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1.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 430-441, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985664

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the expression profile of circular RNA (circRNA) in placenta of pre-eclampsia (PE) pregnant women by high-throughput sequencing, and to construct the circRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-messenger RNA (mRNA) interaction network, so as to reveal the related pathways and regulatory mechanisms of PE. Methods: The clinical data and placentas of 42 women with PE (PE group) and 30 normal pregnant women (control group) who delivered in West China Second University Hospital from November 2019 to June 2021 were collected. (1) High-throughput sequencing was used to establish the differentially expressed circRNA profiles in placental tissues of 5 pairs of PE group and the control group. (2) Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the expression levels of 6 differentially expressed circRNAs in placental tissues of PE group and control group. (3) Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the target miRNA and analyze the co-expressed mRNA to construct a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. The differentially expressed circRNAs were analyzed by Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. (4) Logistic regression analysis, Pearson correlation and Kendall's tau-b correlation analysis were used to test the correlation between the three differentially expressed circRNAs and the risk of PE and clinical characteristics. (5) circRNA_05393 was selected for subsequent functional study. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression plasmid were used to knock down or increase the expression level of circRNA_05393 in trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo cells, respectively. Transwell assay was used to detect the migration and invasion ability of the trophoblasts in vitro. Cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect the proliferation ability of the trophoblasts. Results: (1) Seventy-two differentially expressed circRNAs were identified by high-throughput sequencing, of which 35 were up-regulated and 37 were down-regulated. (2) qRT-PCR showed that compared with the control group, circRNA_00673 (1.306±0.168 vs 2.059±0.242; t=2.356, P=0.021) and circRNA_07796 (1.275±0.232 vs 1.954±0.230; t=2.018, P=0.047) were significantly increased, while circRNA_05393 (1.846±0.377 vs 0.790±0.094; t=3.138, P=0.002) was significantly decreased. (3) The circRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction network contained 3 circRNAs, 8 miRNAs and 53 mRNAs. GO functional annotation analysis showed that the biological process was mainly enriched in iron ion homeostasis, membrane depolarization during action potential and neuronal action potential. In terms of cellular components, they were mainly enriched in cytoskeleton and membrane components. In terms of molecular function, they were mainly enriched in the activity of voltage-gated sodium channel and basic amino acid transmembrane transporter. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that mRNAs in the interaction network were mainly enriched in complement and coagulation cascade, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, p53 signaling pathway and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway. (4) Logistic regression analysis showed that down-regulation of circRNA_05393 expression was a risk factor for PE (OR=0.044, 95%CI: 0.003-0.596; P=0.019). Correlation analysis showed that circRNA_05393 was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in PE pregnant women (both P<0.05). (5) Knock down or overexpression of circRNA_05393 significantly reduced or increased the migration and invasion abilities of HTR-8/SVneo cells (all P<0.05), but had no significant effect on the ability of tube formation and proliferation (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The construction of circRNA expression profile in placenta and the exploration of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction network provide the possibility to reveal the regulatory mechanism of specific circRNA involved in PE. Inhibition of circRNA_05393 may induce the progression of PE by reducing the migration and invasion of trophoblasts.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Circular/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Gene Expression Profiling
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 71-77, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association of the anti-oxidative damage factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted. The neonates who were hospitalized in Yanbian Hospital from 2019 to 2020 were enrolled as subjects, among whom there were 30 infants with PPROM, 32 infants with term premature rupture of membranes (TPROM), and 35 full-term infants without premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the inflammatory changes of placental tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to measure the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 in placental tissue. Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 in placental tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the PPROM group, the TPROM group and the non-PROM full-term group had significantly higher positive expression rates and relative protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 in placental tissue (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the positive expression rates and relative protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 in placental tissue between the TPROM and non-PROM full-term groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The low expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 in placental tissue may be associated with PPROM, suggesting that anti-oxidative damage is one of the directions to prevent PPROM.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Infant, Premature , Oxidative Stress , Placenta/metabolism , Prospective Studies
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 418-424, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify new biomarkers and molecular pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS) by analyzing differentially expressed miRNAs in the placentas and their biological pathways.@*METHODS@#Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs in DS (n=3) and normal placental samples (n=3) diagnosed by prenatal diagnosis. The target genes were predicted using miRWalk, Targetscan and miRDB, and GO and KEGG pathway analyses were performed for gene enrichment studies.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 82 differentially expressed miRNAs in the placental tissues of DS, including 29 up-regulated miRNAs (fold change ≥2, P < 0.05) and 15 down-regulated miRNAs (fold change ≥2, P < 0.05), among which 10 miRNAs with relatively high expression abundance were selected for further analysis, including 4 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated miRNAs. These selected miRNAs shared the common target genes BTBD3 and AUTS2, both of which were associated with neurodevelopment. GO analysis showed that the target genes of the selected miRNAs were mainly enriched in protein binding, hydrolytic enzymes, metal ion binding protein combining, transferase activity, nucleotide, cytoplasmic constituents, nucleus composition, transcriptional regulation, RNA metabolism regulation, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase Ⅱ promoter transcriptional regulation, eye development, and sensory organ development. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in the signaling pathways including tumor-related signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, Ras signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway, cytoskeletal regulatory signaling pathway, purine metabolization-related signaling pathway and P53 signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#The differentially expressed miRNAs may play important roles in placental damage and pregnancy pathology in DS and provide clues for the prevention and treatment of mental retardation-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Down Syndrome/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Transcriptome , Exome Sequencing
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1358-1364, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385496

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs) are defined as nucleolar components containing argyrophilic proteins selectively stained by silver methods (AgNORs). Several investigations have shown the AgNOR quantity and area represent a valuable parameter of cell kinetics, since they reflect the level of activity and cellular proliferation. This article addresses an evaluation of the functional activity and relation between days of pregnancy and proliferative capacity of trophoblastic mononucleate and binucleate cells from bovine placentomes. Both the number and size of AgNORs were determined in different phases of gestation by silver nitrate staining in conventional histological slides. The results showed a significant increase (from 1 to 12 AgNORs) in the number of AgNORS per trophoblastic mononucleate cell in the 3rd trimester, with predominance of 4-6 AgNORs/cell. In the 1st and 2nd trimesters, the number ranged between 1 and 9 AgNORs/cell, with predominance of 1-3 AgNORs. No significant differences were observed between the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, but in the first, in binucleate cells (19-27 and 10-18 AgNORs/cell, respectively) - this number was higher than the one registered in trophoblastic mononucleate cells in the same period. Thus, AgNORs can be used as markers of the proliferative placental cell cycle and established a relation between number of AgNORs and days of gestation. This relation can be used for diagnoses and prognoses of several placental pathologies, including pregnancy losses from manipulated embryos.


RESUMEN: Las Regiones Organizadoras de Nucléolos (NOR) se definen como componentes nucleolares que contienen proteínas argirofílicas teñidas selectivamente por métodos de plata (AgNOR). Varias investigaciones han demostrado que la cantidad y el área de AgNOR representan un parámetro importante de la cinética celular, ya que reflejan el nivel de actividad y proliferación celular. Este trabajo analiza la actividad funcional y la relación entre los días de preñez y la capacidad proliferativa de las células trofoblásticas mononucleadas y binucleadas de placentomas bovinos. Tanto el número como el tamaño de los AgNOR se determinaron en diferentes fases de la gestación mediante tinción con nitrato de plata en portaobjetos histológicos convencionales. Los resultados mostraron un aumento significativo (de 1 a 12 AgNOR) en el número de AgNORS por célula mononucleada trofoblástica en el tercer trimestre, con predominio de 4-6 AgNOR / célula. En el primer y segundo trimestre, el número osciló entre 1 y 9 AgNOR / célula, con predominio de 1-3 AgNOR. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre el 2do y 3er trimester; en el primer trimestre, en células binucleadas (19-27 y 10-18 AgNORs / célula, respectivamente) - este número fue superior a la cantidad registrada en células mononucleadas trofoblásticas en el mismo período. Por tanto, los AgNOR se pueden utilizar como marcadores del ciclo celular placentario proliferativo y se establece una relación entre el número de AgNOR y los días de gestación. Esta relación puede ser útil en el diagnóstico y pronóstico de varias patologías placentarias, incluidas las pérdidas de preñeces de embriones manipulados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Placenta/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Nucleolus Organizer Region/metabolism
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 38-44, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385304

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: GDM is linked with overexpression of inflammatory cytokines and increased oxidative stress, leading to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disorder. Weaimed to examine the expression of ADAMTS13 and PCNA in the placentas of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients to investigate the effects of hypoxia, induced by GDM, on proliferation and extracellular matrix formation in the maternal and fetal placenta cells. A total of 60 placentas were collected from pregnant women admitted to the obstetrics clinic. Thirty of them were diagnosed with GDM, and 30 of them were diagnosed with non-GDM patients. Samples were fixed in 10 % formaldehyde, after routine follow-up, embedded in paraffin wax. Sections of 5 µm were cut stained with Mayer Hematoxylin-Eosin, examined under a light microscope. Sections for immunohistochemical analysis were cut and processed for antigen retrievalin citrate solution. Sections were incubated with ADAMTS13 and PCNA primary antibodies, counterstained with hematoxylin, and evaluate under a light microscope. In histopathological examination, the non-diabetic placentas showed that decidua cells in the maternal region were polygonal with oval nuclei and organized in groups. In the GDM group, there were pyknosis and apoptotic changes in decidua cell nuclei. Vacuolar areas were observed in large cavities in maternal connective tissue. Inflammation and dilatation with congestion were observed in the blood vessels of the villus. In the GDM group, positive ADAMTS13 expression was observed in the decidua cells vascular endothelial cells, and surrounding connective tissue fibroblast cells. In the GDM group, a significant increase in PCNA expression was observed in decidua cells, connective tissue cells and endothelial cells. Functional changes in ADAMTS13 proteases and PCNA were thought to induce maternal and fetal complications by stimulating extracellular matrix development.


RESUMEN: La diabetes gestacional está relacionada con la sobreexpresión de citocinas inflamatorias y aumento del estrés oxidativo, lo que lleva a una disfunción endotelial y un trastorno vascular. Nuestro objetivo fue examinar la expresión de ADAMTS13 y PCNA en las placentas con diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) para investigar los efectos de la hipoxia inducida por DMG sobre la proliferación y formación de matriz extracelular en células placentarias maternas y fetales. Se recolectaron un total de 60 placentas de mujeres embarazadas ingresadas a la consulta de obstetricia. Treinta de ellas fueron diagnosticadas con DMG y 30 diagnosticadas sin DMG. Las muestras se fijaron en formaldehído al 10 %, y luego de un seguimiento de rutina, fueron embebidas en parafina. Se cortaron secciones de 5 µm teñidas con hematoxilina-eosina de Mayer, las que fueron examinadas bajo un microscopio óptico. Se cortaron y procesaron las secciones para el análisis inmunohistoquímico para la recuperación de antígeno en solución de citrato. Las secciones se incubaron con anticuerpos primarios ADAMTS13 y PCNA, se contratiñeron con hematoxilina y se evalua- ron con un microscopio óptico. En el examen histopatológico, las placentas no diabéticas mostraron que las células de la decidua en la región materna eran poligonales con núcleos ovalados y organizadas en grupos. En el grupo de DMG, se observó picnosis y cambios apoptóticos en los núcleos de las células de la decidua. Se observaron áreas vacuolares en el tejido conectivo materno. En los vasos sanguíneos de las vellosidades se observó inflamación y dilatación con congestión. En el grupo de DMG, se observó expresión positiva de ADAMTS13 en las células de la decidua, en las células endoteliales vasculares y en los fibroblastos del tejido conectivo circundante. En el grupo de DMG se observó un aumento significativo de la expresión de PCNA en células de la decidua, células de tejido conectivo y en las células endoteliales. Se considera que los cambios funcionales en las proteasas ADAMTS13 y PCNA inducen a complicaciones maternas y fetales al estimular el desarrollo de la matriz extracelular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Placenta/metabolism , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e11073, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249327

ABSTRACT

The study evaluated the effect of the supernatant of placental explants from preeclamptic (PE) and normotensive (NT) pregnant women after tissue treatment with or without vitamin D (VD) on oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Placental explants were prepared from eight NT and eight PE women, and supernatants were obtained after incubation with or without hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or VD. HUVEC were cultured for 24 h with supernatants, and the following parameters were analyzed in HUVEC cultures: NO, nitrate (NO3-), and nitrite (NO2-) levels, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results showed that the production of NO3-, NO2-, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ROS were significantly higher in HUVEC treated with explant supernatant from PE compared to NT pregnant women, while the supernatant of PE explants treated with VD led to a decrease in these parameters. A significantly high production of NO was detected in HUVEC cultured with control supernatant of NT group, and in cultures treated with supernatant of PE explants treated with VD. Taken together, these results demonstrated that cultures of placental explants from PE women with VD treatment generated a supernatant that decreased oxidative stress and increased the bioavailability of NO in endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Biological Availability , Cells, Cultured , Oxidative Stress , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Hydrogen Peroxide
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1294-1298, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040127

ABSTRACT

La placenta es un anexo embrionario de los mamíferos que tiene por función principal el intercambio de nutrientes y gases y proteger al concepto de un potencial daño inmune provocado por diferencias alogénicas en los Complejos Principales de Histocompatibilidad paternos. Se han descrito diversas proteínas asociadas a su función, siendo Calreticulina una de ellas. Si bien existen estudios de la presencia de Calreticulina en placenta humana, no existen reportes de esta proteína en la placenta canina. Se obtuvieron muestras de placenta canina de las que se extrajo el contenido proteico total y se determinó la presencia de Calreticulina por western blot e inmunohistoquímica. Los resultados mostraron presencia de Calreticulina en placenta canina con un peso molecular aparente de 60 kDa, concordante con lo descrito para la molécula por otros autores. El análisis inmunohistoquímico mostró que Calreticulina canina está presente principalmente en el trofoblasto de las vellosidades, no existiendo diferencias en cuanto a su localización al compararla con placenta humana, pese a sus diferencias morfológicas e histológicas. Esta información permitirá establecer un protocolo estandarizado de extracción de Calreticulina desde placenta, así como orientar acerca de los posibles roles de esta molécula en la placenta.


The placenta is an embryonic organ present in mammals, whose main functions are the exchange of nutrients and gases and to protect the fetus from potential immune damage mediated by paternal and maternal allogeneic differences in the Major Histocompatibility Complex. Several proteins associated with its function have been described, being Calreticulin one of them. Although there are studies on the presence of Calreticulin in human placenta, there are no reports of this protein in canine placenta. Samples from canine placenta were obtained, proteins extracted and Calreticulin was subsequently detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results showed the presence of Calreticulin in canine placenta with an apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa, in agreement with the results from other authors. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that canine Calreticulin is present mainly in the trophoblast of the villi, and there is no difference in its localization when compared with a blood-filled placenta such as human one, despite its morphological and histological differences. We also propose a standardized protocol for the extraction of Calreticulin from placenta, given its abundant expression in this organ. Future studies are aimed at elucidating possible roles of this protein in placenta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Placenta/anatomy & histology , Placenta/metabolism , Calreticulin/metabolism , Trophoblasts/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 749-752, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973690

ABSTRACT

La miocardiopatía hipertrófica en el recién nacido es una entidad poco frecuente y de etiología heterogénea. Se han descrito formas transitorias en hijos de madres con diabetes gestacional y en recién nacidos pretérminos expuestos a corticoides tanto prenatal como posnatalmente. Se presenta un caso de un recién nacido pretérmino, hijo de madre trasplantada renal al que se le detectó una miocardiopatía hipertrófica y que había estado expuesto prenatalmente a corticoides y tacrolimus que recibía la madre como tratamiento inmunosupresor. Ambos fármacos cruzan la barrera placentaria y, al llegar al feto, podrían haber favorecido su desarrollo. La miocardiopatía hipertrófica puede ser un efecto secundario poco común del tratamiento con tacrolimus en adultos y niños, y es reversible al retirarlo. En nuestro conocimiento, es el primer caso publicado de miocardiopatía hipertrófica transitoria tras la exposición fetal tanto a corticoides como a tacrolimus en un hijo de madre trasplantada renal.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the newborn is a rare entity with heterogeneous etiology. Transient forms have been described in children of mothers with gestational diabetes and in preterm infants exposed both to prenatal and postnatal corticosteroids. We report a case of a preterm infant son of a mother who received renal transplant in whom hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was detected. He had been prenatally exposed to corticosteroids and tacrolimus that received the mother as immunosuppressive therapy. Both drugs cross the placental barrier and, on reaching the fetus, could have favored its development. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be an uncommon side effect of treatment with tacrolimus in adults and children and it is reversible upon withdrawal. To our knowledge, it is the first published case of transient hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after fetal exposure to both corticosteroids and tacrolimus in the son of a renal transplanted mother.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/chemically induced , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Placenta/metabolism , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/pharmacokinetics , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/pharmacokinetics , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacokinetics , Mothers
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 109-112, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893196

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is a life-threatening pregnancy complication, usually a severe form of preeclampsia. In this study, we aimed to examine histopathologic changes and Endothelin-1 and KI-67 expression levels by immunohistochemical methods in severe preeclamptic placentas. Severe preeclampsia and obstetric characteristics and biochemical and hematological characteristics of healthy subjects were compared. Placenta sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. In the histopathological examination of severe preeclamptic placenta, degeneration in synaptic and cytotrophoblastic cells, increase in insidious knots, fibrinoid necrosis, degeneration in endothelial cells, calcification and hyaline villous stains were observed. In the severe preeclampsia group, Ki-67 expression increased in decidua cells and inflammatory cells, while endothelial cells in the vessel wall and inflammatory cells in the villus and intervillous spaces increased. It is thought that angiogenetic and cellular proliferation is induced in a co-ordinated manner and significantly influences fetal development.


RESUMEN: La preeclampsia severa (síndrome de HELLP) es una complicación del embarazo potencialmente mortal, generalmente una forma grave de preeclampsia. En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue examinar los cambios histopatológicos y los niveles de expresión de Endotelina-1 y Ki-67 mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos en placentas preeclámpsicas graves. Se compararon la preeclampsia grave y las características obstétricas, además de las características bioquímicas y hematológicas de pacientes sanas. Las secciones de placenta se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina para examen histopatológico. En el examen histopatológico de placenta preeclampsia severa, se observó la degeneración en células sinápticas y citotrofoblásticas, un aumento de nudos insidiosos, necrosis fibrinoide, degeneración en las células endoteliales,calcificación y manchas vellosas hialinas. En el grupo de preeclampsia grave, la expresión de Ki-67 aumentó en células deciduas y células inflamatorias, mientras que las células endoteliales en la pared del vaso, y las células inflamatorias en las vellosidades y los espacios intervellosos aumentaron. Se cree que la proliferación angiogenética y celular se induce de forma coordinada y que influye significativamente en el desarrollo fetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Endothelin-1/metabolism , HELLP Syndrome/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Placenta/pathology , HELLP Syndrome/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology
10.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2017. 46 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-983643

ABSTRACT

A primaquina é o único fármaco que promove a cura radical da doença causada por P.vivax e possivelmente também por P. ovale, porém possui diversos problemas em se utilizar aprimaquina durante a gravidez, pois é um fármaco capaz de penetrar a placenta, e por não seconhecer o estado de enzima glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6DP) do feto, ametabolização do fármaco no feto pode ser deficitária. No entanto não tem se pesquisado queproblemas essa terapia pode causar a uma gravidez e a prole, o ineditismo do trabalhocontribui para o campo de estudo por elucidar os desafios que tal terapia enfrentaria. Nesseestudo foi visto que a primaquina não é capaz de ser transmitida para a prole através daamamentação, e que não afetou os parâmetros de desenvolvimento e crescimento dos jovensexpostos intra-utero ao fármaco, mas teve efeito na sobrevida dos filhotes e nocomportamento no teste de campo aberto (open-field).


Primaquine is the only drug that promotes the radical cure of the disease caused by p. Vivax and possibly also by p. Ovale, but has several problems in using primaquine during pregnancy, since it is a drug capable of penetrating the placenta, and by not knowing the state of the enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6dp) of the fetus, the fetus in drug metabolism may be deficient. However, it has not been investigated what problems this therapy can cause to a pregnancy and the offspring, the novelty of the work contributes to the field of study to elucidate the challenges that such therapy would face. In this study, primaquine was not able to be transmitted to the offspring through breastfeeding, and did not affect the developmental and growth parameters of the intra-uterus exposed to the drug, but had an effect on the survival of the pups and behavior in the open-field test.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials , Growth and Development , Placenta/metabolism , Primaquine/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 98-105, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218584

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant/oxidant status in recurrent miscarriage patients. Antioxidants including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and selenium (Se), as well as the oxidants hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and lipid peroxidation were assayed in plasma, whole blood and placental tissue of non-pregnant women (NP), healthy pregnant women (HP), and recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients. Results indicated that all antioxidant activities and levels in plasma and whole blood of HP women were consistently moderately lower, and much more significantly lower in RM patients when both were compared to those seen in NP women (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, whereas plasma antioxidant activities and levels were significantly lower in RM patients, those of whole blood and placental tissue were much more significantly lower when compared with HP women (P<0.001). Concurrent with these findings there were consistent increases of equal statistical significance and magnitude in the levels of all investigated oxidants assayed in all samples when compared in between subjects of the study as indicated above. Data thus illustrated a distinct shift in favor of oxidative reactions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and very significant decreases in the GSH/GSSG ratios in whole blood and placental tissue of RM patients when compared to HP and NP women (P<0.001). The above noted oxidative stress could have been a major causative factor of recurrent miscarriage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Habitual/blood , Antioxidants/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Catalase/blood , Glutathione/blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Glutathione Reductase/blood , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Placenta/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Selenium/blood
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(7): 583-587, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751347

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a father and son diagnosed with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Both patients harbored SETBP1 mutations, which are present in 24.3% of aCML patients. Moreover, both shared the variant encoding p.Pro737His, but the aCML severity was greater in the son because of the presence of two other missense mutations causing p.Asp868Asn and p.Ser885Arg alterations. SETBP1 mutations may be associated with an adverse prognosis, so their detection would help in the diagnosis of aCML and the determination of a patient's prognosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Chromosome Aberrations/statistics & numerical data , Embryo Culture Techniques , Genomic Imprinting , Placenta Diseases/genetics , Placenta/metabolism , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/adverse effects , Blastocyst/cytology , Chromosome Aberrations/embryology , Embryo, Mammalian , Epigenesis, Genetic , Embryo Culture Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Stochastic Processes
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(2): 522-526, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755504

ABSTRACT

Placental angiogenesis, is essential for embryonic and fetal development. In this study, 18 gestational diabetes mellitus and 22 control pregnancies were included. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) groups compared to the control group significantly higher values were detected (p<0.01). The following histological results were assessed; villous immaturity, chorangiosis, presence of, sncytial knots,mononuclear cell infiltration ischemia and fibrinoid necrosis. To evaluate and compare the placental histology of normal and GDM pregnancies. placentas of pregnant women with gestational diabetes also in terms of angiogenesis and macrophages and ultratructural revealed by examining the possible relationship between fetal complications were investigated.


La angiogénesis de la placenta es esencial para el desarrollo embrionario y fetal. En este estudio, se incluyeron 18 casos de diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) y 22 embarazos de control. En grupos los de DMG en comparación con el control, se detectaron valores significativamente mayores (p<0,01) en los siguientes parámetros histológicos que fueron evaluados: inmadurez vellosa, chorangiosis, presencia de nodos sincicial, infiltración celular isquémica mononuclear y necrosis fibrinoide. La investigación de las placentas de mujeres con DMG, reveló mediante el examen en términos de angiogénesis, macrófagos y ultraestructural, la posible relación entre las complicaciones fetales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Placenta/ultrastructure , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Placenta/metabolism
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 770-778, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146120

ABSTRACT

Preeclampsia is one of the most important and complexed disorders for women's health. Searching for novel proteins as biomarkers to reveal pathogenesis, proteomic approaches using 2DE has become a valuable tool to understanding of preeclampsia. To analyze the proteomic profiling of preclamptic placenta compared to that of normal pregnancy for better understanding of pathogenesis in preeclampsia, placentas from each group were handled by use of proteomics approach using 2DE combined with MALDI-TOF-MS. The 20 spots of showing differences were analysed and identified. Among differentially expressed protein spots Hsp 27 and Hsp 70 were selected for validation using Western blot analysis. In preeclamptic placenta 9 differentially expressed proteins were down-regulated with Hsp 70, serum albumin crystal structure chain A, lamin B2, cytokeratin 18, actin cytoplasmic, alpha fibrinogen precursor, septin 2, dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 and firbrinogen beta chain. The 11 up-regulated proteins were fibrinogen gamma, cardiac muscle alpha actin proprotein, cytokeratin 8, calumenin, fibrinogen fragment D, F-actin capping protein alpha-1 subunit, Hsp 27, Hsp 40, annexin A4, enoyl-CoA delta isomerase and programmed cell death protein 6. The western blot analysis for validation also showed significant up-regulation of Hsp 27 and down-regulation of Hsp 70 in the placental tissues with preeclmaptic pregnancies. This proteomic profiling of placenta using 2DE in preeclampsia successfully identifies various proteins involved in apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as three Hsps with altered expression, which might play a important role for the understanding of pathogenesis in preeclampsia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Placenta/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Pregnancy/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 494-499, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently, COMMD1 has been identified as a novel interactor and regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and nuclear factor kappa B transcriptional activity. The goal of this study was to determine the difference of COMMD1 expression in the placentas of women with normal and preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immnoperoxidase and immunofluorescent staining for COMMD1 was performed on nine normal and nine severe PE placental tissues, and COMMD1 mRNA expression was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The expression of mRNA of COMMD1 was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. The immunoreactivity was higher especially in the syncytiotrophoblast of PE placentas than in the control group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated increased placental COMMD1 expression in women with severe preeclampsia compared to that found in women with normal pregnancies, and this finding might contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Placenta/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
16.
Medical Forum Monthly. 2013; 24 (2): 42-47
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142547

ABSTRACT

Fetal growth retardation is most commonly caused by placental letdown to meet the increasing demand for oxygen and nutrients of the developing fetus. Intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR] is common happening in Pakistani setup especially in rural areas. Current literature suggests that placental causes are more common than the maternal causes in intrauterine growth restriction. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of placenta can help us to identify the patho-physiology of placental involvement. This is reasonable especially in those cases of intrauterine growth retardation which are not perplexed by maternal causes. To identify macroscopic and microscopic features of placenta in pregnancy complicated with IUGR. Descriptive study. This study was conducted at Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan in collaboration with Department of Pathology Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur and Anatomy Department, Nishtar Medical College, Multan. Study duration was two years from July, 2010 to June, 2012. One hundred and fifty placentae, 85 from cases of intrauterine growth retardation and 65 from normal [control] were enrolled for the study. Fetal and placental weights and placental diameter and thickness were measured. Tissue for histological examination was obtained from: i] Umbilical cord ii] membranes and iii] three placental zones. The tissues were processed and stained with Haematoxlyin, Eosin and Mallory's Trichrome. The prepared tissues were studied microscopically for villous and intervillous lesions utilizing various criteria. Macroscopically there was significant decrease in placental weight, fetal weight, and placental diameter and thickness. Microscopic findings were increased fibrinoid necrosis [46.7%], increased perivillous fibrinoid deposition [16.7%], increased syncytial knots [60%] and increased placental infarction [1.8%]. These findings document comparatively higher frequency of fibrinoid necrosis and perivillous fibrinoid deposition. This draws ours attention to the predominant role of placental causes in cases of idiopathic intrauterine growth retardation


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Placenta/metabolism , Necrosis , Fetal Development , Cooperative Behavior
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 76 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-711931

ABSTRACT

A Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional (DMG) pode ser definida como intolerância a carboidrato durante a gravidez e estima-se que pode afetar 10-22% de todas as pacientes grávidas. Durante a gravidez podem surgir diversas complicações para o feto como risco elevado de aborto espontâneo, anormalidades congênitas e morbidade e mortalidade neonatal. Entretanto, podem surgir também alterações morfofuncionais em diversos órgãos da mãe diabética, porém isso não é bem estabelecido. Investigar se haverá ou não alterações bioquímicas e histopatológicas em diversos órgãos, como hipófise, útero, placenta e pâncreas de ratas grávidas com diabetes mellitus durante e no final da gravidez e compará-las . Além disso, investigar se há alteração na matriz extracelular (MEC) da hipófise desses animais. No 5º dia de vida, ratas Wistar foram divididas em dois grupos: um tratado com estreptozotocina (Grupo Diabético / DIAB), na dose de 90 mg/kg, subcutâneo e outro grupo, que foi tratado com veículo (tampão citrato/CTR). Aos 90 dias de vidas, foram submetidas ao cruzamento. Após isso, foram sacrificadas no 11º e 21º dia de gravidez. Foram avaliados glicemia e bioquímica maternal e número de implantes .O pâncreas, útero, placenta e hipófises foram coradas com Hematoxilina e Eosina e somente as hipófises foram coradas com Massom e Picrosirius, para avaliação da MEC.Os animais diabéticos tanto do 11º quanto do 21º dia apresentaram uma redução no número de implantes, menor peso e maior glicemia e colesterol total, em relação aos animais controle independente do dia da gravidez. Não foi verificada diferença dos níveis de triglicerídeos entre os grupos não diabéticos e diabéticos, independente dos dias. Entretanto, os animais diabéticos que finalizaram o período de gestação apresentaram uma maior glicemia maternal em relação ao grupo diabético do 11º dia. Pâncreas de ratas diabéticas do 21º dia apresentaram vacuolização intracitoplasmática das ilhotas, insulite,migração de células ...


Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) can be defined as carbohidrat intolerance during pregnancy and it may affect 10-22% off all pregnant pacients. During pregnancy can surge lots of complications to the fetus such as high risk of spontaneous abortion, congenital abnormalities and neonatal morbity and mortality. However, it can also surge morphofunctional alterations in several organs of the diabetic mother, but it has not been well established .To investigate if there is going to be biochemical and histopathological alterations in several organs, such as pituitary, uterus, placenta and pancreas of pregnant diabetics rats during and in the end of pregnancy and compared them. Furthermore, to investigate if there is pituitary alteration of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in these animals. On the 5th day of life, Wistar rats were divided in two groups: one treated with streptozotocin (Diabetic Group/DIAB) , with the dose of 90 mg/kg, subcutaneous and another group , treated with vehicle (citrate buffer/CTR). At 90 days of life, they were mated . After, they were sacrified at 11o e 21o days of pregnancy. Were evaluated maternal glicemia and biochemistry and implant numbers. The pancreas, uterus,placenta e pituitary were stained with Hematoxilin and Eosin and only the pituitary were stained with Masson and Picrosirius, for ECM evaluation. Diabetic animals of 11o day as well as 21o days during pregnancy showed a reduced implant numbers, reduced weight and higher glicemia and total cholesterol , compared with control animals independent of pregnancy day. It was not verified difference in triglycerides levels between non diabetic and diabetic animals, independent of the day. However, diabetic animals that concluded the gestational period showed a higher maternal glicemia compared with 11o day diabetic group. Pancreas of 21o days diabetic animals showed islets intracitoplasmatic vacuolization, insulitis, inflammatory cell migration, thickness of wall vessel ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Rats , Diabetes, Gestational , Pregnancy Complications , Cholesterol/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia , Pituitary Gland/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Pancreas/physiopathology , Pancreas/metabolism , Placenta/physiopathology , Placenta/metabolism , Uterus/metabolism
18.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 1-9, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211724

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis is a complex biological phenomenon crucial for a correct embryonic development and for post-natal growth. In adult life, it is a tightly regulated process confined to the uterus and ovary during the different phases of the menstrual cycle and to the heart and skeletal muscles after prolonged and sustained physical exercise. Conversly, angiogenesis is one of the major pathological changes associated with several complex diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, arthritis, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Among the several molecular players involved in angiogenesis, some members of VEGF family, VEGF-A, VEGF-B and placenta growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR-1, also known as Flt-1) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2, also known as Flk-1 in mice and KDR in human) have a decisive role. In this review, we describe the discovery and molecular characteristics of PlGF, and discuss the biological role of this growth factor in physiological and pathological conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Pregnancy , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Mice, Knockout , Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics , Neovascularization, Physiologic/genetics , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(4): 1438-1443, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-627029

ABSTRACT

The molecules that constitute the extracellular matrix are important in several functions related to tissue support and cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Among the macromolecules that constitute the mentioned matrix we find osteopontin, fibrinogen and collagen. The present study was undertaken to analyze the rol of osteopontin, fibrinogen and collagen in uterine-placental interface during normal porcine gestation. Uterine and placental tissues from crossbred gilts of 30 (n=5), 60 (n=5), 70 (n=5) and 114 (at term, n=5) days of gestation were used. Macroscopic analysis of the embryos/fetuses allowed us to determine their gestational age by means of the crown-rump lenght. Haematoxylin-Eosin and Masson's Trichrome dyes along with light microscopy were used to structure analysis of every selected period of gestation. A spacial and temporal study of osteopontin and fibrinogen was performed through immunohistochemical technique. Determination of collagen fibers was carried out through Picrosirius red technique and polarizing microscopy. Results were expressed as semi-quantitative. Higher expression of osteopontin was observed at early periods of gestation, mainly in uterine and placental villi, endometrial gland epithelium and histotroph. Fibrinogen expressed abundantly in fetal mesenchyme in every period analyzed and in fetal and maternal vessels at Day 70. Negative expression of collagen fibers was observed in villi, however increasing expression of thick fibers throughout pregnancy was detected in uterine stroma and myometrium. These results confirm the importance of osteopontin, fibrinogen and collagen in the support of uterine and placental structures and in the suitable maintenance of pregnancy.


Las moléculas que constituyen la matriz extracelular son importantes en varias funciones relacionadas con el soporte del tejido y la interacción célula-célula, célula-matriz extracelular. Entre las macromoléculas que constituyen la matriz mencionada se encuentra la osteopontina, el fibrinógeno y el colágeno. Este estudio se realizó para analizar el rol de la osteopontina, el fibrinógeno y el colágeno en la interface útero-placentaria durante la gestación porcina normal. Tejidos uterinos y la placentarios de hembras porcinas cruzadas de 30 (n=5), 60 (n=5), 70 (n=5) y 114 (a término, n=5) días de gestación fueron utilizados. El análisis macroscópico de los embriones/fetos nos permitió determinar la edad gestacional por medio de la longitud cráneo-rabadilla. Tinciones de Hematoxilina-Eosina y Tricrómico de Masson con microscopía de luz se utilizó para estructurar el análisis de cada periodo de tiempo seleccionado de la gestación. Un estudio espacial y temporal de la osteopontina y el fibrinógeno se realizó mediante técnicas de inmunohistoquímica. La determinación de fibras colágenas se llevó a cabo a través de la técnica Picrosirius rojo por microscopia de polarización. Los resultados se expresaron como semi-cuantitativos. La expresión de osteopontina se observó en los primeros períodos de gestación, principalmente en las vellosidades del útero y la placenta, epitelio de las glándulas endometriales e histotrofos. El fibrinógeno se expresa abundantemente en mesénquima fetal en todos los períodos analizados y en los vasos fetales y maternos el día 70. Una expresión negativa de fibras colágenas se observó en las vellosidades, sin embargo, un aumento de expresión de las fibras gruesas durante la gestación se detectó en el estroma uterino y el miometrio. Estos resultados confirman la importancia de la osteopontina, fibrinógeno y colágeno en el soporte de las estructuras del útero y placenta, así como el mantenimiento adecuado durante la gestación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Collagen/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Osteopontin/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Swine , Extracellular Matrix , Immunohistochemistry , Pregnancy, Animal/metabolism , Uterus/metabolism
20.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 4(2): 76-81, dic. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-618834

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La preeclampsia es una enfermedad gestacional de origen placentario, de alta prevalencia y morbi-mortalidad materna y fetal. Su patogenia es desconocida, aunque sabemos que en ella ocurre placentación anómala e isquemia placentaria, que conlleva desarrollo de estrés oxidativo (EO) y disfunción endotelial. En condiciones normales la perfusión placentaria es regulada fundamentalmente por óxido nítrico (NO). El factor de crecimiento vascular endotelial (VEGF) es clave en su modulación, aumentando la actividad de enzimas productoras de NO, manteniendo una perfusión placentaria y gestación normales. Objetivo: Caracterizar el perfil de parámetros oxidativos en preeclampsia, asociado con expresión de VEGF en capa muscular de vasos placentarios (CMVP). Metodología: Estudio analítico, observacional, transversal. Se tomaron muestras placentarias y plasmáticas de embarazadas con preeclampsia (n=12) y embarazos normales (n=15). En placenta se determinó: expresión de VEGF en CMVP, malondialdehído y actividad enzimática antioxidante–superóxido dismutasa, glutatión peroxidasa y catalasa. En plasma materno se determinó: F2-isoprostanos y capacidad plasmática antioxidante total (FRAP). Resultados: Pacientes con preeclampsia mostraron mayor expresión de VEGF en CMVP y reducción del FRAP, incremento de F2-isoprostanos y malondialdehído, y menor actividad de superóxido dismutasa (p<0.05). Discusión: Expresión de VEGF en CMVPy parámetros de EO aumentan en preeclampsia. En condiciones normoxémicas, VEGF en CMVP estimula la producción de NO, manteniendo una perfusión placentaria y gestación normales. En condiciones de hipoxia, EO y bajas defensas antioxidantes, como la preeclampsia, VEGF en CMVP favorecería la producción de pro-oxidantes en desmedro de la de NO, lo que contribuiría a explicar la fisiopatología de esta enfermedad.


Introduction: Preeclampsia is a systemic pregnancy disorder, which has high prevalence and high maternal and fetal mortality associated. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but is thought to occur in three phases: abnormal placentation, placental ischemia, which involves development of oxidative stress (OS), and endothelial dysfunction. During normal placental perfusion is regulated primarily by nitric oxide (NO). The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key modulator, increasing the activity of enzymes producing NO, maintaining placental perfusion and normal pregnancy. Objective: To characterize the profile of oxidative parameters in Preeclampsia, associated with VEGF expression in muscular layer of placental vessels (MLPV).Methodology: Analytical, observational, transversal study. Placental and blood plasma samples were taken of pregnant women with preeclampsia (n=12) and normal pregnancies (n=15). In placenta was determined: expression of VEGF in MLPV, malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzyme activity - superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Was determined in maternal plasma F2-isoprostanes and plasma total antioxidant capacity (FRAP). Results: Patients with preeclampsia showed higher expression of VEGF in MLPV and reduced FRAP, increased F2-isoprostanes and malondialdehyde, and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (p <0.05). Discussion: VEGF expression in MLPV and parameters of OS are both increased in preeclampsia. In normal, VEGF in MLPV stimulates NO production, maintaining a normal pregnancy and placental perfusion. Under hypoxic conditions, OS and low antioxidant defenses, as in preeclampsia, VEGF in MLPV favors the production of pro oxidant agents, at the expense of NO, which would help explain the pathophysiology of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Pregnancy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Catalase/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Malondialdehyde , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
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