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1.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 10(2): [1-22], nov. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416068

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la Proteína Quinasa Activada por AMP (AMPK), es una enzima monitora y reguladora central del estado energético celular, por tanto, es responsable de la respuesta celular al suministro y demanda de energía. El AMP actúa como activador en condiciones de déficit energético, mientras que el ATP la inactiva cuando las condiciones energéticas son más favorables. Debido a su función central en el metabolismo, la AMPK surge como un blanco proteico prometedor para el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades como la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), Síndrome Metabólico (SM), Cáncer, entre otros. Existen múltiples isoformas de AMPK que se regulan y expresan diferencialmente en todo el organismo. La isoforma AMPK­ß2 se expresa casi exclusivamente en músculo esquelético y dado que este es el órgano primario para el almacenamiento y eliminación de Glucosa, AMPK­ß2 puede dirigir su homeostasis por una ruta independiente a la Insulina. La molécula activadora SC4 tiene una gran selectividad por AMPK­ß2 y debido a su función biológica, podría servir como modelo farmacológico para coadyuvar el tratamiento de enfermedades metabólicas. OBJETIVO: análisis de la dinámica molecular de activación de la AMPK­ß2. METODOLOGÍA: en el presente estudio, se emplean herramientas bioinformáticas como Chimera 1.15 y Phyton Molecular Viewer. RESULTADOS: el análisis in silico permitió comprender varios aspectos estructurales relacionados con la acción de SC4 sobre la estructura trimérica de la AMPK, los aminoácidos con los que interacciona y cómo su estructura química le otorga gran selectividad. También fue útil para en un futuro, ampliar los criterios de extracción, identificación y/o diseño de compuestos activos a partir de fuentes naturales, con propiedades funcionales similares o aún mejores a SC4, para así poder emplearlos con un enfoque terapéutico que beneficie a nuestra población.


INTRODUCTION: protein Kinase Activated by AMP (AMPK), is a monitor enzyme and a central regulator of the energetic cellular state, therefore, it is responsible for the cellular response to the supply and demand of energy. AMP acts as an activator in conditions of energy deficit, while ATP inactivates it when energy conditions are more favorable. Due to its central role in metabolism, AMPK appears as a promising protein target for the treatment of different diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2), Metabolic Syndrome (SM), and Cancer among others. There are multiple isoforms of AMPK that are regulated and differentially expressed throughout the body. The ß2-AMPK isoform is expressed almost exclusively in skeletal muscle and since this is the primary organ for Glucose disposal and storage, ß2-AMPK has an established role as a driver of insulin-independent Glucose clearance. The activator SC4 has a high selectivity for ß2-AMPK and due to its biological function; it could serve as a pharmacological model to aid the treatment of metabolic diseases. OBJETIVE: to analize the molecular dinamic of AMPK- ß2 activation. METHODOLOGY: in the present work we employed bioinformatics, Chimera 1.15 and Phyton Molecular Viewer. RESULTS: the in silico analysis allow us to understand many many structural features related to the action of SC4 on the trimeric structure of AMPK, the specific amino acids involved in the interaction and how its chemical structure gives it high selectivity. Thus, this structural analysis will be useful in order to broaden the criteria for extraction, identification and/or design of active compounds from natural sources, with similar or even better properties than SC4, to use them in a future, with a therapeutic approach that benefits our population.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Muscle, Skeletal
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 112 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378572

ABSTRACT

A cana-de-açúcar e a cana energia são plantas intercruzáveis que compõe o complexo Saccharum. Estas plantas são fonte de biomassa para produção de açúcar, biocombustíveis, eletricidade, entre outros, e utilizam a energia assimilada pela fotossíntese de forma contrastante, ainda que ambas resultem em alta produtividade. O relógio biológico é um mecanismo molecular que gera informações sobre a hora do dia em conjunto com estímulos ambientais, adaptando respostas fisiológicas em prol de otimizar o desenvolvimento dos organismos em um ambiente cíclico, processo que regula cerca de 64% dos genes de cana-deaçúcar no campo. Em organismos sésseis como as plantas, o recorrente processo de produção de energia apenas durante o período luminoso, gera ritmos de metabólitos que influenciam na atividade de enzimas quinases que assim funcionam como sensores do estado energético, em vias conservadas nos eucariotos. Porém, pouco se sabe a respeito de como estes sinais são percebidos a nível transcricional, principalmente em plantas cultiváveis. Para elucidar como estas vias atuam em conjunto em plantas do complexo Saccharum, medimos o nível de transcrição de componentes do relógio biológico, de subunidades que compõe o complexo TOR, e da subunidade catalítica de SnRK1, KIN10. Medimos o desempenho do relógio biológico das variedades através da quantificação de amido em quatro pontos temporais, para obter uma dinâmica de produção e consumo, processo que é regulado pelo relógio biológico e tem genes com perfil de expressão rítmicos em cana de-açúcar. Curiosamente, uma das quatro variedades onde identificamos provável perfil rítmico de consumo de amido é a S.officinarum SP80-3280, cana-de-açúcar utilizada anteriormente para estudos de relógio biológico. Os nove acessos foram divididos em dois grupos com base em sua partição de carbono contrastante. HF (high fiber) com mais fibras e perfilho e grupo HS (high sucrose), com maior armazenamento de açúcares e amido que HF, em todos os horários de coleta, e com baixa produção de fibras. Estes grupos não diferem em expressão dos componentes de relógio biológico, no entanto, HS tem maior transcrição de uma subunidade do complexo TOR, em apenas um dos horários analisados (ZT12). Em conjunto, a expressão dos componentes do relógio biológico divide os acessos entre os que possuem altos níveis de transcrição de ScLHY, no ZT03, e os que possuem maior transcrição dos genes PRR59, 73 e 95, no ZT12, grupos com contrastante partição de carbono. A transcrição dos sensores energéticos se correlaciona no começo da noite em acessos de HS e Krakatau e, no começo da manhã, em acessos de HF e IN84-105, sem agrupar as variedades por espécie ou destino de carbono. Este trabalho sugere que há diferentes níveis de correlação entre a transcrição dos genes mensurados e as contrastantes partições de carbono das plantas do complexo Saccharu


Sugarcane and Energycane are intercrossable plants that make up the Saccharum complex. These plants are a source of biomass, sugar, biofuels, electricity among others, and even though they use the energy assimilated by photosynthesis in a contrasting way, both results in high productivity. The biological clock is a molecular mechanism that generates information about the time of day in conjunction with environmental stimuli, adapting physiological responses to optimize the development of organisms in a cyclic environment, a process that regulates about 64% of sugarcane genes in field-grown plants. In organisms such as plants, the recurrent process of energy production that happens only during the luminous period generates rhythmicity that may influence the activity of kinase enzymes, thus giving an energy sensor property for then. However, little is known about how these signs are perceived at the transcriptional level, especially in crops and monocots. To elucidate how these pathways act together in plants of the Saccharum complex, we measured the transcription level of the daytime loop of the biological clock, subunits that make up the TOR complex, and the catalytic subunit of SnRK1, KIN10. We measured starch content in four time points, to obtain a dynamic of production and consumption, a process that is regulated by the biological clock and has genes with a rhythmic expression profile in sugarcane. Interestingly, one of the four varieties where we could identify a probable rhythmic profile of starch consumption is a sugarcane SP80-3280 (S. officinarum), that have been used for biological clock studies. The nine genotypes were divided into two groups based on their contrasting carbon partition. HF (high fiber) with more fiber and tiller and group HS (high sucrose), with higher sugar and starch storage than HF, but with lower fiber production. These groups do not differ in expression of biological clock components; however, HS has a higher transcription of a subunit of the TOR complex, in only one of the analyzed times (ZT12). Together, the expression of components of the biological clock divides the genotypes between those with higher levels of ScLHY in ZT03 and those with more transcripts of PRR59, 73 and 95 genes in ZT12, groups that also have contrasting carbon partition. The transcription of TOR complex correlates in the early evening in HS and KRAKATAU, but in the morning, in HF and IN84-105, with no clear correlation with the C destination preferences. This work suggests that there are different levels of correlation between the transcription of biological clock and energy sensors component genes and the contrasting carbon partitions of plants from the Saccharum complex


Subject(s)
Plants/adverse effects , Biological Clocks , Saccharum/adverse effects , Energy Metabolism , Phosphotransferases , Sucrose , Biomass , Growth and Development , Efficiency/classification , Sugars/classification
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 129 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382002

ABSTRACT

O melanoma é um tipo de câncer de pele geneticamente diverso, que surge diante das transformações em melanócitos. A mutação BRAFV600E está presente em mais de 90% de todas as mutações em BRAF, sendo assim ocorre em cerca de 50% dos casos registrados. As mutações em NRAS, ocupam o segundo lugar entre as mutações mais prevalentes, cerca de 20% dos casos. Informações sobre as assinaturas genéticas, permitiram o desenvolvimento de terapia alvo dirigida. O Vemurafenib, inibidor da quinase BRAFV600E, apresentou inicialmente resultados bastante satisfatórios, contudo existe registro de casos de recidiva e resistência. O receptor aril de hidrocarbonetos é expresso em vários componentes da pele, e assim está relacionado a homeostase e fisiopatologia da pele. Diante disso, a avaliação da expressão do receptor em um painel de linhagens mutadas para NRAS e BRAF, e BRAF resistentes, mostrou-se maior do que a encontrada em melanócitos. Também encontramos maior expressão de mRNA de AhR em linhagens de melanoma derivadas de sítio primário e metastático, mutadas para BRAFV600E, quando comparadas ao melanócito. Agregado a isto, a análise in silico no TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mostrou que há 18% de alteração genética em AhR, sendo em maior parte a alta regulação de mRNA. Também, a análise do banco público GSE12391, mostrou aumento de mRNA de AhR na fase de crescimento vertical do melanoma. Assim, concluímos que há maior expressão de mRNA e sua importância nas fases de desenvolvimento do melanoma, tanto nos processos iniciais quanto em processos de migração, invasão e metástase. Ainda, encontramos maior mRNA do receptor em linhagens resistentes ao Vemurafenib. Este resultado sustenta a hipótese de que AhR pode ser considerado um marcador de resistência em melanomas. O AhR, inicialmente no citoplasma, quando ativado pode atuar como fator de transcrição regulando vários genes que apresentam sequências definidas, participando de respostas carcinogênicas. Compostos halogenados e moléculas endógenas derivadas das vias de metabolização do triptofano são agonistas do receptor. Anteriormente, nosso grupo mostrou que linhagens de melanoma incubadas com triptamina e DMT exibiram menor clonogenicidade. Diante de uma literatura escassa sobre o papel do DMT no melanoma e com base nestes resultados, nosso objetivo foi avaliar o papel de AhR nesta interface DMT-melanoma. Para isto, nosso objetivo foi construir linhagem editada geneticamente para AhR através da ferramenta CRISPR-Cas9. Vários foram os esforços, sem sucesso, utilizados nas tentativas de comprovar a manutenção de células editadas na cultura. Atrelamos a este resultado a possibilidade de haver duas subpopulações editadas geneticamente pós CRISPR-Cas9, onde uma destas manteve o padrão de crescimento semelhante às células wild type. Devido a este crescimento diferencial, não obtivemos congruências nos ensaios e postulamos a perda do possível nocaute. A partir disso, realizamos ensaios de interactoma para avaliar a interação de DMT-AhR. Nosso resultado sugere a interação de DMT ao receptor sigma 1, e não ao receptor aril de hidrocarbonetos. Desta forma, o interactoma sustenta a hipótese de que DMT não é um ligante de AhR. Para certificar este resultado análises de docking associados a ensaios biológicos, avaliando o papel do receptor, devem ser realizados para averiguar a afinidade e seletividade de DMT como ligante do receptor na linhagem de melanoma


Melanoma is a genetically diverse type of skin cancer, which arises from changes in melanocytes. The BRAFV600E mutation is present in more than 90% of all BRAF mutations, so it occurs in about 50% of registered cases. Mutations in NRAS occupy the second place among the most prevalent mutations, about 20% of cases. Information on genetic signatures allowed the development of targeted therapy. vemurafenib, kinase inhibitor BRAFV600E, initially presented very satisfactory results, however there is a record of cases of relapse and resistance. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is expressed in several components of the skin and is thus related to homeostasis and skin pathophysiology. Therefore, the evaluation of receptor expression in a panel of strains mutated to NRAS and BRAF, and resistant BRAF, proved to be greater than that found in melanocytes. We also found main expression of AhR mRNA in melanoma strains derived from primary and metastatic site, mutated to BRAFV600E, when compared to melanocyte. Added to this, the in silico analysis in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) showed that there is 18% of genetic alteration in AhR, being mostly the high regulation of mRNA. Also, an analysis by the public bank GSE12391, showed an increase in AhR mRNA in the vertical growth phase of melanoma. Thus, it is concluded that there is greater expression of mRNA and its importance in the stages of development of melanoma, both in recent processes and in the processes of migration, invasion and metastasis. In addition, we found higher receptor mRNA in strains resistant to vemurafenib. This result supports the hypothesis that AhR can be considered a marker of resistance in melanomas. AhR, initially in the cytoplasm, when activated can act as a transcription factor regulating several genes that have defined sequences, participating in carcinogenic responses. Along with this, we show that along the tumor progression, there is an increase in AhR in the radial growth phase of melanoma. Halogenated compounds and endogenous molecules derived from the tryptophan metabolism pathways are receptor agonists. Previously, our group showed that melanoma strains incubated with tryptamine and DMT exhibited less clonogenicity. In view of a scarce literature on the role of DMT in melanoma and based on these results, our objective was to evaluate the role of AhR in this DMT-melanoma interface. For this, our goal was to build genetically edited strain for AhR using the CRISPR-Cas9 tool. Several efforts were unsuccessful in attempts to prove the maintenance of cells edited in the culture. We linked to this result the possibility of having two subpopulations genetically edited after CRISPR-Cas9, where one of them maintained the growth pattern like wild type cells. Due to this differential growth, we did not obtain congruence in the tests and postulated the loss of the possible knockout. From that, we performed interactome assays to evaluate the DMT-AhR interaction. Our result suggests the interaction of DMT with the sigma 1 receptor, and not the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Thus, the interactome supports the hypothesis that DMT is not an AhR ligand. To certify this result, docking analyses associated with biological assays, evaluating the role of the receptor, should be performed to ascertain the affinity and selectivity of DMT as a ligand of the receptor in the melanoma lineage


Subject(s)
Skin/injuries , Genome , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Melanocytes/classification , Melanoma , Neoplasms/pathology , Phosphotransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Association , Transcription Factors/agonists , Cytoplasm/classification , Human Migration
4.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 11-18, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787143

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective role of imatinib in global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury along with possible mechanisms. Global ischemia was induced in mice by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 20 min, which was followed by reperfusion for 24 h by restoring the blood flow to the brain. The extent of cerebral injury was assessed after 24 h of global ischemia by measuring the locomotor activity (actophotometer test), motor coordination (inclined beam walking test), neurological severity score, learning and memory (object recognition test) and cerebral infarction (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stain). Ischemia-reperfusion injury produced significant cerebral infarction, impaired the behavioral parameters and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in the brain. A single dose administration of imatinib (20 and 40 mg/kg) attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced behavioral deficits and the extent of cerebral infarction along with the restoration of connexin 43 and p-STAT3 levels. However, administration of AG490, a selective Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 inhibitor, abolished the neuroprotective actions of imatinib and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and p-STAT3. It is concluded that imatinib has the potential of attenuating global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury, which may be possibly attributed to activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway along with the increase in the expression of connexin 43.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Cerebral Infarction , Connexin 43 , Imatinib Mesylate , Ischemia , Learning , Memory , Motor Activity , Neuroprotection , Phosphotransferases , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers , Walking
5.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 121-126, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787132

ABSTRACT

The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins are a family of membrane-associated proteins known to play roles in cell-shape determination as well as in signaling pathways. We have previously shown that amphetamine decreases phosphorylation levels of these proteins in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), an important neuronal substrate mediating rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we further examined what molecular pathways may be involved in this process. By direct microinjection of LY294002, a PI3 kinase inhibitor, or of S9 peptide, a proposed GSK3β activator, into the NAcc core, we found that phosphorylation levels of ERM as well as of GSK3β in this site are simultaneously decreased. These results indicate that ERM proteins are under the regulation of Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway in the NAcc core. The present findings have a significant implication to a novel signal pathway possibly leading to structural plasticity in relation with drug addiction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Amphetamine , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Membrane Proteins , Microinjections , Negotiating , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Plastics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Reward , Signal Transduction , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders
6.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 274-291, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Plasma cells and immunoglobulins (Igs) play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of chronic inflammation in nasal polyps. During secondary immune responses, plasma cell survival and Ig production are regulated by the local environment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) and specific survival niches for LLPCs in human nasal polyps.METHODS: Nasal mucosal samples were cultured with an air-liquid interface system and the Ig levels in culture supernatants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The characteristics of LLPCs in nasal polyps were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The expression of neurotrophins as well as their receptors was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting.RESULTS: The numbers of CD138⁺ total plasma cells and BCL2⁺ plasma cells were increased in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps compared with those in normal tissues. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgE was detected in culture supernatants even after a 32-day culture of nasal polyps. Although the total numbers of plasma cells were decreased in nasal polyps after culture, the numbers of BCL2⁺ plasma cells remained stable. The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) as well as tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) A, a high-affinity receptor for NGF, was upregulated in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps. In addition, BCL2⁺ plasma cell numbers were positively correlated with NGF and TrkA mRNA expression in nasal mucosal tissues. Polyp plasma cells had the expression of TrkA.CONCLUSIONS: Human nasal polyps harbor a population of LLPCs and NGF may be involved in their prolonged survival. LLPCs may be a novel therapeutic target for suppressing the local Ig production in nasal polyps.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Nerve Growth Factor , Nerve Growth Factors , Phosphotransferases , Plasma Cells , Plasma , Polyps , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tropomyosin
7.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 338-358, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-δ-dependent Akt activation is known to play critical roles in various immune responses of white blood cells in which PI3K-δ isoform is mostly expressed in contrast to the classes IA PI3Ks p110α and p110β. However, the immunological role of PI3K-δ isoform is still controversial in airway epithelium under house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic response. This study aimed to evaluate the role of PI3K-δ isoform in HDM-induced allergic responses, focusing on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in airway epithelium.METHODS: We used wild-type mice and PI3K-δ knock-out (KO) mice for HDM-induced asthma animal model and also performed in vitro experiments using primary cultured murine tracheal epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells.RESULTS: PI3K-δ activated HDM-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and epithelial cell-derived cytokines in the lung including airway epithelial cells. PI3K-δ KO mice or knock-down of PI3K-δ using siRNA exhibited the significant reduction in allergic asthmatic features and the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly as well as epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Interestingly, significantly increased expression of PI3K-δ isoform was observed in stimulated airway epithelial cells and the increases in epithelial cell-derived cytokines were markedly suppressed by blocking PI3K-δ, while these cytokine levels were independent of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that PI3K-δ-isoform can promote HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation via NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent response as well as via NLRP3 inflammasome-independent epithelial cell activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Asthma , Cytokines , Dust , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Lung , Models, Animal , Phosphotransferases , Pyroglyphidae , RNA, Small Interfering
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17291, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132047

ABSTRACT

Obesity represents a major challenge to the pharmaceutical community due to the minimal availability of anti-obesity drugs and the drawbacks of current weight-loss agents. The study described herein presents lupine oil, in two pharmaceutical formulations, as a potential anti-obesity agent via its effect on different physiological, biochemical, and hormonal parameters. Rats were divided into two groups; one group was continued on a standard commercial rodent diet and served as the non-obese control. The other group was fed a high-fat diet for 7 weeks to prepare an obese rat model. Then, the obese rats were divided into groups to receive 100 mg/kg of the crude lupine oil or nanoemulsion for 10 or 20 days. Lupine oil showed a potent body weight-reducing effect and improved insulin resistance. The oil altered obesity-induced hyperlipidemia and it enhanced the leptin/adiponectin/AMPK hormonal system in epididymal fat, serum, and liver, to which all the above physiological activities could be attributed. The nanoemulsion formulation of lupine oil significantly amplified the activity for all the above physiological and hormonal parameters when compared to the crude oil formulation. Lupine oil nanoemulsion could be used as a potential drug against diet-induced obesity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Obesity Agents/adverse effects , Lupinus/adverse effects , Diet/classification , Obesity/classification , Phosphotransferases/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adenosine Monophosphate/agonists , Adiponectin/pharmacology
9.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 14-19, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782226
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 262-266, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811468

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization 2016 edition assigned anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement-associated renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC) as an emerging renal tumor entity. Identifying ALK-RCC is important because ALK inhibitors have been shown to be effective in treatment. Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old young man with ALK-RCC. Computed tomography revealed a well-demarcated 5.3-cm enhancing mass at the upper pole of the left kidney. There was no further history or symptoms of the sickle-cell trait. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy. Pathologically, the mass was diagnosed as an unclassified RCC. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a TPM3-ALK fusion gene. The present report and literature review demonstrate that TPM3-ALK RCC may be associated with distinct clinicopathological features. Microscopically, the tumors showed diffuse growth and tubulocystic changes with inflammatory cell infiltration. Tumor cells were dis-cohesive and epithelioid with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and cytoplasmic vacuoles. If morphological features and TFE3 expression are present in adolescent and young patients, molecular tests for ALK translocation should be performed. This awareness is critically important, because ALK rearrangement confers sensitivity to ALK inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cytoplasm , Eosinophils , Gene Rearrangement , Kidney , Lymphoma , Nephrectomy , Phosphotransferases , Vacuoles , World Health Organization
12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 177-187, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare disease primarily caused by growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, and its treatment is costly. Moreover, some patients are unresponsive to treatment. Hence, there are increasing efforts to develop new drugs with improved effectiveness for this disease. BIM23B065 is a novel chimeric molecule that acts on both somatostatin and dopamine receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BIM23B065 compared with those of a somatostatin receptor analog and a dopamine agonist.METHODS: The effects of BIM23B065 on the proliferation, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) phosphorylation of GH3 cells were investigated with MTS assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting, respectively. The dosage and treatment duration of BIM23B065 were tested in animal models of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The effect of BIM23B065 (3 mg/kg/day) on changes in IGF-1 levels before and after treatment was further investigated.RESULTS: In vitro, BIM23B065 treatment decreased GH release in the culture media and downregulated ERK 1/2 and CREB phosphorylation to 22% and 26%, respectively. In vivo, IGF-1 expression decreased to 50 % after 4 weeks of treatment with BIM23B065 using an osmotic pump implant. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging results showed that the tumor size decreased significantly following treatment with BIM23B065 for 4 weeks.CONCLUSION: The novel chimeric molecule was effective in decreasing IGF-1 and GH levels and may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for acromegaly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acromegaly , Blotting, Western , Culture Media , Cyclic AMP , Dopamine Agonists , Dopamine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Growth Hormone , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Models, Animal , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Rare Diseases , Receptors, Dopamine , Receptors, Somatostatin , Response Elements , Somatostatin
13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 205-211, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The serum aminotransferase level is usually elevated in rhabdomyolysis, and these enzymes originate from the skeletal muscle. On the other hand, there is limited data showing whether the degree of elevation of these enzymes differs according to the concurrent liver disease.METHODS: Patients with rhabdomyolysis were selected when their serum creatinine kinase level was >1,000 U/L. They were categorized as the group with and without concurrent liver disease. The AST and ALT levels in both groups were compared. In addition, the aminotransferase level was compared between those with rhabdomyolysis and those with alcoholic liver disease.RESULTS: Among the 165 patients with rhabdomyolysis, 19 had concurrent liver disease. The median peak AST was higher in the group with concurrent liver disease (332 U/L [interquartile range (IQR), 127–1,604] vs. 219 U/L [IQR, 115–504]). In addition, the median peak ALT was higher in the group with concurrent liver disease (107 U/L [IQR, 74–418] vs. 101 U/L [IQR, 56–218]). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in both enzymes between the two groups. The median peak AST level was significantly higher in those with rhabdomyolysis than in those with alcoholic liver disease (221 U/L [IQR, 118–553] vs. 103 U/L [IQR, 59–206]), but the median peak ALT was not significantly different (102 U/L [IQR, 58–222] vs. 51 U/L [IQR, 26–117]).CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyolysis showed an elevated AST-dominant aminotransferase level, which is not different according to concurrent liver disease. Therefore, it is recommended that rhabdomyolysis be considered first in cases of elevated aminotransferase levels in patients with a suspicious skeletal muscle injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Creatinine , Hand , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Muscle, Skeletal , Phosphotransferases , Rhabdomyolysis
14.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 275-284, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: GNE myopathy is a rare progressive myopathy caused by biallelic mutations in the GNE gene, and frequently accompanied by rimmed vacuoles in muscle pathology. The initial symptom of foot drop or hip-girdle weakness eventually spreads to all limbs over a period of decades. Recent advances in pathophysiologic research have facilitated therapeutic trials aimed at resolving the core biochemical defect. However, there remains unsettled heterogeneity in its natural course, which confounds the analysis of therapeutic outcomes. We performed the first large-scale study of Korean patients with GNE myopathy. METHODS: We gathered the genetic and clinical profiles of 44 Korean patients with genetically confirmed GNE myopathy. The clinical progression was estimated retrospectively based on a patient-reported questionnaire on the status of the functional joint sets and daily activities. RESULTS: The wrist and neck were the last joints to lose antigravity functionality irrespective of whether the weakness started from the ankle or hip. Two-thirds of the patients could walk either independently or with an aid. The order of losing daily activities could be sorted from standing to eating. Patients with limb-girdle phenotype showed an earlier age at onset than those with foot-drop onset. Patients with biallelic kinase domain mutations tended to progress more rapidly than those with epimerase and kinase domain mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The reported data can guide the clinical management of GNE myopathy, as well as provide perspective to help the development of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Age of Onset , Ankle , Disease Progression , Eating , Extremities , Foot , Hip , Joints , Muscular Diseases , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Neck , Pathology , Phenotype , Phosphotransferases , Population Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vacuoles , Wrist
15.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 183-191, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal upregulation of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is considered to be a key oncogenic event in the development and progression of inflammation-associated human colon cancer. It has been reported that 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), an enzyme catabolizing PGE₂, is ubiquitously downregulated in human colon cancer. 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J₂ (15d-PGJ₂), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligand, has been shown to have anticarcinogenic activities. In this study, we investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ₂ on expression of 15-PGDH in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. METHODS: HCT116 cells were treated with 15d-PGJ₂ analysis. The expression of 15-PGDH in the treated cells was measured by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In addition, the cells were subjected to a 15-PGDH activity assay. To determine which transcription factor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are involved in 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis of 15d-PGJ₂-treated cells. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To determine whether the AP-1 plays an important role in the 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, the cells were transfected with siRNA of c-Jun, a major subunit of AP-1. To elucidate the upstream signaling pathways involved in AP-1 activation by 15d-PGJ₂, we examined its effect on phosphorylation of Akt by Western blot analysis in the presence or absence of kinase inhibitor. RESULTS: 15d-PGJ₂ (10 μM) significantly upregulated 15-PGDH expression at the mRNA and protein levels in HCT-116 cells. 15-PGDH activity was also elevated by 15d-PGJ₂. We observed that genes encoding C/EBP delta, FOS-like antigen 1, c-Jun, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were most highly induced in the HCT116 cells following 15d-PGJ₂ treatment. 15d-PGJ₂ increased the DNA binding activity of AP-1. Moreover, transfection with specific siRNA against c-Jun significantly reduced 15-PGDH expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. 15d-PGJ₂ activates Akt and a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt, LY294002, abrogated 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression. We also observed that an inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX, also abrogated upregulation of 15-PGDH and down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that 15d-PGJ₂ upregulates the expression of 15-PGDH through AP-1 activation in colon cancer HCT116 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , DNA , Down-Regulation , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , HCT116 Cells , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oxidoreductases , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transfection , Up-Regulation , Zinc
16.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 112-122, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) is a widely-distributed flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent flavoprotein that promotes obligatory 2-electron reductions of quinones, quinoneimines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes. This reduces quinone levels and thereby minimizes generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed by redox cycling, and concurrent depletion of intracellular thiol pools. Ajoene is derived from crushed garlic. It is formed by a reaction involving two allicin molecules, and is composed of allyl sulfide and vinyl disulfide. Ajoene is present in two isomers, E- and Z-form. METHODS: Expression of antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was measured by Western blot analysis. NQO1 promoter activity was assessed by the luciferase reporter gene assay. ROS accumulation was monitored by using the fluorescence-generating probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The intracellular glutathione levels were measured by using a commercially available kit. RESULTS: Z-ajoene significantly up-regulated the expression of representative antioxidant enzyme NQO1 in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial MCF-10A cells at non-toxic concentrations. Z-ajoene enhanced up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which plays a pivotal role in the induction of many genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and other cytoprotective proteins. Z-ajoene treatment also increased the activity of nqo1-promoter harboring antioxidant response element consensus sequences in MCF-10A cells. Silencing of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA abrogated ajoene-induced expression of NQO1. Z-ajoene activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK activation by U0126 abrogated ability of Z-ajoene to activate Nrf2 and to induce NQO1 expression. Intracellular ROS accumulation was observed after treatment with Z-ajoene, whereas the E-isoform was not effective. The inhibition of ROS by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a radical scavenger, abrogated Z-ajoene-induced expression of NQO1 as well as activation of ERK and Nrf2, suggesting that Z-ajoene augments the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense via ROS generation and ERK activation. CONCLUSIONS: Z-ajoene induces NQO1 expression in MCF-10A cells through ROS-mediated activation of Nrf2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylcysteine , Adenine , Antioxidant Response Elements , Azo Compounds , Blotting, Western , Breast , Consensus Sequence , Epithelial Cells , Flavoproteins , Garlic , Genes, Reporter , Glutathione , Luciferases , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidation-Reduction , Phosphotransferases , Quinones , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Small Interfering , Up-Regulation
17.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 129-138, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baicalein is a bioactive flavone that is originally extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. This plant has long served as Chinese herbal medicine in the management of multiple diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases. Although it has been revealed that baicalein inhibits experimental colitis in mice, the molecular mechanisms still remain largely unrecognized. METHODS: The experimental colitis was induced in mice by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. The mice were given baicalein (10 or 25 mg/kg) by gavage for 7 days before and after DSS administration. Expression of COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and molecules involved in NF-κB signaling, such as inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), pIκBα, p65, and phospho-p65 was examined by Western blot analysis in the tissue of the mouse colon. Activity of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) was assessed by measuring the relative amount of radioactive γ-phosphate of ATP transferred to the IκBα substrate protein. The expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 and its target gene cyclin D1 were also measured. RESULTS: Baicalein prominently mitigated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. It inhibited the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Moreover, baicalein attenuated activity and phosphorylation of IKKβ and subsequent degradation of IκBα. Baicalein suppressed the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65, resulting in a reduced DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Baicalein also suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of cyclin D1. Baicalein exhibited the synergistic effect on inhibition of COX-2 induced by DSS with curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric. CONCLUSIONS: Protective effects of baicalein on DSS-induced colitis are associated with suppression of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways, which may contribute to its cancer preventive effects on colon carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphate , Asian People , Blotting, Western , Carcinogenesis , Colitis , Colon , Curcuma , Curcumin , Cyclin D1 , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dextran Sulfate , Dextrans , DNA , Drinking Water , Herbal Medicine , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Plants , Scutellaria baicalensis
18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 362-374, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764284

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The chemical structure of tubulosine has been known since the mid-1960s. However, little is known about its biological and pharmacological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the novel functions of tubulosine in cancer treatment, specifically in breast cancer. METHODS: An Unpaired (Upd)-induced Drosophila cell line and interleukin (IL)-6-stimulated human breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the biological and pharmacological activities of tubulosine in vitro. To investigate the activities of tubulosine, we performed molecular and cellular experiments such as Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses, immunoprecipitation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays, and immunofluorescence staining using breast cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Tubulosine exhibited anticancer activity in IL-6-stimulated human breast cancer cells. Moreover, tubulosine reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation level and transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein at 92E in Upd-induced Drosophila cells. Additionally, tubulosine suppressed IL-6-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling, resulting in decreased viability and induction of apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells. Interestingly, inhibition of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling by tubulosine was associated with the blocking of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) binding. CONCLUSION: Tubulosine exhibits anticancer activity through functional inhibition of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling by targeting IL-6Rα/gp130 binding in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that tubulosine may hold promise for the treatment of inflammation-associated cancers, including breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Death , Cell Line , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Drosophila , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glycoproteins , Immunoprecipitation , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Janus Kinase 2 , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Interleukin-6 , Reverse Transcription , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers , Tyrosine
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 172-184, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764271

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tumor protein p53-regulated apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (TP53AIP1) functions in various cancers. We studied the effect and molecular mechanism of TP53AIP1 in breast cancer. METHODS: The degree of correlation between TP53AIP1 expression and overall survival in patients with breast cancer was obtained from the online The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Six of the TP53AIP1 levels in the tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues randomly selected from 38 breast cancer patients were determined. Transgenic technology was used to enhance the expression of TP53AIP1 in breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-415 and MDA-MB-468, and to observe the effects of gene overexpression on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of breast cancer cells. The molecular mechanism of association between cell cycle- and apoptosis-related factors and the phosphoinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway was also studied. RESULTS: The messenger RNA and protein expression levels of TP53AIP1 in cancer tissues were significantly lower than those in the control group. TP53AIP1 overexpression inhibits cell viability. The mechanism of TP53AIP1 inhibition of proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells includes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis promotion (p < 0.01), promotion of the expression of cleaved-caspase-3 (p < 0.01), cleaved-caspase-9 (p < 0.01), B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein, and p53 (p < 0.01), and the inhibition of Bcl-2, Ki67, and PI3K/Akt pathways (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: TP53AIP1 may be a novel tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer and can potentially be used as an effective target gene for the treatment of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Genes, p53 , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Genome , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger
20.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 69-80, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764233

ABSTRACT

The dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in the process of cell division, the transportation of organelles, vesicle trafficking and cell movement. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hijacks the actin dynamics network during the viral entry and migration of the pre-integration complex (PIC) into the nucleus. Actin dynamics linked to HIV-1 has emerged as a potent therapeutic target against HIV infection. Although some inhibitors have been intensely analyzed with regard to HIV-1 infection, their effects are sometimes disputed and the exact mechanisms for actin dynamics in HIV infection have not been well elucidated. In this study, the small molecules regulating HIV-1 infection from diverse inhibitors of the actin dynamic network were screened. Two compounds, including Chaetoglobosin A and CK-548, were observed to specifically bar the viral infection, while the cytochalasin family, 187-1, N-WASP inhibitor, Rho GTPase family inhibitors (EHop-016, CID44216842, and ML-141) and LIMK inhibitor (LIM domain kinase inhibitor) increased the viral infection without cytotoxicity within a range of ~ µM. However, previously known inhibitory compounds of HIV-1 infection, such as Latrunculin A, Jasplakinolide, Wiskostatin and Swinholide A, exhibited either an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 infection combined with severe cytotoxicity or showed no effects. Our data indicate that Chaetoglobosin A and CK-548 have considerable potential for development as new therapeutic drugs for the treatment of HIV infection. In addition, the newly identified roles of Cytochalasins and some inhibitors of Rho GTPase and LIMK may provide fundamental knowledge for understanding the complicated actin dynamic pathway when infected by HIV-1. Remarkably, the newly defined action modes of the inhibitors may be helpful in developing potent anti-HIV drugs that target the actin network, which are required for HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actin Cytoskeleton , Actins , Anti-HIV Agents , Cell Division , Cell Movement , Cytochalasins , GTP Phosphohydrolases , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Organelles , Phosphotransferases , Transportation
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