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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1840-1850, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981402

ABSTRACT

Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase(UGT) is a highly conserved protein in plants, which usually functions in secondary metabolic pathways. This study used the Hidden Markov Model(HMM) to screen out members of UGT gene family in the whole genome of Dendrobium officinale, and 44 UGT genes were identified. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the structure, phylogeny, and promoter region components of D. officinale genes. The results showed that UGT gene family could be divided into four subfamilies, and UGT gene structure was relatively conserved in each subfamily, with nine conserved domains. The upstream promoter region of UGT gene contained a variety of cis-acting elements related to plant hormones and environmental factors, indicating that UGT gene expression may be induced by plant hormones and external environmental factors. UGT gene expression in different tissues of D. officinale was compared, and UGT gene expression was found in all parts of D. officinale. It was speculated that UGT gene played an important role in many tissues of D. officinale. Through transcriptome analysis of D. officinale mycorrhizal symbiosis environment, low temperature stress, and phosphorus deficiency stress, this study found that only one gene was up-regulated in all three conditions. The results of this study can help understand the functions of UGT gene family in Orchidaceae plants and provide a basis for further study on the molecular regulation mechanism of polysaccharide metabolism pathway in D. officinale.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium/genetics , Plant Growth Regulators , Glycosyltransferases/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Mycorrhizae , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2103-2115, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981342

ABSTRACT

As a large family of transcription factors, the MYB family plays a vital role in regulating flower development. We studied the MYB family members in Lonicera macranthoides for the first time and identified three sequences of 1R-MYB, 47 sequences of R2R3-MYB, two sequences of 3R-MYB, and one sequence of 4R-MYB from the transcriptome data. Further, their physicochemical properties, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationship, protein structure, functional information, and expression were analyzed. The results show that the 53 MYB transcription factors had different conserved motifs, physicochemical properties, structures, and functions in wild type and 'Xianglei' cultivar of L. macranthoides, indicating their conservation and diversity in evolution. The transcript level of LmMYB was significantly different between the wild type and 'Xianglei' cultivar as well as between flowers and leaves, and some genes were specifically expressed. Forty-three out of 53 LmMYB sequences were expressed in both flowers and leaves, and 9 of the LmMYB members showed significantly different transcript levels between the wild type and 'Xianglei' cultivar, which were up-regulated in the wild type. The results provide a theoretical basis for further studying the specific functional mechanism of the MYB family.


Subject(s)
Transcription Factors/metabolism , Lonicera/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2897-2913, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981239

ABSTRACT

MADS-box gene family is a significant transcription factor family that plays a crucial role in regulating plant growth, development, signal transduction, and other processes. In order to study the characteristics of MADS-box gene family in Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid. and its expression during different stages of seed germination, this study used seedlings at different stages of germination as materials and screened MADS-box transcription factors from the transcriptome database of D. delavayi using bioinformatics methods based on transcriptome sequencing. The physical and chemical properties, protein conservative motifs, phylogenetic evolution, and expression patterns of the MADS-box transcription factors were analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the expression of MADS-box gene family members during different stages of seed germination in D. delavayi. The results showed that 81 genes of MADS-box gene family were identified from the transcriptome data of D. delavayi, with the molecular weight distribution ranged of 6 211.34-173 512.77 Da and the theoretical isoelectric point ranged from 5.21 to 10.97. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 81 genes could be divided into 15 subgroups, among which DdMADS27, DdMADS42, DdMADS45, DdMADS46, DdMADS53, DdMADS61, DdMADS76, DdMADS77 and DdMADS79 might be involved in the regulation of ovule development in D. delavayi. The combination of the transcriptome data and the qRT-PCR analysis results of D. delavayi seeds indicated that DdMADS25 and DdMADS42 might be involved in the regulation of seed development, and that DdMADS37 and DdMADS38 might have negative regulation effects on seed dormancy. Previous studies have reported that the MIKC* subgroup is mainly involved in regulating flower organ development. For the first time, we found that the transcription factors of the MIKC* subgroup exhibited a high expression level at the early stage of seed germination, so we speculated that the MIKC* subgroup played a regulatory role in the process of seed germination. To verify the accuracy of this speculation, we selected DdMADS60 and DdMADS75 from the MIKC* subgroup for qRT-PCR experiments, and the experimental results were consistent with the expression trend of transcriptome sequencing. This study provides a reference for further research on the biological function of D. delavayi MADS-box gene family from the perspective of molecular evolution.


Subject(s)
MADS Domain Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, Plant , Transcription Factors/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2874-2896, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981238

ABSTRACT

Glutamate receptor-like (GLR) is an important class of Ca2+ channel proteins, playing important roles in plant growth and development as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this paper, we performed genome-wide identification of banana GLR gene family based on banana genomic data. Moreover, we analyzed the basic physicochemical properties, gene structure, conserved motifs, promoter cis-acting elements, evolutionary relationships, and used real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to verify the expression patterns of some GLR family members under low temperature of 4 ℃ and different hormone treatments. The results showed that there were 19 MaGLR family members in Musa acuminata, 16 MbGLR family members in Musa balbisiana and 14 MiGLR family members in Musa itinerans. Most of the members were stable proteins and had signal peptides, all of them had 3-6 transmembrane structures. Prediction of subcellular localization indicated that all of them were localized on the plasma membrane and irregularly distributed on the chromosome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that banana GLRs could be divided into 3 subclades. The results of promoter cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding site prediction showed that there were multiple hormone- and stress-related response elements and 18 TFBS in banana GLR. RT-qPCR analysis showed that MaGLR1.1 and MaGLR3.5 responded positively to low temperature stress and were significantly expressed in abscisic acid/methyl jasmonate treatments. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that GLR, a highly conserved family of ion channels, may play an important role in the growth and development process and stress resistance of banana.


Subject(s)
Musa/metabolism , Phylogeny , Abscisic Acid/metabolism , Temperature , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Hormones/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2861-2873, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981237

ABSTRACT

Auto-inhibited Ca2+-ATPase (ACA) is one of the Ca2+-ATPase subfamilies that plays an important role in maintaining Ca2+ concentration balance in plant cells. To explore the function and gene expression pattern of the RcACA gene family in castor, bioinformatics analysis was used to identify the members of the RcACA gene family in castor. The basic physical and chemical properties, subcellular location, protein secondary and tertiary structure, conserved domain, conserved motif, gene structure, chromosome location and collinear relationship, as well as the evolutionary characteristics and promoter cis-acting elements were predicted and analyzed. The expression pattern of the RcACA gene under abiotic stress was analyzed by expression (fragments per kilobase of exon model per million mapped fragments, FPKM) in castor transcriptome data. The results showed that 8 RcACA gene family members were identified in castor, acidic proteins located in the plasma membrane. In the secondary structure of all proteins, the α-helix and random coil is more; the RcACA genes were clustered into three categories, and the design of the genes in the same category was similar to the conserved motif. Both of them had four typical domains, RcACA3-RcACA8 had a Ca2+-ATPase N-terminal autoinhibitory domain. The RcACA gene is mostly located on the long arm of the chromosome and has 2 pairs of collinear relationships. There are more light response elements but fewer hormone-induced elements located upstream of the RcACA coding region. Interspecific clustering showed that the evolution of ACA genes among species was conservative. Tissue expression pattern analysis showed that RcACA genes showed apparent tissue expression specificity, and most of the genes showed the highest expression level in male flowers. Expression analysis under abiotic stress showed that RcACA2-RcACA8 were up-regulated under high salt and drought stress, and RcACA1 was up-regulated at 0-24 h under low-temperature stress, indicating that RcACA genes positively responded to abiotic stresses. The above results provide a theoretical basis for exploring the role of the RcACA gene in castor growth, development and stress response.


Subject(s)
Genome, Plant , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Transcriptome , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2794-2805, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981233

ABSTRACT

Hevea brasiliensis is the main source of natural rubber. Restricted by its tropical climate conditions, the planting area in China is limited, resulted in a low self-sufficiency. Periploca sepium which can produce natural rubber is a potential substitute plant. cis-prenyltransferase (CPT), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and rubber elongation factor (REF) are key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cis-1, 4-polyisoprene, the main component of natural rubber. In this study, we cloned the promoter sequences of CPT, SRPP and REF through chromosome walking strategy. The spatial expression patterns of the three promoters were analyzed using GUS (β-glucuronidase) as a reporter gene driven by the promoters through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The results showed that GUS driven by CPT, SRPP or REF promoter was expressed in leaves and stems, especially in the leaf vein and vascular bundle. The GUS activity in stems was higher than that in leaf. This study provided a basis for analyzing the biosynthesis mechanism of natural rubber and breeding new varieties of high yield natural rubber.


Subject(s)
Peptide Elongation Factors/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Periploca/metabolism , Rubber , Plant Breeding , Cloning, Molecular
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2772-2793, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981232

ABSTRACT

Sweet potato is an important food crop that can also be used as an industrial raw material. Sucrose is the main form of long-distance carbohydrate transport in plants, and sucrose transporter (SUT) regulates the transmembrane transport and distribution of sucrose during plant growth and metabolism. Moreover, SUT plays a key role in phloem mediated source-to-sink sucrose transport and physiological activities, supplying sucrose for the sink tissues. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) cloning according to the transcripts of the two SUT coding genes which were differentially expressed in sweet potato storage roots with different starch properties. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to clarify the classification of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616. The subcellular localization of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 was determined by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The function of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 in sucrose and hexose absorption and transport was identified using yeast functional complementarity system. The expression pattern of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 in sweet potato organs were analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Arabidopsis plants heterologous expressing IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 genes were obtained using floral dip method. The differences in starch and sugar contents between transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis were compared. The results showed IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 encoded SUT proteins with a length of 505 and 521 amino acids, respectively, and both proteins belonged to the SUT1 subfamily. IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 were located in the cell membrane and were able to transport sucrose, glucose and fructose in the yeast system. In addition, IbSUT62788 was also able to transport mannose. The expression of IbSUT62788 was higher in leaves, lateral branches and main stems, and the expression of IbSUT81616 was higher in lateral branches, stems and storage roots. After IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 were heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, the plants grew normally, but the biomass increased. The heterologous expression of IbSUT62788 increased the soluble sugar content, leaf size and 1 000-seed weight of Arabidopsis plants. Heterologous expression of IbSUT81616 increased starch accumulation in leaves and root tips and 1 000-seed weight of seeds, but decreased soluble sugar content. The results obtained in this study showed that IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 might be important genes regulating sucrose and sugar content traits in sweet potato. They might carry out physiological functions on cell membrane, such as transmembrane transport of sucrose, sucrose into and out of sink tissue, as well as transport and unloading of sucrose into phloem. The changes in traits result from their heterologous expression in Arabidopsis indicates their potential in improving the yield of other plants or crops. The results obtained in this study provide important information for revealing the functions of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 in starch and glucose metabolism and formation mechanism of important quality traits in sweet potato.


Subject(s)
Ipomoea batatas/metabolism , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , DNA, Complementary , Phylogeny , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Starch/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2762-2771, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981231

ABSTRACT

Galactinol synthase (GolS) genes play important roles in plant response to abiotic stress. In this research, the plant expression vector of soybean GmGolS2-2 gene was constructed and transformed into tobacco to study the drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco. A GmGolS2-2 gene with 975 bp coding sequence was cloned from soybean leaves by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). GmGolS2-2 was linked to the plant expression vector pRI101 by restriction enzyme sites Nde Ⅰ and EcoR Ⅰ, and transformed into tobacco by leaf disc method. Genomic DNA PCR and real-time PCR showed that three GmGolS2-2 transgenic tobacco plants were obtained. The growth status of GmGolS2-2 transgenic tobacco under drought stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco. After drought stress treatment, the electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content of transgenic tobacco were lower than those of wild-type tobacco, but the proline content and soluble sugar content were higher than those of wild-type tobacco. The results of real-time PCR showed that the heterologous expression of GmGolS2-2 increased the expression of stress-related genes NtERD10C and NtAQP1 in transgenic tobacco. The above results indicated that GmGolS2-2 improved drought resistance of transgenic tobacco.


Subject(s)
Drought Resistance , Nicotiana/genetics , Glycine max/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2743-2761, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981230

ABSTRACT

Nitrate is the main form of inorganic nitrogen that crop absorbs, and nitrate transporter 2 (NRT2) is a high affinity transporter using nitrate as a specific substrate. When the available nitrate is limited, the high affinity transport systems are activated and play an important role in the process of nitrate absorption and transport. Most NRT2 cannot transport nitrates alone and require the assistance of a helper protein belonging to nitrate assimilation related family (NAR2) to complete the absorption or transport of nitrates. Crop nitrogen utilization efficiency is affected by environmental conditions, and there are differences between varieties, so it is of great significance to develop varieties with high nitrogen utilization efficiency. Sorghum bicolor has high stress tolerance and is more efficient in soil nitrogen uptake and utilization. The S. bicolor genome database was scanned to systematically analyze the gene structure, chromosomal localization, physicochemical properties, secondary structure and transmembrane domain, signal peptide and subcellular localization, promoter region cis-acting elements, phylogenetic evolution, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) recognition and annotation, and selection pressure of the gene family members. Through bioinformatics analysis, 5 NRT2 gene members (designated as SbNRT2-1a, SbNRT2-1b, SbNRT2-2, SbNRT2-3, and SbNRT2-4) and 2 NAR2 gene members (designated as SbNRT3-1 and SbNRT3-2) were identified, the number of which was less than that of foxtail millet. SbNRT2/3 were distributed on 3 chromosomes, and could be divided into four subfamilies. The genetic structure of the same subfamilies was highly similar. The average value of SbNRT2/3 hydrophilicity was positive, indicating that they were all hydrophobic proteins, whereas α-helix and random coil accounted for more than 70% of the total secondary structure. Subcellular localization occurred on plasma membrane, where SbNRT2 proteins did not contain signal peptides, but SbNRT3 proteins contained signal peptides. Further analysis revealed that the number of transmembrane domains of the SbNRT2s family members was greater than 10, while that of the SbNRT3s were 2. There was a close collinearity between NRT2/3s of S. bicolor and Zea mays. Protein domains analysis showed the presence of MFS_1 and NAR2 protein domains, which supported executing high affinity nitrate transport. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that SbNRT2/3 were more closely related to those of Z. mays and Setaria italic. Analysis of gene promoter cis-acting elements indicated that the promoter region of SbNRT2/3 had several plant hormones and stress response elements, which might respond to growth and environmental cues. Gene expression heat map showed that SbNRT2-3 and SbNRT3-1 were induced by nitrate in the root and stem, respectively, and SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT2-3 were induced by low nitrogen in the root and stem. Non-synonymous SNP variants were found in SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT2-1a. Selection pressure analysis showed that the SbNRT2/3 were subject to purification and selection during evolution. The expression of SbNRT2/3 gene and the effect of aphid infection were consistent with the expression analysis results of genes in different tissues, and SbNRT2-1b and SbNRT3-1 were significantly expressed in the roots of aphid lines 5-27sug, and the expression levels of SbNRT2-3, SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT3-2 were significantly reduced in sorghum aphid infested leaves. Overall, genome-wide identification, expression and DNA variation analysis of NRT2/3 gene family of Sorghum bicolor provided a basis for elucidating the high efficiency of sorghum in nitrogen utilization.


Subject(s)
Nitrate Transporters , Nitrates/metabolism , Sorghum/metabolism , Anion Transport Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Sorting Signals/genetics , Nitrogen/metabolism , DNA , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2600-2611, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981218

ABSTRACT

High salt content in soils severely hampers plant growth and crop yields. Many transcription factors in plants play important roles in responding to various stresses, but their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants that are involved in and influence many aspects of plant growth and development. They play important roles in responding to salt stress. The regulation of gene expression by WRKY proteins is mainly achieved by binding to the DNA's specific cis-regulatory elements, the W-box elements (TTGACC). In recent years, there have been many studies revealing the roles and mechanisms of WRKY family members, from model plant Arabidopsis to agricultural crops. This paper reviews the latest research progress on WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress and discusses the current challenges and future perspectives of WRKY transcription factor research.


Subject(s)
Transcription Factors/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Salt Stress/genetics , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1510-1517, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970622

ABSTRACT

Chalcone isomerase is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in higher plants, which determines the production of flavonoids in plants. In this study, RNA was extracted from different parts of Isatis indigotica and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Specific primers with enzyme restriction sites were designed, and a chalcone isomerase gene was cloned from I. indigotica, named IiCHI. IiCHI was 756 bp in length, containing a complete open reading frame and encoding 251 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that IiCHI was closely related to CHI protein of Arabidopsis thaliana and had typical active sites of chalcone isomerase. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that IiCHI was classified into type Ⅰ CHI clade. Recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-IiCHI was constructed and purified to obtain IiCHI recombinant protein. In vitro enzymatic analysis showed that the IiCHI protein could convert naringenin chalcone into naringenin, but could not catalyze the production of liquiritigenin by isoliquiritigenin. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) showed that the expression level of IiCHI in the aboveground parts was higher than that in the underground parts and the expression level was the highest in the flowers of the aboveground parts, followed by leaves and stems, and no expression was observed in the roots and rhizomes of the underground parts. This study has confirmed the function of chalcone isomerase in I. indigotica and provided references for the biosynthesis of flavonoid components.


Subject(s)
Isatis/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Arabidopsis/genetics , Flavonoids , Cloning, Molecular
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 724-740, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970403

ABSTRACT

SUN gene is a group of key genes regulating plant growth and development. Here, SUN gene families of strawberry were identified from the genome of the diploid Fragaria vesca, and their physicochemical properties, genes structure, evolution and genes expression were also analyzed. Our results showed that there were thirty-one FvSUN genes in F. vesca and the FvSUNs encoded proteins were classified into seven groups, and the members in the same group showed high similarity in gene structures and conservative motifs. The electronic subcellular localization of FvSUNs was mainly in the nucleus. Collinearity analysis showed that the members of FvSUN gene family were mainly expanded by segmental duplication in F. vesca, and Arabidopsis and F. vesca shared twenty-three pairs of orthologous SUN genes. According to the expression pattern in different tissues shown by the transcriptome data of F. vesca, the FvSUNs gene can be divided into three types: (1) expressed in nearly all tissues, (2) hardly expressed in any tissues, and (3) expressed in special tissues. The gene expression pattern of FvSUNs was further verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Additionally, the seedlings of F. vesca were treated by different abiotic stresses, and the expression level of 31 FvSUNs genes were assayed by qRT-PCR. The expression of most of the tested genes was induced by cold, high salt or drought stress. Our studies may facilitate revealing the biological function and molecular mechanism of SUN genes in strawberry.


Subject(s)
Fragaria/metabolism , Genes, Plant , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Arabidopsis/genetics , Plant Development , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 653-669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970398

ABSTRACT

Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of phycocyanidins. In this experiment, the petals of red Rhododendron hybridum Hort. at different developmental stages were used as experimental materials. The R. hybridum flavanone 3-hydroxylase (RhF3H) gene was cloned using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, and bioinformatics analyses were performed. Petal RhF3H gene expression at different developmental stages were analyzed by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A pET-28a-RhF3H prokaryotic expression vector was constructed for the preparation and purification of RhF3H protein. A pCAMBIA1302-RhF3H overexpression vector was constructed for genetic transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The results showed that the R. hybridum Hort. RhF3H gene is 1 245 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1 092 bp, encoding 363 amino acids. It contains a Fe2+ binding motif and a 2-ketoglutarate binding motif of the dioxygenase superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. hybridum RhF3H protein is most closely related to the Vaccinium corymbosum F3H protein. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of the red R. hybridum RhF3H gene tended to increase and then decrease in the petals at different developmental stages, with the highest expression at middle opening stage. The results of the prokaryotic expression showed that the size of the induced protein of the constructed prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a-RhF3H was about 40 kDa, which was similar to the theoretical value. Transgenic RhF3H Arabidopsis thaliana plants were successfully obtained, and PCR identification and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining demonstrated that the RhF3H gene was integrated into the genome of A. thaliana plants. qRT-PCR, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contentanalysis showed that RhF3H was significantly higher expressed in the transgenic A. thaliana relative to that of the wild type, and its total flavonoid and anthocyanin content were significantly increased. This study provides a theoretical basis for investigating the function of RhF3H gene, as well as for studying the molecular mechanism of flower color in R. simsiib Planch.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Rhododendron/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Anthocyanins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Flavonoids/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 640-652, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970397

ABSTRACT

GI (GIGANTEA) is one of the output key genes for circadian clock in the plant. The JrGI gene was cloned and its expression in different tissues was analyzed to facilitate the functional research of JrGI. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) was used to clone JrGI gene in present study. This gene was then analyzed by bioinformatics, subcellular localization and gene expression. The coding sequence (CDS) full length of JrGI gene was 3 516 bp, encoding 1 171 amino acids with a molecular mass of 128.60 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.13. It was a hydrophilic protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that JrGI of 'Xinxin 2' was highly homologous to GI of Populus euphratica. The result of subcellular localization showed that JrGI protein was located in nucleus. The JrGI, JrCO and JrFT genes in female flower buds undifferentiated and early differentiated of 'Xinxin 2' were analyzed by RT-qPCR (real-time quantitative PCR). The results showed that the expression of JrGI, JrCO and JrFT genes were the highest on morphological differentiation, implying the temporal and special regulation of JrGI in the differential process of female flower buds of'Xinxin 2'. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis showed that JrGI gene was expressed in all tissues examined, whereas the expression level in leaves was the highest. It is suggested that JrGI gene plays a key role in the development of walnut leaves.


Subject(s)
Juglans/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 625-639, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970396

ABSTRACT

Squamosa promoter binding protein-like (SPL) family is a group of important transcription factors involved in the regulation of plant growth and development and the response to environmental stress, but there are few studies in perennial fruit trees such as citrus. In this study, Ziyang Xiangcheng (Citrus junos Sib.ex Tanaka), an important rootstock of Citrus, was used as the material for analysis. Based on plantTFDB transcription factor database and sweet orange genome database, 15 SPL family members were genome-widely identified and cloned from Ziyang Xiangcheng, and named CjSPL1-CjSPL15. Sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame (ORF) length of CjSPLs ranged from 393 bp to 2 865 bp, encoding 130-954 amino acids. Phylogenetic tree divided 15 CjSPLs into 9 subfamilies. Gene structure and conserved domain analysis predicted 20 different conserved motifs and SBP basic domains. Analysis of cis-acting promoter elements predicted 20 different promoter elements, including those related to plant growth and development, abiotic stress and secondary metabolites. The expression patterns of CjSPLs under drought, salt and low temperature stresses were analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), and many CjSPLs were significantly up-regulated after stress treatment. This study provides a reference for further study on the function of SPL family transcription factors in citrus and other fruit trees.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Multigene Family , Stress, Physiological
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 552-565, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970391

ABSTRACT

Na+/H+ antiporter (NHX) gene subfamily plays an important role in plant response to salt stress. In this study, we identified the NHX gene family members of Chinese cabbage and analyzed the expression patterns of BrNHXs gene in response to abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low temperature, drought and salt stress. The results showed that there were 9 members of the NHX gene family in Chinese cabbage, which were distributed on 6 chromosomes respectively. The number of amino acids was 513-1 154 aa, the relative molecular weight was 56 804.22-127 856.66 kDa, the isoelectric point was 5.35-7.68. Members of BrNHX gene family mainly existed in vacuoles, the gene structure is complete, and the number of exons is 11-22. The secondary structures of the proteins encoded by the NHX gene family in Chinese cabbage had alpha helix, beta turn and random coil, and the alpha helix occurred more frequently. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the gene family members had different responses to high temperature, low temperature, drought and salt stress, and their expression levels differed significantly in different time periods. BrNHX02 and BrNHX09 had the most significant responses to these four stresses, and their expression levels were significantly up-regulated at 72 h after treatments, which could be used as candidate genes to further verify their functions.


Subject(s)
Genome, Plant , Multigene Family , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Brassica/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 537-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970390

ABSTRACT

The WUSCHEL related-homeobox (WOX) family is one of the plant-specific transcription factor families, playing important roles in plant growth and development. In this study, 51 WOX gene family members were identified from the genome data of Brassica juncea by searching and screening with HUMMER, Smart and other software. Their protein molecular weight, amino acids numbers, and isoelectric point were analyzed by using Expasy online software. Furthermore, bioinformatics software was used to systematically analyze the evolutionary relationship, conservative region, and gene structure of the WOX gene family. The mustard WOX gene family was divided into three subfamilies: ancient clade, intermediate clade, and WUS clade/modern clade. Structural analysis showed that the type, organization form and gene structure of the conservative domain of WOX transcription factor family members in the same subfamily were highly consistent, while there was a certain diversity among different subfamilies. 51 WOX genes are distributed unevenly on 18 chromosomes of mustard. Most of the promoters of these genes contain cis acting elements related to light, hormone and abiotic stress. Using transcriptome data and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, it was found that the expression of mustard WOX gene was spatio-temporal specific, among which BjuWOX25, BjuWOX33, and BjuWOX49 might play an important role in the development of silique, and BjuWOX10, BjuWOX32, and BjuWOX11, BjuWOX23 respectively might play an important role in the response to drought and high temperature stresses. The above results may facilitate the functional study of mustard WOX gene family.


Subject(s)
Mustard Plant/genetics , Multigene Family/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Plants/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Phylogeny , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245379, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


Resumo O crescimento populacional está aumentando rapidamente em todo o mundo, e para combater suas consequências precisamos produzir mais alimentos para suprir a demanda do aumento populacional. O mundo está enfrentando o aquecimento global devido à urbanização e industrialização e, nesse caso, plantas expostas continuamente a estresses abióticos, que é uma das principais causas do martelamento das safras todos os anos. Estresses abióticos consistem em seca, sal, calor, frio, oxidação e toxicidade de metais que prejudicam o rendimento da colheita continuamente. A seca e o estresse salino são afetados de maneira diversa pela planta e são a principal causa de redução da produtividade das culturas. As plantas respondem a vários estímulos sob condições de estresse abiótico ou biótico e expressam certos genes estruturais ou regulatórios que mantêm a integridade da planta. Os genes reguladores são principalmente os fatores de transcrição que exercem sua atividade ligando-se a certos elementos cis do DNA e, consequentemente, são regulados para cima ou para baixo para a expressão alvo. Esses fatores de transcrição são conhecidos como reguladores mestres porque sua única transcrição regula mais de um gene; nesse contexto, a palavra regulon é mais fascinante no âmbito dos fatores de transcrição. Progresso foi feito para entender melhor sobre o efeito dos regulons (AREB / ABF, DREB, MYB e NAC) sob estresses abióticos e uma série de regulons relatados como responsivos ao estresse e usados ​​como uma melhor ferramenta transgênica de Arabidopsis e Rice.


Subject(s)
Regulon/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Droughts
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6039-6050, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008802

ABSTRACT

Terpenoids are important secondary metabolites of plants that possess both pharmacological activity and economic value. Terpene synthases(TPSs) are key enzymes in the synthesis process of terpenoids. In order to investigate the TPS gene family members and their potential functions in Schizonepeta tenuifolia, this study conducted a systematic analysis of the TPS gene family of S. tenuifolia based on the whole genome data of S. tenuifolia using bioinformatics methods. The results revealed 57 StTPS members identified from the genome database of S. tenuifolia. The StTPS family members encoded 285-819 amino acids, with protein molecular weights ranging from 32.75 to 94.11 kDa, all of which were hydrophilic proteins. The StTPS family members were mainly distributed in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts, exhibiting a random and uneven physical localization pattern. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the StTPS genes family were divided into six subgroups, mainly belonging to the TPS-a and TPS-b subfamilies. Promoter analysis predicted that the TPS gene family members could respond to various stressors such as light, abscisic acid, and methyl jasmonate(MeJA). Transcriptome data analysis revealed that most of the TPS genes were expressed in the roots of S. tenuifolia, and qRT-PCR analysis was conducted on genes with high expression in leaves and low expression in roots. Through the analysis of the TPS gene family of S. tenuifolia, this study identified StTPS5, StTPS18, StTPS32, and StTPS45 as potential genes involved in sesquiterpene synthesis of S. tenuifolia. StTPS45 was cloned for the construction of an prokaryotic expression vector, providing a reference for further investigation of the function and role of the TPS gene family in sesquiterpene synthesis.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Terpenes/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Lamiaceae/genetics , Sesquiterpenes
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 72-84, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927913

ABSTRACT

The plant growth, development, and secondary metabolism are regulated by R2 R3-MYB transcription factors. This study identified the R2 R3-MYB genes in the genome of Andrographis paniculata and analyzed the chromosomal localization, gene structure, and conserved domains, phylogenetic relationship, and promoter cis-acting elements of these R2 R3-MYB genes. Moreover, the gene expression profiles of R2 R3-MYB genes under abiotic stress and hormone treatments were generated by RNA-seq and validated by qRT-PCR. The results showed that A. paniculata contained 73 R2 R3-MYB genes on 21 chromosomes. These members belonged to 34 subfamilies, 19 of which could be classified into the known subfamilies in Arabidopsis thaliana. The 73 R2 R3-MYB members included 36 acidic proteins and 37 basic proteins, with the lengths of 148-887 aa. The domains, motifs, and gene structures of R2 R3-MYBs in A. paniculata were conserved. The promoter regions of these genes contains a variety of cis-acting elements related to the responses to environmental factors and plant hormones including light, ABA, MeJA, and drought. Based on the similarity of functions of R2 R3-MYBs in the same subfamily and the transcription profiles, ApMYB13/21/35/67/73(S22) may regulate drought stress through ABA pathway; ApMYB20(S11) and ApMYB55(S2) may play a role in the response of A. paniculata to high temperature and UV-C stress; ApMYB5(S7) and ApMYB33(S20) may affect the accumulation of andrographolide by regulating the expression of key enzymes in the MEP pathway. This study provides theoretical reference for further research on the functions of R2 R3-MYB genes in A. paniculata and breeding of A. paniculata varieties with high andrographolide content.


Subject(s)
Andrographis paniculata , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, myb , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
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