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1.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 393-398, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the characteristics of postmortem examination, chemical examination and scene investigation of deaths caused by oral diphenidol hydrochloride poisoning, and so as to provide a reference for proper settlement and prevention of such deaths.@*METHODS@#The data of 22 deaths caused by oral diphenidol hydrochloride poisoning in a city from January 2018 to August 2020 were collected, including case details, scene investigations, autopsies, chemical examinations and digital evidence. Thirty-one cases of deaths caused by oral diphenidol hydrochloride poisoning reported in previous literature were also collected.@*RESULTS@#In the 53 oral diphenidol hydrochloride poisoning death cases, 50 cases were suicide, 2 cases were accidental, while 1 case was undetermined. Fifty-two cases were found in the medical records or crime scene investigation reports with doses ranging from 775 mg to 12 500 mg, and 23 deceased were detected with postmortem blood concentrations ranging from 2.71 mg/L to 83.1 mg/L. Clinical symptoms were recorded in 6 patients, including conscious disturbance and convulsion. Among the 45 cases which were performed with external examination, 23 cases autopsied.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Most of the deceased of oral diphenidol hydrochloride poisoning were suicide. No significant correlation was found between dose and blood concentration through the retrospective analysis of cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Piperidines , Autopsy , Suicide , Poisoning
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 331-340, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic systemic autoimmune disease, is characterized by synovitis and progressive damage to the bone and cartilage of the joints, leading to disability and reduced quality of life. This study was a randomized clinical trial comparing the outcomes between withdrawal and dose reduction of tofacitinib in patients with RA who achieved sustained disease control.@*METHODS@#The study was designed as a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Eligible patients who were taking tofacitinib (5 mg twice daily) and had achieved sustained RA remission or low disease activity (disease activity score in 28 joints [DAS28] ≤3.2) for at least 3 months were enrolled at six centers in Shanghai, China. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to one of three treatment groups: continuation of tofacitinib (5 mg twice daily); reduction in tofacitinib dose (5 mg daily); and withdrawal of tofacitinib. Efficacy and safety were assessed up to 6 months.@*RESULTS@#Overall, 122 eligible patients were enrolled, with 41 in the continuation group, 42 in the dose-reduction group, and 39 in the withdrawal group. After 6 months, the percentage of patients with a DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of <3.2 was significantly lower in the withdrawal group than that in the reduction and continuation groups (20.5%, 64.3%, and 95.1%, respectively; P  < 0.0001 for both comparisons). The average flare-free time was 5.8 months for the continuation group, 4.7 months for the dose reduction group, and 2.4 months for the withdrawal group.@*CONCLUSION@#Withdrawal of tofacitinib in patients with RA with stable disease control resulted in a rapid and significant loss of efficacy, while standard or reduced doses of tofacitinib maintained a favorable state.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chictr.org, ChiCTR2000039799.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , China , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use
5.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 541-550, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939919

ABSTRACT

The rhizome of giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott), which is a highly adaptable wild plant, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In the current study, the antiproliferative constituents of giant taro were investigated and six new (1-6) and four known piperidine alkaloids (7-10) were isolated from its rhizomes. Their chemical structures and absolute configurations were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods and the Mosher ester method. The isolated alkaloids were screened for the antiproliferative activity through MTT assay. The results indicated that piperidine alkaloids exerted potential antiproliferative activity against HepG2, AGS and MCF-7 tumor cells. Further researches showed that compounds 3-5 dose-dependently decreased the colony formation rate and induced the apoptosis of AGS cells, while compound 4 induced AGS cell death via the proapoptotic pathway. This study demonstrates that the piperidine alkaloids isolated from giant taro exhibit significant antitumor activity, which provides phytochemical evidence for further development and utilization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alocasia/chemistry , Piperidines/pharmacology , Plants , Rhizome/chemistry
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 965-969, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939717

ABSTRACT

Zanubrutinib is a highly selective second-generation BTK inhibitor developed in China and first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a novel antineoplastic drug. In recent years, with the birth of molecularly targeted drugs, the treatment of B-cell lymphoma have entered the era of targeted therapy, and immunotherapy has been widely accepted. Especially in some relapsed and refractory lymphomas, zanubrutinib has shown deep and sustained remissions and a favorable safety, which lays a foundation for precision therapy. In this review the clinical application and new progress for zanubrutinib in B-cell lymphoma was summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 447-453, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928629

ABSTRACT

Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor and can block the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signal transduction pathway and reduce the production and release of a variety of cytokines. It has great potential in the treatment of various rheumatic diseases with a rapid onset of action and can reduce corticosteroid dependence and related adverse events. The therapeutic effect of tofacitinib in adult patients has been confirmed, and it has been increasingly used in pediatric patients in recent years. This article reviews the clinical application of tofacitinib in the treatment of pediatric autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 673-676, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922240

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence rate and mortality rate in China and even the whole world, of which non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 80%. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutation accounts for about 5%. Alectinib, ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ALK-TKI), has great performance in clinical. The early detection and treatment of adverse drug reactions can greatly improve clinical benefits. This paper reports a patient of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer was admited to Baotou Central Hospital in April 2020. The diagnosis and treatment was retrospectively analyzed, and the literature was reviewed.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pleural Neoplasms/secondary , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(4): 473-476, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130913

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vitiligo is a disease that causes macules and achromic and/or hypochromic patches, which can affect from small areas to the entire tegument. Treatment options are few and are generally ineffective. Recently, some case reports have appeared which show positive results with the use of Janus kinase inhibitors associated with phototherapy. This report details the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis associated with vitiligo in treatment for two years, whose condition partially improved initially after eight months of oral tofacitinib at a dose of 5 mg twice a day, without exposure to ultraviolet radiation and with continuous improvement during these two years of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Ultraviolet Therapy , Vitiligo/drug therapy , Ultraviolet Rays , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 1039-1043, jul. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139408

ABSTRACT

Biological therapy dramatically changed the management of Ulcerative Colitis (UC). However, a significant number of these patients fail to respond or have secondary loss of response to this strategy. In this clinical situation, the options include intensification of anti-TNF therapy, the use of a second anti-TNF or being switched to another drug class. Among the later, tofacitinib, an oral small molecule directed against the JAK/STAT pathway, is safe and effective in inducing and maintaining remission in patients with moderate-severe UC. We report two patients with UC refractory to conventional treatment and biological therapy, who responded successfully to the use of tofacitinib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Colonoscopy , Treatment Outcome
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5238-5247, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878811

ABSTRACT

This article is to investigate the effect of piperine on the small intestine of mice with Parkinson's disease with dementia(PDD). Ninety-six C57 BL/6 mice of SPF grade were randomly divided into 8 groups(male, 12 in each group): normal group, model group, autophagy inhibitor group(6-amino-3-methylpurine, 3 MA, 30 mg·kg~(-1)), autophagy activator group(rapamycin, 1 mg·kg~(-1)), low, medium, and high dose piperine groups(10, 20, 40 mg·kg~(-1)), and medopar group(112.5 mg·kg~(-1)). Except for the normal group, mice in each group were injected subcutaneously with reserpine(0.1 mg·kg~(-1)) once every 48 hours for 40 days. In addition, on the 20 th day of administration, except for the normal group, the mice in the other groups were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to finally prepare PDD models. At the same time, each group was given the corresponding drug treatment once a day for 40 days. After the last administration, the behavioral changes of mice were observed by autonomic activity experiment and hot plate experiment. The expression levels of α-synuclein(α-syn) and tyrosine hydroxylase(TH) in the small intestine were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B(LC3 B) and p62 in the small intestine were detected by immunofluorescence assay. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathological morphology of small intestine tissues in each group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was adopted for detection of β-amyloid precursor protein(APP), p-tau, acetylcholine transferase(ChAT), interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in small intestine. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of α-syn, TH, beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), and p62 mRNA and mmu-miR-99 a-5 p in the small intestine. The results of this study showed that, as compared with the model group, the number of activities, the expression levels of ChAT, TH, and p62 were significantly increased in the 3 MA group, the various piperine dose groups, and the medopar group(P<0.05), and their first foot licking time was shortened; APP, p-tau, IL-6, TNF-α, α-syn, beclin-1, LC3 B and mmu-miR-99 a-5 p expression levels were significantly reduced(P<0.05). However, as compared with the model group, the number of activities, ChAT, TH, and p62 expression levels in the rapamycin group were significantly reduced(P<0.05), and the APP, p-tau, IL-6, TNF-α, α-syn, beclin-1, LC3 B and mmu-miR-99 a-5 p expression levels were significantly increased(P<0.05). As compared with the 3 MA group, the number of activities, ChAT, TH, and p62 expression levels were significantly reduced in the low and medium dose piperine groups and rapamycin group(P<0.05); howe-ver, their first foot licking time was significantly prolonged, APP, p-tau, IL-6, TNF-α, α-syn, beclin-1, LC3 B and mmu-miR-99 a-5 p expression levels were increased significantly(P<0.05). As compared with the medopar group, the number of activities, ChAT, TH, and p62 expression levels were significantly reduced in low dose piperine group and rapamycin group(P<0.05), but their first foot licking time was significantly extended, and APP, p-tau, IL-6, TNF-α, α-syn, beclin-1, LC3 B and mmu-miR-99 a-5 p expression levels were significantly increased(P<0.05). In addition, as compared with the normal group, the small intestinal epithelial cells of the model group and the rapamycin group were shed off a lot, with severe damages of intestinal mucosa as well as edema and shedding of the small intestine villi. After administration of the therapeutic interventions, the small intestinal epithelial cells of the 3 MA group, each dose group of piperine, and the medopa group were slightly damaged and the villi were slightly shed off. In summary, piperine has a protective effect on the small intestine of PDD model mice, showing reduced expression of mmu-miR-99 a-5 p, pro-inflammatory factors and autophagy factors, and the mechanism of slowing PDD pathological symptoms may be related to the inhibition of autophagy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Alkaloids , Autophagy , Benzodioxoles , Dementia , Intestine, Small , Parkinson Disease , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides
12.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 76(4): 182-187, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089128

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Actualmente no existe un tratamiento estandarizado para la alopecia areata (AA) grave. Se han reportado numerosos casos exitosos del uso de tofacitinib; sin embargo, no existen publicaciones en México. En este trabajo se reportan cuatro casos de pacientes mexicanos con AA grave tratados con tofacitinib oral. Métodos: Serie de casos de adolescentes con alopecia grave tratados con tofacitinib oral. Para determinar la respuesta al tratamiento se utilizó la Escala de gravedad de alopecia (Severity of alopecia tool). Resultados: Se incluyeron cuatro pacientes de entre 13 y 19 años con AA. En todos los casos se observó crecimiento de cabello y disminución de la gravedad de la alopecia después del tratamiento con tofacitinib. En dos pacientes se observó una respuesta intermedia (del 51 al 90%), y en los otros, moderada (del 6 al 50%), sin efectos adversos serios. Las limitaciones del estudio fueron el tamaño reducido de la muestra y la naturaleza retrospectiva de la recolección de los datos. Conclusiones: El tofacitinib demostró ser una buena alternativa de tratamiento para la AA, total y universal, refractarias a otras terapias.


Abstract Background: Currently, no standardized treatment for severe alopecia areata (AA) exists. Numerous successful cases of the use of tofacitinib have been reported in the world literature, but not in Mexico. Four Mexican adolescents with severe AA treated with oral tofacitinib are reported in the present work. Methods: Series of cases of adolescents with severe AA treated with oral tofacitinib. The severity of alopecia tool was used to determine the response to treatment. Results: Four patients from 13 to 19 years old, were included. In all cases, hair growth was observed, and the alopecia severity decreased after the treatment with tofacitinib. In two patients, an intermediate response (from 51 to 90%) was observed; in the other, a moderate response (from 6 to 50%) was observed, without serious adverse effects. The limitations of the study were the small sample size and the retrospective nature of data collection. Conclusions: Tofacitinib showed to be a good treatment alternative for AA, total and universal, refractory to other therapies.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrroles/administration & dosage , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Alopecia Areata/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Alopecia Areata/pathology , Mexico
13.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 60-64, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of AdipoRon orally on the functions of spleen and pancreas in type 2 diabetic mice, in order to present data for clinical application.@*METHODS@#Forty C57/BL6 male mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: normal control group (n=10) and model group (n=30), the former group was fed normally, while the later group was fed with high fat and sugar for 4 weeks.After that, type 2 diabetes model was established in DM group induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg).As type 2 diabetes model established successfully, the model mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10): diabetes mellitus (DM) group, high dose of AdipoRon group (DM + H) and low dose of adiponRon group (DM + L).All the four groups were treated with saline, saline, AdipoRon at the doses of 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg by gavages respectively, once a day for 10 days.And then put them to death for collecting blood, pancreas and spleen.Pathological changes of pancreas were observed with a light microscope after HE staining.Protein contents of insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1( IRS-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in pancreatic and spleen tissues were detected by ELISA.The protein level of phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate 1(p-IRS-1) in pancreas was determined by Western blot, and the expression of insulin mRNA in pancreas was tested by RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#Under the light microscope, it was visible that the pancreatic tissue in NC group was full and closely packed, and the islet was big.Pancreatic tissue of DM mice was incompact and the islet of DM mice was smaller than that of normal mice.As for the mice treated with AdipoRon orally, the pancreatic tissue was full and closely arranged, and the islet was slightly smaller.Compared with NC group, the levels of TNF-α in pancreas and spleen of DM group were increased markedly, the levels of INSR and IRS-1 were decreased, the spleen coefficient, p-IR-1 protein level and insulin mRNA expression in pancreas were decreased, all were significant statistically (P<0.05).Compared with DM group, the levels of TNF-α in pancreas and spleen of AdipoRon groups were decreased, the levels of INSR and IRS-1 in pancreas and spleen of AdipoRon groups were increased, while the spleen coefficient was increased (P<0.05).The p-IRS-1 protein level and insulin mRNA expression in pancreas in DM+H group were increased (P<0.05).Compared with DM + L group, the level of TNF-α was decreased, and the levels of INSR and IRS-1 were significantly increased (P<0.05) in DM + H group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Oral administration of AdipoRon can protect the spleen and pancreas of diabetic mice by decreasing the inflammatory response, up-regulating the expression of INSR, and increasing p-IRS-1 level in diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Inflammation , Insulin , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Pancreas , Piperidines , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Receptor, Insulin , Spleen
14.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 750-754, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012057

ABSTRACT

Objective: To improve the knowledge and experience of ibrutinib combined with CAR-T cells in the treatment of high-risk chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL) patients or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) with TP53 gene aberration. Methods: One case of del (17p) CLL patients with BCL-2 inhibitor resistance was treated with ibrutinib combined with CAR-T cells, successfully bridged to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) , and the relative literatures were reviewed. Results: The patient was a young female with superficial lymph node enlarging at the beginning of the onset. Lymph node biopsy was confirmed as small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) without del (17p) . The disease progressed rapidly to CLL/SLL with del (17p) and bone marrow hematopoietic failure 2 years later. Firstly, the patient was treated with BCL-2 inhibitor (Venetoclax) , and the enlarged lymph nodes shrank significantly 2 months later. After 3 months, the disease progressed rapidly. The spleen was enlarged to 16 cm below the ribs, the neck lymph nodes was rapidly enlarged, and the superior vena cava syndrome appeared, which were mainly attributed to venetoclax resistance; so BTK inhibitor (ibrutinib) was used continuously after venetoclax discontinuation. Partial remission (PR) was achieved without lymphocytosis after 2 months, then ibrutinib was combined with CAR-T cells targeting CD19 antigen. Grade 1 of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) appeared after CAR-T cells infusion, and the complete remission (CR) was achieved after 1 month both in bone marrow and peripheral blood, with minimal residual disease (MRD) negative, then bridging allo-HSCT after 2 months of combined therapy. Conclusion: CLL/SLL patients with TP53 aberration have poor prognosis because of rapid progression, drug resistance, etc. Ibrutinib combined with CAR-T cell therapy can quickly achieved complete remission.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/therapy , Piperidines , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Recoverin , T-Lymphocytes
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 636-640, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983805

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The advent of multikinase inhibitor (MKI) therapy has led to a radical change in the treatment of patients with advanced thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate rare adverse events that occurred in less than 5% of patients in clinical trials in a subset of patients treated in our hospital. Subjects and methods: Out of 760 patients with thyroid cancer followed up with in our Division of Endocrinology, 29 (3.8%) received treatment with MKIs. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 53 years (range 20-70), and 75.9% of them were women. Sorafenib was prescribed as first-line treatment to 23 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and as second-line treatment to one patient with advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Vandetanib was indicated as first-line treatment in 6 patients with MTC and lenvatinib as second-line treatment in two patients with progressive disease under sorafenib treatment. Results: During the follow-up of treatment (mean 13.7 ± 7 months, median 12 months, range 6-32), 5/29 (17.2%) patients presented rare adverse events. These rare adverse effects were: heart failure, thrombocytopenia, and squamous cell carcinoma during sorafenib therapy and squamous cell carcinoma and oophoritis with intestinal perforation during vandetanib treatment. Conclusions: About 3 to 5 years after the approval of MKI therapy, we learned that MKIs usually lead to adverse effects in the majority of patients. Although most of them are manageable, we still need to be aware of potentially serious and rare or unreported adverse effects that can be life-threatening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Piperidines/adverse effects , Quinazolines/adverse effects , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Medullary/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Oophoritis/chemically induced , Phenylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Quinolines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Time Factors , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Sorafenib/adverse effects , Heart Failure/chemically induced , Intestinal Perforation/chemically induced
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 198-200, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038706

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Janus kinases inhibitors have already been incorporated into the management of immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and are being investigated for the treatment of psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases, both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Tofacitinib is an oral small-molecule drug that inhibits Janus kinases 1, Janus kinases 3, and, to a lesser extent, Janus kinases 2. This inhibition ends up blocking signals for several inflammatory cytokines that are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and play a role in many immune signaling routes, including lymphocyte activation, function, and proliferation. We report a patient with active ulcerative colitis with primary non-response to three biologics (infliximab, adalimumab and vedolizumab), with different mechanisms of action, who refused surgical treatment and had a favorable response to tofacitinib with clinical and endoscopic remission. No adverse events were observed with the use of the agent. This case illustrates the difficulties we may face regarding the identification of the expression of proper mechanism of action involved in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis patients and the importance of having another treatment option with different mechanism of action, like tofacitinib.


RESUMO Os inibidores das Janus kinases (JAK) têm sido incorporados ao tratamento de doenças imunomediadas, como artrite reumatoide e, além disso, têm sido testados no tratamento da psoríase e doenças inflamatórias intestinais, tanto na retocolite ulcerativa quanto na doença de Crohn. Tofacitinibe é uma droga do grupo das pequenas moléculas de uso oral que inibe as Janus kinases 1 e 3 e, em menor grau, a Janus kinases 2. Esta inibição promove o bloqueio de uma série de citocinas pró-inflamatórias que estão envolvidas na patogênese das doenças inflamatórias intestinais e desempenham importante papel nos processos imunes, tais como ativação, função e proliferação linfocitária. Nesta presente comunicação, relatamos um caso de um paciente portador de retocolite ulcerativa refratária a três agentes biológicos (infliximabe, adalimumabe e vedolizumabe), com diferentes mecanismos de ação, que recusou o tratamento cirúrgico, porém, apresentou boa resposta com o uso de tofacitinibe, com remissão clínica e endoscópica. Não foram evidenciados efeitos colaterais com a droga. O presente caso ilustra as dificuldades que podemos enfrentar em relação à identificação da expressão do correto mecanismo de ação envolvido na patogênese dos pacientes com retocolite ulcerativa e a importância de um novo agente terapêutico com diferente mecanismo de ação, como o tofacitinibe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Integrins/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Integrins/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Infliximab/therapeutic use
17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 143-149, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812421

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is one of the major bioactive ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. However, the oral bioavailability of Rh2 is low, with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 being reported to be the main factors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the enhancing effect of piperine on the oral bioavailability as well as bioactivity of Rh2. The inhibitory effect of piperine on P-gp and CYP3A4 was determined using a Caco-2 monolayer model and a recombinant CYP3A4 metabolic system, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of oral Rh2 (10 mg·kg) administered alone or in combination with piperine (10 and 20 mg·kg) was performed in rats. The immune boosting effect of Rh2 was assessed in rats by measuring IL-12 level after treated by Rh2 alone or co-administered with piperine. The results indicated that piperine significantly increased the permeability of Rh2 and inhibited the metabolism of Rh2. The pharmacokinetic study results showed that the AUC of Rh2 was significantly increased in combination with piperine at high dose (20 mg·kg) when compared to the control group, with relative bioavailability of 196.8%. The increase of Rh2 exposure led to increased serum levels of IL-12. In conclusion, piperine may be used as a bioenhancer to improve pharmacological effect of Rh2 when given orally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids , Benzodioxoles , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ginsenosides , Pharmacokinetics , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Panax , Chemistry , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 766-773, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812352

ABSTRACT

Several chemical compounds can restore pigmentation in vitiligo through mechanisms that vary according to disease etiology. In the present study, we investigated the melanogenic activity of six structurally distinct compounds, namely, scopoletin, kaempferol, chrysin, vitamin D, piperine, and 6-benzylaminopurine. We determined their effectiveness, toxicity, and mechanism of action for stimulating pigmentation in B16F10 melanoma cells and in a zebrafish model. The melanogenic activity of 6-benzylaminopurine, the compound identified as the most potent, was further verified by measuring green fluorescent protein concentration in tyrp1 a: eGFP (tyrosinase-related protein 1) zebrafish and mitfa: eGFP (microphthalmia associated transcription factor) zebrafish and antioxidative activity. All the tested compounds were found to enhance melanogenesis responses both in vivo and in vitro at their respective optimal concentration by increasing melanin content and expression of TYR and MITF. 6-Benzyamino-purine showed the strongest re-pigmentation action at a concentration of 20 μmol·Lin vivo and 100 μmol·Lin vitro, and up-regulated the strong fluorescence expression of green fluorescent protein in tyrp1a: eGFP and mitfa: eGFP zebrafish in vitro. However, its relative anti-oxidative activity was found to be very low. Overall, our results indicated that 6-benzylaminopurine stimulated pigmentation through a direct mechanism, by increasing melanin content via positive regulation of tyrosinase activity in vitro, as well as up-regulating the expression of the green fluorescent protein in transgenic zebrafish in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Alkaloids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Benzodioxoles , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Benzyl Compounds , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cholecalciferol , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Kaempferols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Melanins , Genetics , Metabolism , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Pigmentation , Piperidines , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Purines , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Scopoletin , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Vitiligo , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Zebrafish
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2683-2692, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775034

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in Chinese patients with RA enrolled in Phase 3 and long-term extension (LTE) studies.@*Methods@#ORAL Sync was a 1-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trial. Patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo advanced to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID at 3 or 6 months. All patients remained on ≥1 background conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. ORAL Sequel is an open-label LTE study (data-cut: March 2015; data collection and analyses were ongoing, and study database was not locked at the time of analysis; study was closed in 2017). Efficacy outcomes: American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-4 [ESR]). Patient- and physician-reported outcomes: Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Patient and Physician Global Assessment of Arthritis, and pain (visual analog scale). Safety was assessed throughout.@*Results@#ORAL Sync included 218 patients; 192 were subsequently enrolled into ORAL Sequel. In ORAL Sync, more patients achieved ACR20 (tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 67.4%; 10 mg BID, 70.6%; placebo, 34.1%) and DAS28-4 (ESR) <2.6 (tofacitinib 5 mg BID, 7.1%; 10 mg BID, 13.1%; placebo, 2.3%) with tofacitinib versus placebo at Month 6. Mean changes from baseline in HAQ-DI were greater with tofacitinib versus placebo at Month 6. In ORAL Sequel, efficacy was consistent to Month 48. Incidence rates for adverse events of special interest in tofacitinib-treated patients were similar to the global population.@*Conclusions@#Tofacitinib significantly reduced signs/symptoms and improved physical function and quality of life in Chinese patients with moderate-to-severely active RA up to Month 48. The safety profile was consistent with the global population.@*Clinical Trial Identifier@#NCT00856544 and NCT00413699.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Administration, Oral , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Drug Therapy , Asian People , Piperidines , Therapeutic Uses , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Pyrimidines , Therapeutic Uses , Pyrroles , Therapeutic Uses , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 143-149, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773631

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is one of the major bioactive ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. However, the oral bioavailability of Rh2 is low, with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 being reported to be the main factors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the enhancing effect of piperine on the oral bioavailability as well as bioactivity of Rh2. The inhibitory effect of piperine on P-gp and CYP3A4 was determined using a Caco-2 monolayer model and a recombinant CYP3A4 metabolic system, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of oral Rh2 (10 mg·kg) administered alone or in combination with piperine (10 and 20 mg·kg) was performed in rats. The immune boosting effect of Rh2 was assessed in rats by measuring IL-12 level after treated by Rh2 alone or co-administered with piperine. The results indicated that piperine significantly increased the permeability of Rh2 and inhibited the metabolism of Rh2. The pharmacokinetic study results showed that the AUC of Rh2 was significantly increased in combination with piperine at high dose (20 mg·kg) when compared to the control group, with relative bioavailability of 196.8%. The increase of Rh2 exposure led to increased serum levels of IL-12. In conclusion, piperine may be used as a bioenhancer to improve pharmacological effect of Rh2 when given orally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids , Benzodioxoles , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ginsenosides , Pharmacokinetics , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Panax , Chemistry , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
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