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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248359, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345547

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.


Resumo A mancha bacteriana das folhas (BLB) é uma das principais doenças do arroz na Malásia. Essa doença causa perdas substanciais de rendimento de até 70%. O desenvolvimento de variedades de arroz que herdaram características de resistência ao BLB é uma abordagem crucial para promover e sustentar a indústria do arroz na Malásia. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar os caracteres BLB resistentes a doenças da variedade comercial MR219 de alto rendimento por meio de uma abordagem de cruzamento retrocruzamento com ferramenta de apoio de seleção assistida por marcador (MAS). O gene de resistência a BLB de amplo espectro, Xa7 do pai doador IRBB7, foi introgressado no MR219 suscetível (pai recorrente) usando dois marcadores flanqueadores ID7 e ID15. No BC3F4, conseguimos gerar 19 linhagens introgressadas com o gene Xa7 homozigoto e apresentamos características de resistência como genitor doador quando desafiado com Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae por inoculação artificial. O pai recorrente MR219 e a variedade controle, MR263, estavam gravemente infectados pela doença. As linhas melhoradas exibiram características morfológicas e de desempenho de rendimento semelhantes às da variedade elite, MR219. Duas linhas, PB-2-107 e PB-2-34, foram escolhidas como linhas potenciais por causa de seus desempenhos excelentes em comparação com a mãe, MR219. Este estudo demonstra uma história de sucesso de aplicação de MAS no desenvolvimento de linhas de arroz melhoradas com resistência a doenças contra a doença BLB.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Plant Diseases/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

ABSTRACT

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Subject(s)
Glycine max/growth & development , Glycine max/genetics , Phenotype , Bangladesh , Plant Breeding , Genotype , Mutation
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 280-291, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008095

ABSTRACT

In this study, the chloroplast genome of Camellia insularis Orel & Curry was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the chloroplast genome of C. insularis was 156 882 bp in length with a typical tetrad structure, encoding 132 genes, including 88 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Codon preference analysis revealed that the highest number of codons coded for leucine, with a high A/U preference in the third codon position. Additionally, 67 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci were identified, with a preference for A and T bases. The inverted repeat (IR) boundary regions of the chloroplast genome of C. insularis were relatively conserved, except for a few variable regions. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C. insularis was most closely related to C. fascicularis. Yellow camellia is a valuable material for genetic engineering breeding. This study provides fundamental genetic information on chloroplast engineering and offers valuable resources for conducting in-depth research on the evolution, species identification, and genomic breeding of yellow Camellia.


Subject(s)
Genome, Chloroplast/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Camellia/genetics , Chloroplasts/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 226-238, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008091

ABSTRACT

TCP family as plant specific transcription factor, plays an important role in different aspects of plant development. In order to screen TCP family members in tobacco, the homologous sequences of tobacco and Arabidopsis TCP family were identified by genome-wide homologous alignment. The physicochemical properties, phylogenetic relationships and cis-acting elements were analyzed by bioinformatics. The homologous genes of AtTCP3/AtTCP4 were screened, and RT-qPCR was used to detect the changes of gene expression upon 20% PEG6000 treatment. The results show that tobacco contains 63 TCP family members. Their amino acid sequence length ranged from 89 aa to 596 aa, and their protein hydropathicity grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) ranged from -1.147 to 0.125. The isoelectric point (pI) ranges from 4.42 to 9.94, the number of introns is 0 to 3, and the subcellular location is all located in the nucleus. The results of conserved domain and phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that the tobacco TCP family can be divided into PCF, CIN and CYC/TB1 subfamilies, and each subfamily has a stable sequence. The results of cis-acting elements in gene promoter region showed that TCP family genes contain low docile acting elements (LTR) and a variety of stress and metabolic regulation related elements (MYB, MYC). Analysis of gene expression patterns showed that AtTCP3/AtTCP4 homologous genes (NtTCP6, NtTCP28, NtTCP30, NtTCP33, NtTCP42, NtTCP57, NtTCP63) accounted for 20% PEG6000 treatment significantly up-regulated/down-regulated expression, and NtTCP30 and NtTCP57 genes were selected as candidate genes in response to drought. The results of this study analyzed the TCP family in the tobacco genome and provided candidate genes for the study of drought-resistance gene function and variety breeding in tobacco.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Amino Acid Sequence , Arabidopsis , Polyethylene Glycols
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 122-136, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008084

ABSTRACT

Excavating the quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with rice cooking quality, analyzing candidate genes, and improving cooking quality-associated traits of rice varieties by genetic breeding can effectively improve the taste of rice. In this study, we used the indica rice HZ, the japonica rice Nekken2 and 120 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations constructed from them as experimental materials to measure the gelatinization temperature (GT), gel consistency (GC) and amylose content (AC) of rice at the maturity stage. We combined the high-density genetic map for QTL mapping. A total of 26 QTLs associated with rice cooking quality (1 QTL associated with GT, 13 QTLs associated with GC, and 12 QTLs associated with AC) were detected, among which the highest likelihood of odd (LOD) value reached 30.24. The expression levels of candidate genes in the localization interval were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and it was found that the expression levels of six genes were significantly different from that in parents. It was speculated that the high expression of LOC_Os04g20270 and LOC_Os11g40100 may greatly increase the GC of rice, while the high expression of LOC_Os01g04920 and LOC_Os02g17500 and the low expression of LOC_Os03g02650 and LOC_Os05g25840 may reduce the AC. The results lay a molecular foundation for the cultivation of new high-quality rice varieties, and provide important genetic resources for revealing the molecular regulation mechanism of rice cooking quality.


Subject(s)
Quantitative Trait Loci , Oryza/genetics , Plant Breeding , Cooking , Genetic Association Studies
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 94-103, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008082

ABSTRACT

Eggplant is an important horticultural crop and one of the most widely grown vegetables in the Solanaceae family. Eggplant fruit-related agronomic traits are complex quantitative traits with low efficiency and long cycle time for traditional breeding selection. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has shown great application potential in analyzing the genetic rules of complex agronomic traits related to eggplant fruits. This paper first reviews the progress of genome-wide association analysis in eggplant fruit shape, fruit color and other fruit-related agronomic traits. Subsequently, aiming at the problem of missing heritability, which is common in the genetic studies of eggplant quantitative traits, this paper puts forward the development strategies of eggplant GWAS in the future based on the hot spots of application of four GWAS strategies in the research of agronomics traits related to eggplant fruits. Lastly, the application of GWAS strategy in the field of eggplant molecular breeding is expected to provide a theoretical basis and reference for the future use of GWAS to analyze the genetic basis of various eggplant fruit-related traits and to select fruit materials that meet consumer needs.


Subject(s)
Solanum melongena/genetics , Fruit/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Plant Breeding , Agriculture , Vegetables
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246455, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278524

ABSTRACT

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Resumo A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.


Subject(s)
Annonaceae , Annona/genetics , Seeds/genetics , Brazil , Plant Breeding , Fruit/genetics
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252059, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339358

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study describes the haematological profile, feeding preference, and comparison of morphometric characters of blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) breeding pairs. For this purpose, 25 pairs (25 samples per sex) were sampled through Mist nets from district Okara and Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. Birds were then anaesthetized with a combination of ketamine HCL (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) and subjected to morphometric measurements. 5µL blood also was taken from the jugular vein of each anaesthetized bird for haematological analysis. Few pairs were also dissected to remove gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) for food preferences. Results revealed that there are no significant differences in the haematological parameters and feeding preference of breeding pairs of Columba livia. The gut analysis further revealed, the major portion of gut contents consisted of pea and corn in most of the pairs. Regarding the mensural measurements, significant differences were recorded in the body weight, length of the longest primary feather, and chest circumference, whereas the rest of the studied parameters remain nonsignificant between sexes. So, it is concluded that apart from 3 morphometric parameters (body weight, length of longest primary feather and chest circumference), both sexes are alike in term of morphometry, haematology and food preference.


Resumo O presente estudo descreve o perfil hematológico, a preferência alimentar e a comparação de caracteres morfométricos de casais reprodutores de pombo-rocha (Columba livia). Para tanto, 25 pares (25 amostras por sexo) foram amostrados por meio de redes de névoa do distrito de Okara e Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Paquistão. As aves foram então anestesiadas com uma combinação de cetamina HCL (10 mg/kg) e diazepam (0,2 mg/kg) e submetidas a medidas morfométricas; 5 µL de sangue também foram retirados da veia jugular de cada ave anestesiada para análise hematológica. Poucos pares também foram dissecados para remover o trato gastrointestinal (GITs) para preferências alimentares. Os resultados revelaram que não há diferenças significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos e na preferência alimentar dos casais reprodutores de Columba livia. A análise intestinal revelou ainda que a maior parte do conteúdo intestinal consistia em ervilha e milho na maioria dos pares. Em relação às medidas mensurais, foram registradas diferenças significativas no peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica, enquanto os demais parâmetros estudados permanecem não significativos entre os sexos. Assim, conclui-se que além de três parâmetros morfométricos (peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica), ambos os sexos são semelhantes em termos de morfometria, hematologia e preferência alimentar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae , Food Preferences , Pakistan , Feathers , Plant Breeding
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Plant Diseases/genetics , Chromosomes, Plant , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468811

ABSTRACT

The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.


Subject(s)
Annona/genetics , Genetic Enhancement , Plant Breeding/methods
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468950

ABSTRACT

Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative’s wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Pest Control/economics , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Plant Breeding/methods , Triticum/genetics
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39024, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425135

ABSTRACT

Whiteflies are a severe threat to soybean production in the tropics. This study aimed to evaluate the soybean resistance level of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in controlled and uncontrolled environments that is associated with plant age, damage intensity, and trichome density. The research was conducted under two conditions: non-sprayed (NS) and sprayed (SP). This study used 50 soybean genotypes arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. The whitefly population was derived from natural infestations. The results showed that the highest wild population of B. tabaci occurred at 40 days after planting (DAP), i.e., 126.08 adults/plant in the NS environment and 22.57 adults/plant in the SP environment. The peak damage intensity occurred at 50 DAP, 20.71% in the NS environment, and 17.15% in the SP environment. In the NS environment, there were six resistant genotypes (including the resistant control G100H), 25 moderate, and 19 susceptible genotypes. In the SP environment, 19 genotypes were resistant, 22 genotypes were moderate, and nine genotypes were susceptible, respectively. Six soybean genotypes showed consistent resistance to B. tabaci in NS and SP environments. The low density of leaf trichomes in soybean may influence the high resistance to B. tabaci. The resistant genotypes identified in this study could be utilized in breeding programs for B. tabaci resistance.


Subject(s)
Glycine max , Plant Immunity , Hemiptera , Plant Breeding
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39028, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425192

ABSTRACT

Climate changes can influence the genetic diversity of forage plants, which may contribute to the improvement and development of new species. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the influence of temperature increase on the genetic diversity of Macroptilium accessions based on morphoagronomic descriptors. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber in a 2×16 factorial arrangement (temperature regimes x Macroptilium accessions), with the temperatures consisting of T1 (20­26­33 °C) and T2 (24.8­30.8­37.8 °C) and 16 accessions. Eleven morphoagronomic descriptors allowed estimating the diversity among accessions. The measurements of genetic dissimilarity enabled us to observe the genetic distance between the studied materials, standing out the accessions T1.M3 and T2.S4 as the most divergent (446.01). The morphoagronomic descriptors percentage of leaves and stem diameter were the most efficient for estimating the diversity between access. Genetic variability points to the adaptation of Macroptilium accessions in the climate change scenario. The accessions more divergent can be explored in genetic breeding programs for the species aiming at the expansion of genetic variability as an adaptation mechanism to heat stress.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Climate Change , Phaseolus , Plant Breeding
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6613-6623, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008860

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of germplasm resources is the prerequisite for the development, utilization, and conservation of Chinese medicinal resources. The selection of excellent germplasm is the key to the breeding and orderly production of Pinellia ternata. In this study, 21 germplasm materials of P. ternata from major production areas in China were collected and analyzed for population diversity after phenotypic preliminary screening. The results have revealed that the P. ternata population has abundant phenotypic variation, and the phenotypic changes could be divided into five phenotypes in terms of organ trait variation. Further analysis of variation in 20 quantitative traits of the population revealed that the coefficient of variation for adenosine content(339.05%) was the largest, while the coefficient of variation for the underground plant height(16.35%) was the smallest. Correlation analysis showed that there was a strong correlation among various traits, with 52 pairs of traits showing highly significant correlation(P<0.01) and 19 pairs of traits showing a significant correlation(P<0.05). The 21 germplasms in the test could be classified into three major clusters by cluster analysis, with Cluster Ⅱ having the highest number and content of nucleosides, making it suitable for the selection and breeding of P. ternata varieties with high content of nucleosides. The yield in Cluster Ⅲ was higher than that in other groups, making it suitable for the selection and breeding of P. ternata varieties with a high yield. All trait indicators could be simplified into five principal component factors through principal component analysis, and the cumulative contribution rate was up to 86.04%. Further, comprehensive analysis using membership function and stepwise regression analysis identified nine traits, such as plant height, main leaf length, and underground plant height as characteristic indicators for the comprehensive evaluation of germplasm resources of P. ternata. BX007, BX008, and BX005 were identified as germplasms with both high yield and high uridine content, with BX007 having the highest uridine content of 479.51 μg·g~(-1). It belonged to the germplasm of P. ternata with double bulbils and could be cultivated as a potential good variety. Based on the phenotypic classification of P. ternata, systematic resource evaluation was carried out in this study, which could lay a foundation for the excavation of genetic resources and the breeding of new varieties of P. ternata.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Pinellia/genetics , Plant Breeding , Phenotype , Uridine
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5474-5486, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008744

ABSTRACT

This study is based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography(UPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and network pharmacology methods to analyze and predict potential quality markers(Q-markers) of Artemisiae Argyi Folium. First, UPLC and GC-MS techniques were used to analyze the content of 12 non-volatile components and 8 volatile components in the leaves of 33 Artemisia argyi germplasm resources as candidate Q-markers. Subsequently, network pharmacology was employed to construct a "component-target-pathway-efficacy" network to screen out core Q-markers, and the biological activity of the markers was validated using molecular docking. Finally, cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the content of Q-markers in the 33 A. argyi germplasm resources. The results showed that 18 candidate components, 60 targets, and 185 relationships were identified, which were associated with 72 pathways related to the treatment of 11 diseases and exhibited 5 other effects. Based on the combination of freedom and component specificity, six components, including eupatilin, cineole, β-caryophyllene, dinatin, jaceosidin, and caryophyllene oxide were selected as potential Q-markers for Artemisiae Argyi Folium. According to the content of these six markers, cluster analysis divided the 33 A. argyi germplasm resources into three groups, and principal component analysis identified S14 as having the highest overall quality. This study provides a reference for exploring Q-markers of Artemisiae Argyi Folium, establishing a quality evaluation system, further studying its pharmacological mechanisms, and breeding new varieties.


Subject(s)
Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Plant Breeding , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Artemisia/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5162-5171, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008714

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the impact of the invasive pest Corythucha marmorata on the growth and quality of Artemi-sia argyi. The signs of insect damage at the cultivation base of A. argyi in Huanggang, Hubei were observed. The pests were identified based on morphological and molecular evidence. The pest occurrence pattern and damage mechanism were investigated. Electron microscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were employed to analyze the microstructure, volatile oils, and flavonoid content of the pest-infested leaves. C. marmorata can cause destructive damage to A. argyi. Small decoloring spots appeared on the leaf surface at the initial stage of infestation. As the damage progressed, the spots spread along the leaf veins and aggregated into patches, causing yellowish leaves and even brownish yellow in the severely affected areas. The insect frequently appeared in summer because it thrives in hot dry conditions. After occurrence on the leaves, microscopic examination revealed that the front of the leaves gradually developed decoloring spots, with black oily stains formed by the black excrement attaching to the glandular hairs. The leaf flesh was also severely damaged, and the non-glandular hairs were broken, disor-ganized, and sticky. The content of neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acids A and B, hispidulin, jaceosidin, and eupatilin at the early stage of infestation was significantly higher than that at the middle stage, and the content decreased at the last stage of infestation. The content of eucalyptol, borneol, terpinyl, and caryophyllin decreased in the moderately damaged leaves and increased in the severely damaged leaves. C. marmorata was discovered for the first time on A. argyi leaves in this study, and its prevention and control deserves special attention. The germplasm materials resistant to this pest can be used to breed C. marmorata-resis-tant A. argyi varieties.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Breeding , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Leaves/chemistry
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1247-1259, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970436

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to construct Chlorella mutants deficient in chlorophyll synthesis by atmospheric pressure room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis, and screen novel algal species with very low chlorophyll content which is suitable for protein production by fermentation. Firstly, the lethal rate curve of mixotrophic wild type cells was established by optimizing the mutagenesis treatment time. The mixotrophic cells in early exponential phase were treated by the condition of over 95% lethal rate, and 4 mutants with the visual change of colony color were isolated. Subsequently, the mutants were cultured in shaking flasks heterotrophically for evaluation of their protein production performance. P. ks 4 mutant showed the best performance in Basal medium containing 30 g/L glucose and 5 g/L NaNO3. The protein content and productivity reached 39.25% dry weight and 1.15 g/(L·d), with an amino acid score of 101.34. The chlorophyll a content decreased 98.78%, whereas chlorophyll b was not detected, and 0.62 mg/g of lutein content made the algal biomass appear golden yellow. This work provides a novel germplasm, the mutant P. ks 4 with high yield and high quality, for alternative protein production by microalgal fermentation.


Subject(s)
Chlorella/metabolism , Chlorophyll A/metabolism , Plant Breeding , Mutagenesis , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Biomass , Microalgae
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 603-613, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970394

ABSTRACT

ACC oxidase (ACO) is one of the key enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of ethylene. Ethylene is involved in salt stress response in plants, and salt stress seriously affects the yield of peanut. In this study, AhACO genes were cloned and their functions were investigated with the aim to explore the biological function of AhACOs in salt stress response, and to provide genetic resources for the breeding of salt-tolerant varieties of peanut. AhACO1 and AhACO2 were amplified from the cDNA of salt-tolerant peanut mutant M29, respectively, and cloned into the plant expression vector pCAMBIA super1300. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Huayu22 by pollen tube injection mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. After harvest, the small slice cotyledon was separated from the kernel, and the positive seeds were screened by PCR. The expression of AhACO genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the ethylene release was detected by capillary column gas chromatography. Transgenic seeds were sowed and then irrigated with NaCl solution, and the phenotypic changes of 21-day-seedings were recorded. The results showed that the growth of transgenic plants were better than that of the control group Huayu 22 upon salt stress, and the relative content of chlorophyll SPAD value and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of transgenic peanuts were higher than those of the control group. In addition, the ethylene production of AhACO1 and AhACO2 transgenic plants were 2.79 and 1.87 times higher than that of control peanut, respectively. These results showed that AhACO1 and AhACO2 could significantly improve the salt stress tolerance of transgenic peanut.


Subject(s)
Salt Tolerance/genetics , Arachis/genetics , Plant Breeding , Ethylenes/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 399-424, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970382

ABSTRACT

The CRISPR-Cas9 system is composed of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and its associated proteins, which are widely present in bacteria and archaea, serving as a specific immune protection against viral and phage secondary infections. CRISPR-Cas9 technology is the third generation of targeted genome editing technologies following zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs). The CRISPR-Cas9 technology is now widely used in various fields. Firstly, this article introduces the generation, working mechanism and advantages of CRISPR-Cas9 technology; secondly, it reviews the applications of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in gene knockout, gene knock-in, gene regulation and genome in breeding and domestication of important food crops such as rice, wheat, maize, soybean and potato. Finally, the article summarizes the current problems and challenges encountered by CRISPR-Cas9 technology and prospects future development and application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Plant Breeding , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Technology
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2896-2903, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981443

ABSTRACT

A rich diversity of wild medicinal plant resources is distributed in China, but the breeding of new plant varieties of Chinese medicinal plants started late and the breeding level is relatively weak. Chinese medicinal plant resources are the foundation for new varieties breeding, and the plant variety rights(PVP) are of great significance for the protection and development of germplasm resources. However, most Chinese medicinal plants do not have a distinctness, uniformity, and stability(DUS) testing guideline. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has put 191 plant species(genera) on protection lists, of which only 30 are medicinal species(genera). At the same time, only 29 of 293 species(genera) plants in the Protection List of New Plant Varieties of the People's Republic of China(Forest and Grass) belong to Chinese medicinal plants. The number of PVP applications and authorization of Chinese medicinal plants is rare, and the composition of variety is unreasonable. Up to now, 29 species(genera) of DUS test guidelines for Chinese medicinal plants have been developed. Some basic problems in the breeding of new varieties of Chinese medicinal plants have appeared, such as the small number of new varieties and insufficient utilization of Chinese medicinal plant resources. This paper reviewed the current situation of breeding of new varieties of Chinese medicinal plants and the research progress of DUS test guidelines in China and discussed the application of biotechnology in the field of Chinese medicinal plant breeding and the existing problems in DUS testing. This paper guides the further application of DUS to protect and utilize the germplasm resources of Chinese medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Biotechnology , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
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