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1.
Psico USF ; 27(1): 157-167, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376039

ABSTRACT

Estudos mostram que o tabagismo é responsável por afetar algumas funções cognitivas. No entanto, a nicotina é apenas um dos componentes existentes no cigarro e existem evidências de que pode servir como agente neuroprotetivo e causar melhoras em algumas funções cognitivas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar como a nicotina interage com algumas funções cognitivas. Um ensaio clínico piloto com administração de gomas de nicotina contendo 2-mg ou 4-mg, ou gomas placebo contendo a mesma textura, sabor e aparência, foi realizado. Quarenta e dois participantes participaram da pesquisa e os resultados indicaram que a relação entre nicotina e o desempenho na tarefa Go/No-Go podem ser bidirecionais. Os resultados indicaram que participantes do grupo que utilizaram 4-mg de nicotina apresentaram menor desempenho, enquanto os participantes que fizeram uso de 2-mg de nicotina tiveram melhor desempenho do que os demais. Esta pesquisa tem aplicações biopsicossociais e podem ajudar na compreensão da relação entre tabagismo e nicotina, além de contribuir para estratégias que possam ajudar no abandono do cigarro ou na melhora de condições que afetem a cognição (AU).


Past findings in the literature indicated that smoking could affect given cognitive functions. However, nicotine is only one of the components in cigarettes and there is evidence that it may act as a neuroprotective agent and improve some cognitive functions. The purpose of this research was to investigate how nicotine interacts with certain cognitive functions. We conducted a pilot clinical trial using nicotine gum containing 2-mg or 4-mg, or placebo gum with the same texture, flavor, and appearance. Forty-two healthy nonsmokers were enrolled in this research. Our findings indicated that the relationship between nicotine and performance on the Go/No-Go task might be opposite. The results showed that participants in the 4-mg group performed worse, while participants who used 2-mg of nicotine performed better than the others. This research supports biopsychosocial applications and can help interpret the relationship between smoking and nicotine, and contribute to strategies that may support smoking cessation, or improve conditions that affect cognition (AU).


Estudios demuestran que el tabaquismo es responsable de afectar a algunas funciones cognitivas. Sin embargo, la nicotina es solo uno de los componentes de los cigarrillos, y existen evidencias de que la nicotina puede actuar como un agente neuroprotector y mejorar algunas funciones cognitivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la nicotina interactúa con algunas funciones cognitivas. Se realizó un ensayo clínico piloto con la administración de chicles de nicotina de 2 mg o 4 mg, o chicles de placebo con la misma textura, sabor y apariencia. Cuarenta y dos participantes participaron en la investigación y los resultados indicaron que la relación entre la nicotina y el rendimiento en la tarea Go/No-go puede ser bidireccional. Los resultados indicaron que los participantes del grupo de 4 mg obtuvieron un menor rendimiento en las variables del Go/No-Go, mientras que los participantes que utilizaron 2 mg de nicotina obtuvieron un mejor rendimiento que los demás. Esta investigación respalda las aplicaciones biopsicosociales y puede ayudar a interpretar la relación entre el tabaquismo y la nicotina, además de contribuir a las estrategias que pueden ayudar a dejar de fumar o mejorar las condiciones que afectan la cognición (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Executive Function , Nicotine Chewing Gum , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Placebos/administration & dosage , Tobacco Use Disorder/psychology , Chi-Square Distribution , Pilot Projects , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance
2.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 108-116, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401066

ABSTRACT

Background: Drotaverine, a spasmolytic, has been found to have potential to achieve a reduction in the duration of labor and prevent prolonged labor. Objective: To compare the effects of intravenous drotaverine hydrochloride with placebo for shortening the duration of active phase of labor in primigravida's. Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of 246 primigravida's in active phase of labor at term was conducted. They were randomly (1:1 ratio) administered intravenous 2 ml (40mg) of drotaverine hydrochloride or 2 ml of Vitamin B complex as placebo. The primary outcome measure was the duration of active phase of labor. The secondary outcome measures were cervical dilatation rate, oxytocin augmentation rate, incidence of prolonged labor, labor pain scores, mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results: The mean duration of active phase of labor (hour) was significantly lower in the drotaverine group compared to the control (drotaverine; 6.22 ± 2.41 vs placebo; 8.33 ± 3.56; p <0.001). Also, the cervical dilatation rate (cm/hr) was significantly faster in the drotaverine arm (drotaverine; 1.68 ± 1.02 versus placebo; 1.06 ± 0.53, p <0.001). There was a significantly higher probability of faster delivery among women who were given drotaverine (log-rank test, p < 0.001). The oxytocin augmentation rate, incidence of prolonged labor, labor pain scores, mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes were not significantly different among the groups. Conclusions: Drotaverine hydrochloride is effective in shortening the duration of active phase of labor without adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, more evidence is needed to explore its role in active phase of labor among primigravid women. Trial registration number: PACTR201810902005232


Subject(s)
Parasympatholytics , Placebos , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Duration of Therapy , Telomere Shortening , Nigeria
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19516, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383980

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the effects of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract as "add- on" therapy with metformin on the lipid profile, inflammatory markers, leptin and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is a multi- center, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical study. Sixty patients were allocated into two groups: control and treatment groups; they received orally either 120 mg starch/capsule or 120mg GKB/capsule, respectively as an adjuvant with metformin for 90 days. Blood samples were obtained at zero time and after 90 days. The blood was utilized for analysis of the lipid profile, inflammatory markers, leptin, and TAOC. The GKB extract produced a significant decrease in the levels of TG, LDL-c, and CRP, with a significant increase in HDL-c compared to baseline values. There were no significant changes reported in the placebo-treated group. It also produced a significant decrease in the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and leptin compared to baseline values and placebo-treated groups with a significant increase in TAOC compared to baseline values. In conclusion, GKB extract, as an adjuvant with metformin, decreases inflammatory mediators, leptin level and improves the antioxidant status and lipid profile of T2DM patients improperly managed with metformin


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patients , Placebos/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Ginkgo biloba/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Metformin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
5.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 83(1): 12-18, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1359192

ABSTRACT

Na presente mesa-redonda apresentamos a evolução do nosso aprendizado como diretor de experimentação. Relata-se o trabalho comparado de três experimentações: A primeira com alunos do 3º ano do curso de especialização em homeopatia da Associação Médica Homeopática do Paraná e as duas seguintes com pacientes da clínica homeopática do diretor de experimentação que acederam participar das mesmas. Estes pacientes funcionais, agora experimentadores em estado de equilíbrio estável, foram convidados a participar da experimentação pelo fato de terem sido bem estudados e conhecido o medicamento homeopático que reequilibrou cada um deles. Experimentou-se, pois, um medicamento pelo "duplo-cego" em experimentadores cujo medicamento era conhecido, proceder até então inédito na experimentação homeopática. Enveredou-se por esse tipo de pesquisa pelo fato de nunca antes haver sido feita a comparação entre os sintomas comuns ao medicamento do experimentador e o medicamento experimentado. Inicialmente tal proceder objetivava, além de efetuar a comparação supracitada, confirmar ou refutar a afirmação de que os sintomas que surgem durante a experimentação são comuns ao medicamento experimentado e o experimentador e não apenas exclusivos do medicamento. Com o desenrolar das experimentações outros fatos importantes foram sendo constatados, como o retorno, anos depois, de sintomas desencadeados durante a experimentação, a confirmação do perfil dos medicamentos, sintomas não registrados na descrição das patogenesias etc. Todos esses dados são discutidos à medida que é apresentada a técnica do experimento (material e método), visto que o objetivo desta mesa-redonda é discutir os encaminhamentos para novas experimentações. Nestes encaminhamentos propõe-se: algumas adições à Ficha Clínica modelo LUIMO para experimentações, discussão sobre o perfil do experimentador ideal, formação de centrais de experimentação ancoradas em diretores de experimentação, independentemente da instituição a que pertençam, visto que as instituições permanecem mas os homens por que elas passam nem sempre têm as mesmas intenções.


Subject(s)
Placebos , Arsenicum Album , Experiment of Substances , Medical Records
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0035, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376791

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of mitomycin C in anatomical and functional success after modified transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy. Methods: A prospective, double-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled study compared the effect of topical mitomycin C on modified transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy. Group 1 had modified transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy with topical saline, while Group 2 had modified transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy with topical mitomycin C. Success was defined as anatomical patency and relief of symptoms at the end of 6 months. Results: Six months after surgery, Group 1 (30 patients) showed anatomical and functional success rates of 86.7% and 83.3%, respectively. Group 2 (32 patients) showed anatomical and functional success rates of 87.5% and 84.3%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups 1 and 2 (p = 1.000). Conclusion: The use of mitomycin C did not improve the anatomical and functional success rates of modified transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy compared to placebo.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia da mitomicina C no sucesso anatômico e funcional após dacriocistorrinostomia transcanalicular com laser de diodo. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, duplo-cego, randomizado e controlado por placebo. Comparou o efeito da mitomicina C tópica na dacriocistorrinostomia transcanalicular com laser de diodo. No Grupo 1, foi utilizada apenas solução salina tópica, enquanto no Grupo 2 foi utilizada mitomicina C tópica. O sucesso foi definido como permeabilidade da via lacrimal e alívio dos sintomas ao final de 6 meses. Resultados: Seis meses após a cirurgia, o Grupo 1 (30 pacientes) apresentou taxas de sucesso anatômico e funcional de 86,7% e 83,3%, respectivamente. O Grupo 2 (32 pacientes) apresentou taxas de sucesso anatômico e funcional de 87,5% e 84,3%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatística significante entre os Grupos 1 e 2 (p=1,000). Conclusão: O uso de mitomicina C não melhora as taxas de sucesso anatômico e funcional do dacriocistorrinostomia transcanalicular com laser de diodo em comparação ao placebo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Dacryocystorhinostomy/methods , Mitomycin/administration & dosage , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Mitomycin/pharmacology , Lasers, Semiconductor/therapeutic use , Nasolacrimal Duct/drug effects , Placebos , Random Allocation , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Dacryocystitis/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/therapy , Nasolacrimal Duct/surgery
7.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1363165

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Riociguate e outros medicamentos de controle da hipertensão pulmonar. Indicação: Tratamento de Hipertensão Pulmonar Tomboembólica Crônica (HPTEC). Pergunta: Há superioridade em eficácia e segurança do riociguate, comparado a medicamentos disponíveis no SUS, no tratamento de HPTEC inoperável ou operada com hipertensão pulmonar residual? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 4 e incluídas 2 revisões sistemáticas. Conclusão: Comparado ao placebo, em tratamento de curto prazo de HPTEC, riociguate melhora a tolerância ao exercício, aumenta a chance de melhora da classificação funcional e tem similar risco de eventos adversos sérios, porém não reduz a mortalidade. Treprostinil tem efeitos similares a riociguate. Entretanto, ambrisentana, bosentana, macitentana ou sildenafila não diferem do placebo no tratamento de HPTEC


Technology: Riociguat and other drugs to control pulmonary hypertension. Indication: Treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Question: Is riociguat more effective and safe than other drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System for the treatment of inoperable or recurrent CTEPH? Methods: Rapid review of evidence (overview) from systematic reviews, with a bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (Methodological Quality Assessment of Systematic Reviews). Results: Four systematic reviews were selected and two included in this study. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, in the short-term treatment of CTEPH, riociguat improves exercise tolerance, increases the chance of improving functional classification, and has a similar risk of serious adverse events, but does not reduce mortality. Treprostinil has similar effects to riociguat. However, ambrisentan, bosentan, macitentan or sildenafil do not differ from placebo in the treatment of CTEPH


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Guanylate Cyclase/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Placebos , Evidence-Informed Policy
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1367185

ABSTRACT

Lisdexanfetamina e drogas disponíveis no SUS (metilfenidato, bupropiona, amitriptilina, clomipramina, nortriptilina). Indicação: Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH) em crianças e adolescentes. Pergunta: Lisdexanfetamina é eficaz e segura para melhoria de sintomática, comparada ao placebo e medicações disponíveis no SUS, no tratamento de crianças e adolescentes com TDAH? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 3 revisões sistemáticas, que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Lisdexanfetamina e metilfenidato são mais eficazes que placebo, e similares entre si, para reduzir sintomas em escalas de avaliação. Lisdexanfetamina e metilfenidato têm risco similar ao placebo de abandono do tratamento devido a efeitos adversos. Bupropiona não é mais eficaz que placebo para alívio sintomático. Lisdexanfetamina tem efeitos adversos de redução do apetite e insônia/ dificuldades do sono. Não foram encontradas evidências na literatura sobre os efeitos terapêuticos de amitriptilina, clomipramina e nortriptilina no tratamento de crianças e adolescentes com TDAH


Lisdexamfetamine and drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS) (methylphenidate, bupropion, amitriptyline, clomipramine, nortriptyline, bupropion). Indication: Children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Question: Lisdexamfetamine is effective and safe for symptomatic improvement, compared to placebo and drugs available in the BPHS, for treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD? Methods: Rapid response review of evidence (overview) of systematic reviews, with bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews). Results: 3 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria and were selected. Conclusion: Lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate are more effective than placebo, and similar to each other, to reduce symptoms on rating scales. Lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate are not different from placebo in the risk of treatment discontinuation due to adverse effects. Bupropion is no more effective than placebo for symptomatic relief. Lisdexamfetamine has adverse effects of decreased appetite and insomnia/sleep troubles. No evidence was found in the literature about therapeutic effects of amitriptyline, clomipramine and nortriptyline for treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Bupropion/therapeutic use , Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate/therapeutic use , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Placebos , Clomipramine/therapeutic use , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Nortriptyline/therapeutic use
9.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 262, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147578

ABSTRACT

El bloqueo del nervio peri prostático con lidocaína, proporciona un buen alivio del dolor en la realización de la biopsia prostática guiada por ultrasonido, pero el dolor post-procedimiento, puede llegar a ser significativo, la adición del supositorio de diclofenac, podría proporcionar alivio adicional. Se asignaron al azar pacientes en 2 grupos el grupo 1 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de diclofenac sódico y el grupo 2 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de placebo, realizando biopsia doble sextante, el dolor a varios intervalos después del procedimiento se registró en una escala visual análoga (EVA) de 0 a 10. Los 2 grupos fueron similares en cuanto a edad, volumen de próstata, antígeno prostático específico, diagnóstico histopatológico. Los pacientes que recibieron diclofenac tuvieron puntajes de dolor significativamente más bajos que los que recibieron placebo (2 frente a 3,35) p 0,02. La administración rectal de diclofenac antes de la realización de la biopsia de próstata es un procedimiento simple que alivia significativamente el dolor experimentado sin aumento en la morbilidad(AU)


The peri-prostatic nerve block with lidocaine, provides good pain relief in performing ultrasoundguided prostate biopsy, but the postprocedure pain can be significant, the addition of diclofenac suppository, could provide additional relief. Patients were randomly assigned in 2 groups to group 1 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + suppository of diclofenac sodium and group 2 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + placebo suppository, performing double sextant biopsy, pain at several intervals after the procedure was recorded on a visual analog scale (EVA) from 0 to 10. Thee 2 groups were similar in terms of age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, histopathological diagnosis. Patients who received diclofenac had pain scores significantly lower than those who received placebo (2 vs. 3.35) p 0.02. Rectal administration of diclofenac before performing a prostate biopsy is a simple procedure that relieves significantly pain experienced without increased morbidity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Nerve Block/methods , Placebos/therapeutic use , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Administration, Rectal , Prospective Studies , Pain Management/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy , Anesthesia, Local
10.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 32: e3274, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360518

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito da massagem ou pseudomassagem no desempenho do salto vertical. Quinze participantes foram submetidos aleatoriamente a três condições experimentais: massagem, pseudomassagem e repouso. A condição de massagem exigiu três saltos verticais unipodais seguidos de dois minutos de massagem manual nos músculos flexores plantares e, antes de executar outros três saltos, foi aplicada a Escala de Recuperação de Qualidade Total (TQR). As duas condições a seguir foram estruturadas com os mesmos procedimentos, no entanto, os participantes foram submetidos à pseudomassagem (simples-cego) ou a dois minutos de descanso. Os resultados não mostraram diferenças estatísticas na altura do salto entre as análises pré e pós, nem entre as condições experimentais (massagem 18,7 ± 4,1 vs. 18,2 ± 4,1; pseudomassagem 19,1 ± 4,0 vs. 18,3 ± 3,8; descanso 19,0 ± 4,0 vs. 18,7 ± 3,9 cm). Também não houve diferenças estatísticas no TQR entre as condições experimentais (massagem 16,2 ± 4,3; pseudomassagem 16,4 ± 3,9; descanso 15,9 ± 2,6 ua). Tanto a massagem quanto a pseudomassagem não afetaram o desempenho no salto vertical e na TQR.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to verify the effect of massage or pseudo massage on vertical jump performance. Fifteen participants were randomly subjected to three experimental conditions: massage, pseudo massage and rest. The massage condition required three unipodal vertical jumps followed by two minutes of manual massage on plantar flexor muscles and, before performing another three jumps, the Total Quality Recover Scale (TQR) was applied. The two following conditions were structured with the same procedures, although participants were submitted either at pseudo massage (single-blinded) or two minutes of rest. Results showed no statistical differences on jump height between pre and post analysis nor between experimental conditions (massage 18.7 ± 4.1 vs 18.2 ± 4.1; pseudo massage 19.1 ± 4.0 vs 8.3 ± 3.8; rest 19.0 ± 4.0 vs 18.7 ± 3.9 cm). There were also no statistical differences in the TQR results between experimental conditions (massage 16.2 ± 4.3; pseudo massage 16.4 ± 3.9; rest 15.9 ± 2.6 ua). Both massage and pseudo massage did not affect performance on vertical jump and TQR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Placebos , Massage/instrumentation , Relaxation , Men , Muscles
12.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 50: e20210045, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352135

ABSTRACT

Introduction Gingivitis is a gingival inflammation which can often be treated with oral hygiene such as brushing, flossing, and an antiseptic mouthwash. Objective The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to clinically evaluate the effectiveness of 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution as an anti-inflammatory agent and for reducing the presence of plaque and inflammation in young adults. Material and method Thirty patients with gingivitis aged 18 to 30 years with a probing depth ≤ 3 mm and a minimum of 20 teeth in the whole mouth were selected and evaluated at baseline and 30 days after treatment. Periodontal clinical parameters were verified: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), Simplified Debris Index (DI-S), and Simplified Calculus Index (CI-S) Patients were then randomly allocated into two groups: CHX Group, received chlorhexidine 0.12% labeled as solution 1, and Placebo Group, received saline solution labeled as solution 2. Both groups were included in a hygiene program and received mouthwash. Result Statistically significant differences between CHX and Placebo groups were observed for the variables PI, GI, DI-S, CI-S, and OHI-S (p<0.05 - Paired T Test) after 30 days. The CHX group presented improved GI compared to Placebo at 30 days. Chlorhexidine 0.12% was efficient in the control of periodontium inflammation. Conclusion It can be concluded that chlorhexidine as a mouthwash is efficient in improving periodontal indices in young adults, but it is still controversial whether age can influence GI and OHI-S.


Introdução A gengivite é uma inflamação gengival que geralmente pode ser tratada com higiene oral, como escovação, uso do fio dental e um anti-séptico bucal. Objetivo O objetivo deste ensaio clínico randomizado foi avaliar clinicamente a eficácia da solução de clorexidina 0,12% (CHX) como um agente antiinflamatório e na redução da presença de placa e inflamação em adultos jovens. Material e método Trinta pacientes com gengivite com idade entre 18 e 30 anos com profundidade de sondagem ≤ 3 mm com mínimo de 20 dentes em toda a boca foram selecionados e avaliados no início do estudo e 30 dias após o tratamento. Foram verificados os parâmetros clínicos periodontais: índice de placa (IP), índice gengival (GI), Índice de Higiene Oral Simplificado (IHO-S), Índice de Debris Simplificado (DI-S) e Índice de Cálculo Simplificado (IC-S). A seguir, os pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Grupo CHX, recebeu clorexidina 0,12% previamente identificada como solução 1 e grupo placebo, recebeu solução salina identificada como solução 2. Ambos os grupos foram incluídos em programa de higiene e receberam enxaguatório bucal. Resultado Diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos CHX e Placebo foi observada para as variáveis ​​PI, GI, DI-S, CI-S e OHI-S (p <0,05 - Teste T Pareado) após 30 dias. O grupo CHX melhorou a resposta ao GI em comparação ao placebo em 30 dias. Clorexidina 0,12% foi eficiente no controle da inflamação do periodonto. Conclusão Pode-se concluir que a eficácia da clorexidina como enxaguatório bucal na melhora dos índices periodontais foi confirmada em adultos jovens, mas ainda é controverso que a idade pode influenciar o IG e IHO-S.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Oral Hygiene , Periodontitis , Placebos , Chlorhexidine , Oral Hygiene Index , Periodontal Index , Gingivitis , Mouthwashes , Adolescent , Adult
14.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 34-38, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102292

ABSTRACT

Las mujeres han sido tratadas por décadas con testosterona intentando aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas con riesgos y beneficios inciertos. En la mayoría de los países, la testosterona se prescribe "off-label", de modo que las mujeres están utilizando compuestos y dosis ideadas para tratamientos en hombres. En este sentido, varias sociedades médicas de distintos continentes adoptaron recientemente por consenso una toma de posición sobre los beneficios y potenciales riesgos de la terapia con testosterona en la mujer, explorar las áreas de incertidumbre e identificar prácticas de prescripción con potencial de causar daño. Las recomendaciones con respecto a los beneficios y riesgos de la terapia con testosterona se basan en los resultados de ensayos clínicos controlados con placebo de al menos 12 semanas de duración. A continuación se comentan las recomendaciones. (AU)


There are currently no clear established indications for testosterone replacement therapy for women. Nonetheless, clinicians have been treating women with testosterone to alleviate a variety of symptoms for decades with uncertainty regarding its benefits and risks. In most countries, testosterone therapy is prescribed off-label, which means that women are using testosterone formulations or compounds approved for men with a modified dose for women. Due to these issues, there was a need for a global Consensus Position Statement on testosterone therapy for women based on the available evidence from placebo randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This Position Statement was developed to inform health care professionals about the benefits and potential risks of testosterone therapy intended for women. The aim of the Consensus was to provide clear guidance as to which women might benefit from testosterone therapy; to identify symptoms, signs, and certain conditions for which the evidence does not support the prescription of testosterone; to explore areas of uncertainty, and to identify any prescribing practices that have the potential to cause harm. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Postmenopause/drug effects , Appetite Depressants/adverse effects , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Placebos/administration & dosage , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Testosterone/analysis , Testosterone/adverse effects , Testosterone/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Indomethacin/adverse effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/adverse effects , Postmenopause/physiology , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Cholinergic Antagonists/adverse effects , Contraceptives, Oral/adverse effects , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/etiology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/therapy , Danazol/adverse effects , Consensus , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Off-Label Use , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Amphetamines/adverse effects , Histamine Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Androgens/physiology , Ketoconazole/adverse effects , Narcotics/adverse effects
15.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 62-67, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Posttonsillectomy pain results in significant morbidity to the patients. There is a disagreement in the literature regarding the use of local anesthetics during tonsillectomy. The aim of this placebo-controlled, double-blind study is to evaluate the effect of peritonsillar administration of local anesthetics. Objective To evaluate the role of intraoperative use of analgesics in tonsillar fossa and postoperative evaluation with visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in achieving pain relief after tonsillectomy procedure Methods In this study, 180 patients were randomized to 1 of the 6 groups: bupivacaine infiltration, lidocaine infiltration, normal saline infiltration, bupivacaine packing, lidocaine packing, and normal saline packing. Pain caused by speaking, swallowing, and on rest was assessed using VAS at 4, 8, 12, 16 hours, and at discharge. Results Significant analgesia was obtained in patients who received bupivacaine infiltration and packing compared with placebo (p < 0.05). The majority of the study subjects had no postoperative complications, and patients receiving bupivacaine infiltration required less additional analgesics in the first 24 hours after surgery. Conclusion We advocate the use of bupivacaine infiltration or packing immediately following the procedure to achieve adequate postoperative analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Tonsillectomy , Analgesia , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Care , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pakistan , Placebos/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Pain Measurement/methods , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Injections, Intravenous , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/therapeutic use
16.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e1318, fev.2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1125471

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a efetividade das essências florais de Bach na redução dos níveis de estresse docente. Método: ensaio clínico controlado, randomizado, duplo-cego, com delineamento prospectivo. Foram utilizados na coleta de dados um formulário validado à luz da teoria de Betty Neuman e três instrumentos, um na perspectiva perceptiva (PSS-14), o outro na prevalência dos sinais e sintomas (LSS) e um de avaliação dos aspectos bioeletrográfico (FAAB). A amostra foi constituída de 27 professores da rede básica de ensino com estresse médio e alto, distribuídos em dois grupos: intervenção (GI) e que recebeu floral e placebo (GP). Resultados: o GI mostrou-se efetivo na redução do estresse, sendo estatisticamente significante intragrupo com a diminuição das médias dos escores do PSS-14 (p=0,004, LSS - p = 0,000) e da bioeletrografia (p=0,011); bem como entre grupos com p-valor de 0,035 para LSS e FAAB com p= 0,001. Conclusão: as essências florais do sistema Bach mostraram-se efetivos no cuidado do estresse docente com a reestruturação da linha flexível de defesa, refletindo melhor relacionamento do professor com os estressores intra, inter e extrapessoais. Este estudo está registrado no ReBEC com o nº. UTN: U1111-1208-4987.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de las esencias florales de Bach para reducir los niveles de estrés del personal docente. Método: ensayo clínico controlado, aleatorizado, doble ciego con diseño prospectivo. En la recogida de datos se utilizó un formulario validado a la luz de la teoría de Betty Neuman y tres instrumentos: uno en la perspectiva perceptiva (PSS-14), otro en la prevalencia de signos y síntomas (LSS) y otro para la evaluación de aspectos bioelectrográficos (FAAB) La muestra consistió en 27 profesores de educación básica con estrés medio y alto, divididos en dos grupos: intervención (GI), que recibió esencias florales, y placebo (GP). Resultados: el GI demostró ser efectivo para la reducción del estrés, siendo estadísticamente significativo dentro del grupo con disminución en las puntuaciones medias del PSS-14 (p = 0.004, LSS - p = 0.000) y bioelectrografía (p = 0.011); así como entre grupos con un valor de p de 0.035 para LSS y FAAB con p = 0.001. Conclusión: las Flores de Bach demostraron ser efectivas en el manejo del estrés de los docentes con la reestructuración de la línea flexible de defensa, reflejando una mejor relación entre el profesor y los estresores intra, inter y extrapersonales. El presente estudio está registrado en ReBEC bajo el nº. UTN: U1111-1208-4987.


ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of Bach flower essences in reducing teachers' stress levels. Method: a controlled, randomized, and double-blind clinical trial with a prospective design. In data collection, a form validated in the light of Betty Neuman's theory and another three instruments were used, one in the perceptive perspective (PSS-14), the second in the prevalence of the signs and symptoms (LSS), and the third for the evaluation of the bio-electrographic aspects (FAAB). The sample consisted of 27 teachers from the basic education network, with medium and high levels of stress and divided into two groups: intervention group (IG), the one that received Bach flower essences, and placebo group (PG). Results: the IG proved to be effective in reducing stress, being statistically significant intra-group with the decrease in the mean scores of PSS-14 (p=0.004), LSS (p=0.000), and bioelectrography (p=0.011); as well as between groups with a p-value of 0.035 for LSS, and FAAB with p=0.001. Conclusion: the Bach flower essences proved to be effective in the care of teachers' stress with the re-structuring of the flexible line of defense, reflecting in a better relationship between the teacher and intra-, inter-, and extra-personal stressors. This study is registered in the ReBEC under UTN Nº U1111-1208-4987.


Subject(s)
Humans , Placebos/therapeutic use , Psychiatric Nursing , Stress, Psychological , Therapeutics , Flower Essences , Faculty/psychology , Educational Personnel/statistics & numerical data
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 87-90, Jan.-Feb. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098055

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease comprises two distinct conditions - Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis - which can be treated with immunomodulators. A non-neglectable proportion of these patients will need biologic therapy, and many patients under biologic treatment will experience either primary or secondary failure. As a consequence, clinical trials evaluating new therapeutic alternatives are being developed. These trials share common features, such as being controlled with placebo. Placebo use in clinical trials is a matter of intense debate. Those who support placebo use highlight the methodologic advantages placebo-controlled trials have. Those against placebo use argue that it would be against ethical principles in clinical research to expose a patient to placebo when a valid therapeutic alternative exists. In this review, we summarize the existing arguments for and against the use of placebo in the context of inflammatory bowel disease research. We finally suggest that it is very likely that in the near future inflammatory bowel disease trials will no longer be controlled with a placebo arm, but instead they will be non-inferiority trials with an active comparator.


RESUMO A doença inflamatória intestinal compreende duas condições distintas: a doença de Crohn e a retocolite ulcerativa, que podem ser tratadas com imunomoduladores. Uma proporção não negligenciável desses pacientes necessitará de terapia biológica e, muitos destes em tratamento biológico, experimentarão falha primária ou secundária. Como consequência, ensaios clínicos avaliando novas alternativas terapêuticas estão sendo desenvolvidos. Estes ensaios partilham características comuns, tais como ser controlado com placebo. O uso de placebo em ensaios clínicos é uma questão de intenso debate. Aqueles que apoiam o uso do placebo destacam as vantagens metodológicas que os ensaios controlados com placebo têm. Aqueles contra o uso de placebo argumentam que seria contra os princípios éticos na investigação clínica expor um paciente ao placebo quando uma alternativa terapêutica válida existe. Nesta revisão, resumimos os argumentos existentes a favor e contra o uso de placebo no contexto da pesquisa de doença inflamatória intestinal. Finalmente, sugerimos que é muito provável que em um futuro próximo os ensaios de doença inflamatória intestinal não serão mais controlados com um braço placebo; em vez disso, serão feitos ensaios de não-inferioridade com um comparador ativo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Placebos , Clinical Trials as Topic
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190025, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056588

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontal therapy usually requires local anesthesia. If effective, a non-invasive, liposomal anesthetic gel could increase the levels of acceptance of patients in relation to periodontal therapy. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy of liposomal anesthetic gel for pain control during periodontal therapy. Methodology: Forty volunteers with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were recruited, of which at least three sextants required periodontal therapy. At least one of the selected teeth had one site with a probing depth of ≥4 mm. The volunteers received the following three gels: a placebo, lidocaine/prilocaine (Oraqix®), or a liposomal lidocaine/prilocaine, which were applied to different sextants. Pain frequency was registered during treatment and the volunteers received a digital counter to register any painful or uncomfortable experiences. At the end of each session, the volunteers indicated their pain intensity using rating scales (NRS-101 and VRS-4). The volunteers had their hemodynamic parameters measured by a non-invasive digital monitor. Results: Pain frequency/intensity did not show statistical difference between intervention groups. The tested gels did not interfere with the hemodynamic indices. Dental anxiety, suppuration and probing depth could influence pain during periodontal therapy. Conclusion: Our results suggest limited indications for the use of non-invasive anesthesia when used for scaling and root planing. Intra-pocket anesthetic gel could be a good option for anxious patients, or those who have a fear of needles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain/prevention & control , Dental Scaling/adverse effects , Root Planing/adverse effects , Gels/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Dental/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Periodontal Pocket , Placebos , Prilocaine/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement/methods , Double-Blind Method , Chronic Periodontitis/complications , Chronic Periodontitis/therapy , Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination , Lidocaine/administration & dosage
19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3369, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1139217

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of ginge (Zingiber officinale) in reducing blood sugar and lipid levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Method: a randomized and double-blind clinical trial conducted with people with type 2 diabetes in primary care facilities. The study included individuals aged between 20 and 80 years old, using oral antidiabetic drugs and with HbA1c levels between 6.0% and 10%. The participants were paired 1:1, allocated in two distinct groups, and randomized in blocks, based on their HbA1c levels. In the experimental group, the participants used 1.2g of ginger and, in the control group, 1.2g of placebo, daily for 90 days. The primary outcome was a reduction in fasting blood sugar and HbA1c, and the secondary outcome was a reduction in lipids and HOMA-IR. 103 individuals completed the study, 47 in the experimental group and 56 in the control group. Results: the participants in the experimental group showed a greater reduction in the blood glucose and total cholesterol values compared to the control group. Conclusion: the use of ginger can help in the treatment of people with diabetes, and data support the inclusion of this herbal drug in the clinical practice of nurses. RBR-2rt2wy


Objetivo: avaliar a efetividade do gengibre (Zingiber officinale) na redução de níveis glicêmicos e lipídicos de pessoas com diabetes tipo 2. Método: ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo cego, conduzido com pessoas com diabetes tipo 2, em unidades de atenção primária à saúde. Foram incluídos no estudo indivíduos com idade entre 20 e 80 anos, em uso de antidiabéticos orais e com valores de HbA1c entre 6,0% e 10%. Os participantes foram pareados de 1:1, alocados em dois grupos distintos e randomizados em blocos, com base nos valores de HbA1c. No grupo experimental os participantes usaram 1,2g de gengibre, e no grupo controle 1,2g de placebo, diariamente, durante 90 dias. Os desfechos primários foram a redução da glicemia venosa de jejum e HbA1c, e os secundários a redução dos lipídicos e HOMA-IR. 103 pessoas concluíram o estudo, encontrando-se 47 no grupo experimental e 56 no grupo controle. Resultados: os participantes do grupo experimental apresentaram melhor redução dos valores de glicemia e colesterol total, em comparação com o grupo controle. Conclusão: o uso do gengibre pode auxiliar o tratamento das pessoas com a diabetes, e os dados dão suporte para a inserção desse fitoterápico na prática clínica dos enfermeiros. RBR-2rt2wy


Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia del jengibre (Zingiber officinale) en la reducción de los niveles glucémicos y de lípidos en personas con diabetes tipo 2. Método: ensayo clínico aleatorizado y doble ciego, realizado con personas con diabetes tipo 2 en unidades de atención primaria de salud. Se incluyeron en el estudio individuos con edades comprendidas entre 20 y 80 años, que utilizaban antidiabéticos orales y con valores de HbA1c entre 6,0% y 10%. Los participantes fueron comparados de forma equitativa (1:1), asignados a dos grupos distintos y aleatorizados en bloques, basados en sus valores de HbA1c. En el grupo experimental, los participantes utilizaron 1,2 g de jengibre, y en el grupo de control 1,2 g de placebo, diariamente durante 90 días. Los resultados primarios fueron la reducción de glucemia venosa en ayunas y de HbA1c, y los resultados secundarios fueron la reducción de lípidos y del índice HOMA-IR. El estudio contó con la participación de 103 personas, 47 en el grupo experimental y 56 en el grupo de control. Resultados: los participantes del grupo experimental presentaron una mayor reducción en los valores de glucosa y colesterol total, en comparación con el grupo de control Conclusión: el uso del jengibre puede ayudar en el tratamiento de personas con diabetes, y los datos respaldan la introducción de este fitoterapéutico en la práctica clínica de los enfermeros. RBR-2rt2wy


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Placebos , Therapeutics , Effectiveness , Blood Glucose , Double-Blind Method , Control Groups , Ginger , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Hypoglycemic Agents , Lipids
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e031, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089386

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Probiotic therapy is a viable alternative to chlorhexidine, a widely used antiseptic in dentistry that produces significant adverse effects. This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of probiotics on experimental gingivitis in humans. Two independent reviewers conducted a comprehensive literature search until March 2019. Randomized clinical trials and controlled clinical trials were selected. Outcome data were extracted and critically analyzed. A total of five articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. No meta-analysis could be conducted due to the heterogeneity of the selected studies. The use of probiotics showed a slight improvement in clinical parameters. Changes in gingival crevicular fluid volume were lower in the presence of the probiotic than in the placebo group. All the studies showed that the immediate, positive effects of probiotics during the period of discontinued mechanical oral hygiene were due to the modulation of the host response, not the anti-plaque effect. Investigators should conduct randomized clinical trials to elucidate the mechanisms of probiotic action and develop improved delivery systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Gingivitis/prevention & control , Placebos , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Microbiota , Gingivitis/physiopathology
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