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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245379, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


Resumo O crescimento populacional está aumentando rapidamente em todo o mundo, e para combater suas consequências precisamos produzir mais alimentos para suprir a demanda do aumento populacional. O mundo está enfrentando o aquecimento global devido à urbanização e industrialização e, nesse caso, plantas expostas continuamente a estresses abióticos, que é uma das principais causas do martelamento das safras todos os anos. Estresses abióticos consistem em seca, sal, calor, frio, oxidação e toxicidade de metais que prejudicam o rendimento da colheita continuamente. A seca e o estresse salino são afetados de maneira diversa pela planta e são a principal causa de redução da produtividade das culturas. As plantas respondem a vários estímulos sob condições de estresse abiótico ou biótico e expressam certos genes estruturais ou regulatórios que mantêm a integridade da planta. Os genes reguladores são principalmente os fatores de transcrição que exercem sua atividade ligando-se a certos elementos cis do DNA e, consequentemente, são regulados para cima ou para baixo para a expressão alvo. Esses fatores de transcrição são conhecidos como reguladores mestres porque sua única transcrição regula mais de um gene; nesse contexto, a palavra regulon é mais fascinante no âmbito dos fatores de transcrição. Progresso foi feito para entender melhor sobre o efeito dos regulons (AREB / ABF, DREB, MYB e NAC) sob estresses abióticos e uma série de regulons relatados como responsivos ao estresse e usados ​​como uma melhor ferramenta transgênica de Arabidopsis e Rice.


Subject(s)
Regulon/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Droughts
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(3): 196-204, sept. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399277

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of vegetable proteins as ingredients in food systems is based on their functional properties. The water and oil holding capacity, foaming, and emulsifying capacity/stability, and antioxidant assay of the protein fractions - albumins, globulins 7S/11S, glutelins and prolamins - isolated from Leucaena seed were evaluated. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties and antioxidant capacity of the concentrate and protein fractions of ripe Leucaena spp. seeds. Materials and methods: Ripe Leucaena seeds were collected and evaluated in Oaxaca, Mexico (16°59'21''N 96°43'26''O) during the months of February-April 2021.The protein concentrate was isolated by isoelectric precipitation (pH=9, pH=4). The albumins, globulins, glutelins and prolamins were isolated based on their solubility properties in different extracting solutions. Results: Glutelins constituted the main protein fraction (75.88%). Prolamins were not found. The glutelins fractions showed the highest oil holding capacity (0.93±0.08 mL g-1). The albumins fraction had the highest water holding capacity (2.53±0.15 mL g-1), foaming capacity and foam stability (71.83±1.26 % and 70.00±0.00%, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (18.09±0.88%). The globulins exhibited the highest emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability (56.83±1.76% and 55.67±1.20%, respectively). Conclusions: The concentrate and protein fraction of Leucaena seeds showed different techno-functional and antioxidant properties of interest for the food industry, like those showed by other commercial vegetable proteins(AU)


Introducción: El uso de proteínas vegetales como ingredientes en sistemas alimentarios se basa en sus propiedades funcionales. Se evaluó la capacidad de retención de agua y aceite, la capacidad/estabilidad espumante y emulsionante y el ensayo antioxidante de las fracciones proteicas -albúminas, globulinas 7S/11S, glutelinas y prolaminas- aisladas de las semillas de Leucaena. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades funcionales y la capacidad antioxidante del concentrado y las fracciones proteicas de las semillas maduras de Leucaena spp. Materiales y métodos: Las semillas maduras de Leucaena fueron recolectadas y evaluadas en Oaxaca, México (16°59'21''N 96°43'26''O) durante los meses de febrero-abril del año 2021. Se usó harina de Leucaena desgrasada para la preparación de las fracciones proteicas. El concentrado proteico se aisló por precipitación isoeléctrica (pH=9, pH=4). Las albúminas, globulinas, glutelinas y prolaminas se aislaron en función de sus propiedades de solubilidad en diferentes soluciones de extracción. Resultados: Las glutelinas constituyeron la principal fracción proteica (75,88%). No se encontraron prolaminas. La fracción de glutelinas mostró la mayor capacidad de retención de aceite (0.93±0,08 mL g-1). La fracción de albúminas presentó la mayor capacidad de retención de agua (2,53±0,15 mL g-1), capacidad espumante y estabilidad de la espuma (71,83±1,26% y 70,00±0,00%, respectivamente) y capacidad antioxidante (18,09±0,88%). Las globulinas mostraron la mayor capacidad emulsionante y estabilidad de la emulsión (56,83±1,76 y 55,67±1,20%, respectivamente). Conclusiones: El concentrado y las fracciones proteicas de las semillas de Leucaena mostraron diferentes propiedades tecno-funcionales y antioxidantes de interés para la industria alimentaria, similares a los reportados por diversas proteínas vegetales comerciales(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins , Food Industry , Fabaceae , Plants , Seeds , Food , Glutens , Antioxidants
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237214, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249258

ABSTRACT

Abstract Artemisia absinthium L. is an important herb that is widely cultivated in different parts of the world for its medicinal properties. The present study evaluated the effects of four concentrations of nanoparticles treatment (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-1) and NaCl salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) and their interactions with respect to the expression of two key genes, i.e. DBR2 and ADS, in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin in A. absinthium. Total RNA was extracted and a relative gene expression analysis was carried out using Real-Time PCR. The amount of artemisinin was also determined by HPLC. All the experiments were performed as factorial in a completely randomized design in three replications. The results revealed that salinity stress and nanoparticles treatment and their interaction affected the expressions of these genes significantly. The highest levels of ADS gene expression were observed in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticles-treated plants in the presence of 150 mM salinity stress and the lowest levels in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticles-treated plants under 50 mM salinity stress. The maximum DBR2 gene expression was recorded in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticles-treated plants in the absence of salinity stress and the minimum expression in the 100 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles treatment. Moreover, the smallest amounts of artemisinin were observed in the 150 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles and the highest amounts in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticles-treated plants. The maximum amounts of artemisinin and ADS gene expression were reported from the plants in the same nanoparticles treatment and salinity stress conditions. In this regard, the amount of artemisinin was decreased by half in the plants containing the highest DBR2 gene expression. Meanwhile, no significant correlation was observed between these gene expressions and the artemisinin amount in the other nanoparticles-treated plants under different levels of salinity stress. The biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites appears to be very complex and dose not directly dependent on these gene expressions.


Resumo Artemisia absinthium L. é uma erva importante que é amplamente cultivada em diferentes partes do mundo por suas propriedades medicinais. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de quatro concentrações de tratamento com nanopartículas (0, 10, 20 e 30 mg L-1) e estresse de salinidade com NaCl (0, 50, 100 e 150 mM NaCl) e suas interações com relação à expressão de dois genes-chave, isto é, DBR2 e ADS, na via de biossíntese da artemisinina em A. absinthium. O RNA total foi extraído, e uma análise de expressão gênica relativa foi realizada usando PCR em tempo real. A quantidade de artemisinina também foi determinada por HPLC. Todos os experimentos foram realizados como fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em três repetições. Os resultados revelaram que o estresse por salinidade e o tratamento com nanopartículas e sua interação afetaram significativamente as expressões desses genes. Os níveis mais altos de expressão do gene ADS foram observados nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1 na presença de estresse de salinidade de 150 mM, e os níveis mais baixos, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 com estresse de salinidade de 50 mM. A expressão máxima do gene DBR2 foi registrada nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 na ausência de estresse de salinidade, e a expressão mínima, nas plantas estressadas com salinidade de 100 mM na ausência de tratamento com nanopartículas. Além disso, as menores quantidades de artemisinina foram observadas nas plantas com estresse de salinidade de 150 mM na ausência de nanopartículas, e as maiores quantidades, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1. As quantidades máximas de expressão de genes de artemisinina e ADS foram relatadas a partir das plantas no mesmo tratamento com nanopartículas e condições de estresse de salinidade. A esse respeito, a quantidade de artemisinina diminuiu pela metade nas plantas que contêm a expressão gênica DBR2 mais alta. Enquanto isso, nenhuma correlação significativa foi observada entre essas expressões gênicas e a quantidade de artemisinina nas outras plantas tratadas com nanopartículas sob diferentes níveis de estresse de salinidade. A via biossintética dos metabólitos secundários parece ser muito complexa e não depende diretamente dessas expressões gênicas.


Subject(s)
Artemisia absinthium/genetics , Artemisia annua , Artemisinins , Nanoparticles , Plant Proteins , Titanium , Salt Stress
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929060

ABSTRACT

Plant metabolites are important for plant development and human health. Plants of celery (Apiumgraveolens L.) with different-colored petioles have been formed in the course of long-term evolution. However, the composition, content distribution, and mechanisms of accumulation of metabolites in different-colored petioles remain elusive. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), 1159 metabolites, including 100 lipids, 72 organic acids and derivatives, 83 phenylpropanoids and polyketides, and several alkaloids and terpenoids, were quantified in four celery cultivars, each with a different petiole color. There were significant differences in the types and contents of metabolites in celery with different-colored petioles, with the most striking difference between green celery and purple celery, followed by white celery and green celery. Annotated analysis of metabolic pathways showed that the metabolites of the different-colored petioles were significantly enriched in biosynthetic pathways such as anthocyanin, flavonoid, and chlorophyll pathways, suggesting that these metabolic pathways may play a key role in determining petiole color in celery. The content of chlorophyll in green celery was significantly higher than that in other celery cultivars, yellow celery was rich in carotenoids, and the content of anthocyanin in purple celery was significantly higher than that in the other celery cultivars. The color of the celery petioles was significantly correlated with the content of related metabolites. Among the four celery cultivars, the metabolites of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were enriched in purple celery. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) suggested that the differential expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway might affect the biosynthesis of anthocyanin in celery. In addition, HPLC analysis revealed that cyanidin is the main pigment in purple celery. This study explored the differences in the types and contents of metabolites in celery cultivars with different-colored petioles and identified key substances for color formation. The results provide a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic improvement of celery petiole color.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Apium/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Color , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Metabolomics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928179

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the MYB-related gene family has been found pivotal in plant growth and development. MYB-related gene family in Angelica dahurica var. formosana was systematically investigated based on "Chuanzhi No. 2" through transcriptome database search and bioinformatics and the temporal and spatial expression patterns were analyzed through real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(PCR). The results showed that 122 MYB-related proteins family were identified, mainly including the unstable hydrophilic proteins with good thermal stability. Most of the proteins were located in nuclei. The majority of the proteins had the structures of random coil and α-helix. Five MYB-related proteins family of A. dahurica var. formosana had membrane-binding domains. The conserved domain analysis of MYB-related proteins family of A. dahurica var. formosana showed that the MYB domains of genes in five subgroups, similar to 2 R-, 3 R-, and 4 R-MYB proteins, contained three evenly distributed Trp(W) residues in the MYB repeat sequence. The phylogenetic analysis of MYB-related proteins family in A. dahurica var. formosana and Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the MYB-related members were unevenly distributed in five subgroups, and A. thaliana and A. dahurica var. formosana had almost the same number of genes in the CCA1-like subgroup. There were differences in the number, type, and distribution of motifs contained in 122 encoded proteins. Transcription factors with similar branches had similar domains and motifs. The expression pattern analysis showed that the transcription factors AdMYB53, AdMYB83, and AdMYB89 responded to hormones to varying degrees, and they were highly expressed in leaves and responded quickly in roots. This study lays a foundation for further investigating the function of MYB-related transcription factors of A. dahurica var. formosana and solving the corresponding biological problems such as bolting early.


Subject(s)
Angelica/chemistry , Animals , Computational Biology , Gastropoda , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Plant Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927913

ABSTRACT

The plant growth, development, and secondary metabolism are regulated by R2 R3-MYB transcription factors. This study identified the R2 R3-MYB genes in the genome of Andrographis paniculata and analyzed the chromosomal localization, gene structure, and conserved domains, phylogenetic relationship, and promoter cis-acting elements of these R2 R3-MYB genes. Moreover, the gene expression profiles of R2 R3-MYB genes under abiotic stress and hormone treatments were generated by RNA-seq and validated by qRT-PCR. The results showed that A. paniculata contained 73 R2 R3-MYB genes on 21 chromosomes. These members belonged to 34 subfamilies, 19 of which could be classified into the known subfamilies in Arabidopsis thaliana. The 73 R2 R3-MYB members included 36 acidic proteins and 37 basic proteins, with the lengths of 148-887 aa. The domains, motifs, and gene structures of R2 R3-MYBs in A. paniculata were conserved. The promoter regions of these genes contains a variety of cis-acting elements related to the responses to environmental factors and plant hormones including light, ABA, MeJA, and drought. Based on the similarity of functions of R2 R3-MYBs in the same subfamily and the transcription profiles, ApMYB13/21/35/67/73(S22) may regulate drought stress through ABA pathway; ApMYB20(S11) and ApMYB55(S2) may play a role in the response of A. paniculata to high temperature and UV-C stress; ApMYB5(S7) and ApMYB33(S20) may affect the accumulation of andrographolide by regulating the expression of key enzymes in the MEP pathway. This study provides theoretical reference for further research on the functions of R2 R3-MYB genes in A. paniculata and breeding of A. paniculata varieties with high andrographolide content.


Subject(s)
Andrographis paniculata , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, myb , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927912

ABSTRACT

Dof(DNA binding with one finger), a unique class of transcription factors in plants, play an important role in seed development, tissue differentiation, and metabolic regulation. To identify the number and function of Dof gene family members in Panax ginseng, this study identified the members of Dof gene family in P. ginseng and systematically analyzed their structures, evolution, functional differentiation, expression patterns, and interactions using bioinformatics methods at the transcriptome level. At the same time, the association analysis of Dof genes from P. ginseng with key enzyme genes for ginsenoside synthesis was carried out to screen the candidate PgDof genes involved in the regulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis. The results showed that there were 54 genes belonging to the Dof gene family in P. ginseng from Jilin. All PgDof genes had Zf-Dof conserved motifs, implying that they were evolutionarily conserved and could be divided into five groups. Expression pattern analysis confirmed that the expression of PgDof gene family members in different tissues, different year-old P. ginseng, and different farm varieties varied significantly. Simultaneously, as revealed by "gene-saponin content" and "gene-gene" linkage analysis, an important candidate PgDof14-1 gene involved in the regulation of ginsenoside biosynthesis was obtained. From the established genetic transformation system of this gene in the hairy roots of P. ginseng, a positive hairy root clone was determined. This study has laid a theoretical foundation for the study of Dof gene family in P. ginseng.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Transcriptome
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1965-1980, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927831

ABSTRACT

WRKY is a superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors, playing a critical regulatory role in multiple biological processes such as plant growth and development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although WRKY genes have been characterized in a variety of higher plants, little is known about them in eukaryotic algae, which are close to higher plants in evolution. To fully characterize algal WRKY family members, we carried out multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, and conserved domain prediction to identify the WRKY genes in the genomes of 30 algal species. A total of 24 WRKY members were identified in Chlorophyta, whereas no WRKY member was detected in Rhodophyta, Glaucophyta, or Bacillariophyta. The 24 WRKY members were classified into Ⅰ, Ⅱa, Ⅱb and R groups, with a conserved heptapeptide domain WRKYGQ(E/A/H/N)K and a zinc finger motif C-X4-5-C-X22-23-H-X-H. Haematococcus pluvialis, a high producer of natural astaxanthin, contained two WRKY members (HaeWRKY-1 and HaeWRKY-2). Furthermore, the coding sequences of HaeWRKY-1 and HaeWRKY-2 genes were cloned and then inserted into prokaryotic expression vector. The recombinant vectors were induced to express in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells and the fusion proteins were purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. HaeWRKY-1 had significantly higher expression level than HaeWRKY-2 in H. pluvialis cultured under normal conditions. High light stress significantly up-regulated the expression of HaeWRKY-1 while down-regulated that of HaeWRKY-2. The promoters of HaeWRKY genes contained multiple cis-elements responsive to light, ethylene, ABA, and stresses. Particularly, the promoter of HaeWRKY-2 contained no W-box specific for WRKY binding. However, the W-box was detected in the promoters of HaeWRKY-1 and the key enzyme genes HaeBKT (β-carotene ketolase) and HaePSY (phytoene synthase) responsible for astaxanthin biosynthesis. Considering these findings and the research progress in the related fields, we hypothesized that the low expression of HaeWRKY-2 under high light stress may lead to the up-regulation of HaeWRKY-1 expression. HaeWRKY-1 may then up-regulate the expression of the key genes (HaeBKT, HaePSY, etc.) for astaxanthin biosynthesis, consequently promoting astaxanthin enrichment in algal cells. The findings provide new insights into further analysis of the regulatory mechanism of astaxanthin biosynthesis and high light stress response of H. pluvialis.


Subject(s)
Eukaryota , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1946-1952, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927829

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the salt tolerance of banana NHX genes, we cloned a MaNHX5 gene from Musa acuminata L. AAA group and predicted the key salt-tolerant amino acid sites and mutant protein structure changes of MaNHX5 by using bioinformatics tools. The 276-position serine (S) of MaNHX5 protein was successfully mutated to aspartic acid (D) by site-directed mutagenesis, and the AXT3 salt-sensitive mutant yeast was used for a functional complementation test. The results showed that after the mutated MaNHX5 gene was transferred to AXT3 salt-sensitive mutant yeast, the salt tolerance of the mutant yeast was significantly improved under 200 mmol/L NaCl treatment. It is hypothesized that Ser276 of MaNHX5 protein plays an important role in the transport of Na+ across the tonoplast.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Musa/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1929-1945, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927828

ABSTRACT

The responsive patterns of phytochrome gene family members to photoperiod and abiotic stresses were comparatively analyzed and the favorable natural variation sites of these genes were identified. This would help understand the mechanism of phytochrome gene family in photoperiod-regulated growth and development and abiotic stress response. In addition, it may facilitate the molecular marker assisted selection of key traits in foxtail millet. In this study, we used RT-PCR to clone three phytochrome genes SiPHYA, SiPHYB and SiPHYC from ultra-late maturity millet landrace variety 'Maosu'. After primary bioinformatics analysis, we studied the photoperiod control mode and the characteristics of these genes in responding to five abiotic stresses including polyethylene glycol (PEG)-simulated drought, natural drought, abscisic acid (ABA), high temperature and NaCl by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Finally, we detected the mutation sites of the three genes among 160 foxtail millet materials and performed haplotype analysis to determine the genes' functional effect. We found that the cloned cDNA sequences of gene SiPHYA, SiPHYB and SiPHYC were 3 981, 3 953 and 3 764 bp respectively, which contained complete coding regions. Gene SiPHYB and SiPHYC showed closer evolutionary relationship. Photoperiod regulated all of the three genes, but showed more profound effects on diurnal expression pattern of SiPHYB, SiPHYC than that of SiPHYA. Under short-day, when near heading, the expression levels of SiPHYA and SiPHYB were significantly lower than that under long-day, indicating their roles in suppressing heading of foxtail millet under long-day. SiPHYB and SiPHYC were responsive to PEG-simulated drought, natural drought, ABA and high temperature stresses together. SiPHYA and SiPHYB responded differently to salt stress, whereas SiPHYC did not respond to salt stress. Re-sequencing of 160 foxtail millet materials revealed that SiPHYB was highly conservative. Two missense mutations of SiPHYA, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 7 034 522C→T and SNP7 036 657G→C, led to delaying heading and increasing plant height. One missense mutation of SiPHYC, such as SNP5 414 823G→T, led to shortening heading under short-day and delaying heading under long-day, as well as increasing plant height and panicle length regardless of photo-thermal conditions. Photoperiod showed different regulatory effects on SiPHYA, SiPHYB and SiPHYC. SiPHYB and SiPHYC jointly responded to various abiotic stresses except for the salt stress. Compared with the reference genotype, mutation genotypes of SiPHYA and SiPHYC delayed heading and increased plant height and panicle length.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Photoperiod , Phytochrome/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Setaria Plant/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 359-373, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927716

ABSTRACT

Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) family is important for production of volatile aromatic compounds and synthesis of plant hormones. To explore the biological functions and gene expression patterns of CsCCD gene family in tea plant, genome-wide identification of CsCCD gene family was performed. The gene structures, conserved motifs, chromosome locations, protein physicochemical properties, evolutionary characteristics, interaction network and cis-acting regulatory elements were predicted and analyzed. Real time-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the relative expression level of CsCCD gene family members under different leaf positions and light treatments during processing. A total of 11 CsCCD gene family members, each containing exons ranging from 1 to 11 and introns ranging from 0 to 10, were identified. The average number of amino acids and molecular weight were 519 aa and 57 643.35 Da, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the CsCCD gene family was clustered into 5 major groups (CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, CCD8 and NCED). The CsCCD gene family mainly contained stress response elements, hormone response elements, light response elements and multi-factor response elements, and light response elements was the most abundant (142 elements). Expression analysis showed that the expression levels of CsCCD1 and CsCCD4 in elder leaves were higher than those in younger leaves and stems. With the increase of turning over times, the expression levels of CsCCD1 and CsCCD4 decreased, while supplementary LED light strongly promoted their expression levels in the early stage. The expression level of NCED in younger leaves was higher than that in elder leaves and stems on average, and the expression trend varied in the process of turning over. NCED3 first increased and then decreased, with an expression level 15 times higher than that in fresh leaves. In the late stage of turning over, supplementary LED light significantly promoted its gene expression. In conclusion, CsCCD gene family member expressions were regulated by mechanical force and light. These understandings may help to optimize tea processing techniques and improve tea quality.


Subject(s)
Camellia sinensis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Tea
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 343-358, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927715

ABSTRACT

Three-amino acid loop extension (TALE) transcription factors play important roles in plant growth and cell differentiation. There are plenty of studies on TALE transcription factors in several model plants, but not in radish (Raphanus sativas). A genome-wide bioinformatics analysis identified 33 TALE family genes in the Xiang-Ya-Bai (XYB) radish, These genes, are distributed on nine chromosomes and all contain 4-6 exons. The 33 TALE genes in radish showed a co-linearity relationship with the 17 homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, a large number of stress response cis-elements were found in the promoter regions of these genes. Expression analysis showed that four genes in the BELL subfamily were highly expressed in roots, and two genes in the KNOX subfamily were highly expressed in shoots of bolting plants and callus. All radish TALE genes contain sequences encoding the conserved HOX domain, except for the gene RSA10037940, which is homologous to Arabidopsis KNATM. The deduced 3D structures of the TALE proteins irrespective of subtypes are highly similar. All the encoded proteins were weakly acidic and hydrophilic. The radish TALE gene family is relatively evolutionarily conserved, which was consistent with results from Arabidopsis, but quite different from that of rice. This study provides important clues for studying the biological functions of TALE transcription factors in radish.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Raphanus/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 303-327, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927713

ABSTRACT

Oolong tea is a semi-fermented tea with strong flavor, which is widely favored by consumers because of its floral and fruity aroma as well as fresh and mellow taste. During the processing of oolong tea, withering is the first indispensable process for improving flavor formation. However, the molecular mechanism that affects the flavor formation of oolong tea during withering remains unclear. Transcriptome sequencing was used to analyze the difference among the fresh leaves, indoor-withered leaves and solar-withered leaves of oolong tea. A total of 10 793 differentially expressed genes were identified from the three samples. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in flavonoid synthesis, terpenoid synthesis, plant hormone signal transduction and spliceosome pathways. Subsequently, twelve differentially expressed genes and four differential splicing genes were identified from the four enrichment pathways for fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis. The results showed that the expression patterns of the selected genes during withering were consistent with the results in the transcriptome datasets. Further analysis revealed that the transcriptional inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes, the transcriptional enhancement of terpenoid biosynthesis-related genes, as well as the jasmonic acid signal transduction and the alternative splicing mechanism jointly contributed to the flavor formation of high floral and fruity aroma and low bitterness in solar-withered leaves. The results may facilitate better understanding the molecular mechanisms of solar-withering treatment in flavor formation of oolong tea.


Subject(s)
Camellia sinensis/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Plant Leaves , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Taste , Tea , Transcriptome/genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 275-286, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927711

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of the transcription factor MYB10, which is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, in different colors of Ribes L. fruitification. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to clone the MYB10 genes from Ribes nigrum L. (RnMYB10), Ribes rubrum L. (RrMYB10), and Ribes album L. (RaMYB10), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 were evolutionarily homologous. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the expression of MYB10 in the fruits of Ribes nigrum L. was higher than that of Ribes rubrum L. and much higher than that of Ribes album L. The expression of RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 increased at first and then decreased as the fruit diameter increased and the fruit color deepened (the maximum expression level was reached at 75% of the fruit color change), while the expression level of RaMYB10 was very low. Overexpression of RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in purple petioles and leaves, whereas overexpression of RaMYB10 resulted in no significant color changes. This indicates that MYB10 gene plays an important role in the coloration of Ribes L. fruit.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Cloning, Molecular , Fruit , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Ribes/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 238-251, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927708

ABSTRACT

Heat stress transcription factors (Hsf) family is one of the most important transcription factor families in plants, and plays an important role in the growth and development of plants when encountering abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, and heavy metals. In this study, 20 SpbHsf genes were identified from the full-length transcriptome database of Setcreasea purpurea, and the structure and function of the Hsf gene family were analyzed using bioinformatics tools and qRT-PCR. The results showed that all SpbHsf proteins were hydrophilic. There were 12 SpbHsf proteins located in the nucleus, and the content of α-helix and random coil in the secondary structure of all SpbHsf proteins was high. The SpbHsf genes are divided into three subfamilies, each of which contains unique conserved motifs. All SpbHsf proteins contain DBD and HR-A/B domains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that OsHsf in Oryza sativa protein had the highest homology with SpbHsf protein. All the 20 SpbHsf genes were expressed in the root tissues of S. purpurea. Among them, 8 were significantly up-regulated while 8 were significantly down-regulated under Cu2+ stress. This study may help better understand the function and expression pattern of the S. purpurea Hsf gene family.


Subject(s)
Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Heat Shock Transcription Factors/metabolism , Humans , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927692

ABSTRACT

Salt stress may cause primary osmotic stress and ion toxicity, as well as secondary oxidative stress and nutritional stress in plants, which hampers the agricultural production. Salt stress-responsive transcription factors can mitigate the damage of salt stress to plants through regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Based on the soil salinization and its damage to plants, and the central regulatory role of transcription factors in the plant salt stress-responsive signal transduction network, this review summarized the salt stress-responsive signal transduction pathways that the transcription factors are involved, and the application of salt stress-responsive transcription factors to enhance the salt tolerance of plants. We also reviewed the transcription factors-regulated complex downstream gene network which is formed by forming homo- or heterodimers between transcription factors and by forming complexes with regulatory proteins. This paper provides a theoretical basis for understanding the role of salt stress-responsive transcription factors in the salt stress regulatory network, which may facilitate the molecular breeding for improved stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Osmotic Pressure , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Salt Stress , Salt Tolerance , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
17.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 42-49, Jan. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were reported to be related to adversity stress and drought tolerance. Lea-3 from Arachis hypogaea L. (AhLea-3) was previously found to be related to salt tolerance according to the result of transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression analysis. So, AhLea-3 was cloned and the salt tolerance was validated by transgenic peanut plants. RESULTS: AhLea-3 was isolated from M34, a salt-resistant mutant of peanut, with its cDNA as the template. AhLea-3 contains one intron and two extrons, and the full-length cDNA sequence contains 303 bp. AhLea3 was ligated to pCAMBIA1301 to obtain the overexpression vector pCAMBIA1301-AhLea-3, which was then transferred into peanut variety Huayu23. The expression level of AhLea-3, as determined by qRTPCR analysis, was >10 times higher in transgenic than in non-transgenic plants. Five days after they were irrigated with 250 mM NaCl, the transgenic plants showed less severe leaf wilting, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase), and lower malonic dialdehyde content than non-transgenic plants. Relative to non-transgenic plants, the transgenic plants had a higher photosynthetic net rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and a lower intercellular CO2 concentration after salt stress treatment (250 mM NaCl). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that overexpression of AhLea-3 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic peanut plants. AhLea-3 might become a useful gene resource for the variety breeding of salinity tolerance in peanut.


Subject(s)
Arachis/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Salt Tolerance , Arachis/genetics , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Transformation, Genetic
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879091

ABSTRACT

NAC(NAM/ATAF/CUC) protein plays an important role in plant growth and development, secondary cell wall formation and stress response. In this study, based on the sequencing data of Angelica dahurica, the NAC family was systematically analyzed using bioinformatics methods and its expression pattern was analyzed. Studies showed that 75 candidate genes had been selected from the NAC transcription factor family of A. dahurica, with the protein size of 148-641, all of which were unstable hydrophilic proteins. Most NAC proteins were localized in the nucleus, and had complete NAC domain. Phylogenetic analysis of NAC family proteins of A.dahurica and Arabidopsis thaliana showed that among the 17 subfamilies, NAC members were unevenly distributed in each subfamily, indicating that the evolution of species is developing in multiple directions. Among them, ANAC063 subfamily contained no NAC sequence of A. dahurica, which might be due to the functional evolution of the species. Analysis of protein transmembrane structure and signal peptide showed that NAC transcription factor could carry out transmembrane transportation, but its signal peptide function had not been found. Expression analysis showed that most transcription factors responded to abiotic stress and hormones to varying degrees, and the effects of hormones were obvious, especially ABA and IAA. In different organs of A. dahurica, most members of the NAC family had higher expression in root phloem, followed by root xylem. This study lays a foundation for further research on the function of A. dahurica NAC transcription factor and for solving the biological problems of A. dahurica.


Subject(s)
Angelica , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1155-1167, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878621

ABSTRACT

With the constant change of global climate, plants are often affected by multiple abiotic stresses such as heat stress, drought stress, cold stress and saline-alkali stress. Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are a class of transcription factors widely existing in plants to respond to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this article, we review and summarize the structure, signal regulation mechanism of HSFs and some research in plants like Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, rice and soybean, to provide reference for further elucidating the role of HSFs in the stress regulation network.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Heat Shock Transcription Factors/genetics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 142-148, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878549

ABSTRACT

WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants and involved in regulating multiple and complex growth and development processes in plants. WRKY12 is a typical member of WRKY family. This article summarizes recent research progresses on the regulatory mechanism of WRKY12 in multiple growth and development processes, and analyzes the functional differences between WRKY12 and WRKY13. It provides a useful reference for further studying the molecular mechanism of WRKY12 in plant complex developments. It also provides clearer research ideas and reference strategies for exploring the self-regulation of other WRKY member and the mutual regulatory relationships between different WRKY family genes.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Phylogeny , Plant Development/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
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