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1.
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 27abr.2024. Tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560926

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare exercise addiction (EA) between runners, cyclists, swimmers, and triathletes. Took part in this study 39 runners, 32 cyclists, 30 swimmers and 38 triathletes. Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS), and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) was used to evaluate the EA and classified the participants into: at-risk for EA, nondependent-symptomatic, and nondependent-asymptomatic. Most participants were classified as nondependent symptomatic for EA. The EDS total score was significantly lower in the swimmers compared to the cyclists and triathletes and the EAI total score was significantly higher for cyclists compared to runners. Therefore, in both instruments, the majority of participants was nondependent symptomatic for EA (AU).


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar e comparar a dependência ao exercício (DE) entre corredores, ciclistas, nadadores e triatletas. Participaram do estudo 39 corredores, 32 ciclistas, 30 nadadores e 38 triatletas. As escalas Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) e Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) foram usadas para a avaliação da DE e classificaram os participantes em três categorias: em risco de DE, não dependente sintomático e não dependente assintomático. A maioria dos participantes foram classificadas como não dependentes sintomáticos para DE. O escore da EDS foi significativamente menor nos nadadores comparado aos ciclistas e triatletas e o escore total da EAI foi significantemente maior nos ciclistas comparado aos corredores. Portanto, em ambos os instrumentos, a maioria dos participantes foi não dependente sintomático para DE (AU).


El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar y comparar la adicción al ejercicio (AE) entre corredores, ciclistas, nadadores y triatletas. Participaron de este estudio 39 corredores, 32 ciclistas, 30 nadadores y 38 triatletas. La Escala de Dependencia al Ejercicio (EDS) y el Inventario de Adicción al Ejercicio (EAI) fueron utilizados para evaluar la AE y clasificaron a los participantes en tres categorías: en riesgo de AE, no dependiente-sintomático y no dependiente-asintomático. La mayoría de los participantes se clasificaron como no dependiente-sintomático para AE. La puntuación EDS fue significativamente menor en nadadores en comparación con ciclistas y triatletas y la puntuación EAI total fue significativamente mayor en ciclistas en comparación con corredores. Por lo tanto, en ambos instrumentos, la mayoría de los participantes eran sintomáticos no dependientes para AE


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Endurance , Sports , Athletes , Endurance Training
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1852-1862, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528792

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The primary aim was to gather available data published after the 2000s, on cardiovascular fitness in normal weight and obese children and adolescents. Based on the data, the secondary aims were to identify the most used outcomes and to determine the differences in cardiovascular fitness in the mentioned populations. Following PRISMA recommendations, multiple databases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, and Research Gate, with additional inclusion criteria: original study published in English, normal weight and obese children and adolescents as participant sample, studies that have assessed cardiovascular fitness parameters, and studies with participant's nutrition state. A total of 19 studies, with a total of 4,988 included participants (both obese and normal weight) were identified, with the most common participants have presented better results in terms of BMI, BF%, VO2max, VO2peak and METs, while the HR values are inconsistently presented. Despite deficiencies the study deficiency in the last two decades, there are differences in the mentioned populations. Further studies should focus on including the technology that reaches teens and families for overweight and obesity prevention and advancements in standard measurements for juvenile overweight and obesity, as well as for the creation, adaption, and validation of measuring instruments. As good framework for future directions, there is a need for more concise and unified measurements of cardiovascular fitness parameters in normally weight and obese children and adolescents.


El objetivo principal fue recopilar datos disponibles publicados después de la década del 2000 sobre la condición cardiovascular en niños y adolescentes con peso normal y obesos. En base a estos datos, los objetivos secundarios fueron identificar los resultados más utilizados y determinar las diferencias en la condición cardiovascular en las poblaciones mencionadas. Siguiendo las recomendaciones de PRISMA, se realizaron búsquedas en múltiples bases de datos: Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, ProQuest y Research Gate, con criterios de inclusión adicionales: estudio original publicado en inglés, niños y adolescentes con peso normal y obesidad como muestra participante, estudios que hayan evaluado enfermedades cardiovasculares, parámetros de condición física y estudios con el estado nutricional de los participantes. Se identificaron un total de 19 estudios, con un total de 4.988 participantes incluidos (tanto obesos como con peso normal), siendo las variables más comunes: IMC, %BF, VO2máx, VO2pico, FC, PAD, PAS y MET. Generalmente, los participantes con peso normal han presentado mejores resultados en términos de IMC, %BF, VO2máx, VO2peak y MET, mientras que los valores de FC se presentan de manera inconsistente. Independientemente de la deficiencia de estudios en las últimas dos décadas, existen diferencias en las poblaciones mencionadas. Estudios futuros deberían centrarse en incluir tecnología que llegue a adolescentes y familias para la prevención del sobrepeso y la obesidad y avances en las mediciones estándar del sobrepeso y la obesidad juvenil, así como para la creación, adaptación y validación de instrumentos de medición. Como buen marco para direcciones futuras, se necesitan mediciones más concisas y unificadas de los parámetros de la condición cardiovascular en niños y adolescentes con peso normal y obesos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Body Weight , Exercise , Heart Rate , Physical Endurance , Overweight
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1564-1569, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521036

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this study was to reveal the differences between ACTN3 genotype (RR, RX, XX) and aerobic performance [Yo-Yo IRT1 (m), VO2 max (ml/kg/min)] in professional and regional amateur league soccer players and to reveal which of these parameters was a distinctive factor in these athletes.71 professional soccer players (age: 23.66 ± 4.11 years; body height: 1.79 ± 6.99 m; body weight: 76.02 ± 6.76 kg; body fat: 11.59±3.11 %) and 62 regional amateur soccer players (age: 23.63 ±3.77 years; body height: 1.81 ± 5.77 m; body weight: 76.36 ± 7.53 kg; body fat: 15.60±4.65 %) volunteered for the study. After DNA extraction from buccal epithelial cells via a commercial kit was performed for the genetic background of the athletes, Real-Time PCR was carried out for genotyping. Furthermore, Yo-Yo IRT1 test was performed to determine the aerobic performance of the soccer players. SPSS 23 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) package program was used for the statistical analysis of the data obtained in the tests. Shapiro-Wilk test for normality and Levene's test for homogeneity of variance were performed. Chi-Square, Independent Sample T Test and One Way ANOVA test were used in the analysis of the parameters. Statistical significance was set as p0.05); however, there was a statistical significance in favor of professional soccer players in terms of aerobic parameters (p<0.05). Consequently, it can be said that aerobic performance is the distinguishing factor, not the ACTN3 gene, in soccer players.


El objetivo de este estudio fue revelar las diferencias entre el genotipo ACTN3 (RR, RX, XX) y el rendimiento aeróbico [Yo-Yo IRT1 (m), VO2 max (ml/kg/min)] en jugadores de fútbol de ligas profesionales y amateurs regionales y determinar cuál de estos parámetros es un factor distintivo en estos deportistas. 71 futbolistas profesionales (edad: 23,66 ±4,11 años; altura corporal: 1,79 ± 6,99 m; peso corporal: 76,02 ± 6,76 kg; grasa corporal: 11,59±3,11 %) y 62 jugadores de fútbol amateur regionales (edad: 23,63 ± 3,77 años; altura corporal: 1,81 ± 5,77 m; peso corporal: 76,36 ± 7,53 kg; grasa corporal: 15,60 ± 4,65 %) se ofrecieron como voluntarios para el estudio. Después de realizar la extracción de ADN de las células epiteliales orales mediante un kit comercial para obtener los antecedentes genéticos de los atletas, se llevó a cabo una PCR en tiempo real para el genotipado. Además, se realizó la prueba Yo-Yo IRT1 para determinar el rendimiento aeróbico de los futbolistas. Para el análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos en las pruebas se utilizó el programa SPSS 23 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, EE. UU.). Se realizó la prueba de normalidad de Shapiro- Wilk y la prueba de homogeneidad de la varianza de Levene. En el análisis de los parámetros se utilizaron Chi-cuadrado, prueba T para muestra independiente y prueba ANOVA unidireccional. La significancia estadística se estableció en p0,05); sin embargo, hubo significación estadística a favor de los futbolistas profesionales en cuanto a los parámetros aeróbicos (p<0,05). En consecuencia, se puede decir que el rendimiento aeróbico es el factor distintivo, no el gen ACTN3, en los jugadores de fútbol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Physical Endurance/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Soccer , Actinin/genetics , Oxygen Consumption
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 577-582, abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440336

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer relaciones entre las variables de rendimiento físico e índices antropométricos según la edad de bomberos adultos chilenos, en servicio activo, provenientes de la región de Valparaíso. Participaron 68 bomberos, hombres, sanos, en servicio activo, que fueron divididos en dos grupos según edad; 30 años (n = 32; 40,6 ± 8,5 años). Se evaluaron las variables antropométricas de masa corporal (MC), estatura, perímetro de cintura (PC), índice de masa corporal (IMC] = Peso /estatura2 [m]) e índice cintura-estatura (ICE). La capacidad de salto vertical fue evaluada con los protocolos de Squat Jump, Countermovement Jump y Abalakov Jump. La resistencia en carrera fue estimada con la prueba de Course Navette y se calculó indirectamente el consumo de oxígeno (VO2). Las variables antropométricas para el grupo > 30 años fueron mayores en comparación al grupo de menor edad en MC (p = 0.027), IMC (p = 0.015), PC (p 0.05) entre ambos grupos. Existió una correlación significativa positiva entre la edad y las variables de MC (r = 0,252), IMC (r = 0,307), ICE (r = 0,431) y PC (r= 0,401). Al comparar ambos grupos de edad hubo diferencias antropométricas, pero no en la condición física. Se sugiere reforzar programas de entrenamiento para optimizar la composición corporal y capacidad física de bomberos en servicio activo para responder a las exigentes tareas que demanda este ámbito laboral.


SUMMARY: The aim of this study was 1) to compare anthropometric characteristics, jumping ability, and running endurance according to age and 2) to determine the relationship between age and physical performance parameters in Chilean adult firefighters in active service from the Valparaíso region. Sixty-eight healthy male firefighters, in active service, were divided into two groups according to age; 30 years (n = 32; 40.6 ± 8.5 years) participated. The anthropometric variables of body mass (BM), height, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI = weight/height2 [m]) and waist-to-height ratio (WHR) were evaluated. Vertical jumping ability was assessed with the Squat Jump, Countermovement Jump and Abalakov Jump protocols. Running endurance was estimated with the Course Navette test and oxygen consumption (VO2) was calculated indirectly. Anthropometric variables for the > 30 years group were higher compared to the younger age group in BM (p = 0.027), BMI (p = 0.015), WC (p 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between age and the variables of BM (r = 0.252), BMI (r = 0.307), WHR (r = 0.431) y WC (r= 0.401). When comparing both age groups, there were anthropometric differences, but not in physical condition. It is suggested to reinforce training programs to optimize the body composition and physical capacity of firefighters in active service in order to respond to the demanding tasks demanded by this work environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anthropometry , Firefighters , Physical Functional Performance , Oxygen Consumption , Physical Endurance , Running , Body Mass Index , Age Factors , Athletic Performance , Waist Circumference , Waist-Height Ratio
5.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 13(1)fev., 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510880

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A atividade de preensão é uma ação diária essencial em casa e no local de trabalho, onde muitas vezes é necessário levantar e segurar cargas com uma preensão relativamente estática usando contração isométrica. A força e resistência muscular no aspecto proximal das extremidades superiores influenciam na função da mão, e indivíduos com força e resistência reduzidas são mais propensos a desenvolver distúrbios musculoesqueléticos relacionados ao trabalho. Uma boa resistência de preensão pode ser influenciada pela estabilização fornecida pelos músculos do ombro. Este estudo tem como objetivo determinar a extensão da correlação entre resistência de preensão manual e resistência muscular da escápula em jovens assintomáticos. MÉTODO: O tamanho da amostra para este estudo foi n = 62, com base em estudos anteriores. Indivíduos saudáveis, com idade entre 18 e 25 anos, de ambos os sexos, foram incluídos. Uma avaliação objetiva da resistência da preensão foi realizada usando um dinamômetro manual hidráulico, e a resistência escapular foi avaliada usando o teste muscular escapular. RESULTADOS: A análise de dados foi realizada usando o SPSS versão 20. Houve correlações positivas significativas entre as medidas de resistência escapular e a resistência de preensão palmar para ambos os lados (teste de correlação de Pearson, r = 0,612 (p < 0,001) e r = 0,524 (p < 0,001), respectivamente, para resistência de preensão da mão não dominante e dominante). CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Os achados preliminares deste estudo sustentam que a resistência do músculo escapular exibe uma relação com a resistência da preensão palmar, sugerindo que o treinamento de resistência escapular pode ser um complemento eficaz no processo de reabilitação das funções da extremidade superior.


INTRODUCTION: Gripping activity is an essential daily activity at home and at the workplace, where lifting and holding loads with a relatively static grip using isometric contraction is often required. Muscle strength and endurance in the proximal aspect of the upper extremities influence hand function, and individuals with reduced strength and endurance are more prone to developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Good grip endurance might be influenced by the stabilization provided by shoulder muscles. This study aims to determine the correlation between hand grip endurance and scapula muscle endurance among young asymptomatic individuals. METHOD: The sample size for this study is n = 62, based on previous studies. Healthy individuals of both genders, aged between 18 and 25 years, were included. An objective assessment of grip endurance was performed using a hydraulic hand dynamometer, while scapular endurance was evaluated using the scapular muscle test. RESULTS: Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. There were significant positive correlations between scapular endurance measures and the hand grip endurance on both sides (Pearson correlation test, r = 0.612 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.524 (p < 0.001), respectively, for non-dominant and dominant hand grip endurance). FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The preliminary findings of this study support the notion that scapular muscle endurance is related to hand grip endurance, suggesting that scapular endurance training may be an effective adjunct in the rehabilitation process for upper extremity functions.


Subject(s)
Physical Endurance , Hand Strength , Muscle Strength Dynamometer
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252743, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448951

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desta pesquisa é identificar e compreender fenomenologicamente, por meio de relato de Psicólogos de Esporte (PE) e de Coaches, em sua vivência prática, como ocorrem os processos reflexivos em sua atuação, conforme apreendidos a partir de relatos de experiências. O método de investigação escolhido foi a fenomenologia, pois oferece os recursos necessários para tal mergulho junto à experiência reflexiva. A amostra intencional foi delineada por PE e Coaches (profissionais de Educação Física que recorrem ao Coaching) em atividade em esportes de alto rendimento, que tenham atuado ou estejam atuando em modalidades esportivas coletivas e/ou individuais. Realizaram-se nove entrevistas (cinco com PE, quatro com Coaches). O acesso ao objeto desse estudo se deu por meio de entrevistas em profundidade e semiestruturadas, orientadas pela escuta suspensiva. As questões disparadoras foram formuladas com base no Procedimento Estruturado de Reflexão adaptado. Para análise das entrevistas, realizou-se uma síntese de cada relato, seguindo-se de cruzamento intencional. Como resultados, percebeu-se que PE e Coaches trazem algumas similaridades no que se refere aos modos de refletir sobre sua prática. No entanto, as experiências que eles fazem desses processos reflexivos é que podem tomar rumos distintos. Os(as) PE amparam-se na regulamentação da profissão e resguardam-se em seus apontamentos, trazendo suas experiências e reflexões sobre os processos vividos. Os(as) Coaches trazem em suas explanações um trabalho coerente, organizado e compatível com o método do Coaching. Problematizar os processos reflexivos desses profissionais permite diferenciar qualitativa e eticamente suas atuações, possibilitando o fomento multiprofissional no esporte.(AU)


The aim of this study consists in phenomenologically identifying and understanding, by the report of Sport Psychologists (SP) and coaches, in their practical experience, how would be the reflexive processes that take place in their performance, as learned from reports of their experiences. The research method chosen was phenomenology, since it offers the necessary resources for such a dive along with the reflective experience. The intentional sample was outlined by SP and coaches (Physical Education professionals who use coaching) active in high performance sports, who have or are working in collective and/or individual sports. Nine interviews were conducted (five with SP, four with coaches). Access to the object of this study took place by in-depth and semi-structured interviews, guided by suspensive listening. The triggering questions were formulated based on the adapted Structured Reflection Procedure. For the analysis of the interviews, a synthesis of each report was carried out, followed by the intentional crossing. As results, it was noticed that SP and coaches bring some similarities regarding the ways of reflecting on their practice. However, their experiences of these reflective processes are that they can take different directions. The SP are based on the regulation of the profession and guard themselves in their notes, bringing their experiences and reflections on the processes experienced. Coaches bring in their explanations a coherent, organized, and compatible work with the coaching method. Problematizing the reflective processes of these professionals allows to differentiate their actuation qualitatively and ethically, making the multiprofessional phenomenon in sport possible.(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio consiste en identificar y comprender fenomenológicamente, a partir de la experiencia práctica de psicólogos del deporte (PD) y coaches, cómo serían los procesos reflexivos que se llevan a cabo en su rendimiento, tal y como se desprende de los informes de experiencias. El método de investigación elegido fue la fenomenología, ya que ofrece los recursos necesarios junto con la experiencia. La muestra intencional fue delineada por PD y coaches (profesionales de la educación física que utilizan el coaching) activos en deportes de alto rendimiento, que tienen o están trabajando en deportes colectivos e/o individuales. Se realizaron nueve entrevistas (cinco con PD, cuatro con coaches). El acceso al objeto de este estudio fue entrevistas en profundidad y semiestructuradas, guiadas por escuchas suspensivas. Las preguntas se formularon desde el procedimiento de reflexión estructurado adaptado. Para el análisis de las entrevistas, se hizo una síntesis de cada informe, seguida del cruce intencional. Como resultados, se notó que los PD y coaches tienen algunas similitudes con respecto a las formas de reflexionar sobre su práctica. Sin embargo, las experiencias que hacen de estos procesos pueden tomar diferentes direcciones. Los(las) PD se basan en la regulación de la profesión y se protegen en sus notas, aportando sus experiencias y reflexiones sobre los procesos vividos. Los(las) coaches plantean en sus explicaciones un trabajo coherente, organizado y compatible con el método de Coaching. Problematizar los procesos reflexivos de estos profesionales permite diferenciar sus acciones de manera cualitativa y ética, además de posibilitar la promoción multiprofesional en el deporte.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Psychology, Sports , Mentoring , Anxiety , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Personal Satisfaction , Aptitude , Physical Education and Training , Physical Endurance , Natural Science Disciplines , Play and Playthings , Professional Competence , Psychology , Psychomotor Performance , Quality of Health Care , Quality of Life , Recreation , Rehabilitation , Running , Attention , Science , Sleep , Soccer , Social Control, Formal , Social Identification , Social Justice , Sports Medicine , Stress, Psychological , Swimming , Teaching , Therapeutics , Track and Field , Vocational Guidance , Wounds and Injuries , Yoga , Behavioral Sciences , Breathing Exercises , Health , Mental Health , Physical Fitness , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Occupational Health , Walking , Professional Autonomy , Guidelines as Topic , Interview , Congresses as Topic , Meditation , Life , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Wit and Humor , Fitness Centers , Practice Management , Complex Regional Pain Syndromes , Credentialing , Crisis Intervention , Mind-Body Therapies , Exercise Movement Techniques , Biomedical Enhancement , Depression , Diet , Dietetics , Education, Nonprofessional , Employee Performance Appraisal , Employment , Ethics, Professional , Sanitary Supervision , Professional Training , Athletic Performance , Resistance Training , Resilience, Psychological , Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena , Feeding Behavior , Athletes , Capacity Building , Sports Nutritional Sciences , Return to Sport , Work Performance , Professionalism , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Academic Success , Water Sports , Work Engagement , Cognitive Psychology , Science and Development , Cognitive Training , Psychological Well-Being , Working Conditions , Gymnastics , Health Occupations , Health Promotion , Anatomy , Job Description , Jurisprudence , Leadership , Learning , Life Style , Memory , Methods , Motivation , Motor Activity , Motor Skills , Movement , Muscle Relaxation , Muscles , Obesity
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0295, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407659

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Core strength training focuses mainly on the muscle group and neuromuscular system of the central area of the human body to gain strength and stability for complex movements. Studies have reported the effect of core training on high-capacity athletes, but there is still a gap regarding the impacts on physical capacity in running athletes. Objective: To study the effects of strength training on athletes' core and the direct impacts on running quality. Methods: Athletes of the men's running team at the athletic training center of the Institute of Physical Education were core strength trained for 10 to 12 weeks. After the period, physical tests, according to predetermined protocols. The data were compared before, after the intervention, and after statistical treatment, and the findings were discussed according to the scientific literature. Results: After 12 weeks of training, among the five sports skills, there was only a significant difference before and after training of body lateral flexion (right side) (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference before and after training of the other four sport skills (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Through the static and dynamic exercises of core strength training, we can effectively improve the proprioception intervention in body movement so that runners can more accurately control their joints and muscles, ensuring movement and postural accuracy. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: O treinamento de força do core concentra-se principalmente no grupo muscular e no sistema neuromuscular da área central do corpo humano, com o propósito de ganho de força e estabilidade para movimentos complexos. Estudos relatam o efeito do treinamento do core em atletas de alta capacidade, porém ainda há uma lacuna quanto aos impactos sobre a capacidade física em atletas de corrida. Objetivo: Estudar os efeitos resultantes do treinamento de força no core dos atletas e os impactos diretos na qualidade da corrida. Métodos: Os atletas da equipe masculina de corrida, no centro de treinamento de atletismo do Instituto de Educação Física, foram treinados com força fundamental por 10 a 12 semanas. Após o período, testes físicos, segundo protocolos pré-determinados, foram executados. Os dados foram comparados antes e após a intervenção, após o tratamento estatístico, os achados foram discutidos segundo a literatura cientifica. Resultados: Após 12 semanas de treinamento, entre as cinco habilidades esportivas, houve apenas diferença significativa antes e depois do treinamento de flexão lateral corporal (lado direito) (P<0,05), e não houve diferença significativa antes e depois do treinamento das outras quatro habilidades esportivas (P > 0,05). Conclusão: Através dos exercícios estáticos e dinâmicos do treinamento de força do core, podemos melhorar efetivamente a intervenção da propriocepção no movimento corporal, para que os corredores possam controlar com mais precisão as articulações e músculos, garantindo a precisão do movimento e postural. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El entrenamiento de la fuerza del core se concentra principalmente en el grupo muscular y en el sistema neuromuscular de la zona central del cuerpo humano, con el fin de ganar fuerza y estabilidad para los movimientos complejos. Los estudios han informado sobre el efecto del entrenamiento del tronco en los atletas de alta capacidad, pero todavía hay un vacío en cuanto a los impactos en la capacidad física en los atletas que corren. Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos resultantes del entrenamiento de fuerza en el core de los atletas y los impactos directos en la calidad de la carrera. Métodos: Los atletas del equipo masculino de atletismo, en el centro de entrenamiento de atletismo del Instituto de Educación Física, fueron entrenados con fuerza central durante 10 a 12 semanas. Tras el periodo, se ejecutaron pruebas físicas, según protocolos predeterminados. Los datos se compararon antes y después de la intervención, tras el tratamiento estadístico, los resultados se discutieron de acuerdo con la literatura científica. Resultados: Después de 12 semanas de entrenamiento, entre las cinco habilidades deportivas, sólo hubo diferencia significativa antes y después del entrenamiento de la flexión lateral del cuerpo (lado derecho) (P<0,05), y no hubo diferencia significativa antes y después del entrenamiento de las otras cuatro habilidades deportivas (P > 0,05). Conclusiones: A través de ejercicios estáticos y dinámicos de entrenamiento de la fuerza del core, podemos mejorar eficazmente la intervención de la propiocepción en el movimiento del cuerpo, de modo que los corredores puedan controlar con mayor precisión las articulaciones y los músculos, asegurando la precisión del movimiento y la postura. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Endurance Training/methods
8.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 92-96, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411354

ABSTRACT

Background. The quality of life of the elderly can be compromised by several chronic diseases. This has a considerable impact on their physical and mental capacities.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of the elderly at the Yaoundé Central Hospital. Methods.We carried out a cross-sectional study of elderly patients who consulted at the Yaounde Central Hospital forfive months. Sociodemographic characteristics were taken, and we also took data concerning their chronic conditions and depressive symptoms. The presence of any cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-mental state Examination (MMSE). Their functional capacity was assessed with the six-minute walk test. Quality of life was evaluated using the older people's quality of life questionnaire (OPQOL). The multivariate analysis was done on the logistic regression model, and the p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results.66 participants were included (35 women) with a median age of 70 (IQR: 67 -75) years. About 87.8% had at least one chronic condition, and 47% had two or more. The most prevalent chronic condition was hypertension (71.2%), followed by abdominal obesity (40.9%) and heart failure (24.2%). Mild depressive symptoms were present in 1.5% of our study population. Fourteen participants (21.2%) had a poor quality of life. The factors associated with a poor quality of life was a distance covered in the 6 MWT less than 350m (OR: 3.7, p < 0.05). Conclusion.There is a high prevalence of poor quality of life among elderly patients consulting at the Yaoundé Central Hospital. A distance covered in the 6MWT less than 350m is associated with poor quality of life.


Introduction. La qualité de vie des personnes âgées peut être compromise par la survenue de plusieurs pathologies chroniques. Cela a un impact considérable sur leurs capacités physiques mais aussi sur leurs capacités mentales. Le but de cette étude était d'évaluer la qualité de vie des personnes âgées suivies à l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé. Méthodologie. Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale analytique sur des patients âgés ayant consulté à l'hôpital central de Yaoundé pendant une période de cinq mois. Les caractéristiques sociodémographiques ont été prises, ainsi que leurs différentes comorbidités. La présence d'un déficit cognitif a été évaluée à l'aide du Mini Mental State Examination(MMSE). Leur capacité fonctionnelle a été évaluée à l'aide du test de marche de six minutes. La qualité de vie a été évaluée à l'aide du score OPQOL.. L'analyse multivariée a été effectuée sur le modèle de régression logistique et les valeurs de p < 0,05 ont été considérées comme statistiquement significatives. Résultats. 66 participants ont été inclus (35 femmes) avec un âge médian de 70 (IQR : 67 -75) ans. Parmi eux, environ 87,8 % avaient au moins une maladie chronique et 47 % en avaient deux ou plus. L'affection chronique la plus répandue était l'hypertension artérielle (71,2 %), suivie de l'insuffisance cardiaque (24,2 %) et de l'arthrose (12,1 %). Des symptômes dépressifs légers étaient présents chez 1,5 % de la population de notre étude. 14 participants (21,2 %) avaient une mauvaise qualité de vie. Les facteurs associés à unemauvaise qualité de vie étaient une distance parcourue dans le 6MWT inférieure à 350m (OR : 3,7, p < 0,05). Conclusion. Il existe une forte prévalence de la mauvaise qualité de vie chez ce groupe de patients âgés camerounais dont le facteur associé retrouvéest une distance parcourue durant le 6MWT inférieure à 350m.Ceci confirme le bénéfice de l'activité physique sur le plan physique et mental, indispensable pour une meilleure qualité de vie.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Physical Endurance , Quality of Life , Urban Population , Aged , Exercise , Mental Health , Walk Test
9.
Ter. psicol ; 40(3): 307-330, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424674

ABSTRACT

La sarcopenia está caracterizada por la baja masa y fuerza muscular en los adultos mayores. La implementación de técnicas de modificación de la conducta como la técnica de economía de fichas (TEF) puede fungir como estrategia para mejorar la adherencia al tratamiento. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la TEF sobre las conductas de tratamiento: realizar la rutina de ejercicio de resistencia, consumir el suplemento de proteína y consumir el suplemento de vitamina D. Se realizó un estudio de caso de múltiples sujetos en ocho adultos mayores con sarcopenia. El estudio estuvo conformado por tres fases: pre-intervención, intervención conductual y post-intervención conductual. Se evaluó la frecuencia de las conductas de tratamiento en las tres fases, además de los cambios en masa y fuerza muscular. El análisis de los datos se realizó por medio de estadística descriptiva. Los resultados mostraron que la frecuencia de las conductas de tratamiento aumentó en el 100% de los participantes en la etapa de intervención conductual al comparar con la fase pre-intervención, valores que no regresaron a cero en la fase post-intervención conductual. El 83.3 % de los participantes dejaron de tener el diagnóstico de sarcopenia con base en los cambios de masa y fuerza muscular.


Sarcopenia is characterized by low muscle mass and strength in older adults. It is caused by decreased physical activity and quality of dietary intake. Therefore, the implementation of behavior modification techniques such as the token economy technique can serve as a strategy to improve treatment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the token economy technique on treatment behaviors. A multiple case studies with an ABC-type design was conducted in eight older adults with sarcopenia. The intervention consisted of modification of treatment-related behaviors; in addition, changes in muscle mass and strength were assessed. The results showed that the frequency of target behaviors increased in 100% of the participants in the intervention stage compared to baseline. The frequency of the target behaviors did not return to the obtained baseline compared to the maintenance stage. 83.3% of the participants changed their sarcopenia diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Token Economy , Sarcopenia/therapy , Physical Endurance , Eating , Exercise Therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
10.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 760-762, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376767

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction The high muscular strength in the hip joint is the foundation of jumping ability. Isometric resistance training includes the process of takeoff and landing, recruiting a more extensive set of muscle groups. Objective Analyze the isometric resistance training effects on lower limb muscle activity, including the coactivation of the antagonist's muscles. Methods By mathematical statistics, weight-bearing isometric resistance training effects on lower extremity maximal muscle strength and explosive power were observed. Changes in coactivation and preactivation levels of lower extremity antagonist muscles data are evaluated and compared before and after isometric resistance training. Results The peak angular velocity of the joints at the hip and ankle in the isometric resistance training group is significantly higher than the control group. There was no significant difference in the peak angular velocity of the knee between the groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Isometric resistance training can shorten the return period, shorten the amortization period, and increase the energy conversion capacity in the muscle-tendon complex. Evidence level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução A elevada força muscular na articulação do quadril é o que fundamenta a habilidade do salto. O treino resistido isométrico inclui o processo de decolagem e aterrissagem, recrutando um conjunto maior de grupos musculares. Objetivo Analisar os efeitos do treino isométrico resistido sobre a atividade muscular dos membros inferiores, incluindo a coativação dos músculos antagonistas. Métodos Por meio de estatísticas matemáticas, observa-se o efeito do treino isométrico resistido com sustentação de peso na força muscular máxima das extremidades inferiores e sua potência explosiva. Os dados das mudanças nos níveis de coativação e pré-ativação dos músculos antagonistas dos membros inferiores são avaliados e comparados antes e após o treino isométrico resistido. Resultados O pico de velocidade angular das articulações no quadril e tornozelo do grupo de treino isométrico resistido é significativamente maior do que no grupo controle. Não houve diferença significativa no pico de velocidade angular do joelho entre os dois grupos (P<0,05). Conclusão O treino isométrico resistido pode encurtar o período de retorno, encurtar o período de amortização e aumentar a capacidade de conversão de energia no complexo músculo-tendíneo. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação de resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción La elevada fuerza muscular en la articulación de la cadera es lo que fundamenta la capacidad de saltar. El entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica incluye el proceso de despegue y aterrizaje, reclutando un conjunto mayor de grupos musculares. Objetivo Analizar los efectos del entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica en la actividad muscular de las extremidades inferiores, incluyendo la coactivación de los músculos antagonistas. Métodos Mediante la estadística matemática, se observó el efecto del entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica con carga de peso sobre la fuerza muscular máxima de las extremidades inferiores y su potencia explosiva. Los datos de los cambios en los niveles de coactivación y preactivación de los músculos antagonistas de las extremidades inferiores se evalúan y comparan antes y después del entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica. Resultados La velocidad angular máxima de las articulaciones en la cadera y el tobillo en el grupo de entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica es significativamente mayor que en el grupo de control. No hubo diferencias significativas en la velocidad angular máxima de la rodilla entre los dos grupos (P<0,05). Conclusión El entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica puede acortar el periodo de retorno, reducir el periodo de amortización y aumentar la capacidad de conversión de energía en el complejo músculo-tendón. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Physical Endurance/physiology , Basketball/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Athletes , Isometric Contraction/physiology
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 781-788, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385681

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: High-intensity physical exercises can cause oxidative stress and muscle damage. Several medicinal plants have been used as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. The present study evaluated high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) associated with Schinus Terebentifholius ethanolic extract (EE) on oxidative parameters and muscle damage in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 04 groups (n=10/group): 1. Control (CG) - animals that did not undergo HIRE and were treated with vehicle (distilled water, orally); 2. Acute exercise (AE) - animals submitted to acute exercise session; 3. Exercise + vehicle (EV) - animals that underwent HIRE and were treated with vehicle and 4. Exercise + extract (EX) animals administered with Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100mg/Kg, orally) and submitted to the exercise session. Schinus terebenthifolius EE showed high in vitro antioxidant activity (13.88 ± 0.36 mg/mL). Before the experimental period, lactate was measured at pre and post moments of AE (p<0.0001) and EX (p<0.0001) groups. After the acute session, the following were evaluated: oxidative stress {malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl groups (SH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)}, muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the in vivo analyses of the EX group compared to AE and EV groups, respectively: hepatic (MDA: p<0.0001 and SH: p=0.0033, in both; FRAP: p=0.0011 and p=0.0047), muscle (MDA, SH and FRAP: p<0.0001, in both; CK: p=0.0001 and p<0.0001; LDH: p<0.0001, in both), serum levels (MDA: p=0.0003, p=0.0012, SH: p=0.0056, p=0.0200, FRAP: p=0.0017 and p=0.0165) were significant. There was no significant difference in ALT and AST markers. It could be concluded that Schinus terebenthifolius EE associated with HIRE attenuated oxidative stress and muscle damage in rats.


RESUMEN: Los ejercicios físicos de alta intensidad pueden causar estrés oxidativo y daño muscular. Varias plantas medicinales se han utilizado como agentes antioxidantes y antiinflamatorios. El presente estudio evaluó el ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad (HIRE) asociado con el extracto etanólico (EE) de Schinus terebentifholius sobre los parámetros oxidativos y el daño muscular en ratas Wistar. Los animales se dividieron en 4 grupos (n=10/grupo): 1. Control (GC) - animales que no se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo (agua destilada, por vía oral); 2. Ejercicio agudo (AE) - animales sometidos a sesión de ejercicio agudo; 3. Ejercicio + vehículo (EV) - animales que se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo y 4. Ejercicio + extracto (EX) animales administrados con Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100 mg/kg, por vía oral) y sometidos a la sesión de ejercicio. Schinus terebenthifolius EE mostró una alta actividad antioxidante in vitro (13,88 ± 0,36 mg/mL). Antes del período experimental, se midió el lactato en los momentos pre y post de los grupos AE (p<0,0001) y EX (p<0,0001). Tras la sesión aguda, se evaluaron: el estrés oxidativo malondialdehído (MDA), grupos sulfhidrilo (SH) y poder antioxidante reductor férrico (FRAP), daño muscular (creatina quinasa (CK) y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH)), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). En los análisis in vivo del grupo EX frente a los grupos AE y EV, respectivamente: hepático (MDA: p<0,0001 y SH: p=0,0033, en ambos; FRAP: p=0,0011 y p=0,0047), muscular (MDA, SH y FRAP: p<0,0001, en ambos; CK: p=0,0001 y p<0,0001; LDH: p<0,0001, en ambos), niveles séricos (MDA: p=0,0003, p=0,0012, SH: p=0,0056, p=0,0200, FRAP: p=0,0017 y p=0,0165) fueron significativas. No hubo diferencia significativa en los marcadores ALT y AST. Se podría concluir que Schinus terebenthifolius EE asociado con HIRE atenuó el estrés oxidativo y el daño muscular en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Exercise , Anacardiaceae , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Physical Endurance , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biomarkers , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Dietary Supplements , Antioxidants/pharmacology
12.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022308, 06 abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402644

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is characterized by the reduction of skeletal muscle mass and its functionality. Several of the parameters that influence sarcopenia are modified by strength training. OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of different strength training protocols (frequency, duration, and intensity) on parameters that influence sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a systematic review of original, quantitative, observational studies, published between 2010 in 2020, in English, Spanish and Portuguese, and indexed in the SciELO, PubMed, and CAPES databases. The terms used search were: "muscle strenght" ("força muscular", "fuerza muscular"), "sarcopenia" ("sarcopenia"), "aging" ("envelhecimento", "envejecimiento"), "olders" ("idosos", "ancianos"), "strength training" ("treinamento de força/resistência", "entrenamiento de fuerza"). 215 articles were retrieved and 11 met the inclusion criteria, being included in the review. RESULTS: Among the 11 studies analyzed, it is observed that strength training applied in different protocols was efficient in improving parameters such as muscle mass and strength, body balance, and performance in diagnostic tests of sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the benefits of the practice of strength exercise in different protocols on parameters that influence the onset of sarcopenia in older adults. The exercise of strength is presented as an applicable, practical, and non-pharmacological means of preventing sarcopenia.


INTRODUÇÃO: A sarcopenia é considerada uma patologia caracterizada pela redução da massa muscular esquelética e da sua funcionalidade, sendo que vários dos parâmetros que influenciam sobre a sarcopenia sofrem interferência do treinamento de força. OBJETIVO: Revisar os efeitos dos diferentes protocolos de treinamento de força (frequência, duração e intensidade) sobre parâmetros influenciadores da sarcopenia. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de estudos originais, quantitativos, observacionais, publicados entre 2010 a 2020, em inglês, espanhol e português, e indexados nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed e periódico CAPES. Os descritores utilizados foram: "força muscular" ("muscle strenght", "fuerza muscular"), "sarcopenia" ("sarcopenia"), "envelhecimento" ("aging", "envejecimiento"), "idosos" ("olders, "ancianos"), "treinamento de força/resistência" ("strength training", "entrenamiento de fuerza"). Foram recuperados 215 artigos, entre eles 11 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, sendo incluídos na revisão. RESULTADOS: Dentre os 11 estudos analisados, observa-se que o treinamento de força aplicado em diferentes protocolos foi eficiente em aperfeiçoar parâmetros como massa e força musculares, equilíbrio corporal e desempenho em testes diagnósticos de sarcopenia. CONCLUSÃO: Esta revisão evidencia os benefícios da prática de exercício de força em diferentes protocolos sobre parâmetros que influenciam na instalação do quadro de sarcopenia em idosos. O exercício de força se apresenta como meio aplicável, prático e não farmacológico da prevenção de sarcopenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Health of the Elderly , Resistance Training , Sarcopenia , Physical Endurance , Exercise , Postural Balance , Muscle Strength , Physical Functional Performance
13.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56397, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363820

ABSTRACT

According to different researches, 30% of university graduates have a low level of health, and studying at university is one of the factors of its deterioration, besides the first year is considered critical. The purpose of research is to study the dynamics of physical development, physical fitness and functional state of young men during the first year of university studies. For the survey we used standard measurements and index calculations for 11 indicators of physical development, 9 indicators of physical fitness and 15 indicators of functional status. We calculated the arithmetic mean (M), the standard error of the mean (m), then evaluated differences by the Student criterion (t) for independent samples and considered them as reliable atр < 0.05. It is shown that during the first year of studies, young men have an increase in the Erismann index, the corpulence (Rohrer's) index, the body mass index and a decrease in the Pignet index. There is also an increase in the coefficient of endurance, adaptive capacity and diastolic pressure, while vital capacity of the lungs, the vital index, time of hanging on the bar and the speed of running 1000 m decrease. The dynamics of physical development is expressed in a change in mass-growth indices and indicates an increase in body weight. The dynamics of physical fitness is expressed in a decrease of the time of hanging on the bar and the speed of running 1000 m. The dynamics of the functional state is expressed in a decrease of vital capacity of the lungs, vital index, increase in the coefficient of endurance, adaptive capacity and diastolic blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Students , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status , Physical Fitness/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Motor Skills/physiology , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Cardiovascular System , Body Mass Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Functional Status , Indicators and Reagents , Men
14.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220004422, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To determine the influence of the «Burpee¼ exercise on the indicators of endurance and stability of attention in children aged 15-16. Methods: the pedagogical experiment was carried out based on a comprehensive school, in the city of Kirov, Russia. The study involved children 15-16 years old in the amount of 52 people. Children from the experimental group additionally performed the "Burpee" exercise. Endurance in children was determined by the test "2000 m", and the stability of attention was determined by the test "Bourdon test". The study used Excel and BioStat to determine Student's t-test. Results: After the pedagogical experiment, the indicators in the control group in the "2000 m" test improved by 1.9% (p > 0.05), and in the "Bourdon test" by 5.9% (p > 0.05). In the experimental group, the performance improved significantly in the "2000 m" test by 9% (p < 0.05) and in the "Bourdon test" by 20% (p < 0.05). Conclusion: if 15-16-year-old schoolchildren perform the "Burpee" exercise in physical education classes, then the indicators of endurance and stability of attention will improve significantly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Physical Education and Training/methods , Physical Endurance , Attention , Exercise
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1335-1343, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405278

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study aimed to explore the effects of a single moderate-intensity aerobic endurance running program on the morphological characteristics of normal-weighted and overweighted female adolescents and whether effects differ between individuals of different nutritional statuses. A total of 47 adolescent girls participated in this randomized controlled trial. Before and after 12 weeks of intervention, measurements were obtained for body height, body mass, BMI, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, thigh, and calf skinfolds, and chest, abdominal, thigh, and calf circumference. The total duration of the program was 12 weeks, with a frequency of 2 hours/week (24 sessions). The individual session lasted 60 minutes, and the intensity ranged from 60 % HRmax to 80 %. The findings from the present study suggest that the 12-week aerobic endurance running program induced changes in morphological characteristics of female adolescents. The significant reductions in body mass and BMI were small for normal-weight adolescents (-2,64 % and -3,48 %) and moderate for overweight adolescents (-4,14 % and -4,36 %) following the experimental program. The magnitude of reductions in the skinfold thickness was small for both groups (triceps, subscapular, abdominal, and calf) and moderate for thigh skinfold and a sum of skinfolds in the overweight group. The reductions in the magnitude of all circular measures were small for both groups. It ranged from - 1.59 % to -2.59 % for normal-weight and from -2.54 % to -3.92 % for overweight adolescents, respectively. Additionally, the effects of the applied program seem more favorable to overweight than normal-weight adolescents. This study's current findings indicate that the 12-week aerobic endurance running program is effective due to improvements in morphological characteristics, body mass, and BMI of female adolescents. Additionally, this study's findings show that applied aerobic endurance running program proved more effective for overweight adolescents.


RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar los efectos de un programa único de carrera de resistencia aeróbica de intensidad moderada sobre las características morfológicas de mujeres adolescentes con peso normal y con sobrepeso y si los efectos difieren entre individuos con diferentes estados nutricionales. Un total de 47 niñas adolescentes participaron en este ensayo controlado aleatorio. Antes y después de 12 semanas de intervención, se obtuvieron mediciones de altura corporal, masa corporal, IMC, tríceps, pliegues cutáneos subescapular, abdominal, muslo y pantorrilla, y circunferencia torácica, abdominal, muslo y pantorrilla. La duración total del programa fue de12 semanas, con una frecuencia de 2 horas/semana (24 sesiones). La sesión individual tuvo una duración de 60 minutos y la intensidad osciló entre el 60 % y el 80 % de la FCmáx. Los hallazgos del presente estudio sugieren que el programa de carrera de resistencia aeróbica de 12 semanas indujo cambios en las características morfológicas de las adolescentes. Las reducciones significativas en la masa corporal y el IMC fueron menores para los adolescentes con peso normal (-2,64 % y -3,48 %) y moderadas para los adolescentes con sobrepeso (-4,14 % y -4,36 %) después del programa experimental. La magnitud de las reducciones en el grosor del pliegue cutáneo fue pequeña para ambos grupos (tríceps, subescapular, abdominal y pantorrilla) y moderada para el pliegue cutáneo del muslo y la suma de los pliegues cutáneos en el grupo con sobrepeso. Las reducciones en la magnitud de todas las medidas circulares fueron pequeñas para ambos grupos. Osciló entre -1,59 % y -2,59 % para normopeso y entre -2,54 % y -3,92 % para adolescentes con sobrepeso, respectivamente. Además, los efectos del programa aplicado parecen más favorables para los adolescentes con sobrepeso que para aquellos de peso normal. Los hallazgos actuales de este estudio indican que el programa de carreras de resistencia aeróbica de 12 semanas es eficaz, debido a las mejoras en las características morfológicas, la masa corporal y el IMC de las adolescentes. Además, los hallazgos de este estudio muestran que el programa de carrera de resistencia aeróbica aplicada demostró ser más efectivo para los adolescentes con sobrepeso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , Nutritional Status , Body Weight , Exercise , Body Mass Index
17.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(2): [1-10], abr.-jun. 2021. Ilus, Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363781

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do exercício prévio específico sobre o desempenho em teste intermitente de alta intensidade em jogadoras de futsal e variáveis associadas. Para isso 13 jogadoras amadoras de futsal (24,1 anos; 63,6 kg; 1,61 m; IMC = 24,3 kg/m2 ; % de gordura = 27,9), de maneira cruzada, passaram por duas sessões experimentais separadas por sete dias. Em uma das sessões era realizado um exercício prévio (EP): três primeiros níveis do Yo Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) repetidos por três vezes. Na sessão controle (CON), as jogadoras permaneciam em repouso (5 min) e após, em ambas as sessões, era realizado o YYIR1 até a exaustão. Antes do início da sessão eram reportadas escalas de recuperação e dor muscular de início tardio, a frequência cardíaca (FC) foi monitorada por toda sessão e, ao término, a percepção de esforço (PSE) era registrada. As percepções de recuperação (p = 0,23) e de dor (p = 0,36) não diferiram entre as sessões EP vs. CON. A FC média durante o exercício prévio foi de 111,3 ± 7,7 bpm. A distância percorrida no YYIR1 não diferiu (p = 0,25) também entre EP (372,3 ± 103,8 m) vs. CON (341,5 ± 84,2 m), bem como a monitoração da FC (mínima, média e máxima). Entretanto, a PSE foi menor (p = 0,0008) na sessão EP (8,5 ± 0,7 UA) do que em CON (9,3 ± 0,6 UA). Assim, concluímos que o exercício prévio não influencia o desempenho intermitente de alta intensidade (YYIR1), nem as variáveis de FC. Porém, o exercício prévio gera menores níveis de percepção de esforço (intensidade interna) em comparação ao repouso antes do YYIR1. (AU)


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of specific prior exercise on performance in intermittent high intensity testing in futsal players and associated variables. For this, 13 amateur futsal players (24.1 years old; 63.6 kg; 1.61 m; BMI = 24.3 kg / m2; fat% = 27.9), in a crossed way, went through two experimental sessions separated by seven days. In one of the sessions, a previous exercise (PE) was performed: the first three levels of the Yo Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) repeated three times. In the control session (CON), the players remained at rest (5 min) and afterwards, in both sessions, YYIR1 was performed until exhaustion. Before the start of the session, recovery scales and late-onset muscle pain were reported, the heart rate (HR) was monitored throughout the session and, at the end, the perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded. The perceptions of recovery (p = 0.23) and pain (p = 0.36) did not differ between the PE vs CON. The average HR during the previous exercise was 111.3 ± 7.7 bpm. The distance covered in YYIR1 did not differ (p = 0.25) also between PE (372.3 ± 103.8 m) vs. CON (341.5 ± 84.2 m), as well as HR monitoring (minimum, average and maximum). However, the RPE was lower (p = 0.0008) in the PE session (8.5 ± 0.7 AU) than in CON (9.3 ± 0.6 AU). Thus, we conclude that the previous exercise does not influence the intermittent high intensity performance (YYIR1), nor the HR variables. However, previous exercise generates lower levels of perceived exertion (internal intensity) compared to resting before YYIR1. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Physical Endurance , Soccer , Women , Exercise , Athletic Performance , Rest , Body Temperature , Women's Health , Athletes , Physical Conditioning, Human , Heart Rate
18.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 94-97, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156103

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction It is known that strength training brings improvements in health and sports performance by causing muscle hypertrophy and increased strength, as well as modifying some hemodynamic and physiological factors. Several strength training methodologies have been developed, one of which is vascular occlusion. There are few studies with large muscle groups due to poor adherence to the training style and the fact that vascular occlusion of large muscle groups is more difficult. Objective To verify and compare the hemodynamic effects of exercise with and without vascular occlusion in different muscle groups. Methods Quantitative crossover study, with cross-sectional and field procedures. The sample consisted of 10 physically active healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 30 years of age. With the cross-over design, all the volunteers participated in 3 groups: intervention with vascular occlusion, intervention without vascular occlusion and the control group. Results Overall, lactate and cholesterol remained elevated after 15 minutes of recovery and blood glucose and blood pressure did not vary among the groups. Conclusion Vascular occlusion training is an effective method for manipulating hemodynamic variables. Evidence level II; Clinical study.


RESUMO Introdução Sabe-se que o treino de força traz melhorias para a saúde e o desempenho esportivo, por ocasionar hipertrofia muscular e aumento de força, além de modificar alguns fatores hemodinâmicos e fisiológicos. Foram desenvolvidos vários métodos de treinamento de força, entre eles, a oclusão vascular. Porém, existem poucos estudos com grandes grupamentos musculares, devido à pouca adesão ao estilo de treino e ao fato de a oclusão vascular de grandes grupos musculares ser mais difícil. Objetivo Verificar e comparar os efeitos hemodinâmicos do exercício com e sem oclusão vascular em diferentes grupamentos musculares. Métodos Estudo quantitativo, cruzado, com procedimentos transversais e de campo. A amostra foi composta por 10 indivíduos saudáveis e fisicamente ativos do sexo masculino e feminino, na faixa etária de 18 a 30 anos. Com o desenho cruzado, todos os voluntários participaram de 3 grupos: intervenção com oclusão vascular, intervenção sem oclusão vascular e grupo controle. Resultados De forma geral, entre grupos, o lactato e o colesterol se mantiveram elevados depois de 15 minutos de recuperação, a glicemia e as pressões arteriais não variaram. Conclusão O treinamento com oclusão vascular é um método eficaz para manipular as variáveis hemodinâmicas. Nível de evidência II; Estudo clínico.


RESUMEN Introducción Se sabe que el entrenamiento de fuerza trae mejoras para la salud y el desempeño deportivo, por causar hipertrofia muscular y aumento de fuerza, además de modificar algunos factores hemodinámicos y fisiológicos. Fueron desarrollados varios métodos de entrenamiento de fuerza, entre ellos, la oclusión vascular. Sin embargo, existen pocos estudios con grandes grupos musculares, debido a la poca adhesión al estilo de entrenamiento y al hecho de que la oclusión vascular de grandes grupos musculares grandes es más difícil. Objetivo Verificar y comparar los efectos hemodinámicos del ejercicio con y sin oclusión vascular en diferentes grupos musculares. Métodos Estudio cuantitativo, cruzado, con procedimientos transversales y de campo. La muestra fue compuesta por 10 individuos saludables y físicamente activos del sexo masculino y femenino, en el grupo de edad de 18 a 30 años. Con el diseño cruzado, todos los voluntarios participaron en 3 grupos: intervención con oclusión vascular, intervención sin oclusión vascular y grupo control. Resultados De forma general, entre los grupos, el lactato y el colesterol se mantuvieron elevados después de 15 minutos de recuperación, la glucemia y las presiones arteriales no variaron. Conclusión El entrenamiento de oclusión vascular es un método eficaz para manipular las variables hemodinámicas. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Physical Endurance/physiology , Blood Circulation , Exercise/physiology , Muscles/blood supply , Blood Glucose/analysis , Restraint, Physical , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lactic Acid/blood , Hemodynamics
19.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 32: e3220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250182

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study verified the reliability of the high-speed camera-based system (HSC-Kinovea) in the lower-limb explosive strength endurance assessment in athletes. Eleven male volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.9 years; 186.3 ± 6.2 cm and 82.3 ± 11.0 kg) participated in the intermittent vertical jumping test in two days. The test was filmed and later analyzed using Kinovea 0.8.15 software to obtain the mean and peak power variables. Regarding reliability, the intra-class correlation coefficient, the typical error of measurements, and Bland-Altman plots were used. The method presented satisfactory values for inter and intra-class correlations (˃ 0.88). The typical values error of measurement presented in the inter-rater analysis was 0.95 W.kg-1 and 0.59 W.kg-1 for the peak and the mean power, respectively. In the intra-assessment analyses, the typical measurement error values were 7.02 W.kg-1 and 5.66 W.kg-1 (test-retest) and 1.59 W.kg-1 and 0.24 W.kg-1 (duplicates videos) for peak and average power, respectively. The HSC-Kinovea system is reliable for assessing the variables of the explosive strength endurance in athletes.


RESUMO O presente estudo verificou a confiabilidade do sistema baseado em câmeras de alta velocidade (CAV-Kinovea) na avaliação da resistência de força explosiva de membros inferiores em atletas. Onze atletas masculinos de voleibol (21.8 ± 2.9 anos de idade; 186.3 ± 6.2 cm and 82.3 ± 11.0 kg) participaram do teste de saltos verticais de contexto intermitente em dois dias. O teste foi filmado e posteriormente analisado no software Kinovea 0.8.15 para obter as variáveis ​​de potência pico e média. Para determinar a confiabilidade, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, o erro típico de medidas e os gráficos de Bland-Altman. O método apresentou valores satisfatórios para as correlações inter e intra-classe (˃0,88). Os valores do erro típico de medida apresentados na análise interavaliadores foram 0,95 W.kg-1 e 0,59 W.kg-1 para potência pico e média, respectivamente. Nas análises intra-avaliação, os valores do erro típico de medida foram 7,02 W.kg-1 e 5,66 W.kg-1 (teste-reteste) e 1,59 W.kg-1 e 0,24 W.kg-1 (duplicados de vídeos ) para potência pico e média, respectivamente. O sistema CAV-Kinovea é confiável para avaliar as variáveis da resistência de força explosiva em atletas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Lower Extremity , Volleyball/education , Athletes/education , Data Accuracy , Physical Endurance/physiology , Play and Playthings/injuries , Audiovisual Aids , Wounds and Injuries , Muscle Strength/physiology , Mentoring , Team Sports , Joints , Muscles
20.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200122, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250240

ABSTRACT

Abstract External iliac artery endofibrosis is a rare pathology that affects high-level endurance athletes, especially cyclists. Classical symptoms include pain, loss of power, and/or cramp in the affected limb while training at maximal effort. The patient's lack of atherosclerotic risk factors makes clinical suspicion of arteriopathy challenging. Moreover, the best management of such patients is still a subject of discussion. We report the case of a 36-year-old professional female endurance cyclist who presented with lower extremity pain during training. Right external iliac artery endofibrosis was diagnosed and the patient underwent surgical treatment. At two-months follow-up, she reported significant improvement in symptoms. This case highlights the importance of diagnosing peripheral vascular disease in young patients and athletes, who do not fit the ordinary profile of patients with atherosclerotic risk factors.


Resumo A endofibrose da artéria ilíaca externa é uma doença rara que afeta atletas de resistência (endurance) de nível competitivo, principalmente ciclistas. Os sintomas clássicos incluem dor, perda de força e/ou câimbras no membro afetado ao fazer esforço máximo durante o treino. A ausência de fatores de risco ateroscleróticos nesses pacientes torna a suspeita clínica de arteriopatia desafiadora. Além disso, o melhor manejo ainda é motivo de debate. Relatamos o caso de uma ciclista de resistência profissional, de 36 anos, que apresentou dor nos membros inferiores durante o treino. Foi diagnosticada endofibrose da artéria ilíaca externa, e a paciente foi submetida a tratamento cirúrgico. Após seguimento por dois meses, a paciente relatou melhora significativa dos sintomas. Este caso destaca a importância do diagnóstico de doença vascular periférica em pacientes jovens e atletas, os quais não se encaixam no perfil comum do paciente com fatores de risco ateroscleróticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Bicycling/physiology , Fibrosis/diagnosis , Iliac Artery , Physical Endurance , Fibrosis/surgery , Endovascular Procedures , Cyclist
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