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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 367-385, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349509

ABSTRACT

Araujia odorata is a sub-shrub native from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, whose latex, roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this work is to study the foliar morpho-anatomy of six populations in an altitudinal gradient (359-2155 m.a.s.l.) of Northwestern Argentine and to determine the nature of the compounds present in the laticiferous of the stems and fruits using conventional techniques for plant anatomy. The populations under study did not show significant morpho-anatomical differences. They presented simple leaves, pinnated brochydodromous venation, amphiestomatic isolateral lamina, brachy, anomo and amphicyclocytic stomata, eglandular trichomes, midvein with bicolateral vascular bundle and non-articulated laticifers continuous in the petiole, stem and fruits. Differences in the quantified foliar parameters are observed, however, only the density of trichomes, stomata and the thickness of the cuticle are positively correlated with the altitudinal gradient, indicating phenotypic plasticity. Histochemical analysis of laticifers and other stem idioblasts of A. odoratawas performed for the first time.


Araujia odorata, es un subarbusto nativo de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay, cuyo látex, raíces y hojas son utilizados en medicina popular. Se plantea como objetivo realizar un estudio morfo-anatómico foliar de seis poblaciones del Noroeste Argentino en un gradiente altitudinal (359-2155 m.s.n.m) y determinar la naturaleza de los compuestos presentes en laticíferos de tallos y frutos mediante técnicas convencionales de anatomía vegetal. Las poblaciones estudiadas no evidenciaron diferencias morfo-anatómicas significativas. Presentan hojas simples, venación pinnada broquidódroma, lámina isolateral anfiestomática, estomas braqui, anomo y anficiclocíticos, tricomas eglandulares, nervio medio con haz bicolateral y laticíferos no-articulados continuos en pecíolo, tallo y frutos. Se observan diferencias en los parámetros foliares cuantificados, sin embargo, solo la de densidad de tricomas, estomas y el espesor de cutícula se correlacionan positivamente con el gradiente altitudinal indicando plasticidad fenotípica. Se realiza por primera vez un análisis histoquímico de los laticíferos y otros idioblastos del tallo A. odorata.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Apocynaceae/anatomy & histology , Argentina , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Altitude , Fruit/anatomy & histology
2.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447

ABSTRACT

This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.


Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132155

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso, commonly known as "imbuia", "canela-imbuia" or "imbuia-amarela" in Brazil, is a tree of the Southern Atlantic Forest. The present study investigates the anatomy of leaf and stem, volatile oil chemistry, as well as cytotoxicity and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of O. porosa. Species identification was achieved by anatomy features, mainly due to paracytic and anomocytic stomata; non-glandular trichomes; biconvex midrib and petiole with a collateral open arc vascular bundle; presence of a sclerenchymatous layer, starch grains and crystal sand in the stem; and the presence of phenolic compounds in the epidermis, phloem and xylem of the midrib, petiole and stem. The main volatile components of the essential oil were α-pinene (19.71%), β-pinene (13.86%) and bicyclogermacrene (24.62%). Cytotoxicity against human cancer cell (MCF-7), mouse cancer cell (B16F10) and mouse non-tumoral cell (McCoy) was observed as well as insecticidal activity of the essential oil against susceptible 'Ft. Dix' bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by topical application.


Subject(s)
Bedbugs , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Ocotea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Toxicity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Histocytochemistry
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180670, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132160

ABSTRACT

Abstract Studies evaluating the influence of nutrients on plant anatomy are very important because nutritional deficiencies can alter the thickness and shape of certain tissues, compromising their functionality what can explain the reduction of productivity. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical changes in cherry tomato plants subjected to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) deficiencies. The experiment was conducted in nutrient solution and the plants subjected to three treatments: complete solution (Control), Ca restriction (1 mmol L-1 of Ca) and Mg omission (without Mg). The experimental design was completely randomized, with three repetitions. Sixty days after seedling transplanting leaves and stem were collected and submitted to anatomical evaluations. Ca or Mg deficiency promotes most evident anatomical changes in chlorophyllous and vascular tissues of the leaves, rather than in the stems. Leaves of 'Sindy' tomato plants with a concentration of 1.7 g kg-1 of Mg and visual symptoms of Mg deficiency present hyperplasia of both tissues, phloem and xylem. This deficiency also promotes increases in the thickness of mesophyll, spongy parenchyma and palisade parenchyma, and consequently of leaf thickness. The midrib of the leaves with a concentration of 10 g kg-1 of Ca, without visual symptoms of deficiency presented phloem hypertrophy and hyperplasia.


Subject(s)
Calcium/analysis , Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Magnesium/analysis , Phloem/metabolism , Xylem/metabolism
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 304-310, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989439

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Neotropical green-belly stink bug, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. in the main production areas of Brazil. It usually feeds on the stems of young plants (seedlings) causing heavy damage by affecting the plant growth and mitigating seed yield. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine body position (upward or downward) of the bug on plant (seedling) stem during feeding and not feeding activities. Ten visual records were taken per day, each spaced one hour during 30 days of 10 adult bugs of similar age exposed to maize seedlings inside cages (plastic tubes). At each observation, it was recorded if the bug was feeding on the stem (i.e., stylets inserted into the plant tissue) or not, and its body position. During feeding, waveforms were recorded using the EPG (electropenetrography) technique, which were correlated with histological studies to reveal the feeding sites. Results indicated that when they were feeding, the majority of the bugs were in the downward position. In contrast, when the bugs were on the plants, and not feeding, they were mostly in the upward position. Waveforms generated using the EPG coupled with histological studies demonstrated that during ingestion bugs fed from the xylem vessels and from the parenchyma tissue using cell rupture strategy in the latter. No clear explanation was found to explain the preferred downward body position during ingestion, but some hypothesis are speculated.


Resumo O percevejo barriga-verde, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) é uma praga importante do milho, Zea mays L. nas principais áreas produtoras do Brasil. Usualmente alimenta-se nas hastes de plantas jovens (plântulas) causando danos severos no seu crescimento e reduzindo o rendimento de grãos. Estudos foram conduzidos em laboratório para determinar a posição do corpo (voltado para cima ou para baixo) dos percevejos nas hastes das plântulas de milho durante as atividades de alimentação e não-alimentação. Foram feitas dez observações por dia, espaçadas por uma hora, durante 30 dias em 10 percevejos adultos com idade semelhante sobre plântulas de milho colocadas em gaiolas (tubos de plástico). Em cada observação, anotou-se se o percevejo estava se alimentando (i.e., estiletes bucais inseridos no tecido vegetal) ou não, e a posição do corpo. Durante a alimentação, ondas eletromagnéticas foram registradas utilizando-se o EPG (técnica da eletropenetrografia), as quais foram correlacionadas com estudos histológicos para revelar os locais de alimentação. Os resultados indicaram que quando os percevejos estavam se alimentando, a maioria estava voltado para baixo. Em contraste, os percevejos sem se alimentar nas plântulas estavam a maioria voltados para cima. As ondas geradas pelo EPG junto com os estudos histológicos revelaram que os percevejos se alimentaram dos vasos do xilema e do tecido parenquimatoso usando a estratégia de ruptura celular no último. Não foi encontrada uma explicação clara para a preferência dos percevejos em se alimentarem na posição voltados para baixo, mas algumas hipóteses são especuladas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zea mays/parasitology , Heteroptera/physiology , Seedlings/parasitology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Posture/physiology , Plant Stems/parasitology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773227

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to comprehensively assess the difference of alkaloid components between old stems and tender stems of Gelsemium elegans by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF/MS~E) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector( HPLC-UV). Firstly,the different components in old stems and tender stems were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MSEcombined with principal component analysis( PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA),respectively. As a result,17 major different components were found. At the same time,the distribution of these alkaloids in old stems and tender stems was determined,and the alkaloids with higher polarity are relatively higher in the tender stems,while the old stems are in the opposite case. In addition,three main components in the G. elegans were quantified by HPLC-UV. The results showed that the contents of koumine and humantenmine in old stems were higher than those in tender stems,and the content of gelsemine in tender stems was relatively high. This study systematically evaluated the differences of alkaloids between the old stems and tender stems of G. elegans,and quantified the main three alkaloids. It laid the foundation of the safe and effective application of G. elegans.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gelsemium , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Extracts , Plant Stems , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773165

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the phenomenon of heavy metal Cd exceeding the standard of Chuanxiong medicinal materials,the accumulation of 12 inorganic elements,including heavy metals,in Ligusticum chuanxiong was studied in this paper. It was found that the contents and distribution of most inorganic elements in the stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong were higher than those in the rhizomes at seedling and shooting stages. The content of most elements in rhizome reached the highest at harvest stage,and the distribution ratio of some elements in rhizome was higher than that in stem and leaf at harvest stage. But rhizome,stem and leaf of L. chuanxiong have relatively stable absorption capacity and enrichment effect on different elements,and are less affected by growth period and position. Rhizomes and stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong were enriched with Cd,and stems and leaves also accumulated Pb at seedling stage and stem stage. The absorption capacity of Pb in stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong was higher than that of rhizomes,and the ability of absorbing Cd was less than that of rhizomes at harvest time. The total uptake of Cd and Pb by L. chuanxiong decreased with the prolongation of growth time,but the proportion of Cd and Pb in rhizome increased,so that the content of Cd and Pb increased with the prolongation of growth time.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ligusticum , Chemistry , Metals, Heavy , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776883

ABSTRACT

Jatrogricaine A (1), a new diterpenoid possessing a 5/6/6/4 carbon ring system, together with eight known diterpenoids (2-9) were isolated from the stems of Jatropha podagrica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and compound 3 showed significant inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells with an IC of 13.44 ± 0.28 μmol·L, being comparable to the positive control, quercetin (IC 17.00 ± 2.10 μmol·L).


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Carbon , Diterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Jatropha , Chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , Macrophages , Metabolism , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effects of the black buckwheat leaf (BBL) in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice and its effects on pancreas and spleen.@*METHODS@#Forty male C57 / B16 mice (SPF) were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group (n=10) and the experimental group (n=30), the experimental group were fed with high sugar and high fat, combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in small dose to establish the model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Those thirty model mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10), diabetes mellitus group (DM), low dose of BBL (DM+L) treated group, high dose of BBL (DM+H) treated group. The mice in the NC group and the DM group were given normal saline per day, and the DM+L group and DM+H group were treated with black tartary buckwheat at the doses of 0.21g/kg·d and 0.42g/kg·d respectively. After 14 days. All mice were executed by cervical dislocation, then blood samples were collected, pancreas and spleen were removed for subsequent experiments. The serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and insulin were detected. TNF-α protein in spleen tissue was detected by ELISA kit. The morphology of pancreas tissue was observed by HE staining, and the spleen coefficient was calculated. The expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue were detected.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH in the model group were increased significantly, while the serum level of insulin was decreased significantly (P<0.05), the expression of TNF-α protein in spleen tissues was obviously raised, the expressions of IRS-1 mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue in model group were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH were decreased significantly in the BBL treated groups. The serum insulin level, spleen coefficient, TNF-α protein expression level in spleen tissue, IRS-1 mRNA expression and IRS-1 protein expression levels in pancreatic tissue in BBL treated group were increased significantly (P< 0.05). High-dose black tartary buckwheat leaves (0.42g/kg·d) exerted a more significant effect.@*CONCLUSION@#Stem and leaf of black bitter buckwheat has significant therapeutic effects on reducing blood sugar and blood fat in type 2 diabetic mice, and has certain protective effects on pancreas and spleen of diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Fagopyrum , Chemistry , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pancreas , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Spleen , Streptozocin
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773122

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents from the stems and leaves of Clausena emarginata were separated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20,and PR-HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis,as well as comparisons with the data reported in the literature. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the 90% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of C. emarginata,which were identified as siamenol( 1),murrastanine A( 2),3-formyl-1,6-dimethoxycarbazole( 3),3-methoxymethylcarbazole( 4),3-methylcarbazole( 5),murrayafoline A( 6),3-formylcarbazole( 7),3-formyl-1-hydroxycarbazole( 8),3-formyl-6-methoxycarbazole( 9),murrayanine( 10),murrayacine( 11),girinimbine( 12),nordentatin( 13),chalepin( 14),8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-pentylisocoumarin( 15) and ethyl orsellinate( 16). Compounds 1-4,14-16 were isolated from C. emarginata for the first time. Among them,compounds 1,2,15 and 16 were isolated from the genus Clausena for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60,SMMC-7721,A-549,MCF-7 and SW480 in vitro. Compounds 12 and 14 showed significant inhibitory effects against various human cancer cell lines with IC_(50) values comparable to those of doxorubicin.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Clausena , Chemistry , Doxorubicin , Humans , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773658

ABSTRACT

Seventeen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of Sapium discolor by using various chromatographic techniques,including silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,MCI,ODS,and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as sapiumin F( 1),kadsulignan C( 2),ciwujiatone( 3),ethylbrevifolin carboxylate( 4),7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin( 5),fraxetin( 6),fraxidin( 7),isofraxidin( 8),6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin( 9),5,6,7,8-tetramethoxycoumarin( 10),8-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin( 11),3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid( 12),3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid( 13),3'-methoxyellagic acid 4'-O-α-rhamnopyranoside( 14),4,5-didehydro-chebulic acid triethyl ester( 15),ent-kaurane-3-oxo-16α,17-diol( 16),and abscisic acid( 17) by spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is a new compound. Except for compounds 4,11,and 13,the remaining compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro antineuroinflammatory activities,and the results showed that compounds 6 and 15 significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells,with IC50 values of 6. 06 and 6. 05 μmol·L-1,respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Mice , Phytochemicals , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Sapium , Chemistry
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 879-884, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039268

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The multi-enzyme complex (crude extract) of white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Trametes versicolor, Pycnosporus sanguineus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were characterized, evaluated in the hydrolysis of pretreated pulps of sorghum straw and compared efficiency with commercial enzyme. Most fungi complexes had better hydrolysis rates compared with purified commercial enzyme.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Sorghum/chemistry , Cellulases/chemistry , Fungi/enzymology , Lignin/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Sorghum/microbiology , Cellulases/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Fungi/chemistry , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 601-608, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951599

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work describes the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial, molluscicidal, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities from leaf (LECF) and stem bark alcoholic extracts (BECF) of the species Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as capixingui or tapixingui. BECF presented significant toxicity (LC50 = 89.6 μg/ml) in the Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) bioassay, whereas LECF did not show activity (LC50 > 1000 μg/ml). From DPPH method, the values of IC50 for the LECF and BECF were 61.2 μg/ml and 62.2 μg/ml, respectively, showing that C. floribundus has an expressive antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by microdilution technique and only BECF was active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39.6 μg/ml). The extracts did not present molluscicidal activity against snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Both extracts revealed the presence of several components with an inhibiting capacity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme on the bioautographic assay. C. floribundus showed to be a promising species considering that it exhibited good biological activity in the most assays performed.


Resumo Este trabalho descreve a avaliação preliminar das atividades citotóxica, antimicrobiana, moluscicida, antioxidante e anticolinesterásica de extratos alcoólicos das folhas (LECF) e das cascas do caule (BECF) da espécie Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularmente conhecida como capixingui ou tapixingui. No bioensaio com Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), BECF apresentou toxicidade significante (LC50 = 89,6 µg/ml), enquanto que LECF não apresentou atividade (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). A partir do método de DPPH, os valores de IC50 para o LECF e BECF foram 61,2 µg/ml e 62,2 µg/ml, respectivamente, evidenciando que C. floribundus tem uma atividade antioxidante expressiva. A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela técnica de microdiluição e apenas BECF foi ativo contra Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39,6 mg/ml). Os extratos não apresentaram atividade moluscicida contra o caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Ambos os extratos revelaram a presença de componentes com capacidade inibidora da enzima acetilcolinesterase no ensaio bioautográfico. C. floribundus mostrou ser uma espécie promissora considerando que exibiu boa atividade biológica na maioria dos ensaios testados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Phytochemicals/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 706-717, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951594

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vegetative aerial organs are considerably more exposed to environmental conditions and can reflect the specific adaptations of plants to their local environment. Aldama grandiflora species are known to be widely distributed in Brazil; therefore, individuals from different populations of this species are thought to be exposed to different abiotic and biotic conditions. Several anatomical studies conducted on Brazilian Aldama species have mainly focused on the qualitative anatomical characters or traits of these species, but not on their quantitative traits. In this study, we evaluated whether climate and soil conditions can change the morphometry among individuals of A. grandiflora collected from six sites in the Goiás State, Brazil, by assessing their anatomical characters. Further, soil sampling was performed, and climate data were collected from all the six sites. The analysis indicated few statistical differences among the populations evaluated, showing that A. grandiflora presented consistent leaf and stem anatomical characteristics. The small morpho-anatomical differences found among individuals of the different populations evaluated, reflected the soil conditions in which these populations were grown. Therefore, environmental factors have a significant influence on the morpho-anatomy of Aldama grandiflora.


Resumo Os órgãos vegetativos aéreos estão consideravelmente mais expostos às condições ambientais e podem refletir as adaptações específicas das plantas ao seu habitat. A espécie Aldama grandiflora é amplamente distribuída no Brasil e, dessa forma, indivíduos de diferentes populações podem estar expostos a diferentes condições ambientais. Vários estudos anatômicos realizados com espécies brasileiras do gênero Aldama têm abordado, principalmente, as características anatômicas qualitativas dessas espécies, mas não em suas características quantitativas. Neste estudo avaliamos se as condições climáticas e do solo podem alterar a morfometria entre os indivíduos de A. grandiflora coletados em seis populações do Estado de Goiás. Foram avaliados os caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, além da amostragem do solo e coleta de dados climáticos, para os seis locais. A análise indicou algumas diferenças estatísticas entre as populações avaliadas, mostrando que A. grandiflora apresentou características anatômicas foliares e caulinares bastante consistentes. As pequenas diferenças morfo-anatômicas encontradas entre indivíduos das diferentes populações avaliadas, refletiram as condições do solo nos quais essas populações se desenvolveram. Assim sendo, fatores ambientais relacionados ao clima e condições do solo têm uma influência significativa sobre a morfo-anatomia de Aldama grandiflora.


Subject(s)
Soil , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Climate , Asteraceae/physiology , Brazil , Plant Stems/physiology , Plant Stems/ultrastructure , Plant Leaves/physiology , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure , Asteraceae/ultrastructure
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771732

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts of the stems of Celastrus monospermus were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods including silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20, and the structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty six compounds were obtained and identified as 3-oxofriedelane(1), 3-oxofriedelan-28-al(2), 3,12-dioxofriedelane(3), 3β-hydroxyolean-12-en(4), 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane(5), 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane(6), 3-oxo-11β-hydroxyfriedel-ane(7), 3-oxo-16α-hydroxyfriedelane(8), 3,12-dioxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane(9), 1,3-dioxo-15α-hydroxyfriedelane(10), 3β,6α-dihydroxyolean-12-en(11), 3-oxo-7α,26-dihydroxyfriedel-ane(12), oleanolic acid(13), 3,15-dioxofriedelane(14), 3α-friedelinol(15), 3,12-dioxofriedelan-28-al(16), 3-oxo-12α-hydroxyfriedelane(17), 3,15-dioxo-12α-hydroxyfriedelane(18), 3β,11β-dihydroxyolean-12-en(19), 1β,3β-dihydroxylupan-20(29)-en(20), 3-oxo-12α,28-dihydroxyfriedelane(21), 3β,23-epoxyfriedelan-28-oic acid(22), salaquinone A(23), 2α,3β-dihydroxyfriedelan-28-oic acid(24), 23-nor-6-oxodemethylpristimerol(25) and 3-oxo-friedelan-27,28-dioic acid(26). Among them, compounds 8, 10-15, 18-20, 22-26 were obtained from this plant for the first time, and compounds 8, 10, 12, 14-15, 18, 22-24, 26 were separated from the genus Celastrus for the first time.


Subject(s)
Celastrus , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Triterpenes
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771703

ABSTRACT

The dynamic changes of active components in stems and leaves of Mentha Haplocalycis Herba(mint) at different harvest periods were investigated, and the optimum harvest time of mint was explored. In this study, hesperidin, diosmin, didymin and buddleoside were selected as flavonoids index components of mint, and the QAMS method was established to measure the contents of these flavonoids in mint. The contents of 4 flavonoid glycosides in the mint stems and leaves from three habitats harvested in different time were studied and evaluated comprehensively using statistical analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the contents of 4 components in the leaves are higher than that in the stems despite of habitats and harvest time, and they all exhibited dynamic changes along with the harvest periods within the same habitat. Three harvest periods in mid April, mid September and late October scored higher in comprehensive evaluation in Jiangsu region, the genuine producing area of Mentha Haplocalycis Herba. Combined with the yield and contents of active compounds, the optimum harvest time of mint in Jiangsu region was mid September and late October, which is basically consistent with the traditional harvesting periods.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Mentha , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Seasons
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771557

ABSTRACT

The chemical consituents from the stems and leaves of Psychotria serpens were separated and purified by column chromatographies with silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and PR-HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analyses, as well as comparisons with the data reported in literature. 18 compounds were isolated from the 90% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of P. serpens, which were identified as chrysin(1), acacetin(2), genkwanin(3), chrysoeriol(4), rhamnocitrin(5), isorhamnetin(6), tricin(7), jaceosidin(8), dillenetin(9), kumatakenin(10), ayanin(11), isosakuranetin(12), eriodictyol(13), homoeriodictyol(14), taxifolin(15), pomonic acid(16), fupenzic acid(17) and euscaphic acid(18). All compounds were isolated from the genus Psychotria for the first time.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Leaves , Plant Stems , Psychotria
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775348

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical investigation on Ilex asprella stems by using various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of 18 phenolic constituents. Based on spectroscopic data analyses and/or comparison of the spectroscopic data with those in literature, these constituents were identified, including two lignans (1, 2), five phenylpropanes (3-7), six chlorogenic analogues (8-13), and five benzoic analogues (14-18). Among them, compounds 3-7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, and 18 were isolated from genus Ilex for the first time, and 2, 8, 10, 15, and 16 were isolated from this species for the first time. The in vitro anti-inflammatory assay results showed that compounds 8, 9, 11, 13, and 15 possessed moderate inhibition on the NO production in RAW264.7 cells with IC₅₀ values of 51.1-85.8 μmol·L⁻¹. The present study brought preliminary reference for the clarification of therapeutic ingredients of I. asprella with anti-inflammatory efficacy and its quality evaluation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Ilex , Chemistry , Mice , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Phenols , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773632

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents of the stem tuber of Pinellia pedatisecta. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Three new alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, and 3) were obtained and identified as 9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-amine (1), 4-(2-(2, 5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)phenyl acetate (2), and N-(9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-yl)acetamide (3). These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Compounds 1 and 3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells with IC values being 3.02 ± 0.54 and 7.16 ± 0.62 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , HeLa Cells , Humans , Pinellia , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plant Tubers , Chemistry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773589

ABSTRACT

The present study carried out a phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the branches and leaves of Clausena lansium and afforded nine carbazole alkaloids (compounds 1-9) including two new carbazole alkaloids, claulansiums A and B (compounds 1 and 2). The new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data (MS, NMR, IR, and UV) and the known compounds were identified by comparing spectroscopic data with those reported in literature. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activity against A549 and Hela cancer cell lines. Our results showed that compounds 2-6 exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity to cancer cells, with IC values ranging from 8.67 to 98.89 μmol·L.


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Alkaloids , Chemistry , Toxicity , Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Toxicity , Carbazoles , Chemistry , Toxicity , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Clausena , Chemistry , HeLa Cells , Humans , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
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