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1.
Actual. osteol ; 17(2): 69-77, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1370075

ABSTRACT

El calcio (Ca) es un nutriente crítico para la salud, especialmente en los períodos de crecimiento. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los individuos argentinos no alcanzan la ingesta diaria recomendada. Por su parte, el fósforo (P) es un nutriente cuya ingesta suele estar por encima de la recomendada. Este tipo de desequilibrio en la ingesta de ambos nutrientes conlleva a una pérdida de masa ósea. El consumo de bebidas analcohólicas (BA) se ha incrementado en los últimos años, sobre todo en la población infantil, desplazando el consumo de agua y lácteos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar el aporte de Ca y P a partir de BA diferentes de agua. Se evaluaron 59 muestras, cuya mediana y rango de Ca fue de 7,74 [0,00 a 111,29] mg/l y de P 55,17 [0,16 a 957,00] mg/l. Los jugos en polvo son los que mayor contenido de Ca presentaron y las bebidas deportivas aquellas donde se halló el mayor contenido de P. Considerando un consumo de 500 ml/día de BA se estarían incorporando 3,87 mg Ca y 27,59 mg P. El creciente consumo de BA, su bajo contenido de Ca y la concomitante reducción del consumo de lácteos contribuyen a una inadecuada ingesta de Ca. (AU)


Calcium (Ca) is a critical nutrient, especially during periods of growth. However, the majority of Argentine individuals do not reach the recommended daily intake. On the other hand, phosphorus (P) is a nutrient with an intake usually above the recommended values. This type of imbalance between the intake of the nutrients leads to loss of bone mass. Soft drinks consumption (BA) has increased in recent years, especially in children, displacing the consumption of water and dairy products. The aim of this work was to estimate the Ca and P content in BA other than water. 59 samples were evaluated, with a median and range of Ca of 7.74 [0.00 to 111.29] mg/l and of P of 55.17 [0.16 to 957.00] mg/l. Powdered juices are the ones with the highest Ca content, and sports drinks are the beverages in which the highest P content was found. Based on a BA consumption of 500 ml/day, 3.87 mg Ca and 27.59 mg P would be incorporated. Therefore, the increased consumption of BA, their low Ca content, and the concomitant reduction in dairy consumption contribute to an inadequate intake of Ca. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Phosphates/analysis , Carbonated Beverages/statistics & numerical data , Calcium/analysis , Juices , Argentina , Quality Control , Calcium, Dietary , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Growth and Development , Recommended Dietary Allowances
2.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 268-276, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118930

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) is one of the nutrients that most limits agricultural productivity, especially in tropical soils. Enriched biochar has been proposed to increase the bioavailability of P and other nutrients in the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the availability of P in phosphate biochar (composed of biomass and soil) as a function of the triple superphosphate mixture before and after the pyrolysis process. We produced eight types of enriched biochar via pyrolysis by combining sandy or clayey soil with rice or coffee husk, and by adding triple superphosphate before or after pyrolysis. The heating of the phosphate fertilizer during the pyrolysis process resulted in a higher crystallinity of the phosphates, lower content of labile fractions of P and lower content of available P in phosphate biochars than when the superphosphate was added after pyrolysis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Phosphates/analysis , Oryza , Soil , Pyrolysis , Charcoal/analysis , Coffee , Amazonian Ecosystem
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180188, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984574

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sources of calcium and phosphate have been added to dental restorative materials to improve their anticaries effect. Objective This study evaluated the effect of adding calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) to resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) on the physico-mechanical properties, ion release, and enamel demineralization. Material and Methods: Specimens were fabricated for each experimental group: RMGIC without CaGP (Control), RMGIC with 1, 3 and 9% CaGP. To determine the release of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), six specimens were immersed in demineralization and remineralization solutions for 15 days. In another experimental trial, the following physico-mechanical properties were evaluated at time intervals of 1 and 7 days after fabrication: compressive strength (n=12), diametral tensile strength (n=12), surface hardness of material (n=6) and the degree of conversion of monomers (n=8). To study enamel demineralization, specimens (n=12) were attached to enamel blocks and submitted to pH-cycling. Subsequently, surface and cross-sectional hardness and the concentration of F, Ca and P in enamel were determined. Results The addition of CaGP to RMGIC led to higher mean release of F, Ca and P when compared with control (p<0.001). Mechanical properties were within the range of those of the ionomer cements after addition of 1% and 3% CaGP. The degree of conversion did not differ between groups at the 1st and the 7th day (p>0.439). The addition of 3% and 9% CaGP reduced mineral loss and increased F, Ca and P in the enamel when compared with control (p<0.05). Conclusion The addition of 3% CaGP in RMGIC increased the release of F, P and Ca, reduced enamel demineralization, and maintained the physico-mechanical properties within the parameters for this material.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Glycerophosphates/chemistry , Phosphates/analysis , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Photomicrography , Calcium/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Compressive Strength , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness Tests
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 104-110, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990013

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of growth hormone (GH) and muscle strength training (ST) on the composition of bone tissue of Wistar rats through Raman spectroscopy. In total, 40 male rats were randomly distributed into four groups: (N = 10) control (C), control with the application of GH (GHC), strength training (T), and strength training with the application of GH (GHT). The training consisted of four series of 10 water jumps, performed three times a week, with an overload corresponding to 50 % of body weight and duration of four weeks. GH was applied at a dose of 0.2 IU / kg in each animal three times a week and every other day. After four weeks, the animals were euthanized and the right femurs collected for analysis of the bone structure. Raman spectroscopy (ER) was used to observe the following compounds from their respective bands: Calcium Carbonate-Triglycerides (fatty acids) 1073 cm-1, Collagen type I 509 cm-1, Bone-DNA Phosphate (Protein) 589 cm-1, Phosphate Phospholipids 1078 cm-1. For the statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk and ANOVA One-Way variance analysis normality tests were performed, followed by the Tukey post-test. The results showed an increase in the concentrations of calcium carbonate-triglycerides (fatty acids), type I collagen, bone phosphate-DNA (protein), and phosphate phospholipids in all experimental groups, with or without ST and/or GH , But only the isolated training group differed significantly from the control group (P <0.05). It was concluded that all treatments could promote bone tissue gain, however, only the T group demonstrated a significant difference in the mineral compounds analyzed.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue avaluar el efecto de la aplicación de la hormona del crecimiento (GH) y entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular (EF) en la composición del tejido óseo de ratas Wistar a partir de la espectroscopía Raman. Fueron utilizadas 40 ratas machos distribuidas de forma aleatoria en cuatro grupos (n=10): control (C), control y aplicación de GH (GHC), entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular (EF) y entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular y aplicación del GH (GHE). El entrenamiento fue consistió en cuatro series de 10 saltos acuáticos, realizados tres veces en la semana, con sobrecarga correspondiente a 50 % de la masa corporal y durante cuatro semanas. El GH fue aplicado en la dosificación de 0,2 UI/kg en cada animal, tres veces en la semana y en días alternados. Después de cuatro semanas, los animales fueran eutanasiados y retirados los fémures derechos para un análisis de la estructura ósea. La espectroscopía Raman fue utilizada para observar los siguientes compuestos a partir de las respectivas bandas: Carbonato de Calcio-Triglicéridos (ácidos grasos) 1073 cm-1, Colágeno Tipo I 509 cm-1, Fosfato Óseo-DNA (Proteína) 589 cm1, Fosfato Fosfolípidos 1078 cm-1. Para el análisis estadístico, fueron realizadas las pruebas Shapiro-Wilk y el análisis de variancia ANOVA One-Way, seguida de test post hoc de Tukey. Los resultados revelaran aumento de la concentración de Carbonato de Calcio-Triglicéridos (ácidos grasos), Colágeno Tipo I, Fosfato Óseo- DNA (Proteína), Fosfato Fosfolípidos en todos los grupos experimentales, asociados o no a la realización del EF y/o aplicación del GH. Además, solamente el grupo EF mostró diferencia significativa del grupo C (p<0,05). Es posible concluir que todos los tratamientos mostraran aumentos en el tejido óseo, sin embargo, solamente el grupo T demostró una diferencia significativa en los compuestos minerales analizados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Swimming/physiology , Bone and Bones/chemistry , Muscle Strength/physiology , Phosphates/analysis , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Body Weight , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Calcium Carbonate/analysis , Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Exercise/physiology , Bone Density , Analysis of Variance , Collagen/analysis , Rats, Wistar
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 15-24, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974338

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100 NP kg ha−1) and half dose (75-50 NP kg ha−1) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/pharmacokinetics , Phosphorus/metabolism , Bacillus/metabolism , Triticum/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis , Crop Production/methods , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , Climate
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 40-46, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974339

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacterial endophytes are considered to have a beneficial effect on host plants, improving their growth by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of four endophytic Bacillus strains to solubilize iron phosphate (Fe-P), produce siderophores and indole-acetic acid (IAA) in vitro, and to evaluate their plant growth promotion ability in greenhouse conditions by inoculation into pearl millet cultivated in a P-deficient soils without P fertilization, with Araxá rock phosphate or soluble triple superphosphate. All strains solubilized Fe-P and three of them produced carboxylate-type siderophores and high levels of IAA in the presence of tryptophan. Positive effect of inoculation of some of these strains on shoot and root dry weight and the N P K content of plants cultivated in soil with no P fertilization might result from the synergistic combination of multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. Specifically, while B1923 enhanced shoot and root dry weight and root N P content of plants cultivated with no P added, B2084 and B2088 strains showed positive performance on biomass production and accumulation of N P K in the shoot, indicating that they have higher potential to be microbial biofertilizer candidates for commercial applications in the absence of fertilization.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/metabolism , Food/metabolism , Pennisetum/growth & development , Pennisetum/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphates/metabolism , Bacillus/genetics , Siderophores/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Pennisetum/metabolism , Endophytes/genetics , Iron/metabolism
7.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 104(4): 166-174, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869381

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analizar bebidas y alimentos de consumo frecuente para evaluar el pH, grados Brix (ºBx), efecto buffer a pH 5,5 y 7, y concentración de fosfatos, calcio y fluoruros. Materiales y métodos: en este estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, se evaluaron 438 alimentos, divididos en 18 grupos. Se analizó pH, capacidad Buffer a pH 5,5 y 7, grados Brix y concentración de fosfatos, de fluoruros y de calcio. Los datos fueron procesados por SPSS Statistics 20 (IBM Corp., Estados Unidos). Resultados: las gaseosas, el jugo en polvo para diluir, las aguas saborizadas y las bebidas isotónicas presntaron menor pH. El rango de sólidos solubles, expresado en grados Brix, fue de 0,05 a 15,9. El mayor valor de efecto buffer correspondió a los jugos: exprimido, en polvo, listo para consumir y para diluir. En este último, se halló mayor cantidad de fosfato. Sólo en las aguas minerales con gas se observaron fluoruros. El alimento de soja líquido natural presentó el mayor contenido de calcio. Concusiójn: las gaseosas, los jugos, las leches fermentadas y las bebidas isotónicas, resultaron ser ácidas, con bajo efecto buffer, alto valor de grados Brix y contener pocos factores protectores.


Aims: to analyze drinks and foods commonly consumedby evaluating pH, degrees Brix, buffer effect at pH 5.5 and 7.0and phosphate, calcium and fluoride concentration.Materials and methods: In this observational, descriptiveand cross-sectional study, 48 foods were evaluated,divided into 18 groups. pH, buffer capacity at 5.5 and 7, degreesBrix and phosphate, fluoride and calcium concentrationwere analyzed. The data were processed by SPSS Statistics 20(IBM Corp., USA).Results: Soda, juice powder to dilute, flavored water andsports drinks had lower pH. The range of soluble solids (degreesBrix) was from 0.05 to 15.9. The greatest value in buffereffect was in juices: squeezed, powdered, ready to consumeand to be diluted. The latter had a higher amount of phosphate.Only sparkling mineral waters showed detectable valuesfor fluorides. The liquid natural soy food had the highestcalcium content.Conclusion: Soft drinks, juices, fermentable milk, isotonicdrinks were found to be acidic, with lower buffer value,high Brix degrees and low in protective factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food and Beverages/analysis , Dental Caries/etiology , Risk Factors , Tooth Erosion , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Carbonated Beverages , Cross-Sectional Studies , Calcium/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Phosphates/analysis , Juices , Mineral Waters , Soy Milk , Data Interpretation, Statistical
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(5): 2-11, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797331

ABSTRACT

The buffering effect of acetate on hydrogen production during glucose fermentation by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was investigated compared to phosphate, a widely used fermentative hydrogen production buffer. Specific concentrations of sodium acetate or phosphate were added to batch cultures, and the effects on hydrogen production were comparatively analyzed using a modified Gompertz model. Adding 50 mM acetate or phosphate suppressed the hydrogen production peak and slightly extended the lag phase. However, the overall hydrogen yields were 113.5 and 108.5 mmol/L, respectively, and the final pH was effectively controlled. Acetate buffered against hydrogen production more effectively than did phosphate, promoting cell growth and preventing decreased pH. At buffer concentrations 100-250 mM, the maximum hydrogen production was barely suppressed, and the lag phase extended past 7 h. Therefore, although acetate inhibits hydrogen production, using acetate as a buffer (like phosphate) effectively prevented pH drops and increased substrate consumption, enhancing hydrogen production.


Subject(s)
Gram-Positive Bacteria/metabolism , Hydrogen/metabolism , Acetates/analysis , Phosphates/analysis , Buffers , Biofuels , Fermentation , Batch Cell Culture Techniques , Glucose , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
9.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962177

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control.


O presente estudo analisou a adequação da regulamentação brasileira vigente sobre dentifrícios fluoretados. Foi realizada busca da literatura sobre a concentração de flúor nos dentifrícios brasileiros, tendo como fontes Lilacs, Medline e SciELO, com uso de descritores em saúde. Publicações sobre a composição de dentifrícios fluoretados brasileiros têm mostrado desde 1981 que nem todos os dentifrícios são capazes de manter durante o prazo de validade uma concentração mínima de 1.000 ppm F. Esse problema ocorre não só com dentifrícios adquiridos no mercado como com aqueles distribuídos por serviços públicos de saúde. Entretanto, a legislação brasileira (Resolução 79, Anvisa, 28/8/2000) apenas estabelece que um dentifrício não pode conter mais que 0,15% (1.500 ppm F) de flúor total, sem estabelecer o mínimo de flúor solúvel que ele deveria conter para ter potencial anticárie, a qual de acordo com revisões sistemáticas deve ser igual ou maior que 1.000 ppm F. Concluiu-se que a regulamentação brasileira sobre dentifrícios fluoretados necessita ser revisada, garantindo a eficácia desses produtos para o controle da cárie.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toothpastes/analysis , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Fluoridation/legislation & jurisprudence , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Phosphates/analysis , Sodium Fluoride/analysis , Brazil , Fluorides/analysis
10.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 587-593, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65715

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the accuracy of low-dose dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in predicting the composition of urinary calculi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 52 patients with urinary calculi were scanned with a 128-slice dual-source DECT scanner by use of a low-dose protocol. Dual-energy (DE) ratio, weighted average Hounsfield unit (HU) of calculi, radiation dose, and image noise levels were recorded. Two radiologists independently rated study quality. Stone composition was assessed after extraction by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS). Analysis of variance was used to determine if the differences in HU values and DE ratios between the various calculus groups were significant. Threshold cutoff values to classify the calculi into separate groups were identified by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: A total of 137 calculi were detected. FTIRS analysis differentiated the calculi into five groups: uric acid (n=17), struvite (n=3), calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate (COM-COD, n=84), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, n=28), and carbonate apatite (n=5). The HU value could differentiate only uric acid calculi from calcified calculi (p80% sensitivity and specificity to differentiate them. The DE ratio could not differentiate COM from COM-COD calculi. No study was rated poor in quality by either of the observers. The mean radiation dose was 1.8 mSv. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose DECT accurately predicts urinary calculus composition in vivo while simultaneously reducing radiation exposure without compromising study quality.


Subject(s)
Adult , Apatites/analysis , Calcium Oxalate/analysis , Female , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Kidney Calculi/chemistry , Magnesium Compounds/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphates/analysis , Prospective Studies , Radiation Dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ureteral Calculi/chemistry , Uric Acid/analysis , Waist Circumference , Young Adult
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(4): 363-368, Jul-Aug/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of metallic ions to carbonated drinks on their erosive potential. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Powdered enamel was added to carbonated beverages (Coca-ColaTM or Sprite ZeroTM and shaken for 30 s. The samples were then immediately centrifuged and the supernatant removed. This procedure was repeated 5 times with the beverages containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ or Zn2+ (1.25-60 mmol/L). For Coca-ColaTM, the concentration of each ion that exhibited the highest protection was also evaluated in combination with Fe2+. The phosphate or calcium released were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). RESULTS: For Coca-ColaTM, the best protective effect was observed for Zn2+ alone (10 mmol/L) or in combination (1 mmol/L) with other ions (12% and 27%, respectively, when compared with the control). Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the best protective effect was observed for Cu2+ at 15 and 30 mmol/L, which decreased the dissolution by 22-23%. Zn2+ at 2.5 mmol/L also reduced the dissolution of powdered enamel by 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the combination of metallic ions can be an alternative to reduce the erosive potential of Coca-ColaTM. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the addition of Cu2+ seems to be the best alternative. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Ions/chemistry , Metals/chemistry , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Calcium/analysis , Copper/chemistry , Magnesium/chemistry , Manganese/chemistry , Phosphates/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Zinc/chemistry
12.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 273-278, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681878

ABSTRACT

This in vitro study evaluated the preventive potential of experimental pastes containing 10% and 20% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Nano-HAP), with or without fluoride, on dental demineralization. Bovine enamel (n=15) and root dentin (n=15) specimens were divided into 9 groups according to their surface hardness: control (without treatment), 20 Nanop paste (20% HAP), 20 Nanop paste plus (20% HAP + 0.2% NaF), 10 Nanop paste (10% HAP), 10 Nanop paste plus (10% HAP + 0.2% NaF), placebo paste (without fluoride and HAP), fluoride paste (0.2% NaF), MI paste (CPP-ACP, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate), and MI paste plus (CPP-ACP + 0.2% NaF). Both MI pastes were included as commercial control products containing calcium phosphate. The specimens were treated with the pastes twice a day (1 min), before and after demineralization. The specimens were subjected to a pH-cycling model (demineralization–6-8 h/ remineralization-16-18 h a day) for 7 days. The dental subsurface demineralization was analyzed using cross-sectional hardness (kgf/mm 2 , depth 10-220 µm). Data were tested using repeated-measures two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (p<0.05). The only treatment able to reduce the loss of enamel and dentin subsurface hardness was fluoride paste (0.2% NaF), which differed significantly from the control at 30- and 50-µm depth (p<0.0001). The other treatments were not different from each other or compared with the control. The experimental Nanop pastes, regardless of the addition of fluoride, were unable to reduce dental demineralization in vitro.


Este estudo in vitro avaliou o potencial de pastas experimentais contendo nanopartículas de hidroxiapatita a 10% e 20% (Nano-HAP), com ou sem fluoreto, na prevenção da desmineralização dentária. Espécimes de esmalte (n=15) e de dentina radicular (n=15) bovinos foram divididos em nove grupos de acordo com o valor de dureza superficial: controle (sem tratamento), pasta Nanop 20 (HAP 20%), pasta Nanop 20 plus (HAP 20% + NaF 0,2%), pasta Nanop 10 (HAP 10%), pasta Nanop 10 plus (HAP 10% + NaF 0,2%), pasta placebo (sem F e HAP), pasta fluoretada (NaF 0,2%), pasta MI (CPP-ACP, fosfopeptídio da caseína-fosfato de cálcio amorfo), e pasta MI plus (CPP-ACP + NaF 0,2%). As duas pastas MI foram inclusas como grupos controles comerciais contendo fosfato de cálcio. Os espécimes foram tratados com as pastas duas vezes ao dia (1 min), antes e após a desmineralização. Os espécimes foram submetidos a um modelo de ciclagem de pH (desmineralização 6-8 h/ remineralização 16-18 h por dia) durante sete dias. A desmineralização dentária de subsuperfície foi avaliada através da dureza longitudinal (kgf/mm 2 , profundidade de 10-220 µm). Os dados foram analisados utilizando ANOVA a dois critérios e teste de Bonferroni (p<0,05). O único tratamento capaz de reduzir a perda da dureza de subsuperfície do esmalte e da dentina foi a pasta fluoretada (NaF 0,2%), a qual diferiu significativamente do controle nas profundidades de 30 e 50 µm da superfície (p<0,0001). Os outros tratamentos não foram diferentes entre si ou quando comparados ao controle. As pastas experimentais Nanop, independentemente da presença de fluoreto, não foram capazes de reduzir a desmineralização dentária in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Durapatite/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Calcium/analysis , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Caseins/therapeutic use , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Placebos , Phosphates/analysis , Random Allocation , Spectrophotometry , Sodium Fluoride/therapeutic use , Toothpastes/analysis
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 317-323, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676905

ABSTRACT

Phytate is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Monogastric animals like poultry, pigs and fishes have very low or no phytase activities in their digestive tracts therefore, are incapable to efficiently utilize phytate phosphorus from the feed. Phytase from microbial sources are supplemented to feedstuff of these to increase the uptake of phytate phosphorus. In the present work efforts were made to isolate and characterize proficient phytase producing fungi from soil. Phytase producing fungi were isolated using phytate specific medium. Fungal isolates were selected according to their higher phytase activities. These isolates were further characterized and identified by morphological and microscopic analysis and confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA gene, using specific primers. This gene was subsequently sequenced and phylogenetic affiliations were assigned. Fungal isolates were identified as various species of Aspergillus. Phytases from these fungi could be utilized as a feed additive in poultry and swine industries.


Subject(s)
Phytic Acid/analysis , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Edible Grain/enzymology , Edible Grain/genetics , Phosphates/analysis , Genes, Fungal , Heavy Ions , Inositol , Food Samples , Hydrolysis , Methods
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145795

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. Saliva as a host factor plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of oral structures. The aim of the present study was to compare resting salivary pH, buffering capacity, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), calcium, and phosphate concentrations between children with and without ECC. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples of unstimulated saliva of 90 children (45 in ECC group and 45 in caries-free group) were taken with Scully method. The pH and buffering capacity were determined by pH meter. sIgA, calcium, and phosphate concentrations were quantitated with ELISA, CPC photometric, and phosphomolybdate/UV methods. Results: The mean resting salivary pH was significantly higher among children without ECC and the buffering capacity was significantly better among this group (P = 0.002). The mean sIgA concentration was significantly higher among the ECC group (P = 0.015). There were no statistically significant differences between calcium and phosphate concentrations between the two groups. Conclusion: The higher mean resting salivary pH and better buffering capacity found in children without ECC are probably the contributing factors that protect against caries development; but further studies are needed to understand the effects of saliva and its characteristics and components on ECC.


Subject(s)
Buffers , Calcium/analysis , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Phosphates/analysis , Saliva/analysis , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/physiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 490-497, Apr.-June 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644463

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at optimizing the medium of a new Ganoderma lucidum strain CAU5501 to enhance the yield of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and mycelial growth. Firstly, the suitable level of glucose, magnesium, phosphate and C/N ratio was determined by single factor experiment. Subsequently, the optimum concentrations of these medium components were investigated using the orthogonal matrix method. The results indicated that the higher levels of EPS were correlated with the level of cell growth when glucose concentration was studied (data no show). The optimum medium for EPS yield was found to be 70 g/l glucose, 5 C/N ratio, 2.5 g/l KH2PO4, 0.75 g/l MgSO4·7H2O, and for mycelial growth was 50 g/l glucose, 5 C/N ratio, 1.5 g/l KH2PO4, 0.5 g/l MgSO4·7H2O. When cultivated in the obtained optimal media in 3 L shake flask, compared to the basal medium, the EPS yield increased markedly from 1.003 to 1.723 g/l, and the mycelium formation was also markedly improved from 2.028 to 7.235 g/l. Results obtained in this study are beneficial to further study for enhancing the production of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in large scale commercialized production.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/analysis , Phosphates/isolation & purification , Glucose/analysis , Glucose/isolation & purification , Mycelium/growth & development , Polysaccharides/analysis , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Reishi/enzymology , Reishi/isolation & purification , Enzyme Activation , Methods , Process Optimization
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(4): 373-378, 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658013

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some acidic drinks on dentin erosion, using methods of surface profile (SP) analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). One hundred standardized dentin slabs obtained from bovine incisor roots were used. Dentin slabs measuring 5x5 mm were ground flat, polished and half of each specimen surface was protected with nail polish. For 60 min, the dentin surfaces were immersed in 50 mL of 5 different drinks (Gatorade®, Del Valle Mais orange juice®, Coca-Cola®, Red Bull® and white wine), 20 blocks in each drink. The pH of each beverage was measured. After the erosive challenge, the nail polish was removed and SP was analyzed. The mineral concentration of dentin surfaces was determined by means of EDXRF. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). SP analysis showed that Red-Bull had the highest erosive potential (p<0.05). EDXRF results exhibited a decrease in phosphate in the groups immersed in Red-Bull, orange juice and white wine (p<0.05), and no significant difference in calcium content between the reference surface and eroded surface. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that all studied beverages promoted erosion on root dentin and Red Bull had the highest erosive potential. There was no correlation between pH of beverages and their erosive potential and only the P content changed after erosive challenge.


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos de algumas bebidas ácidas sobre a erosão da dentina, utilizando métodos de análise de perfil de superfície (SP) e espectrometria de energia dispersiva de fluorescência de raios X (EDXRF). Cem blocos de dentina padronizados obtidos de raízes de incisivos bovinos foram utilizados. Os blocos de dentina medindo 5x5 mm foram planificados, polidos e metade de cada superfície das amostras foram impermeabilizados com esmalte para unhas. Por 60 min, as superfícies de dentina foram imersas em 50 mL de 5 bebidas diferentes (Gatorade, suco de laranja, Coca-Cola, Red Bull e vinho branco), 20 blocos em cada bebida. O pH de cada bebida foi medido. Após o desafio erosivo, o esmalte de unha foi removido e SP foram analisados. A concentração de minerais das superfícies de dentina foi determinada por meio de EDXRF. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente por ANOVA e teste de Tukey. (p<0,05). A análise SP mostrou que o Red-Bull apresentou o maior potencial erosivo. Os resultados do EDXRF apresentaram uma diminuição do fosfato dos grupos imersos no Red-Bull, suco de laranja e vinho branco, e não houve diferença significativa no teor de cálcio entre a superfície de referência e a superfície que sofreu erosão. O Red Bull apresentou o maior potencial erosivo sobre a dentina radicular. Não houve correlação entre o pH das bebidas e o seu potencial erosivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Beverages/adverse effects , Dentin/pathology , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Acids , Citrus sinensis , Calcium/analysis , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Energy Drinks/adverse effects , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phosphates/analysis , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Time Factors , Wine/adverse effects
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(4): 1327-1338, Dec. 2011. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607428

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the dynamics of cyanobacteria in two deep, eutrophic reservoirs in a semi-arid region of Brazil during periods of stratification and destratification. Four collections were carried out at each reservoir at two depths at three-month intervals. The following abiotic variables were analyzed: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, water transparency, total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, orthophosphate and total nitrogen. Phytoplankton density was quantified for the determination of the biomass of cyanobacteria. The data were analyzed using CCA. Higher mean phytoplankton biomass values (29.8 mm³.L-1) occurred in the period of thermal stratification. A greater similarity in the phytoplankton communities also occurred in this period and was related to the development of cyanobacteria, mainly Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (>3.9 mm³.L-1). During the period of thermal destratification, this species co-dominated the environment with Planktothrix agardhii, Geitlerinema amphibium, Microcystis aeruginosa and Merismopedia tenuissima, as well as with diatoms and phytoflagellates. Environmental instability and competition among algae hindered the establishment of blooms more during the mixture period than during the stratification period. Thermal changes in the water column caused by climatologic events altered other physiochemical conditions of the water, leading to changes in the composition and biomass of the cyanobacterial community in tropical reservoirs.


Este estudo investigou a dinâmica das cianobactérias em dois reservatórios eutróficos e profundos localizados na região semi-árida do Brasil durante períodos de estratificação e desestratificação térmica. Quatro coletas foram feitas em cada reservatório em duas profundidades em intervalo de três meses. As variáveis abióticas analisadas foram: temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, turbidez, transparência da água, fósforo total, fósforo total dissolvido, ortofosfato e nitrogênio total. A densidade do fitoplâncton foi quantificada para a determinação da biomassa de cianobactérias. Os dados foram analisados usando ACC. Elevados valores médios de biomassa fitoplanctônica (29,8 mm³.L-1) ocorreram no período de estratificação. A maior similaridade das comunidades fitoplanctônicas também ocorreu neste período e foi relacionada ao desenvolvimento de cianobactérias, principalmente Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (>3,9 mm³ .L-1). Durante o período de desestratificação térmica, esta espécie co-dominou o ambiente com Planktothrix agardhii, Geitlerinema amphibium, Microcystis aeruginosa e Merismopedia tenuissima, bem como com diatomáceas e fitoflagelados. Instabilidade ambiental e competição entre as algas dificultaram o estabelecimento de blooms durante o período de mistura quando comparado com o período de estratificação. Modificações na condição térmica da coluna d'água, causadas por eventos climatológicos, alteraram as demais condições fisicoquímicas da água e ocasionaram mudanças na composição e biomassa da comunidade de cianobactérias em reservatórios tropicais.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Cyanobacteria/classification , Fresh Water/chemistry , Phytoplankton/classification , Brazil , Cylindrospermopsis , Cyanobacteria/physiology , Environmental Monitoring , Eutrophication , Fresh Water/microbiology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microcystis , Nitrogen/analysis , Oxygen/analysis , Population Density , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Phytoplankton/physiology , Seasons , Temperature
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 June; 48(3): 202-207
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135321

ABSTRACT

Formation of urinary stone is a serious and debilitating problem throughout the world. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of root of Rotula aquatica was investigated against struvite crystals (one of the components of urinary stone) grown in vitro using single diffusion gel growth technique. For setting the gel, sodium metasilicate solution (specific gravity 1.05) and 0.5 M aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were mixed, so that the pH of the mixture could be set at 7.0. Equal amounts of supernatant solution of magnesium acetate (1.0 M) prepared with 0.0%, 0.5% and 1% concentrations of the extract were gently poured on the set gels. It was observed that the number, dimension, total mass, total volume, growth rate and depth of growth of struvite crystals decreased with the increasing extract concentrations in the supernatant solutions. The enhancement of dissolution rate and fragmentation of struvite crystals suggested potential application of the extract for inhibition of struvite type urinary stone.


Subject(s)
Crystallization , Humans , Magnesium Compounds/analysis , Magnesium Compounds/chemistry , Particle Size , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphates/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots , Solubility/drug effects , Urinary Calculi/chemistry , Urinary Calculi/prevention & control
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(1): 105-113, Jan.-Mar. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571381

ABSTRACT

In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circulans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 percent, 30.8 percent, 70.3 percent and 14.2 percent, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 percent, females/root by 63.75 percent and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 percent. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Bacillus megaterium/isolation & purification , Phosphates/analysis , Nematoda , Nitrogen , Nitrogen Fixation , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Edible , Sandy Soils , Spores, Bacterial , Methods , Plants , Methods
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 21(5): 396-400, 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-568982

ABSTRACT

Toothpastes should have a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm of fluoride (F) to control caries and also the active F agent must be chemically free (soluble) in the formulation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of soluble F in dentifrices used by 206 Brazilian children. The concentrations of total fluoride (TF), total soluble fluoride (TSF) and fluoride ion were determined. From these analyses, the concentrations of F as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) and percent of insoluble F were calculated. F was analyzed with an ion specific electrode in duplicates. The majority of dentifrices used (96 percent) contained F and in 84 percent of them, TF concentration was according to that declared by the manufacturers. In the F-toothpastes, 78 percent showed TSF concentration ≥1000 ppm, varying from 422.3 to 1432.3 ppm F (mean ± SD of 1017.6 ± 239.4). These findings suggest that most dentifrices used by Brazilian children present available fluoride concentration for caries control.


O requerimento mínimo para que um creme dental tenha potencial anticárie é ele ter fluoreto (F) na concentração de 1000 ppm, o qual porém deve estar solúvel na formulação. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a concentração de F solúvel em dentifrícios usados por 206 crianças brasileiras. Foram determinadas as concentrações de flúor total (FT), o qual representa a soma das concentrações de flúor solúvel (iônico e ionizável) mais o insolúvel (ligado ao abrasivo); de flúor solúvel total (FST), representando o iônico mais o ionizável na forma de monofluorfosfato de sódio (MFP) e de flúor solúvel na forma iônica (FI). A partir destas análises foram calculadas as concentrações de MFP e a por cento de F insolúvel (Fins). As análises foram feitas em duplicatas com eletrodo específico. A maioria dos dentifrícios usados (96 por cento) continham fluoreto e em 84 por cento desses a concentração de FT encontrada estava de acordo com a declarada na embalagem. Em 78 por cento dos cremes dentais fluoretados, a concentração de FST encontrada foi igual ou superior a 1000 ppm, variando de 422,3 a 1432,3 ppm F (média ± DP de 1017,6 ± 239,4). Os dados mostram que a maioria dos cremes dentais usados pela amostra de crianças brasileiras possui concentração de F potencialmente ativo para controlar cárie.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Toothpastes/analysis , Biological Availability , Brazil , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Fluorides/pharmacokinetics , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Phosphates/analysis , Solubility , Sodium Fluoride/analysis , Toothpastes/pharmacokinetics
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