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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248359, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345547

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.


Resumo A mancha bacteriana das folhas (BLB) é uma das principais doenças do arroz na Malásia. Essa doença causa perdas substanciais de rendimento de até 70%. O desenvolvimento de variedades de arroz que herdaram características de resistência ao BLB é uma abordagem crucial para promover e sustentar a indústria do arroz na Malásia. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar os caracteres BLB resistentes a doenças da variedade comercial MR219 de alto rendimento por meio de uma abordagem de cruzamento retrocruzamento com ferramenta de apoio de seleção assistida por marcador (MAS). O gene de resistência a BLB de amplo espectro, Xa7 do pai doador IRBB7, foi introgressado no MR219 suscetível (pai recorrente) usando dois marcadores flanqueadores ID7 e ID15. No BC3F4, conseguimos gerar 19 linhagens introgressadas com o gene Xa7 homozigoto e apresentamos características de resistência como genitor doador quando desafiado com Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae por inoculação artificial. O pai recorrente MR219 e a variedade controle, MR263, estavam gravemente infectados pela doença. As linhas melhoradas exibiram características morfológicas e de desempenho de rendimento semelhantes às da variedade elite, MR219. Duas linhas, PB-2-107 e PB-2-34, foram escolhidas como linhas potenciais por causa de seus desempenhos excelentes em comparação com a mãe, MR219. Este estudo demonstra uma história de sucesso de aplicação de MAS no desenvolvimento de linhas de arroz melhoradas com resistência a doenças contra a doença BLB.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Plant Diseases/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

ABSTRACT

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/growth & development , Soybeans/genetics , Phenotype , Bangladesh , Plant Breeding , Genotype , Mutation
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Plant Diseases/genetics , Chromosomes, Plant , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252059, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339358

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study describes the haematological profile, feeding preference, and comparison of morphometric characters of blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) breeding pairs. For this purpose, 25 pairs (25 samples per sex) were sampled through Mist nets from district Okara and Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. Birds were then anaesthetized with a combination of ketamine HCL (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) and subjected to morphometric measurements. 5µL blood also was taken from the jugular vein of each anaesthetized bird for haematological analysis. Few pairs were also dissected to remove gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) for food preferences. Results revealed that there are no significant differences in the haematological parameters and feeding preference of breeding pairs of Columba livia. The gut analysis further revealed, the major portion of gut contents consisted of pea and corn in most of the pairs. Regarding the mensural measurements, significant differences were recorded in the body weight, length of the longest primary feather, and chest circumference, whereas the rest of the studied parameters remain nonsignificant between sexes. So, it is concluded that apart from 3 morphometric parameters (body weight, length of longest primary feather and chest circumference), both sexes are alike in term of morphometry, haematology and food preference.


Resumo O presente estudo descreve o perfil hematológico, a preferência alimentar e a comparação de caracteres morfométricos de casais reprodutores de pombo-rocha (Columba livia). Para tanto, 25 pares (25 amostras por sexo) foram amostrados por meio de redes de névoa do distrito de Okara e Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Paquistão. As aves foram então anestesiadas com uma combinação de cetamina HCL (10 mg/kg) e diazepam (0,2 mg/kg) e submetidas a medidas morfométricas; 5 µL de sangue também foram retirados da veia jugular de cada ave anestesiada para análise hematológica. Poucos pares também foram dissecados para remover o trato gastrointestinal (GITs) para preferências alimentares. Os resultados revelaram que não há diferenças significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos e na preferência alimentar dos casais reprodutores de Columba livia. A análise intestinal revelou ainda que a maior parte do conteúdo intestinal consistia em ervilha e milho na maioria dos pares. Em relação às medidas mensurais, foram registradas diferenças significativas no peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica, enquanto os demais parâmetros estudados permanecem não significativos entre os sexos. Assim, conclui-se que além de três parâmetros morfométricos (peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica), ambos os sexos são semelhantes em termos de morfometria, hematologia e preferência alimentar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae , Food Preferences , Pakistan , Feathers , Plant Breeding
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246455, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278524

ABSTRACT

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Resumo A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.


Subject(s)
Annonaceae , Annona/genetics , Seeds/genetics , Brazil , Plant Breeding , Fruit/genetics
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240199, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278495

ABSTRACT

Abstract One of the most important traits that plant breeders aim to improve is grain yield which is a highly quantitative trait controlled by various agro-morphological traits. Twelve morphological traits such as Germination Percentage, Days to Spike Emergence, Plant Height, Spike Length, Awn Length, Tillers/Plant, Leaf Angle, Seeds/Spike, Plant Thickness, 1000-Grain Weight, Harvest Index and Days to Maturity have been considered as independent factors. Correlation, regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify the different durum wheat traits, which significantly contribute to the yield. The necessary assumptions required for applying regression modeling have been tested and all the assumptions are satisfied by the observed data. The outliers are detected in the observations of fixed traits and Grain Yield. Some observations are detected as outliers but the outlying observations did not show any influence on the regression fit. For selecting a parsimonious regression model for durum wheat, best subset regression, and stepwise regression techniques have been applied. The best subset regression analysis revealed that Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike have a marked increasing effect whereas Plant thickness has a negative effect on durum wheat yield. While stepwise regression analysis identified that the traits, Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike significantly contribute to increasing the durum wheat yield. The simple correlation coefficient specified the significant positive correlation of Grain Yield with Germination Percentage, Number of Tillers/Plant, Seeds/Spike, and Harvest Index. These results of correlation analysis directed the importance of morphological characters and their significant positive impact on Grain Yield. The results of PCA showed that most variation (70%) among data set can be explained by the first five components. It also identified that Seeds/Spike; 1000-Grain Weight and Harvest Index have a higher influence in contributing to the durum wheat yield. Based on the results it is recommended that these important parameters might be considered and focused in future durum wheat breeding programs to develop high yield varieties.


Resumo Uma das características mais importantes que os produtores de plantas visam melhorar é o rendimento de grãos, que é uma particularidade altamente quantitativa e controlada por várias características agromorfológicas. Foram considerados 12 traços morfológicos como fatores independentes, como Porcentagem de Germinação, Dias para Emergência da Espiga, Altura da Planta, Comprimento da Espiga, Comprimento da Aresta, Perfilhos /Planta, Ângulo da Folha, Sementes /Espiga, Espessura da Planta, Peso de 1000 Grãos, Índice de Colheita e Dias até a Maturidade,. A correlação, regressão e análise de componentes principais (em inglês Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) são usadas para identificar as diferentes características do trigo duro, que contribuem significativamente para o rendimento. As suposições necessárias exigidas para a aplicação da modelagem de regressão foram testadas e todas as suposições são adequadas de acordo com os dados observados. Os outliers são detectados nas observações de características fixas e rendimento de grãos. Algumas observações são detectadas como outliers, mas as observações outliers não mostraram qualquer influência no ajuste da regressão. Para selecionar um modelo de regressão parcimonioso para o trigo duro, foram aplicadas tanto a melhor regressão de subconjunto quanto as técnicas de regressão stepwise. A melhor análise de regressão de subconjunto revelou que a porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos /planta e sementes /espiga tem um efeito de aumento acentuado, enquanto a espessura da planta tem um efeito negativo sobre o rendimento do trigo duro. Enquanto a análise de regressão passo a passo identificou que as características, porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos/planta e sementes /espiga contribuem significativamente para aumentar a produtividade do trigo duro. O coeficiente de correlação simples especificou a correlação positiva significativa do rendimento de grãos com a porcentagem de germinação, número de perfilhos/planta, sementes / espiga e índice de colheita. Esses resultados da análise de correlação direcionaram a importância dos caracteres morfológicos e seu impacto positivo e significativo no rendimento de grãos. Os resultados da PCA mostraram que a maior parte da variação (70%) entre o conjunto de dados pôde ser explicada pelos cinco primeiros componentes. Também identificou que Sementes / Espiga, Peso de 1000 Grãos e Índice de Colheita têm uma maior influência na contribuição para o rendimento do trigo duro. Com base nos resultados, recomenda-se que esses importantes parâmetros possam ser considerados e focados em futuros programas de melhoramento de trigo duro para desenvolver variedades de alto rendimento.


Subject(s)
Triticum , Plant Breeding , Pakistan , Phenotype , Seeds
7.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201054, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286057

ABSTRACT

Understanding the genetic diversity and overcoming genotype-by-environment interaction issues is an essential step in breeding programs that aims to improve the performance of desirable traits. This study estimated genetic diversity and applied genotype + genotype-by-environment (GGE) biplot analyses in cotton genotypes. Twelve genotypes were evaluated for fiber yield, fiber length, fiber strength, and micronaire. Estimation of variance components and genetic parameters was made through restricted maximum likelihood and the prediction of genotypic values was made through best linear unbiased prediction. The modified Tocher and principal component analysis (PCA) methods, were used to quantify genetic diversity among genotypes. GGE biplot was performed to find the best genotypes regarding adaptability and stability. The Tocher technique and PCA allowed for the formation of clusters of similar genotypes based on a multivariate framework. The GGE biplot indicated that the genotypes IMACV 690 and IMA08 WS were highly adaptable and stable for the main traits in cotton. The cross between the genotype IMACV 690 and IMA08 WS is the most recommended to increase the performance of the main traits in cotton crops.


Compreender a diversidade genética e contornar os problemas causados pela interação genótipos por ambientes é uma etapa importante em programas de melhoramento. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar a diversidade genética e aplicar a metodologia de biplot genótipo + genótipo por ambiente (GGE biplot) em doze genótipos de algodão avaliados quanto ao rendimento da fibra, comprimento da fibra, resistência da fibra e micronaire. A estimativa dos componentes de variância e dos parâmetros genéticos foi feita através do método da máxima verossimilhança restrita e a predição dos valores genotípicos por meio da melhor predição linear não enviesada. Os métodos de Tocher modificado e análise de componentes principais (PCA) foram utilizados para quantificar a diversidade genética entre os genótipos. O método GGE biplot foi conduzido para encontrar os melhores genótipos em relação à adaptabilidade e estabilidade. As técnicas de Tocher e PCA permitiram a formação de clusters de genótipos semelhantes com base em uma estrutura multivariada. O GGE biplot indicou que os genótipos IMACV 690 e IMA08 WS foram altamente adaptáveis e estáveis para as principais características do algodão. O cruzamento dentre os genótipos IMACV 690 e IMA08 WS é o mais recomendado para aumentar o desempenho das principais características na cultura do algodão.


Subject(s)
Gossypium/genetics , Cotton Fiber/analysis , Gene-Environment Interaction , Genotype , Plant Breeding/methods
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 977-988, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153440

ABSTRACT

Abstract Genetic distances among different chickpea varieties and evaluation of their free amino acid profiles were determined on the basis of Sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total soluble proteins were resolved on 10% SDS Polyacrylamide gel. Low variability in tested varieties was observed. Dendogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the genotypes into 2 groups. The results showed that the average protein content of all the varieties was 26.01% within the range 22.8% for Thal-2006 to 34.06% Sheenghar-2000 of dry seed weight. On the basis of total protein content Bittal-98, Dasht and Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3 and CM-98, Paidar -91 and Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar and KK-1showed similar concentrations for protein contents among each other but showed variation from the rest of the varieties. Different proteins were separated on the basis of changes in their molecular weights by means of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98, and Sheen Ghar showed 100% similarity. Balaksar and Fakhr-e- Thal, KK-2 and Chattan and KC-98, KK-1 and Lawaghar were 100% similar among each other but showed variation from the rest of the accessions. The overall dendrogram showed high and low level of variation among the accessions. The concentration of free amino acids varied among the 16 chickpea varieties. A significant difference of both essential and non-essential amino acids was found among the chickpea cultivars. The total concentration of essential amino acid was recorded 40.81 g/100 g protein while non-essential was recorded 59.18343 g/100 g protein in the given cultivars. The highest concentration of essential amino acids was found in C-44 followed by KK-2, KK-1 and Fakhr E Tal while the lowest concentration was recorded in Cm-98, Paidar-91 and Sheen Ghar-2000 respectively. Cultivars TAL-2006, Chattan and Karak-3 showed maximum concentration of both essential and endogenous amino acids. In conclusion; for broadening the genetic pools in breeding programs or to search for exotic characters, for instance new disease resistance alleles, accession with low similarity coefficients (Lawaghar and Battal-98) may be utilized. Furthermore the information acquired from this study could be used to device a proficient breeding approach intended at improving nutritional as well as broadening the genetic base of this essential food crop of Pakistan.


Resumo As distâncias genéticas entre as diferentes variedades de grão-de-bico e a avaliação de seus perfis de aminoácidos livres foram determinadas com base na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). As proteínas solúveis totais foram resolvidas em SDS-PAGE a 10%. Foi observada baixa variabilidade nas variedades testadas. O dendrograma fundamentado em dados eletroforéticos agrupou os genótipos em dois grupos. Os resultados mostraram que o teor médio de proteínas de todas as variedades foi de 26,01%, na faixa de 22,8% para Thal-2006 a 34,06% para Sheenghar-2000 do peso de sementes secas. Com base no conteúdo total de proteínas, Bittal-98, Dasht, Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3, CM-98, Paidar-91, Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar e KK-1 apresentaram concentrações semelhantes para o conteúdo de proteínas entre si, mas tiveram variação quanto ao restante das variedades. Diferentes proteínas foram separadas com base nas alterações de seus pesos moleculares por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98 e Sheen Ghar mostraram 100% de similaridade. Balaksar, Fakhr-e-Thal, KK-2, Chattan e KC-98, KK-1 e Lawaghar foram 100% semelhantes entre si, mas apresentaram variação em relação ao restante dos acessos. O dendrograma geral mostrou alto e baixo nível de variação entre os acessos. A concentração de aminoácidos livres variou entre as 16 variedades de grão-de-bico. Foi encontrada uma diferença significativa entre os aminoácidos essenciais e não essenciais nas cultivares de grão-de-bico. A concentração total de aminoácidos essenciais foi registrada em 40,81 g / 100 g de proteína, enquanto a não essencial foi registrada em 59,18343 g / 100 g de proteína nas cultivares. A maior concentração de aminoácidos essenciais foi encontrada em C-44, seguida de KK-2, KK-1 e Fakhr-e-Thal, enquanto a menor concentração foi registrada em CM-98, Paidar-91 e Sheen Ghar-2000. As cultivares TAL-2006, Chattan e Karak-3 apresentaram concentração máxima de aminoácidos essenciais e endógenos. Em conclusão, para ampliar os pools genéticos em programas de melhoramento ou procurar caracteres exóticos, por exemplo, novos alelos de resistência a doenças, pode ser utilizada a adesão com baixos coeficientes de similaridade (Lawaghar e Battal-98). Além disso, as informações adquiridas neste estudo poderiam ser usadas para criar uma abordagem de criação eficiente, com o objetivo de melhorar a nutrição e ampliar a base genética dessa cultura alimentar essencial do Paquistão.


Subject(s)
Cicer/genetics , Pakistan , Seeds , Plant Breeding , Genotype
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 601-610, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153382

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to assess population structure and phylogenetic relationships of nine subspecies of Brassica rapa L. represented with thirty-five accessions cover a wide range of species distribution area using isozyme analysis in order to select more diverse accessions as supplementary resources that can be utilized for improvement of B. napus. Enzyme analysis resulted in detecting 14 putative polymorphic loci with 27 alleles. Mean allele frequency 0.04 (rare alleles) was observed in Cat4A and Cat4B in sub species Oleifera accession CR 2204/79 and in subspecies trilocularis accessions CR 2215/88 and CR 2244/88. The highest genetic diversity measures were observed in subspecies dichotoma, accession CR 1585/96 (the highest average of observed (H0) and expected heterozygosity (He), and number of alleles per locus (Ae)). These observations make this accession valuable genetic resource to be included in breeding programs for the improvement of oilseed B. napus. The average fixation index (F) is significantly higher than zero for the analysis accessions indicating a significant deficiency of heteozygosity. The divergence among subspecies indicated very great genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8972) which means that about 90% of genetic diversity is distributed among subspecies, while 10% of the diversity is distributed within subspecies. This coincides with low value of gene flow (Nm = 0.0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (turnip rape) and B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) were grouped under one cluster which coincides with the morphological classification.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a estrutura populacional e as relações filogenéticas de nove subespécies de Brassica rapa L. representadas com 35 acessos, cobrindo uma ampla gama de áreas de distribuição de espécies usando análise isoenzimática, a fim de selecionar acessos mais diversos como recursos suplementares que podem ser utilizados para melhoria de B. napus. A análise enzimática resultou na detecção de 14 loci polimórficos putativos com 27 alelos. A frequência média de 0,04 alelo (alelos raros) foi observada em Cat4A e Cat4B, nas subespécies Oleifera CR 2204/79 e nas subespécies trilocularis CR 2215/88 e CR 2244/88. As maiores medidas de diversidade genética foram observadas na subespécie dicotômica CR 1585/96 (a média mais alta observada (H0) e heterozigosidade esperada (He) e número de alelos por locus (Ae). Essas observações tornam esse acesso um valioso recurso genético a ser incluído em programas de melhoramento de oleaginosas B. napus. O índice médio de fixação (F) é significativamente maior que 0 para os acessos à análise, indicando uma deficiência significativa de heterozigose. A divergência entre as subespécies indicou uma grande diferenciação genética (FST = 0,8972), o que significa que cerca de 90% da diversidade genética é distribuída entre as subespécies, enquanto 10% da diversidade é distribuída nas subespécies. Isso coincide com o baixo valor do fluxo gênico (Nm = 0,0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (nabo) e B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) foram agrupados conforme a classificação morfológica.


Subject(s)
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Plant Breeding , Isoenzymes/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888103

ABSTRACT

Volatile oil is the main effective component and an important quality indicator of Artemisia argyi leaves. In this study, 100 germplasm resources of A. argyi were collected from all the related habitats in China. The total volatile oils in A. argyi leaves were extracted by steam distillation and the content was determined by GC-MS. The result demonstrated that the content of total volatile oils was in the range of 0.53%-2.55%, with the average of 1.43%. A total of 39 chemical constituents were identified from the volatile oils, including 13 shared by the 100 germplasm resources. Clustering analysis of the 39 constituents showed that the 100 A. argyi samples were categorized into groups Ⅰ(9), Ⅱ(2), Ⅲ(66) and Ⅳ(23), and group Ⅲ had the most volatile medicinal components, with the highest content. Five principal components(PCs) were extracted from 13 shared constituents, which explained 73.454% of the total variance. PC1, PC2, and PC3 mainly reflected the pharmacological activity of volatile oils and the rest two the aroma information. The volatile oils identified in this study lay a foundation for variety breeding of and rational utilization of volatile oils in A. argyi leaves.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Distillation , Oils, Volatile , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888049

ABSTRACT

Trollius chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicinal material in China, the wild resource of T. chinensis are now exhausted, and commercial medicinal T. chinensis mainly depends on artificial cultivation. As one of the most severely happened diseases at the seedling period, damping off has been a serious threaten to the breeding of T. chinensis seedlings. However, no related research have been reported so far. So, the authors collected damping-off samples of T. chinensis in 2018 from seedling breeding nursery in Guyuan, Hebei province, and carried out study on taxonomic identification of the pathogen. Damping off occurs in the T. chinensis production area from mid-May to late June every year. At the beginning, brown lesions were observed on the basal stem, then the lesions circumferential expanded and constricted, and finally resulted in the fall and death of T. chinensis seedlings. Pathogenic isolate was growing rapidly on the PDA medium, well developed aerial mycelia were grey white at first, then turned brown gradually, and a great number of small dark brown sclerotia were developed in the middle and periphery of the colony. Mycelial diameter of the pathogen was about 7 to 10 μm, near right angle or acute angle branches, near branches with septa, branches and septa with constriction. After the healthy T. chinensis seedlings were inoculated by pathogenic isolate, damping-off was observed soon, and the symptom was as same as those observed in the field. Through homogenous blast, the rDNA-ITS sequence of the pathogenic isolate shown 99.49% to 99.84% homology with Rhizoctonia solani, R. solani AG-1 IC mycelium anastomosis group and Thanatephorus cucumeris, the sexual type of Rhizoctonia. Furthermore, obvious mycelial anastomosis phenomena were observed when the pathogenic isolate and R. solani AG-1 IC strain were confronting cultured. Based on the results above, the pathogenic isolate causing damping off of T. chinensis was identified as R. solani AG-1 IC mycelial anastomosis group. RESULTS:: in the present work have important significance for further research on basic biology of the pathogen and integrated control of damping off causing by it on T. chinensis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Plant Breeding , Plant Diseases , Rhizoctonia , Seedlings
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887982

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore the correlation between agronomic traits and quality indexes of Dendrobium nobile and its application value in agricultural breeding. The cultivated strains of D. nobile in Hejiang-Chishui producing areas were extensively collected,and the main agronomic traits and quality indexes were measured. The agronomic traits with significant correlation with quality indexes were screened out by the correlation analysis,and then the parental lines and self-bred F_1 generation plants were furtherverified. Among 96 lines of D. nobile,the content of soluble polysaccharides showed a significant negative correlation with dendrobine( P < 0. 01),and no significant correlation with agronomic traits in stems and leaves. The content of dendrobine exhibited a significant positive correlation with the stem width-thickness ratio( at the largest cross section; P < 0. 01),and no significant correlation with other agronomic traits. Regression analysis further verified the positive correlation between dendrobine content and stem width-thickness ratio( R2> 0. 9). Two lines,JC-10 and JC-35,with significant differences in stem width-thickness ratio were screened out( P <0. 05). The corresponding F1 generation plants by self-pollination both showed that the dendrobine content was higher with greater stem width-thickness ratio( P < 0. 01). The experimental results suggested that within a certain range,the dendrobine content was higher in D. nobile with flatter stem. Therefore,in the breeding of D. nobile,this specific trait could be used for screening plants with high content of quality indexes such as dendrobine.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Dendrobium/genetics , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/genetics , Polysaccharides
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887949

ABSTRACT

In this study, in order to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of Artemisia argyi germplasm resources and improve its efficiency of cultivation and breeding, 100 accessions of A. argyi germplasm resources from 58 regions in China were collected, 20 agronomic traits and leaf phenotypic traits were observed and described. The data were used for phenotypic diversity analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The result showed that the genetic diversity index of 20 traits ranged from 0.82 to 4.37, among which the largest was the base depth and the smallest was the leaf width; the coefficient of variation of the 12 quantitative traits ranged from 10.55% to 41.47%. the highest coefficient of variation was the height of dead leaves, and the smallest was the content of chlorophyll, except for the angle of branches, all the quantitative characters tended to be normal distribution. The correlation analysis showed that 28 pairs of traits had significant correlation(P<0.01), and 13 pairs had significant correlation(P<0.05). According to principal component analysis, 20 traits were simplified into 9 principal components, and the cumulative contribution rate was 73.414%, nine traits including plant height, dead leaves heigh, stem diameter, symmetry of leave base, stipule, leaf tip shape, depth of the first pair of lobes, depth of the second pair of lobes and leaf yield were selected as key indexes for evaluating agronomic traits and leaf phenotypic traits of A.argyi germplasm resources. With cluster analysis, 100 accessions of A.argyi were classified into 3 groups, the groupⅠincluded the dwarf plants with thick stem and large leaf, the groupⅡincluded high plants with wide leaf and high yield, the group Ⅲ included dwarf plants with thin stem and flat bottom shape of leaf, which could provide the basis for cultivation identification and variety breeding of A.argyi germplasm resources.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , China , Phenotype , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/genetics
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190007, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153291

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Low genetic similarity in Paspalum notatum accessions. High genetic distance among diploid accessions. The accessions have good potential to breeding program.


Abstract Paspalum notatum is an important forage grass contributing significantly to the coverage of the natural fields of Southern Brazil. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic similarity of strains within a P. notatum collection. Genomic DNA was extracted in bulk from young leaves of five plants from each accession obtained from the USDA. In the molecular analysis, the eight SSR markers evaluated formed seven distinct groups, and two isolated genotypes, with an average similarity index of 0.29, ranging from zero to 0.83. All the loci were polymorphic and the polymorphism information content ranging from 0.41 to 0.69. The results evidenced a low genetic similarity, which can be explored via parental selection in a breeding program.


Subject(s)
Paspalum/genetics , Diploidy , Plant Breeding , Breeding , Genetic Markers , Hybrid Vigor
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2845-2855, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887847

ABSTRACT

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Starch , Tobacco/metabolism
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2836-2844, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887846

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that ODB genes play an important role in homologous recombination-directed DNA repair, suggesting their potential applications in plant breeding. To analyze the expression characteristics of tobacco NtODB gene, the cDNA sequence of NtODB was obtained using in silico cloning technique. The physicochemical properties, signal peptide, and advanced structures of the predicted protein were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. The results showed that the NtODB gene has a 579-bp open reading frame which encodes a protein with 192 amino acid residues. The protein NtODB is predicted to be alkaline and hydrophilic. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that NtODB was constitutively expressed in different tissues. Subcellular localization showed that NtODB was mainly expressed in cell membrane and chloroplast. These results may help us to better understand and elucidate the roles of ODB genes in the homologous recombination-directed DNA repair.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , DNA, Complementary , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Tobacco/genetics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880727

ABSTRACT

Since it was first recognized in bacteria and archaea as a mechanism for innate viral immunity in the early 2010s, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) has rapidly been developed into a robust, multifunctional genome editing tool with many uses. Following the discovery of the initial CRISPR/Cas-based system, the technology has been advanced to facilitate a multitude of different functions. These include development as a base editor, prime editor, epigenetic editor, and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activator (CRISPRa) gene regulators. It can also be used for chromatin and RNA targeting and imaging. Its applications have proved revolutionary across numerous biological fields, especially in biomedical and agricultural improvement. As a diagnostic tool, CRISPR has been developed to aid the detection and screening of both human and plant diseases, and has even been applied during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CRISPR/Cas is also being trialed as a new form of gene therapy for treating various human diseases, including cancers, and has aided drug development. In terms of agricultural breeding, precise targeting of biological pathways via CRISPR/Cas has been key to regulating molecular biosynthesis and allowing modification of proteins, starch, oil, and other functional components for crop improvement. Adding to this, CRISPR/Cas has been shown capable of significantly enhancing both plant tolerance to environmental stresses and overall crop yield via the targeting of various agronomically important gene regulators. Looking to the future, increasing the efficiency and precision of CRISPR/Cas delivery systems and limiting off-target activity are two major challenges for wider application of the technology. This review provides an in-depth overview of current CRISPR development, including the advantages and disadvantages of the technology, recent applications, and future considerations.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Gene Editing/methods , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Nobel Prize , Plant Breeding
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879007

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to investigate the reproductive biology characteristics of Polygonatum cyrtonema, especially including phenology, flower bud differentiation, flowering timing, floral traits, pollen vigor and stigma receptivity. The results showed that P. cyrtonema forms inflorescence before the leaves spread. In the wild, P. cyrtonema is mainly pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, with a seed setting rate of 65.12%. The seed setting rate of indoor single plant isolation or self-pollination enclosed by parchment paper bag is 0, indicating that it is self-incompatible. In Lin'an city, seedlings begin to emerge from mid-March to early April(the temperature is higher than 7.5 ℃), buds begin to emerge from the end of March to mid-April, and then undergo the full bloom stage from mid-to-late April, and the final flowering stage from the end of April to mid-May. The whole flowering period lasts 36 to 45 days. There are obvious differences in the phenology of different provenances. The flowers come into bloom from the base to the top along the aboveground main axis, which usually contain 4-22 inflorescences with(2-) 4-10(-21) flowers per inflorescence. The flowering pe-riod for a single plant is 26-38 days. The single flower lasts about 20-25 days from budding to opening and withers 2 days after pollination, and then the ovary will gradually expand. If unpollinated, it will continue to bloom for 3-5 days and then wither. Flower development period is significantly related to pollen vigor and stigma remittance. The pollen viability is the highest when the flower is fully opened with anthers gathering on the stigma, and the receptivity is the strongest when the stigma protrudes out of the perianth and secretes mucus. The fruits and seeds ripen in October, and proper shading can ensure the smooth development and maturity of the seeds. This study provides a basis for the hybrid breeding and seed production of P. cyrtonema.


Subject(s)
Flowers , Plant Breeding , Pollination , Polygonatum , Reproduction
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879001

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthus emblica is a kind of traditional medicine and medicinal and edible plant, with rich variety resources and high development value. It is a key poverty alleviation variety in China at present. As P. emblica processing industry is rising gradually in recent years, in order to fully develop and utilize its industrial resources, this paper systematically introduces current comprehensive development and utilization of P. emblica, discusses the problems in P. emblica processing industry, and puts forward comprehensive development and utilization strategies and industrial models in terms of cultivation, breeding, grading, quality evaluation and waste recycling, so as to provide a certain reference for promoting the high-quality development of P. emblica industry in China.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Phyllanthus emblica , Plant Breeding , Plant Extracts
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 242-252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878558

ABSTRACT

To screen the available tomato pollution-safe cultivar varieties and reduce the potential food safety risks in Cd-polluted areas, the differences of Cd accumulation in different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties in southern China were studied by soil culture and hydroponic experiments. Firstly, the high and low accumulation varieties were selected from 25 tomato varieties under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress by soil culture test, and then the responses of high and low accumulation tomato varieties to Cd stress were determined by hydroponic experiments. The results of soil culture test show that under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress, there were significant differences in plant height, total biomass and yield among 25 tomato cultivars, and the Cd contents of fruits of all 25 tomato cultivars exceeded the highest limit value (0.05 mg/kg) of CAC (Codex alimentarius commission). Through cluster analysis, 7, 4 and 14 varieties accumulating relatively high, medium, and low concentrations of Cd in the fruits were screened, among which the highest, the lowest, and the average Cd contents in the fruits were 3.06 mg/kg DW, 1.47 mg/kg DW, and 2.21 mg/kg DW, respectively. The results of hydroponic experiment show that under the same concentration of Cd stress, Qiantangxuri F1, a high Cd accumulating variety, absorbed Cd faster, accumulated more Cd, used shorter oxidative stress response time and had stronger tolerance to Cd than Zhefen 3053, a low Cd accumulating variety. The typical high and low Cd accumulating varieties can provide a reference for agricultural production in heavy metal polluted areas and the development of molecular-assisted breeding methods of PSC. At present, cultivating low Cd accumulating PSC varieties and dynamic monitoring of Cd contents in tomato fruits are feasible methods in medium and light Cd-polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cadmium/toxicity , China , Lycopersicon esculentum , Plant Breeding , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
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