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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 989-997, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the underlying mechanism of inhibition by Jinkui Shenqi Pills (JKSQP) on glucocorticoid-enhanced axial length elongation in experimental lens-induced myopia (LIM) guinea pigs.@*METHODS@#Sixty 2-week old male guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups with 15 guinea pigs in each group, according to the random numbers generated by SPSS software: control, LIM, saline and JKSQP groups. The control group includes animals with no treatment, while the guinea pigs in the other 3 groups received lens-induced myopization on the right eyes throughout the experiment (for 8 weeks). The saline and JKSQP groups were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg hydrocortisone for 2 consecutive weeks at the same time, and then orally administered either saline or JKSQP [13.5 g/(kg•d) for 6 consecutive weeks. Body weight, anal temperature and animal appearance were observed and recorded to evaluate the GC-associated symptoms. The ocular parameters, including refraction and axial length, were measured by streak retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. The levels of plasma hormones associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), including free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, estradiol and testosterone, were measured by radioimmunoassay, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the mRNA and protein expressions of retinal amphiregulin (AREG) was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively.@*RESULTS@#JKSQP effectively increased body weight and anal temperature, improved animal appearance and suppressed axial length elongation in glucocorticoid-enhanced myopic guinea pigs with normalization of 4 HPAA-associated plasma hormones (all P<0.05). The plasma level of cAMP was significantly increased, whereas the plasma level of cGMP and the mRNA and protein expressions of retinal AREG were decreased after treatment with JKSQP (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#JKSQP exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on axial length elongation with decreased expression of AREG in the retina, and normalized 4 HPAA-associated plasma hormones and the expression of cAMP and cGMP in GC-enhanced myopic guinea pigs.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Glucocorticoids , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Myopia/metabolism , Body Weight , RNA, Messenger , Disease Models, Animal
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1632-1641, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928093

ABSTRACT

Suanzaoren Decoction(SZRD) is a classical formula for the clinical treatment of insomnia. This study analyzed the effect of SZRD on endogenous metabolites in insomnia rats based on metabonomics and thereby explored the anti-insomnia mechanism of SZRD. To be specific, DL-4-chlorophenylalanine(PCPA) was used to induce insomnia in rats. Then pathological changes of the liver and brain were observed and biochemical indexes such as 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), dopamine(DA), glutamate(Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA), and norepinephrine(NE) in the hippocampus and prostaglandin D2(PGD2), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and IL-6 in the serum of rats were detected. On this basis, the effect of SZRD on PCPA-induced insomnia rats was preliminarily assessed. The metabolic profile of rat serum samples was further analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were combined with t-test and variable importance in projection(VIP) to identify differential metabolites, and MetaboAnalyst 5.0 was employed for pathway analysis. The results showed that SZRD could improve the pathological changes of brain and liver tissues, increase the levels of neurotransmitters 5-HT, DA, and GABA in hippocampus and the level of PGD2 in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis(HPA axis), and reduce the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum of insomnia rats. Metabonomics analysis yielded 12 significantly changed potential metabolites: 5-aminovaleric acid, N-acetylvaline, L-proline, L-glutamate, L-valine, DL-norvaline, D(-)-arginine, pyroglutamic acid, 1-methylguanine, L-isoleucine, 7-ethoxy-4-methylcoumarin, and phthalic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester(MEHP), which were related with multiple biochemical processes including metabolism of D-glutamine and D-glutamate, metabolism of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate, metabolism of arginine and proline, arginine biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism. These metabolic changes indicated that SZRD can improve the metabolism in insomnia rats by regulating amino acid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Metabolomics/methods , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
São Paulo med. j ; 139(4): 398-404, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290241

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Critical diseases usually cause hypercortisolemia via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between serum total cortisol level and mortality among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), at the time of their admission. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study developed in a pandemic hospital in the city of Şırnak, Turkey. METHODS: We compared the serum total cortisol levels of 285 patients (141 COVID-19-negative patients and 144 COVID-19-positive patients) followed up in the ICU. RESULTS: The median cortisol level of COVID-19-positive patients was higher than that of COVID-19 negative patients (21.84 μg/dl versus 16.47 μg/dl; P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, mortality was associated with higher cortisol level (odds ratio: 1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.35; P = 0.001). The cortisol cutoff point was 31 μg/dl (855 nmol/l) for predicting mortality among COVID-19-positive patients (area under the curve 0.932; sensitivity 59%; and specificity 95%). Among the COVID-19 positive patients with cortisol level ≤ 31 μg/dl (79%; 114 patients), the median survival was higher than among those with cortisol level > 31 μg/dl (21%; 30 patients) (32 days versus 19 days; log-rank test P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Very high cortisol levels are associated with severe illness and increased risk of death, among COVID-19 patients in the ICU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrocortisone , COVID-19 , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Intensive Care Units
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 69-75, mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287243

ABSTRACT

Abstract After a stressful event, adaptative mechanisms are carried out to support vital functions. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a key role in stress response regulating metabolism, cardiovascular function and immune system. This review addresses pathophysiological changes of the adrenal axis during critical illness, recognizing limitations of methods applied for its evaluation in this special context and defining indications for corticosteroid replacement in critically ill patients. The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency should be abandoned; cosyntropin stimulation test should not be performed for diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in critical illness nor for establishing the need of treatment.


Resumen Diversos mecanismos adaptativos se ponen en marcha para sostener las funciones orgánicas vitales en el paciente crítico. El eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal tiene un papel clave en la respuesta al estrés al regular el metabolismo, la función cardiovascular y la respuesta inmune. Esta revisión tiene por objetivos analizar los cambios fisiopatológicos que se producen en el eje adrenal durante la enfermedad crítica, reconocer las limitaciones de los métodos diagnósticos y definir indicaciones de tratamiento de reemplazo corticoideo en este contexto. El concepto de insuficiencia adrenal relativa debe ser descartado y no se recomienda el test de estímulo con cosintropina para diagnóstico de insuficiencia adrenal durante enfermedad crítica ni para definir la necesidad de tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Critical Illness , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 439-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergic effects of a novel oral supplement formulation, containing prebiotics, yeast β-glucans, minerals and silymarin (Silybum marianum), on lipid and glycidic metabolism, inflammatory and mitochondrial proteins of the liver, in control and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.@*METHODS@#After an acclimation period, 32 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups: nonfat diet (NFD) vehicle, NFD supplemented, high-fat diet (HFD) vehicle and HFD supplemented. The vehicle and experimental formulation were administered orally by gavage once a day during the last four weeks of the diet (28 consecutive days). We then evaluated energy homeostasis, inflammation, and mitochondrial protein expression in these groups of mice.@*RESULTS@#After four weeks of supplementation, study groups experienced reduced glycemia, dyslipidemia, fat, and hepatic fibrosis levels. Additionally, proliferator-activated receptor-α, AMP-activated protein kinase-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A expression levels were augmented; however, levels of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase subunit α and p65 nuclear factor-κB expression, and oxidative markers were reduced. Notably, the cortisol/C-reactive protein ratio, a well-characterized marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis immune interface status, was found to be modulated by the supplement.@*CONCLUSION@#We discovered that the novel supplement was able to modify different antioxidant, metabolic and inflammatory pathways, improving the energy homeostasis and inflammatory status, and consequently alleviated hepatic steatosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antioxidants , Dietary Supplements , Glucans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Liver , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Silybum marianum , Minerals , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prebiotics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 874-880, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922111

ABSTRACT

"Timely, near, and expectation" is the main principle of battlefield rescue for military combat stress reaction (CSR). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common form of CSR and a long-term persistent mental disorder that is caused by unusual threatening or catastrophic psychological trauma. Chinese medicine (CM) has abundant resources, is simple, easy to master, with few side effects. This article summarizes the cellular and animal experimental mechanisms of CM treatment on PTSD, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbs and acupuncture can protect brain functional areas, and adjust hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Traditional Chinese herbs and acupuncture have shown good anti-stress efficacy and fewer side effects in clinical application, which may improve the CSR in the battlefield.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Military Personnel , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6377-6386, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921796

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is a major chronic disease threatening women's health. It has topped the global cancers as the diagnosed cases outnumbered lung cancer patients in 2020. Internal damage due to the seven emotions is an important cause of breast cancer and the disorders of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and endocrine system and the abnormal immune defense mechanism in response to psychological stress all affect the occurrence and development of breast cancer. It is noteworthy that the theory of seven emotions in traditional Chinese medicine and the psychological stress theory of modern medicine have something in common in some aspects. Therefore, this study explored the correlation between internal damage due to the seven emotions and psychological stress and analyzed the molecular biological mechanisms of psychological stress influencing breast cancer from the perspective of modern medicine, which is helpful to reasonably prevent breast cancer and other related tumors and improve the prognosis of breast cancer patients through emotion regulation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Emotions , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Stress, Psychological
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(12)dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389286

ABSTRACT

Hypopituitarism after moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is usually underdiagnosed and therefore undertreated. Its course can be divided in an acute phase during the first 14 days after TBI with 50 to 80% risk of hypopituitarism, and a chronic phase, beginning three months after the event, with a prevalence of hypopituitarism that ranges from 2 to 70%. Its pathophysiology has been addressed in several studies, suggesting that a vascular injury to the pituitary tissue is the most important mechanism during the acute phase, and an autoimmune one during chronic stages. In the acute phase, there are difficulties to correctly interpret pituitary axes. Hence, we propose a simple and cost-effective algorithm to detect and treat a potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment and alterations of sodium homeostasis, both of which can be life-threatening. In the chronic phase, post-concussion syndrome is the most important differential diagnosis. Given the high prevalence of hypopituitarism, we suggest that all pituitary axes should be assessed in all patients with moderate to severe TBI, between 3 to 6 months after the event, and then repeated at 12 months after trauma by a specialized team in pituitary disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pituitary Diseases , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Hypopituitarism , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Hypopituitarism/diagnosis , Hypopituitarism/etiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 608-613, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether a combination of the low-dose (1 µg) adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation test and glucagon stimulation test (GST) could overcome the problem of equivocal results with the GST or ACTH test alone in patients with pituitary disorders. Subjects and methods The study included 41 adult patients with pituitary disorders and 20 healthy subjects who underwent evaluation of cortisol response to ACTH, GST, and a combination of both tests. Blood samples for cortisol measurement were obtained at baseline and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after intravenous administration of ACTH 1 μg and 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes after subcutaneous injection of glucagon 1 mg. The combination test was performed by injecting ACTH 1 µg at the 180-minute time point of the GST, with blood samples for cortisol measurement obtained at 210 and 240 minutes. Results Overall, 28 patients with normal cortisol response to both tests also had a normal cortisol response to the combination test. Ten patients with adrenal insufficiency in both tests also had adrenal insufficiency in the combination test, including a patient who had a peak cortisol value of 12.4 µg/dL (which is the cutoff value for the combination test). Two patients with adrenal insufficiency in the ACTH stimulation test and one patient with adrenal insufficiency in the GST had normal cortisol responses to the combination test. Conclusion By using an appropriate cutoff value, the combination test may offer additional information in patients with equivocal results in the GST and ACTH stimulation test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pituitary Diseases/diagnosis , Glucagon , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Hydrocortisone , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 82-88, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088767

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The insulin tolerance test (ITT) has been accepted as the gold standard test for assessing the integrity of the growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The goal of the test is to achieve clinical and biochemical hypoglycemia at a blood glucose level ≤ 40 mg/dL to effectively and correctly assess the HPA and GH-IGF-1 axes. In this study, the GH and cortisol responses of patients who achieved and failed to achieve biochemical hypoglycemia during an ITT were compared. Subjects and methods One hundred thirty-five patients with pituitary disorders were included in the study. Samples for blood glucose levels were obtained after clear symptoms of clinical hypoglycemia developed. The patients were enrolled in the hypoglycemic and nonhypoglycemic groups according to whether their plasma glucose level ≤ 40 mg/dL or > 40 mg/dL during an ITT, and the groups were compared in terms of their GH and cortisol responses. Results The mean age, body mass index and waist circumference of the two patient groups were found to be similar. The mean blood glucose level was significantly lower in the hypoglycemic group than in the nonhypoglycemic group (19.3 and 52.0 mg/dL, respectively). When the two groups were compared in terms of peak cortisol and GH responses, no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusion The data presented suggest that clinically symptomatic hypoglycemia is as effective as biochemically confirmed hypoglycemia during an ITT. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):82-8


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Hydrocortisone/blood , Human Growth Hormone/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Retrospective Studies , Glucose Tolerance Test/adverse effects , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism
11.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 462-468, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827419

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a main type of mood disorder, characterized by significant and lasting depressed mood. Until now, the pathogenesis of MDD is not clear, but it is certain that biological, psychological, and social factors are involved. Childhood trauma is considered to be an important factor in the development of this disease. Previous studies have found that nearly half of the patients with MDD have experienced childhood trauma, and different types of childhood trauma, gender, and age show different effects on this disease. In addition, the clinical characteristics of MDD patients with childhood trauma are also different, which often have more severe depressive symptoms, higher risk of suicide, and more severe cognitive impairment. The response to antidepressants is also worse. In terms of biological mechanisms and marker characteristics, the serotonin transporter gene and the FKBP prolyl isomerase 5 have been shown to play an important role in MDD and childhood trauma. Moreover, some brain imaging and biomarkers showed specific features, such as changes in gray matter in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, and abnormal changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major , Gray Matter , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Suicide
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1004-1010, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008465

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the effect of Lepidium meyenii(Maca) on cyclic nucleotides, neurotransmitter levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immunization of deficiency-cold and deficiency-heat syndrome rats, in order to explore the cold and hot medicinal properties of Maca. SD rats were divided into blank group, deficiency-cold syndrome group, Cinnamomi Cortex of deficiency-cold syndrome(30 g·kg~(-1)) group, high and low-dose Maca groups(2.4, 1.2 g·kg~(-1)), deficiency-heat syndrome group, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex(PCC) of deficiency-heat syndrome(5 g·kg~(-1)), and high and low-dose Maca groups(2.4, 1.2 g·kg~(-1)). The rats were treated with intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone(20 mg·kg~(-1)) or dexamethasone sodium phosphate(0.35 mg·kg~(-1)) for 21 days to set up the deficiency-cold and deficiency-heat model. The levels of cAMP, cGMP, NE, DA, 5-HT, CRH, ACTH, CORT and IgM, IgG, C3, C4 were detected by radio immunoassay. Both the high-dose Maca group and the low-dose Maca group can significantly improve the overall state and body weight of rats with deficiency-cold syndrome(P<0.01, P<0.05), significantly increasing cAMP, cAMP/cGMP, NE, DA, ACTH(P<0.01, P<0.001), and significantly decreasing 5-HT(P<0.01, P<0.001). However, high-dose and low-dose Maca groups could not improve the deficiency-heat syndrome, and the levels of cAMP, cGMP, cAMP/cGMP, NE, DA, 5-HT and ACTH were not statistically significant. Maca had a significant regulatory effect on CORT, IgM, IgG and C3 content of rats with deficiency-cold and deficiency-heat syndrome(P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001). Maca showed the same effect with Cinnamomi Cortex in adjusting the levels of deficiency-cold rats, but in opposition to Phellodendri Chinese Cortex. This paper confirmed that Maca was slightly warm based on its effect on cyclic nucleotide levels and neuro-endocrine-immune networks by the pharmacological experimental method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Endocrine System/drug effects , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Immune System/drug effects , Lepidium/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nucleotides, Cyclic , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Temperature
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 697-704, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Chinese medicine Wubi Shanyao pills on sexual function of kidney-yang-deficiency mice induced by hydrocortisone.@*METHODS@#Male Kunming mice were injected with hydrocortisone for 10 days to prepare the kidney-yang-deficiency model, and administrated with Wubi Shanyao pills (0.91, 1.82, 2.73 g/kg) for 9 weeks. The general behaviors of mice (autonomous activity, grasping power) were observed; sexual behaviors (capture, straddle, ejaculation frequency and incubation period) of mice were detected by mating experiment. The serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E@*RESULTS@#Wubi Shanyao pills increased the number of independent activities, grasping power, capture frequency of model mice and shortened the capture latency (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Wubi Shanyao pills can improve the sexual function of mice with kidney-yang-deficiency induced by hydrocortisone, which may be related to regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), promoting the proliferation of testicular cells, and inhibiting cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Random Allocation , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy
14.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 799-802, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826652

ABSTRACT

The effect of acupuncture-moxibustion on respiratory system and systemic immune inflammatory response were reviewed to explore the possible role of neuroimmunomodulation in the control of inflammatory response and the effect mechanism of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Acupuncture-moxibustion could produce the local and systemic anti-inflammatory effect on COVID-19 through the activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Compared with humoral anti-inflammatory pathway, the neuronal anti-inflammatory pathway has earlier initiation, rapider action, and more localization, which play a more important role in the initial stage of inflammatory response. This may be an important basis for acupuncture-moxibustion intervention in the early stage of COVID-19. In addition to cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, acupuncture-moxibustion may also play an anti-inflammatory role in activating sympathetic nerve, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other neural anti-inflammatory pathways. How acupuncture-moxibustion play its role in stimulating the vagus nerve and sympathetic nerve in different periods of inflammatory response, and whether the effect is based on the selection of acupoints and the methods of stimulation, will be the research direction of the transformation from basic research to clinical research for acupuncture-moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Therapeutics , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Moxibustion , Pandemics , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Pneumonia, Viral , Therapeutics
15.
Clinics ; 75: e1554, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089608

ABSTRACT

Opioids are the main group of pharmacological agents used during the perioperative period and provide a sedative and analgesic component. The observations of opioid consumption in West Europe indicate that this group of drugs is widely used in chronic noncancer pain therapy. Nearly 20 years ago, the first publications indicating that opioids, as an element of perioperative pharmacotherapy in oncologic patients, increase the risk of tumor recurrence and affect further prognosis were presented. The actual publications suggest that there are multifactorial, complex mechanisms underlying the immunological impact and carcinogenesis promotion of opioids and that the intensity varies depending on the type of opioid. There are also questions about the immunosuppressive effects among patients receiving opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain. The aim of the review article is to present information about the action of opioids on the immune system in carcinogenic settings and to define the clinical usefulness of this pharmacological phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Carcinogenesis , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Drug Tolerance , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Opioid-Related Disorders
17.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(2): 184-190, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286481

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos es la enfermedad endocrina más frecuente en la edad reproductiva; se caracteriza por alteraciones menstruales, hiperandrogenismo clínico o bioquímico e identificación ultrasonográfica de quistes ováricos. Las alteraciones neuroendocrinas y metabólicas que lo acompañan implican desensibilización del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-ovario, esteroidogénesis e hiperandrogenismo. Recientemente se ha explorado el papel de la resistencia a la insulina. Se ha establecido que la principal causa del síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos es el hiperandrogenismo, debido a alteraciones enzimáticas en la vía esteroidogénica, por lo que existe sobreestimulación por parte de la hormona luteinizante a causa de los pulsos rápidos generados por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas. Diversos factores de crecimiento y citocinas inhiben la conversión de andrógenos a estrógenos. En la desregulación característica de este síndrome también están involucradas la activina y las prostaglandinas e, incluso, altos niveles de insulina.


Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disease in reproductive age, characterized by menstrual alterations, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism, and ultrasound-identified ovarian cysts. The neuroendocrine and metabolic alterations that accompany this condition involve the desensitization of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis, steroidogenesis and hyperandrogenism; recently, the role of insulin resistance has been explored. Hyperandrogenism has been established to be the main cause of polycystic ovary syndrome, due to enzymatic alterations in the steroidogenic pathway that cause luteinizing hormone over-stimulation because of quick pulses generated by gonadotropin-releasing hormones. Various growth factors of and cytokines inhibit the conversion of androgens into estrogens; activin and prostaglandins are also involved, even high levels of insulin participate in the characteristic deregulation of this syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Hyperandrogenism/physiopathology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/metabolism , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism
18.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 85-92, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766566

ABSTRACT

Suicide is a complex phenomenon resulting from interactions between individual vulnerabilities and socio-environmental factors. The current review primarily focuses on research into the serotonin system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotrophic factors, lipid metabolism, and functional neuroimaging studies. It has been found that dysfunctions in the serotonin system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities, and low brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cholesterol levels may be linked to suicide. Additionally, recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that structural and functional abnormalities in brain areas related to cognitive and emotional regulation may be associated with suicide. More research incorporating advanced methodological approaches may shed further light on the neurobiological basis of suicide.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cholesterol , Functional Neuroimaging , Lipid Metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors , Neurobiology , Neuroimaging , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Serotonin , Suicide
19.
Singapore medical journal ; : 140-144, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776999

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Epidural steroid injections are an integral part of nonsurgical management of radicular pain from lumbar spine disorders. We studied the effect of dexamethasone 8 mg epidural injections on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serum glucose control of Asian patients.@*METHODS@#18 patients were recruited: six diabetics and 12 non-diabetics. Each patient received a total of dexamethasone 8 mg mixed with a local anaesthetic solution of lignocaine or bupivacaine, delivered into the epidural space. Levels of plasma cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum glucose after an overnight fast and two-hour postprandial glucose, as well as weight, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate were measured within one week prior to the procedure (baseline) and at one, seven and 21 days after the procedure.@*RESULTS@#Median fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher on post-procedure Day 1 than at baseline. However, there was no significant change in median two-hour postprandial blood glucose from baseline levels. At seven and 21 days, there was no significant difference in fasting or two-hour postprandial glucose levels. Both ACTH and serum cortisol were significantly reduced on Day 1 compared to baseline in all patients. There was no significant difference in ACTH and serum cortisol levels from baseline at Days 7 and 21.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study shows that epidural steroid injections with dexamethasone have a real, albeit limited, side effect on glucose and cortisol homeostasis in an Asian population presenting with lower back pain or sciatica.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blood , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Dexamethasone , Therapeutic Uses , Diabetes Mellitus , Therapeutics , Endocrine System , Glucocorticoids , Hydrocortisone , Blood , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Injections, Epidural , Methods , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Postprandial Period , Singapore
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1949-1954, out. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976372

ABSTRACT

In view of the fact that cancer is considered a chronic disease that can interfere with hormonal homeostasis by means of cytokines, we hypothesized that, even at early stages, mammary carcinoma is able to alter the balance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes. To test this hypothesis, the serum concentrations of basal cortisol, thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated in 20 unspayed bitches that had a histopathological diagnosis of grade 1 mammary carcinoma at clinical stage I according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification (T1N0M0). The control animals comprised 10 unspayed bitches in perfect health conditions that were matched with those with mammary carcinoma by age. No significant differences regarding the concentrations of basal cortisol, TSH, t4, and fT4 were found between the bitches carrying early stage mammary carcinoma when compared to the control group. This suggests that, even if malignant, early-stage mammary carcinomas do not exhibit the ability to alter the concentrations of hormones produced by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal or hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes.(AU)


Em vista do fato de neoplasias serem consideradas doenças crônicas que por meio de citocinas podem interferir na homeostase hormonal, hipotetizou-se que o carcinoma mamário, mesmo nos seus estádios iniciais, fosse capaz de alterar o equilíbrio dos eixos hipotalâmico-hipofisário-tireóideo e hipotalâmico-hipofisário-adrenal. Para tal, foram avaliadas as concentrações séricas de cortisol basal, tiroxina (T4), tiroxina livre (fT4) e tireotrofina (TSH) de 20 fêmeas caninas, inteiras, com diagnóstico histopatológico de carcinoma mamário grau 1 e estadiamento clínico I segundo a classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde - OMS (T1N0M0). Os animais controle constituíram-se por 10 fêmeas caninas inteiras, em perfeitas condições de higidez, as quais foram pareadas, por idade, com aquelas portadoras de carcinoma mamário. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas concentrações de cortisol basal, TSH, T4 e fT4 das cadelas portadoras de carcinoma mamário em estádio inicial quando comparadas às controles sugerindo que, mesmo considerados malignos, ainda não apresentam a capacidade de alterar as concentrações dos hormônios produzidos pelos eixos hipotalâmico-hipofisário-adrenal e tireóideo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/diagnosis , Dogs/blood , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
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