuosos obtenidos a partir de los SAA fermentados (SAAf). Seis cepas mostraron la mejor adaptabilidad al SAA y produjeron altos valores de VMCC (0,34-0,47 μS/min) y PCC (53,6-66,6%), con bajos valores de DT (≤ 3 h). Estos cambios fueron acompañados por modificaciones en la concentración de CF, péptidos y aminoácidos libres, los cuales fueron dependientes de la cepa. Se evidenció un incremento de la concentración de CF en los SAAf de las seis cepas (29,1-39,85 μg EAG/ml) con respecto al SAA control (17,1 μg EAG/ml). Además, hubo un incremento (9-25,5%) en la actividad antioxidante de los extractos metanólicos de SAAf medida por ambos métodos. Respecto del contenido en péptidos/aminoácidos libres de los SAAf y de su actividad antioxidante, se encontraron modificaciones de menor magnitud. Los resultados muestran que las BL son capaces de adaptarse a la avena como sustrato de fermentación e incrementar su contenido de compuestos antioxidantes.

ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to study lactic fermentation as a biostrategy to enhance the antioxidant activity of oats. The adaptability of 31 strains of lactic bacteria (LB) in an oats/water system (OWS/SAA) was evaluated, measuring growth, acidification and fermentation activity (impedimetric method; detection time [DT], maximum rate of conductance change [MRCC/VMCC] and percentage of conductance change [PCC]). Moreover, the content of phenolic compounds (PC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method (gallic acid equivalents [GAE]), free peptides and amino acids and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH•and ABTS•+methods) of methanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from fermented OWS/SAAs (fOWS/SAAf) were determined. Six strains have shown the best adaptability to SAA, with high values of VMCC (0.34-0.47 μS/min) and PCC (53.6-66.6%), and low values of DT (≤ 3 h). In these f/OWS/SAAf the chemical composition was also modified (PC concentration, peptides and free amino acids) with strain-dependent behavior. The PC content in f/OWS/SAAf using these six strains (29.1-36.9 μg GAE/ml) was higher than the control content in OWS/SAA control (17.1 ± 1.9 μg GAE/ml). An increase (9-25.5%) in antioxidant activity in f/OWS/SAAf methanolic extracts was detected using both methods. Minor modifications were observed in the peptide and free amino acid content of SAA and their antioxidant activity. Our results show LB ability to adapt to oat as fermentation substrate and increase the content of its antioxidant compounds.

Avena , Lactobacillales , Antioxidants , Phenols , Plant Extracts , Avena/metabolism , Fermentation , Antioxidants/metabolism
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 660-671, nov. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369981


Search for safe antioxidants and novel nutraceuticals urged to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-acetylcholine esterase and anti-lipoxygenase activity of various leaf extracts of Conocarpus lancifolius. Extraction was optimized from freeze dried plant extracts quenched with liquid nitrogen using water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform. Maximum extract yield, total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were obtained in case of ethanolic extraction. The highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylradical scavenging in terms of IC50 value of 55.26 µg/mL was observed for ethanolic leaf extract. The acetylcholine esterase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities (IC50) were also observed for ethanolic extract. These findings for ethanolic extract were statistically significant when compared with other extracts (ρ<0.05). The haemolytic % values indicated that all extracts were associated with very low or negligible toxicity. The epicatechin, isorhamnetin, rutin, scopoleptin, skimmianine, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-ß-glucoside, cornoside, creatinine, choline, pyruvic acid, α-hydroxybutyric acid, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were identified as major functional metabolites in ethanolic leaf extract of C. lancifoliusby 1H-NMR. The identified metabolites were probably responsible for the pharmacological properties of C.lancifolius. The findings may be utilized as pharmacological leads for drug development and food fortification.

Se insta a la búsqueda de antioxidantes seguros y nuevos nutracéuticos para evaluar la actividad antioxidante, anti-acetilcolina esterasa y anti-lipoxigenasa de varios extractos de hojas de Conocarpus lancifolius. La extracción se optimizó a partir de extractos de plantas liofilizados enfriados con nitrógeno líquido usando agua, etanol, metanol, hexano, acetato de etilo y cloroformo. En el caso de extracción etanólica se obtuvo el rendimiento máximo de extracto, el contenido de fenoles totales y el contenido de flavonoides totales. La mayor eliminación de radicales 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo en términos de valor de CI50 de 55,26 µg/mL se observó para el extracto de hoja etanólico. También se observaron las actividades inhibidoras de la acetilcolina esterasa y lipoxigenasa (CI50) para el extracto etanólico. Estos hallazgos para el extracto etanólico fueron estadísticamente significativos en comparación con otros extractos (ρ<0.05). Los valores del % hemolítico indicaron que todos los extractos estaban asociados con una toxicidad muy baja o insignificante. Se identificaron la epicatequina, isorhamnetina, rutina, escopoleptina, skimmianina, quercetina-3-O-α-ramnosido, quercetina-3-O-ß-glucósido, cornosido, creatinina, colina, ácido pirúvico, ácido α-hidroxibutírico, filantrina e hipofillantina. como metabolitos funcionales principales en el extracto etanólico de hojas de C. lancifoliuspor 1H-NMR. Los metabolitos identificados probablemente fueron responsables de las propiedades farmacológicas de C. lancifolius. Los hallazgos pueden utilizarse como pistas farmacológicas para el desarrollo de fármacos y la fortificación de alimentos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Combretaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry , Ethanol , Antioxidants/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 611-637, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369862


The objective of the work was to determine the antioxidant potential in vitro of freeze-dried peel extracts of 20 fruits from the northern region of Peru through five tests (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH., ABTS+., FRAP and CUPRAC). According to multivariate statistical analyzes, five groups were found: (i.) peel extracts with the highest values of antioxidant capacity (AC) from custard apple, and star fruit; (ii.) rind extracts with high AC values from quince, sweet granadilla, guava, and black grape; (iii.) husk extracts with middle values of AC from passion fruit, and red mombin; (iv.) shell extracts with low AC values from tangerine, mandarine, and bitter orange; and, (v.) coating extracts with the lowest AC values from pawpaw, red pawpaw, muskmelon, dragon fruit, yellow and red indian figs, pear, apple, and green grape. To conclude, the fruit lyophilized-husk extracts of custard apple, star fruit, quince, sweet granadilla, guava, and black grape obtained the best AC.

El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el potencial antioxidante in vitro de extractos de cáscara liofilizada de 20 frutos de la región norte del Perú mediante cinco pruebas (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH., ABTS+., FRAP y CUPRAC). Según análisis estadísticos multivariados, se encontraron cinco grupos: (i.) Extractos de piel con los valores más altos de capacidad antioxidante (CA) de chirimoya y carambola; (ii.) extractos de cáscara con altos valores de CA de membrillo, granadilla dulce, guayaba y uva negra; (iii.) extractos de cáscara con valores medios de CA de maracuyá y mombina roja; (iv.) extractos de cáscara con valores bajos de CA de mandarina, mandarina y naranja amarga; y (v.) recubrir extractos con los valores de CA más bajos de papaya, papaya roja, melón, fruta del dragón, higos indios amarillos y rojos, pera, manzana y uva verde. Para concluir, los extractos de cáscara liofilizada de chirimoya, carambola, membrillo, granadilla dulce, guayaba y uva negra obtuvieron el mejor CA.

Humans , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Peru , Phenols/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Free Radical Scavengers , Colorimetry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 806-813, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153395


Abstract Phytochemical and antioxidant activity of quinoa flour was evaluated after subjected to gamma irradiation processes at dose 3 and 6 kGy. Both non-irradiated and irradiated quinoa samples were subjected to successive extractions in ethanol solvent. The antioxidant activity after gamma irradiation treatment was investigated via Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and radical-scavenging activity (RSA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).Total phenolic and flavonoid content were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu micro-method, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). As well as, effect of irradiation treatment on saponin was also evaluated. Irradiation treatment showed slight differences in the saponin content after exposure to 3 and 6 kGy. Irradiation process enhanced both total phenolic content (TPC) and Total flavonoid content (TFC), TPC were 34.52 and 30.92 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/100g compared to 26.25 mg GAE/100g in non-irradiated quinoa. TFC were 67.44 and 62.89 mg Quercetin Equivalents (QE)/100g compared to 53.15 mg QE/100g. Irradiation dose 3 kGy significantly (p> 0.05) decreased the IC50 as DPPH-RSA and increased the FRAP.

Resumo Atividades fitoquímica e antioxidante da farinha de quinoa foram analisadas após submissão a processos de irradiação gama nas doses 3 e 6 kGy. As amostras de quinoa não irradiadas e irradiadas foram submetidas a extrações sucessivas em solvente etanol. A atividade antioxidante, após o tratamento com irradiação gama, foi investigada por meio do poder antioxidante redutor férrico (ARF) e da atividade de eliminação de radicais (AER) usando 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH). O conteúdo fenólico total e o teor de flavonoide foram analisados usando o método de Folin-Ciocalteu, método de cloreto de alumínio (AlCl3) e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Além disso, o efeito do tratamento de irradiação na saponina também foi avaliado. O tratamento por irradiação não mostrou diferenças significativas no conteúdo de saponina após exposição a 3 e 6 kGy. O processo de irradiação aumentou o conteúdo fenólico total (CFT) e o teor total de flavonoides (TTF); o CFT foi de 34,52 e 30,92 mg de equivalente de ácido gálico (EAG) / 100 g em comparação com 26,25 mg de EAG / 100 g na quinoa não irradiada. Os TTF foram 67,44 e 62,89 mg de equivalentes de quercetina (EQ) / 100 g em comparação com 53,15 mg de EQ / 100 g. A dose de irradiação de 3 kGy diminuiu significativamente (p > 0,05) o IC50 como DPPH-AER e aumentou o ARF.

Chenopodium quinoa , Antioxidants , Phenols , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-10, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363296


Background: Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) green is a vegetable with a great demand worldwide, and likewise, it is highly perishable, due to its high respiration rate that accelerates its senescence. Disinfection of vegetables after their harvest is an obligatory practice that can reduce losses by decomposition due to the attack of microorganisms. Therefore, it is vital to preserving its microbiological and sensory characteristics to reach the final consumer. Objective: to evaluate the effect of gaseous ozone (0 to 10 ppm) and storage time (0 to 30 days) on phenol content, overall appearance, count of molds, psychrophilic bacteria, and viable mesophilic aerobes. Methods: the response surface methodology was used, applying a rotatable central composite design. Results: the results indicated that there was a significant influence (p <0.05) of the independent variables on the characteristics studied, as well as an adequate lack of fit of the quadratic regression model (p> 0.05). By means of the contour superposition technique, it was determined that the optimal conditions for the highest retention of phenol content (16.99 mg/g) and overall appearance (7.61 points) and lower counts of viable aerobic mesophilic bacteria (5.3 x 103 CFU/g) they corresponded to 10 ppm of gaseous ozone up to 25.91 days of storage, with adequate quality characteristics in the spears. Conclusion: the region of interest was determined for optimal retention of phenol content and overall appearance, and a lower count of viable aerobic mesophilic bacteria in green asparagus during postharvest, suggesting to use the initial application of ozone gas at 10 ppm allowing 25.9 days storage at 1 °C. The results indicate that this technology is a good alternative in the conservation of fresh vegetables

Antecedentes: El espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L.) verde; es una hortaliza con una gran demanda a nivel mundial, y, asimismo, es altamente perecible, por su elevada velocidad de respiración que, acelera su proceso de senescencia. La desinfección de los vegetales después de su cosecha es una práctica obligada que puede disminuir las pérdidas por descomposición debido al ataque de microrganismos. Por lo tanto, es muy importante conservar sus características microbiológicas y sensoriales para llegar al consumidor final. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del ozono gaseoso (0 a 10 ppm) y tiempo de almacenamiento (0 a 30 días) sobre el contenido de fenoles, apariencia general, recuento de mohos, bacterias psicrófilas y aerobias mesófilas viables. Métodos: se utilizó la metodología de superficie de respuesta, aplicando un diseño compuesto central rotable. Resultados: los resultados indicaron que existió influencia significativa (p<0.05) de las variables independientes sobre las características estudiadas, así como, una adecuada bondad de ajuste del modelo de regresión cuadrático (p>0.05). Mediante la técnica de superposición de contornos se determinó que las condiciones óptimas para la mayor retención de contenido de fenoles (16.99 mg/g) y apariencia general (7.61 puntos) y menor recuentos de bacterias aerobias mesófilas viables (5.3 x 103 UFC/g) correspondieron a 10 ppm de ozono gaseoso hasta los 25.91 días de almacenamiento, con adecuadas características de calidad en los turiones. Conclusión: se determinó la región de interés para una óptima retención de contenido de fenoles y apariencia general, así como, menor recuento de bacterias aerobias mesófilas viables en el espárrago verde durante la postcosecha, sugiriendo utilizar la aplicación inicial de ozono gaseoso a 10 ppm permitiendo 25.9 días de almacenamiento a 1 °C. Los resultados indican que esta tecnología es una buena alternativa en la conservación de hortalizas frescas

Humans , Asparagus Plant , Ozone , Phenols
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427


In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.

En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.

Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Sideritis/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815


Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.

Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 324-338, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343496


In this present study, we investigated the influence of various extraction methods including maceration, sonication, infusion, decoction, and microwave extraction, on the chemical and biological potential of phytochemicals extracted from three medicinal plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Plantago majorand Arctium lappa L). The results were subsequently analyzed by variance analysis. Our results suggested that sonication is the most effective extraction method among the five methods tested herein, for the extraction of phytochemicals that have a high antioxidant potential and high phenolic content. The three plants employed for this study had a high concentration of flavonoids and phenolics which was compatible with the chemosystematics of the species. All the samples possessed a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of less than 6. Interestingly, a maximum reaction time of approximately 20 min was noted for the complexation of AlCl3 with the flavonoids present in the phytochemical extract during analyses of the kinetic parameters. We finally identified that the Ageratum conyzoides extract, prepared by sonication, possessed a significant pharmacological potential against hepatocarcinoma tumour cells, whose result can guide further studies for its therapeutic efficacy.

En el presente estudio, investigamos la influencia de varios métodos de extracción, incluyendo maceración, sonicación, infusión, decocción y extracción por microondas, sobre el potencial químico y biológico de los fitoquímicos extraídos de tres plantas medicinales (Ageratum conyzoides, Plantago majory Arctium lappa L). Los resultados se analizaron posteriormente mediante análisis de varianza. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la sonicación es el método de extracción más eficaz entre los cinco métodos aquí probados, para la extracción de fitoquímicos que tienen un alto potencial antioxidante y un alto contenido fenólico. Las tres plantas empleadas para este estudio tenían una alta concentración de flavonoides y fenólicos que era compatible con la quimiosistemática de las especies. Todas las muestras poseían un factor de protección solar (SPF) menor a 6. Curiosamente, se observó un tiempo máximo de reacción de aproximadamente 20 min para la complejación de AlCl3con los flavonoides presentes en el extracto fitoquímico durante los análisis de los parámetros cinéticos. Finalmente, identificamos que el extracto de Ageratum conyzoides, elaborado por sonicación, posee un importante potencial farmacológico frente a las células tumorales del hepatocarcinoma, cuyo resultado puede orientar nuevos estudios sobre su eficacia terapéutica.

Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plantago/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Cell Survival , Analysis of Variance , Ageratum/chemistry , Arctium/chemistry
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190530, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153299


HIGHLIGHTS The phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic potential of the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides were investigated. Caffeic acid was found as the most abundant phenolic compound in the extracts. Both species showed promising antioxidant activity towards different assays. The highest cytotoxic potential was observed in the extract of C. solstitialis.

Abstract It is known that some genera of the Asteraceae family are commonly used in Turkish folk medicine. Several studies have investigated the biological effects of different extracts of Centaurea and Urospermum species, but studies involving the phenolic composition of C. solstitialis and U. picroides extracts are very limited. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of C. solstitialis and U. picroides and evaluate their possible cytotoxic effect. RP-HPLC analysis was used to elucidate the phenolic profiles of the ethanolic extracts of flowering parts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides.The both ethanolic extracts were assessed for their antioxidant properties using DPPH, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts on cell viability was evaluated against MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells and HEK293 cell line using the MTT assay. The most abundant phenolic compound in both extracts was determined to be caffeic acid, and the amount of this compound was 24078.03 and 14329.59 µg g-1 in the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found similar. Compared with U. picroides extract, C. solstitialis extract had higher potential on the inhibition of cell viability. The IC50 value of C. solstitialis on MCF cells was found as 58.53 µg mL-1. These data suggest that the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides may be considered as novel and alternative natural antioxidant and anticancer sources.

Humans , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Centaurea/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Turkey , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , HEK293 Cells
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921642


This study intends to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection(HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxyl-1-butene-4-O-β-D-(6″-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside, pubescenoside B, huazhongilexone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, rutin, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C in Ilex hainanensis. The HPLC conditions are as follows: Waters XBridge C_(18 )column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), mobile phase of 0.5% formic acid in water(A)-acetonitrile(B), gradient elution(0-8 min, 5%-12% B; 8-18 min, 12%-18% B; 18-30 min, 18%-25% B; 30-40 min, 25%-30% B; 40-42 min, 30%-80% B; 42-45 min, 80% B) at the flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1), detection wavelengths of 282, 324, and 360 nm, column temperature of 25 ℃, and injection volume of 5 μL. The content of the 8 phenols in 8 samples was 0.30-6.29, 0.29-3.27, 0.15-10.4, 0.51-5.85, 0.49-9.02, 0.51-4.68, 1.93-13.4, and 0.87-5.95 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Moreover, the content of phenols in the samples collected in October was higher than that of samples harvested in other months. The established method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of phenols in I. hainanensis, which is useful for the quality improvement of this herbal medicine.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ilex , Phenols
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 437-447, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153362


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the production of polycarbonate, a polymer commonly found in plastics, epoxy resins and thermal papers. The presence of BPA in food, water, air and dust has been of great concern in recent years not only due to environmental and ecological issues but also because of its supposed risk to public health related to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. In this study we evaluated the toxicity of bisphenol A in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) and determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of this chemical. BPA was used at concentrations ranging from 1 µM to 100 µM in E3 medium/0.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) from previously prepared stock solutions in 100% DMSO. Controls included embryos exposed only to E3 medium or supplemented with 0.5% DMSO. Camptothecin (CPT), a known inhibitor of cell proliferation was used as positive control at a concentration of 0.001 µM in E3 medium/0.5% DMSO. Adults zebrafish were placed for breeding a day before the experimental set up, then, viable embryos were collected and selected for use. Experiments were carried out in triplicates, according to specifications from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). One embryo/well (25 embryos per concentration) was distributed in 96 well microplates in presence or absence of the chemicals. The plates were kept in BOD incubators with a controlled temperature of 28.5 ºC and with photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. After 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h exposure, the exposed embryos were evaluated according to the following parameters: mortality, coagulation, rate of heartbeat, hatching and presence of morphological abnormalities. Photography was obtained by photomicroscopy. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA ladder assay. DNA was extracted by phenol:chloroform method and analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA fragments were visualized after ethidium bromide staining in ultraviolet transilluminator. The LC50 determined for BPA was 70 µM after 24 hours, 72 µM after 48 hours, 47 µM after 72 hours and 31 µM after 96 hours exposure. BPA induced morphological and physiological alterations such as yolk sac and pericardial edema, hatching delay or inhibition, spine deformation, decreasing in heartbeat rate and mortality. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BPA induced marked malformations in zebrafish embryos at concentrations above 25 µM corroborating the current concerns related to the widespread presence of BPA in the air, food and water used by humans as well as in the bodily fluids and tissues.

Bisfenol A (BPA) é um monômero utilizado na produção de policarbonato, um polímero comumente encontrado em plásticos, resinas epóxi e papéis térmicos. A presença de BPA em alimentos, água, ar e poeira tem sido motivo de grande preocupação nos últimos anos, não só devido a questões ambientais e ecológicas, mas também ao suposto risco para a saúde pública relacionado ao seu potencial mutagênico e carcinogênico. Neste estudo avaliamos a toxicidade do bisfenol A em embriões de peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) e determinamos a concentração letal 50% (LC50) deste composto químico. O BPA foi usado na faixa de concentração entre 1 µM e 100µM em meio E3/0,5% de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), preparado a partir de soluções estoques em 100% DMSO. Os controles negativos incluíram embriões expostos apenas ao meio E3 ou suplementado com 0,5% DMSO. Camptotecina (CPT), um conhecido inibidor da proliferação celular, foi usado como controle positivo a uma concentração de 0,001 µM em meio E3/0,5% DMSO. Peixes-zebra adultos foram colocados para reprodução um dia antes da montagem experimental, em seguida, embriões viáveis foram coletados e selecionados para uso. Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata, de acordo com as especificações da Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE). Um embrião/ poço (25 embriões por concentração) foi distribuído em microplacas de 96 poços na presença ou ausência dos compostos químicos. As placas foram mantidas em incubadoras BOD com temperatura controlada de 28,5 ºC e com fotoperíodo de 14h claro:10h escuro. Após 24h, 48h, 72h e 96h, os embriões expostos foram avaliados de acordo com os seguintes parâmetros: mortalidade, presença de coagulação, taxa do batimento cardíaco, eclosão e presença de anormalidades morfológicas. Fotografias foram obtidas por fotomicroscopia. A apoptose foi avaliada pelo ensaio de DNA ladder. O DNA foi extraído pelo método fenol:clorofórmio e analisado por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 2%. Fragmentos de DNA foram visualizadas após coloração com brometo de etídio em um transiluminador ultravioleta. A LC50 determinada para o BPA foi 70 µM após 24 horas, 72 µM após 48 horas, 47 µM após 72 horas e 31 µM após exposição por 96 horas. O BPA induziu alterações morfológicas e fisiológicas como edema de saco vitelino e edema pericárdico, atraso no tempo ou inibição da eclosão, deformação da coluna vertebral, diminuição da taxa de batimentos cardíacos e mortalidade. Em conclusão, este estudo demonstrou que o BPA induziu grande número de malformações em embriões de peixe-zebra em concentrações acima de 25 µM, corroborando as preocupações atuais relacionadas a presença generalizada do BPA no ar, alimento e água usados pelos seres humanos bem como nos fluidos e tecidos corporais.

Humans , Animals , Plastics/adverse effects , Plastics/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Zebrafish/embryology , Phenols/toxicity , Benzhydryl Compounds , Embryonic Development/physiology , Embryo, Nonmammalian
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 474-483, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153354


Nanoparticles are known bio elicitors in plant biotechnology. Different concentrations of ZnO, CuO and CoO nanoparticles were used for the enhanced accumulation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in the callus derived from root, shoot and leaf of Artemisia annua L. Biomass of callus was somehow affected on high concentrations of Nps. Phenolic content was observed maximum (60µg) in shoot callus at 0.1mg/l of CuONps. Total antioxidant activity was observed maximum (33µg) in root callus at 0.1mg/l of ZnOnps. Total reducing power maximum (33µg) was observed in root callus at concentration of 0.05 mg/l of CoONps. Maximum radical scavenging activity was observed in shoot callus at 0.05mg/l of ZnONps. Rutin gallic acid and caffic acid were also determined in most of the samples by HPLC. The study concludes that different Nps have positive effect on the induction of secondary metabolites in A.annua plant.

Nanopartículas são bio-elicitores conhecidos em biotecnologia de plantas. Diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas de ZnO, CuO e CoO foram usadas para o acúmulo aumentado de metabólitos secundários e atividades antioxidantes no calo derivado da raiz, parte aérea e folha de Artemisiaannua L. A biomassa do calo foi de alguma forma afetada em altas concentrações de Nps. O conteúdo fenólico foi observado no máximo (60 µg) no calo da parte aérea a 0,1 mg / l de CuONps. A atividade antioxidante total foi observada no máximo (33µg) no calo radicular a 0,1mg / l de ZnOnps. O poder de redução total máximo (33µg) foi observado no calo radicular na concentração de 0,05 mg / l de CoONps. Atividade máxima de eliminação de radicais foi observada no calo da parte aérea a 0,05mg / l de ZnONps. O ácido rutina-gálico e o ácido caffic também foram determinados na maioria das amostras por HPLC. O estudo conclui que diferentes Nps têm efeito positivo na indução de metabólitos secundários na planta de A.annua.

Artemisia annua , Nanoparticles , Phenols , Plant Leaves , Antioxidants