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1.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 67-74, 13 oct. 2021. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342233

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se ha evidenciado un aumento en la incidencia y prevalencia de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, que comprende dos entidades: la enfermedad de Crohn y la colitis ulcerativa. Ambas, y paradójicamente su tratamiento, pueden desencadenar manifestaciones cutáneas con una amplia variedad de manifestaciones clínicas en piel, que son un reto diagnóstico para el médico. Solo el conocimiento de estos fenotipos clínicos permitirá el diagnóstico temprano, con el objetivo de lograr el abordaje diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportunos y de evitar secuelas a largo plazo.


In recent years, there is evidence of an increase in the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, in which two entities are involved: Chron disease and ul-cerative colitis. Both of these diseases and, paradoxically, their treatment with anti-TNF may trigger skin manifestations, whose variety of clinical presentations on the skin can represent a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Only the knowledge of these clinical phenotypes will allow an early diagnosis to be carried out, in order to achieve a timely diagnostic approach and treatment, and to avoid long-term sequelae.


Nos últimos anos, tem havido um aumento na incidência e prevalência da doença infla-matória intestinal, que compreende duas entidades: doença de Crohn e colite ulcerosa. Ambos, e paradoxalmente o seu tratamento, podem desencadear manifestações cutâ-neas com uma grande variedade de manifestações clínicas na pele, o que constitui um desafio diagnóstico para o médico. Somente o conhecimento desses fenótipos clínicos permitirá o diagnóstico precoce, com o objetivo de alcançar uma abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica oportuna e evitar sequelas a longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Phenotype , Signs and Symptoms , Skin , Skin Manifestations , Disease , Colitis
2.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-12, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284425

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La identificación de los fenotipos clínicos son claves en la modulación de la expresión clínica, para un tratamiento integrado de la EPOC. Objetivos: Caracterizar los fenotipos clínicos de la EPOC en los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico. Métodos:Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo retrospectivo, en 172 pacientes con diagnóstico de EPOC, en el Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico durante el año 2017.Resultados: El 38,4 % de los pacientes tenían edad entre 70-79 años. Del total de pacientes, el 54,6 % eran del sexo masculino. El 52,9 % eran fumadores activos y el 41,3 % exfumadores. Aunque las diferencias no fueron significativas, la edad avanzada y el sexo masculino fueron más frecuentes en el fenotipo enfisematoso agudizador y agudizador bronquítico crónico. El tabaquismo activo fue más frecuente en el fenotipo enfisematoso agudizador. Todos los pacientes con el fenotipo agudizador bronquítico crónico tuvieron dos o más exacerbaciones, mientras que el enfisematoso agudizador se relacionó con una severidad grave de la EPOC (46,7 %). Conclusiones: El sexo masculino y la edad avanzada muestran una tendencia a relacionarse con el fenotipo enfisematoso agudizador y agudizador bronquítico crónico, mientras que el tabaquismo activo es más frecuente en el fenotipo enfisematoso agudizador. El fenotipo agudizador bronquítico crónico se relaciona con mayores exacerbaciones y el enfisematoso agudizador con una mayor severidad de la EPOC.


Introduction: The identification of clinical phenotypes are key in the modulation of clinical expression, for an integrated treatment of COPD. Objectives: To characterize the clinical phenotypes of COPD in patients treated at the Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico. Methods: A retrospective descriptive observational study was carried out in 172 patients with a diagnosis of COPD at the Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico in 2017. Results: 38.4 % of the patients were between 70-79 years of age. Of the total number of patients, 54.6 % were male. 52.9 % were active smokers and 41.3 % ex-smokers. Although the differences were not significant, advanced age and male sex were more frequent in the exacerbator emphysematous and chronic bronchial exacerbator phenotype. Active smoking was more frequent in the exacerbating emphysematous phenotype. All patients with the chronic bronchial exacerbator phenotype had two or more exacerbations, while exacerbation emphysematous was associated with severe severity of COPD (46.7 %). Conclusions: Male sex and advanced age show a tendency to be related to the exacerbating emphysematous phenotype and chronic bronchitis exacerbator, while active smoking is more frequent in the exacerbating emphysematous phenotype. The chronic bronchitis exacerbator phenotype is related to greater exacerbations and exacerbation emphysematous with a greater severity of COPD


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Phenotype , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Cuba/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/classification
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 32-43, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the M1 and M2 macrophage modulation after stimuli with different materials used during endodontic treatment. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cell culture, from males C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice, gene expression analysis of markers to M1 and M2 macrophages was performed by qRT-PCR (Cxcl10, CxCL9, iNOS, Arg1, Chil3, Retnla and MRC1) and cytokine quantification by Luminex® (GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α) after exposure to the five endodontic sealers: AH Plus, Sealapex Xpress, Endosequence BC Sealer, BioRoot RCS and a calcium hydroxide-based paste. For normal values, ANOVA test was used, followed by Tukey post-test. For non-normal values, the Kruskall-Wallis test was used. BioRootTM RCS and EndoSequence BC SealerTM stimulated the highest expression of markers for M1 macrophages, while calcium hydroxide-based paste stimulated the lowest expression of these gene markers. For M2 protein markers, BioRootTM RCS presented the highest stimulation while calcium hydroxide-based paste also presented the lowest stimulation. It was concluded that all the evaluated filling materials increased the genetic expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers: TNF-α and IL-10 respectively. The others proinflammatory mediators showed differences against the filling materials. However, this process did not induce the inflammatory response polarization, resulting in a hybrid macrophage.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a modulação dos macrófagos M1 e M2 após estímulos com diferentes materiais utilizados durante o tratamento endodôntico. Em cultura de células de macrófagos derivados da medula óssea de camundongos machos C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), após a exposição à cinco cimentos endodônticos: AH Plus, Sealapex Xpress, Endosequence BC Sealer, BioRoot RCS e pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio foi realizada a análise da expressão gênica dos marcadores para macrófagos M1 e M2 por qRT-PCR (Cxcl10, CxCL9, iNOS, Arg1, Chil3, Retnla e MRC1) e quantificação de citocinas por Luminex® (GM -CSF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β e TNF-α). Para valores normais, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA, seguido do pós-teste de Tukey. Para valores não normais, foi utilizado o teste de Kruskall-Wallis. BioRootTM RCS e EndoSequence BC SealerTM estimularam maior expressão de marcadores para macrófagos M1, enquanto a pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio estimulou expressão mais baixa desses marcadores gênicos. Para o marcador de proteínas para M2, BioRootTM RCS apresentou a maior estimulação, enquanto a pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio também apresentou menor estimulação. Concluiu-se que os materiais obturadores avaliados aumentaram a expressão genética de marcadores pró- e anti-inflamatórios: TNF-α e IL-10 respectivamente. Os demais marcadores pró inflamatórios mostraram diferenças em relação aos materiais obturadores. No entanto, esse processo não induziu a polarização da resposta inflamatória, resultando em um macrófago híbrido.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Root Canal Filling Materials , Phenotype , Materials Testing , Epoxy Resins , Macrophages , Mice, Inbred C57BL
4.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 90-96, 20210330. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291778

ABSTRACT

Descrição: Relato de caso de um paciente com um transcrito raro (e1a2) na Leucemia Mieloide Crônica (LMC) e outro com uma translocação rara na Síndrome Mielodisplásica (SMD). Discussão: O transcrito e1a2 possui frequência de 1% entre os casos de LMC, já a translocação t(11,17)(q23;q21) não foi evidenciada em paciente com SMD do tipo Anemia Refratária com Excesso de Blastos (AREB) do tipo 2. Conclusão: Ambos os casos apresentados possuem associação incomum entre fenótipo e genótipo. A correlação da clínica com os achados laboratoriais é importante para a determinação fidedigna do diagnóstico e prognóstico destes pacientes.


Description: Case report of a patient with a rare transcript (e1a2) in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and another with a rare translocation in Myelodysplastic Syndrome (SMD). Discussion: The transcript e1a2 has a frequency of 1% in CML cases, whereas t (11,17) (q23; q21) translocation was not observed in a patient with type of Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts (AREB) type 2. Conclusion: Both cases reported have unusual association between phenotype and genotype. The correlation of the clinic with the laboratory findings is important for the reliable determination of the diagnosis and prognosis of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Translocation, Genetic , Anemia, Refractory , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Leukemia , Hematologic Neoplasms , Genotype
5.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 21-28, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146468

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de insensibilidad a andrógenos (AIS en la sigla inglesa) es una entidad muy poco frecuente en endocrinología. Se caracteriza por la mutación del receptor de andrógenos de magnitud variable, por medio del cual individuos 46,XY no se virilizan normalmente, a pesar de conservar sus testículos y tener concentraciones de testosterona en rango masculino. El cuadro clínico es variable y depende la profundidad de la alteración del receptor. En un extremo, hay casos de insensibilidad androgénica completa (CAIS) con fenotipo femenino. En el otro extremo hay insensibilidad parcial (PAIS) que se extiende desde el fenotipo femenino, con o sin ambigüedad genital, hasta los casos de hombres infértiles o con subvirilización, que presentan insensibilidad androgénica más leve. En los fenotipos femeninos, los testículos suelen estar en posición ectópica y aquellos ubicados dentro del abdomen tienen riesgo de malignizarse, por lo que suelen extirparse. Estos son los casos de más difícil manejo, pues aparte de la necesidad de gonadectomía seguida de terapia hormonal femenina, existe una vagina estrecha y en fondo de saco ciego y que suele requerir corrección quirúrgica para permitir la actividad sexual. En este trabajo presentamos 5 casos de AIS vistos recientemente en 2 centros clínicos de Santiago y que ilustran la heterogeneidad de presentación. Además, hacemos una revisión actualizada de los criterios diagnósticos, los tratamientos más adecuados y el manejo global de esta condición.


The Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, in its English acronym) is a very rare entity in endocrinology. It is characterized by a variable magnitude androgen receptor mutation, whereby 46, XY individuals are not normally virilized, despite retaining their testicles and having testosterone concentrations in the male range. The clinical picture is variable and depends on the depth of the receptor alteration. At one extreme, there are cases of complete androgenic insensitivity (CAIS) with a female phenotype. At the other extreme, there is partial insensitivity (PAIS) that extends from the female phenotype, with or without genital ambiguity, to cases of infertile or undervirilized men, who have milder androgenic insensitivity. In female phenotypes, the testes are usually in an ectopic position and those located within the abdomen are at risk of malignancy, and therefore are usually removed. These are the most difficult cases to manage because apart from the need for gonadectomy followed by female hormonal therapy, there is a narrow vagina and a deep blind pouch that usually requires surgical correction to allow sexual activity. In this work, we present 5 cases of AIS recently seen in 2 clinical centers in Santiago and that illustrate the heterogeneity of presentation. In addition, we make an updated review of the diagnostic criteria, the most appropriate treatments, and the overall management of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/diagnosis , Phenotype , Disorders of Sex Development , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/genetics , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/therapy , Testis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Receptors, Androgen , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06654, 2021.
Article in English | ID: biblio-1180877

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the erythrocyte phenotypes of the feline AB system and to check the presence of antigens other than those present in the feline AB system in domestic cats from Ilhéus-Itabuna microregion, Bahia, Brazil. Three-hundred feline blood samples were collected at the Veterinary Hospital of the "Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz" (UESC) and in home visits to perform blood phenotyping using the tube-method testing. The reverse phenotyping was made between cats that tested phenotype B with blood samples of cats that tested phenotype A to confirm the blood phenotype B. The cross-tested among cats with phenotype A was made in order to verify the presence of different antigens of AB system in this blood phenotype. The results underwent macroscopic and microscopic analyses. Among the 300 animals tested, regarding breed, 290 were mixed-breed cats and among the remaining ten, five were Persians, four Siamese, and one Angora. 297 (99%) presented with phenotype A (including all the breeding cats) and three (1%) with phenotype B, and all this cats were mixed-breed cats. None (0%) of the cats showed the phenotype AB. All phenotype B bloods reacted to reverse phenotyping with phenotype A, confirming the phenotype B of these cats. All phenotype A bloods were compatible among each other, so no further erythrocyte antigens were detected through this test. The mother of one of the phenotype B cats was identified and had phenotype A, demonstrating phenotype A parents with phenotype B offspring. This finding indicates heterozygosis in the studied population. This data enable to conclude that the studied population presented different erythrocyte phenotypes, subsequently highlighting the importance of conducting phenotype analyses in these animals before performing blood transfusion to avoid serious hemolytic complications associated with incompatibility.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência dos fenótipos eritrocitários do sistema AB felino e verificar a presença de outros antígenos, não pertencentes ao sistema AB felino, em gatos domésticos das cidades de Ilhéus e Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil. Amostras de sangue de 300 gatos foram coletadas no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC) e em visitas domiciliares para realizar a fenotipagem sanguínea usando o método de tubo. A fenotipagem reversa foi realizada em gatos que testaram o fenótipo B com amostras que testaram o fenótipo A, para confirmação do fenótipo sanguíneo. O teste cruzado foi realizado entre gatos do fenótipo A, para pesquisar a presença de diferentes antígenos do sistema AB dentro desse fenótipo sanguíneo. Os resultados foram submetidos a análises macroscópicas e microscópicas. Dos 300 animais testados, 110 eram machos e 190 fêmeas, e suas idades variaram de cinco meses à 15 anos. Sobre as raças, 290 eram gatos sem raça definida e dos 10 restantes, cinco eram Persas, quatro eram Siameses e um Angorá. 297 (99%) apresentaram fenótipo A (incluindo todos os gatos de raça) e três (1%) tiveram fenótipo B, sendo todos esses gatos sem raça definida. Nenhum (0%) dos gatos apresentou fenótipo AB. Todos os sangues com fenótipo B reagiram na fenotipagem reversa com o fenótipo A, confirmando o fenótipo B desses gatos. Todos os sangues com fenótipo A foram compatíveis entre si, portanto nenhum antígeno eritrocitário adicional foi detectado através deste teste. A genitora de um dos gatos com fenótipo B, foi encontrada e a mesma possuía fenótipo A, demonstrando pais com fenótipo A e cria com fenótipo B. Esse achado indica heterozigose na população estudada. Esses dados levam à conclusão de que diferentes fenótipos eritrocitários estão presentes na população estudada e destacam a importância da realização de testes fenotípicos nesses animais antes dos procedimentos de transfusão, a fim de evitar complicações hemolíticas graves decorrentes do envolvimento de animais incompatíveis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Phenotype , Blood Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Isoantibodies , Universities , Cats/blood
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06688, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1279535

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at performing cytometric phenotyping of the blood samples from free-living, young white-eyed parakeets (Psittacara leucophthalmus), stained with 3,3-dihexyloxacarbocyanine [DiOC6(3)]. DiOC6(3)-stained whole blood samples from 19 free-living, young white-eyed parakeets were analyzed by flow cytometry and cell types were distinguished by their typical fluorescence in blue laser channel (FL-1) and SSC (side scatter). It was possible to differentiate erythrocytes (58.3±13.6) from leukocytes (32.4±13.1) and some of the leucocyte subpopulations: lymphocytes/thrombocytes (29.7±7.7), monocytes (30.6±8.5), and granulocytes (5.9-26). However, lymphocytes and thrombocytes could not be sorted in the plots. Our study determined that the predominant population in white-eyed parakeet (P. leucophthalmus) was lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and monocytes in the leucocytes gates in comparison to the granulocyte population. The cytometry method and use of DiOC6(3) stain was available for parakeets blood samples and can be studied and applied to other species of parrots.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a fenotipagem citométrica com 3,3-di-hexiloxacarbocianina [DiOC6 (3)] de amostras de sangue de maritacas jovens de vida-livre (Psittacara leucophthalmus). As amostras de sangue total, coradas com DiOC6(3) de 19 maritacas de vida livre, foram analisadas por citometria de fluxo e os tipos de células foram distinguidos por sua fluorescência típica no canal laser azul (FL-1) e SSC (dispersão lateral). Foi possível diferenciar eritrócitos (58,3±13,6) de leucócitos (32,4±13,1) e algumas subpopulações de leucócitos: linfócitos/trombócitos (29,7±7,7), monócitos (30,6±8,5) e granulócitos (5,9-26), entretanto, linfócitos e trombócitos não puderam ser diferenciados em duas populações distintas. Nosso estudo determinou que a população predominante P. leucophthalmus foi mononuclear agranulocítica em comparação com a taxa de aquisição da população granulocítica. A metodologia de citometria de fluxo com uso da coloração de DiOC6(3) foi aplicável a amostras sanguíneas das maritacas e pode ser estudado e aplicado para outras espécies de psitacídeos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parakeets , Parrots/blood , Flow Cytometry , Leukocytes , Phenotype
8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 35: 1-13, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1222994

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 in children is usually mild or asymptomatic, but severe and fatal paediatric cases have been described. The pathology of COVID-19 in children is not known; the proposed pathogenesis for severe cases includes immune-mediated mechanisms or the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tissues. We describe the autopsy findings in five cases of paediatric COVID-19 and provide mechanistic insight into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods: Children and adolescents who died with COVID-19 between March 18 and August 15, 2020 were autopsied with a minimally invasive method. Tissue samples from all vital organs were analysed by histology, electron microscopy (EM), reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Findings: Five patients were included, one male and four female, aged 7 months to 15 years. Two patients had severe diseases before SARS-CoV-2 infection: adrenal carcinoma and Edwards syndrome. Three patients were previously healthy and had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with distinct clinical presentations: myocarditis, colitis, and acute encephalopathy with status epilepticus. Autopsy findings varied amongst patients and included mild to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, pulmonary microthrombosis, cerebral oedema with reactive gliosis, myocarditis, intestinal inflammation, and haemophagocytosis. SARSCoV- 2 was detected in all patients in lungs, heart and kidneys by at least one method (RT-PCR, IHC or EM), and in endothelial cells from heart and brain in two patients with MIS-C (IHC). In addition, we show for the first time the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the brain tissue of a child with MIS-C with acute encephalopathy, and in the intestinal tissue of a child with acute colitis. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 can infect several cell and tissue types in paediatric patients, and the target organ for the...(AU)


Subject(s)
Phenotype , Autopsy
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child suspected for Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the child and her parents. Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the proband. Suspected variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. The impact of the variants was predicted by bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor a de novo missense variant c.2623C>T (p.Asp875Tyr) in exon 13 of the KAT6B gene. The variant was previously unreported, and was not recorded in the major allele frequency database and predicted to be pathogenic based on PolyPhen-2, MutationTaster and PROVEAN analysis. As predicted by UCSF chimera and CASTp software, the variant can severely impact the substrate-binding pocket of histone acetyltransferase, resulting in loss of its enzymatic activity. Based on standards and guidelines by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was classified to be likely pathogenic (PS2+PM2+PP3).@*CONCLUSION@#The child's condition may be attributed to the de novo missense c.2623C>T (p.Asp875Tyr) variant of the KAT6B gene.


Subject(s)
Blepharophimosis , Child , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Facies , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital , Histone Acetyltransferases/genetics , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Joint Instability , Mutation , Phenotype
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879625

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing for a Chinese patient with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) and explore its genotype-phenotype correlation.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the patient was collected. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the patient, his parents and 100 unrelated healthy controls. Genetic variants were detected by using next-generation sequencing using a skin-disease panel through targeted capture and next generation sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. All literature related to genetic testing of XLHED patients in China was searched in the database, and the genotypes and phenotypes of patients in the literature and the correlation between them were statistically analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A novel splice site variant c.655_689del was detected in the patient but not among his parents and the 100 unrelated healthy controls. So far 61 variants of the EDA gene have been identified among Chinese patients with XLHED, which suggested certain degree of genotype-phenotype correlation.@*CONCLUSION@#A novel c.655_689del variant has been identified in the EDA gene, which has expanded the spectrum of EDA gene variant and facilitated delineation of the genotype-phenotype correlation of XLHED.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Anhidrotic/genetics , Ectodysplasins/genetics , Genetic Testing , Genotype , Humans , Phenotype
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879622

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of a pedigree affected with Alagille syndrome (ALGS).@*METHODS@#Targeted capture and next generation sequencing was carried out for the proband. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing among his family members. Their pathogenicity of the variant was predicted with bioinformatic analysis. Clinical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlation were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The proband, his elder sister and mother were found to carry a heterozygous c.1270dupG (p.Ala424Glyfs*5) variant of the JAG1 gene, which may lead to premature termination of translation and a truncated protein with loss of function. The variant was unreported previously. The phenotypes of the proband (cholestasis, pulmonary artery stenosis and peculiar faces) have differed from those of his elder sister (cholestasis with pruritus, posterior embryonic ring of cornea) and mother (with no clinical manifestation). Cholestasis and peculiar face of the proband became insignificant with age.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1270dupG (p.Ala424Glyfs*5) variant of the JAG1 gene probably underlay the ALGS in this pedigree with incomplete penetrance.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alagille Syndrome/genetics , Heterozygote , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Pedigree , Phenotype
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the serological, molecular and genetic characteristics of an individual with para-Bombay blood group.@*METHODS@#Serological method was used to detect the presence of A, B, H antigens in red blood cells and saliva, and Sanger sequencing was used to analyze the FUT1 gene of the proband and her family members. Genetic mechanism of the blood group was analyzed by pedigree analysis.@*RESULTS@#Forward and reverse typing of the ABO blood group were inconsistent for the proband. A, B and H antigens were not found on erythrocytes, while B and H antigens were found in saliva, in addition with unexpected antibodies. The proband was found to have a genotype of ABO*B.01/ABO*O.01.04 caused by homozygous variant of c.948C>A (p.Tyr316Ter) of the FUT1 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#A novel para-Bombay blood group was identified, which was due to the missense variant of c.948C>A in the coding region of the FUT1 gene, which has probably resulted in inability to synthesis active H antigen transferase.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Alleles , Female , Fucosyltransferases/genetics , Genotype , Homozygote , Humans , Phenotype
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879612

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the serological and molecular profiles of a patient with A(w)37B subtype.@*METHODS@#The ABO bloodtypes of the proband, his wife and daughter were determined with a standard serological method. Their ABO genotypes were determined by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP). All exons of the ABO gene were directly sequenced. Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were further analyzed by cloning and sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The red blood cells of the proband showed a weak B phenotype. His serum sample contained weak reactive anti-A antibody, which was defined as A(w)B blood group based on the serological characteristics. The A and B alleles were detected by blood group genotyping. Gene cloning and sequencing have identified a characteristic c.940A>G variant (ABO*AW.37) in exon 7 of the ABO gene, which resulted in substitution of Lysine by Glutamate at position 314. The proband's daughter has inherited the ABO*AW.37 allele.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.940A>G variant in exon 7 of the ABO gene probably underlay the decreased activity of GTA transferase and resulted in the Aw37 phenotype.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Alleles , Genotype , Humans , Pedigree , Phenotype
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879611

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular basis of two individuals with weak D variant of the Rh blood type.@*METHODS@#Routine serological testing was carried out to detect the D, C, c, E and e antigens of the Rh blood group. The D antigen was further detected with an indirect antiglobulin test. The presence of Rhesus box was detected by PCR to determine the homozygosity of the RHD gene.@*RESULTS@#Both samples were determined as weak D phenotype by the indirect antiglobulin test. DNA sequencing revealed that case 1 harbored a heterozygous 208C>T variant in exon 2 and a heterozygous 1227G>A variant in exon 9; while case 2 harbored homozygous 779A>G variants of exon 5 of the RHD gene. Case 1 was determined as RHD+/RHD+, while case 2 was determined as RHD+/RHD-. The two samples were respectively named as weak D type 122 and weak D type 149 based on the rules of Rhesus Base Nomenclature.@*CONCLUSION@#D negative blood donors should subject to indirect antiglobulin testing and molecular analysis for safer transfusion.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Blood Donors , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Genotype , Humans , Molecular Biology , Phenotype , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of a child with frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1 (FMD1) due to variant of FLNA gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical phenotype of the patient was analyzed. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to detect pathogenic genetic variants. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the result in his parents.@*RESULTS@#The 2-year-and-9-month-old boy presented with facial dysmorphism (supraorbital hyperostosis, down-slanting palpebral fissure and ocular hypertelorism), skeletal deformities (bowed lower limbs, right genu valgum, left genu varus, slight deformity of index and middle fingers, and flexion contracture of little fingers). He also had limited left elbow movement. High-throughput sequencing revealed that he has carried a de novo heterogeneous c.3527G>A (p.Gly1176Glu) missense variant of the FLNA gene. The same variant was found in neither parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical manifestations of FMD1 such as joint contracture and bone dysplasia can occur in infancy and deteriorate with age, and require long-term follow-up and treatment. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of FLNA gene variants.


Subject(s)
Child , Filamins/genetics , Forehead/abnormalities , Humans , Infant , Male , Osteochondrodysplasias/genetics , Phenotype , Whole Exome Sequencing
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular basis for an individual with Bw subtype.@*METHODS@#Routine serological reactions were used to determine the surface antigens of erythrocytes and antibodies in serum. PCR-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) was used to analyze the coding regions of the ABO gene and erythroid-specific regulatory element in its intron 1. Amplicons for exons 5 to 7 containing the variant site were subjected to TA cloning for the isolation of the haploid and verification of the sequence. The 3D structure of mutant protein was predicted with Pymol software. Changes of amino acid residues and structural stability were also analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Serological assay showed that the individual had weakened B antigen and anti-B antibody in his serum. His genotype was determined as ABO*B.01/ABO*O.01.01. Sequencing of the entire coding region of the ABO gene identified an additional heterozygous c.734C/T variant. No variant was found in the erythroid-specific regulatory element of intron 1. Haploid cloning and isolation has obtained an ABO*O.01.01 allele and a ABO*B.01 allele containing a c.734T variant, which has led to substitution of Thr by Ile at position 245 in the functional center of glycosyltransferase. Based on the 3D structure of the protein, the residues binding with the mutation were unchanged, but the bonding distance between the hydrogens was changed with the amino acid substitution. Meanwhile, the connections with water molecules were increased.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.734C>T variant of the GTB gene can lead to an amino acid substitution in the functional center of the enzyme, which in turn may affect the stability of glycosyltransferase B protein and reduceits enzymatic activity.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Alleles , Exons/genetics , Genotype , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Humans , Male , Phenotype
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child affected with Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood samples from the patient and his parents. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to detect genetic variant of the proband. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The 3-year-old boy presented with psychomotor retardation, linguistic difficulties, mental retardation and peculiar craniofacial phenotype. A de novo heterozygous nonsense variant of the ASXL3 gene, c.3106C>T, was identified by WES in the proband, and the same mutation was not found among his parents. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, the c.3106C>T variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous variant c.3106C>T of the ASXL3 gene probably underlies the Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome in the patient. Above result has enabled the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling for the family.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Heterozygote , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Mutation , Phenotype , Transcription Factors/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with mental and motor retardation, language impairment, facial dysmorphism and epilepsy.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing was carried out to detect pathogenic variant in the proband, and candidate variant was selected based on his phenotype. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the variant in the proband, his parents and other family members.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to carry a frameshifting mutation of MBD5 gene, namely c.2217delT (p.F739Lfs*6), which was inherited from his mother and unreported previously. Sanger sequencing confirmed that his brother carried the same mutation with a similar phenotype. His mother also had poor language expression when she was young, in addition with poor academic performance, though she could do some housework and had no history of convulsion.@*CONCLUSION@#A novel pathogenic variant of the MBD5 gene was discovered, which has enriched the mutational spectrum of the MBD5 gene. Above discovery has enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the family.


Subject(s)
Child , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Mutation , Pedigree , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Whole Exome Sequencing
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879561

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient featuring developmental delay.@*METHODS@#The patient and her parents were subjected to G- and C-banded chromosomal karyotyping analysis. The proband was also analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array). The result was verified by using fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR).@*RESULTS@#The proband's karyotype was ascertained as 46,XX, r(15)(p11.2q26.3)[92]/45,XX,-15[9]/46,XX, dic r(15)(p11.2q26.3;p11.2q26.3)[4]. SNP-array revealed that she has carried a de novo deletion at 15q26.3 (98 957 555-102 429 040) spanning approximately 3.4 Mb, which encompassed the IGF1R gene. qPCR has confirmed haploinsufficiency of exons 3, 10 and 20 of the IGF1R gene. Both of her parents had a normal karyotype.@*CONCLUSION@#The abnormal phenotype of the proband may be attributed to the microdeletion at 15q26.3, in particular haploinsuffiency of the IGF1R gene and instability of the ring chromosome. Cytogenetic method combined with SNP-array and qPCR can efficiently delineate chromosomal aberrations and provide accurate information for clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Deletion , Cytogenetic Analysis , Female , Genetic Counseling , Humans , Karyotyping , Phenotype , Ring Chromosomes
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical phenotype and genetic characteristics of a patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) due to partial deletion of EDA gene.@*METHODS@#The child has presented with HED complicated with epilepsy. Family trio whole exome sequencing (Trio-WES), copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq), and karyotype analysis were carried out to explore the underlying genetic etiology.@*RESULTS@#The proband, a 7-year-and-8-month-old boy, presented with thin curly hair, thin and sparse eyebrow, xerosis cutis, susceptibility to hyperthermia from childhood, hypohidrosis, sharp/sparse/absent teeth, saddle nose, prominent forehead, auricle adulation and seizure. He was found to have a normal chromosomal karyotype, and no abnormality was found by Trio-WES. Genome-wide CNV-seq revealed a 341.90 kb deletion at Xq13.1q13.1 (chrX: 68 796 566-69 138 468). As verified by PCR-electrophoresis, the deletion has removed part of the EDA gene. The deletion was derived from his mother with normal hair, mild xerosis cutis, and sparse, decidulated and nail-like teeth. The mother was detected with a heterozygous 242.10 kb deletion at Xq13.1q13.1 (chrX: 68 836 154-69 078 250).@*CONCLUSION@#Both the proband and his mother have carried a Xq13.1 microdeletion involving part of the EDA gene. The clinical phenotypes of the mother and the proband were consistent with the clinical characteristics of X-linked recessive HED, for which partial deletion of the EDA gene is probably accountable.


Subject(s)
Child , DNA Copy Number Variations , Ectodermal Dysplasia , Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Anhidrotic/genetics , Ectodysplasins/genetics , Humans , Male , Phenotype
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