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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 415-420, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970478

ABSTRACT

Ten lignans were isolated from the ethanol extract of stems and branches of Rhododendron ovatum through column chromatography over silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and MCI-gel resin and semi-preparative RP-HPLC. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analysis(UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, ECD and NMR) as(-)-4-epi-lyoniresinol-9'-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(1),(+)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(2),(+)-5'-methoxyisolariciresinol-9'-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(3),(-)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4),(+)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(5),(-)-4-epi-lyoniresinol-9'-O-β-D-glucopyransoide(6), racemiside(7), neociwujiaphenol(8),(+)-syringaresinol(9), and homohesperitin(10). Among them, compound 1 was a new aryltetralin-type lignan. All the isolated lignans were tested for antioxidant activities in Fe~(2+)-cysteine induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation in vitro, and compounds 8 and 9 showed antioxidant activities on the formation of malondiadehyde(MDA) in rat liver microsomes at 1×10~(-5) mol·L~(-1), with significant inhibitory rates of 75.20% and 91.12%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Glucosides/chemistry , Rhododendron , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Lignans/chemistry , Plant Stems
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20556, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403704

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd (Lamiaceae) is a species native to the African continent and used as an insect repellent. The objective of the study was to evaluate the larvicidal potential of essential oils (EOs) from the leaves, flower buds, and stem of T. riparia, collected in winter against Aedes aegypti larvae. The EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation (3 h) and identified by GC/MS. The EOs were tested against larvae of A. aegypti at concentrations ranging from 12500 to 1.5 µg/mL for 24 h. The insecticide activity was evaluated by probit analysis, and the anticholinesterase activity was determined by bioautographic method. The results of the class projection indicated sesquiterpenes as the majority class, corresponding to 60.66% (leaves), 64.70% (flower buds) and 83.99% (stem), and the bioassays on A. aegypti larvae indicated LC50 of 1590, 675 and 665 µg/mL, respectively. The anticholinesterase activity indicated that the EO of the leaves inhibited the enzyme at a concentration of 780 µg/mL, and those from the flower buds and stem inhibited up to 1560 µg/mL. The results indicated weak activity of essential oils against A. aegypti larvae.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Plant Stems/adverse effects , Plant Leaves/adverse effects , Lamiaceae/metabolism , Aedes/classification , Flowers/adverse effects , Insect Repellents/analysis , Larva/growth & development , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20577, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403738

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lysiphyllum strychnifolium (Craib) A. Schmitz. (in Thai name, Ya nang daeng) has been traditionally used to treat fever, alcohol intoxication, cancer, allergies, and blood toxins. It can be used as a health-promoting herbal tea and contains hydroalcoholic extracts. The purpose of the present study was to develop a microwave-assisted extraction method for astilbin in L. strychnifolium stems. HPLC was used to determine astilbin content. Three extraction conditions were optimized: types of solvent, microwave power levels, and the number of extraction cycles. Water:methanol (40:60) was the best solvent for astilbin extraction from L. strychnifolium stems using 450 watts and six microwave-assisted extraction cycles. This technique offers important advantages over conventional methods, such as shorter extraction times, substantial energy savings, and a reduced environmental burden.


Subject(s)
Plant Stems/classification , Fabaceae/classification , Microwaves/adverse effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20149, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403746

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Brazilian native species Cestrum intermedium, known as mata-boi, induces hepatotoxicity and death when ingested by cattle. While most studies on this species focus on toxicological features, our study is the first to describe the anatomy and in vitro biological activities of Cestrum intermedium. We investigated adult leaves and stems by histochemistry, described their anatomy, performed physical-chemical analysis, determined in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and identified secondary metabolites. A few noteworthy anatomical features were the anomocytic stomata on the abaxial surface and the absence of trichomes, in addition to the circular shaped petiole with two projections on the adaxial surface. Histochemical analysis showed chemical markers such as alkaloids, usually reported as toxic, and terpenoids. Potassium nitrate (ATR-FTIR) and lupeol palmitate (NMR) were detected on the crude stem extract. Thermogravimetric and physical-chemical analysis provided fingerprint parameters for the species. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans were weakly inhibited by extract samples. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions presented high phenolic content, which resulted in in vitro antioxidant activity. These novel features expand the knowledge about this species, considering that previous studies mainly focused on its toxicity. Our study also provided characteristics that may help in avoiding misidentification between Cestrum members, especially when taxonomic keys cannot be employed, as in the absence of flowers and fruits.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Solanaceae/anatomy & histology , Solanaceae/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Terpenes/adverse effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420479

ABSTRACT

Abstract Herein the chemical constituents and the anti-pain properties of the essential oil from the stem bark of Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Casuarinaceae) grown in Nigeria were evaluated. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method in an all glass Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The hot plate method was used to determine the anti-nociceptive property whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced and formalin experimental models. The pale-yellow essential oil was obtained in yield of 0.21% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. The main constituents of the essential oil were methyl salicylate (30.4%), a-zingiberene (15.5%), (E)-anethole (9.5%), b-bisabolene (8.6%), b- sesquiphellandrene (6.9%), and ar-curcumene (6.2%). In the anti-nociceptive study, the rate of inhibition increases as the doses of essential oil increases with optimum activity at the 30th and 60th min for all tested doses. The essential oil displayed anti-nociceptive activity independently of reaction time at the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg). The essential oil of C. equisetifolia moderately reduced pain responses in early and late phases of the formalin test. The oil inhibited the paw licking in the neurogenic phase (60-63%) compared to the late phase of the formalin test. The carrageenan- induced oedema model revealed the suppression of inflammatory mediators within the 1st - 3rd h. Thus, C. equisetifolia essential oil displayed both anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities independent of the dose tested. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of C. equisetifolia essential oil are herein reported for the first time


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Bark/classification , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Carrageenan/adverse effects , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1413-1421, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355684

ABSTRACT

The objective this study was to identify differences in the morphogenic patterns of four Urochloa brizantha cultivars (marandu, piatã, xaraés and paiaguás grasses) during the stockpiling period. A completely randomized design was used, with three replications, in experimental plots of 9m². The evaluations took place over 2 years. The grasses were stockpiled for 92 (Year 1) and 95 (Year 2) days. The leaf appearance rate of paiaguás grass was higher, compared to other grasses. In Year 1, the stem elongation rate of xaraés grass was higher than other grasses. At the end of stockpiling period of Year 1, the tiller population density (TPD) was higher in the paiaguás grass, intermediate in the xaraés and marandu grasses and lower in the piatã grass. At the end of the stockpiling period in Year 2, TPD was higher in the paiaguás grass canopy, intermediate in the marandu and piatã grasses canopies, and lower in the xaraés grass canopy. Paiaguás grass has greater leaf growth during the stockpiling period and is therefore suitable for use under stockpiled grazing. Xaraés grass has high stem elongation during the stockpiling period, which is why its use under stockpiled grazing must be accompanied by adjustments in pasture management.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar diferenças nos padrões morfogênicos de quatro cultivares de Urochloa brizantha (marandu, piatã, xaraés e paiaguás) durante o período de diferimento. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em parcelas experimentais de 9m². As avaliações ocorreram por dois anos. Os capins foram diferidos por 92 (Ano 1) e 95 (Ano 2) dias. A taxa de aparecimento foliar do capim-paiaguás foi maior, em comparação aos demais capins. No Ano 1, a taxa de alongamento do colmo do capim-xaraés foi superior aos demais capins. No final do diferimento do Ano 1, a densidade populacional de perfilho (DPP) foi maior no capim-paiaguás, intermediária nos capins xaraés e marandu e inferior no capim-piatã. No fim do período de diferimento do Ano 2, a DPP foi superior no dossel de capim-paiaguás, intermediária nos dosséis dos capins marandu e piatã, e menor no dossel de capim-xaraés. O capim-paiaguás tem maior crescimento foliar durante o período de diferimento, sendo, portanto, apropriado para uso sob pastejo diferido. O capim-xaraés apresenta elevado alongamento de colmo durante o período de diferimento, razão pela qual seu uso sob pastejo diferido deve vir acompanhado de ajustes no manejo da pastagem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Stems , Brachiaria/growth & development , Morphogenesis/physiology
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 367-385, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349509

ABSTRACT

Araujia odorata is a sub-shrub native from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, whose latex, roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this work is to study the foliar morpho-anatomy of six populations in an altitudinal gradient (359-2155 m.a.s.l.) of Northwestern Argentine and to determine the nature of the compounds present in the laticiferous of the stems and fruits using conventional techniques for plant anatomy. The populations under study did not show significant morpho-anatomical differences. They presented simple leaves, pinnated brochydodromous venation, amphiestomatic isolateral lamina, brachy, anomo and amphicyclocytic stomata, eglandular trichomes, midvein with bicolateral vascular bundle and non-articulated laticifers continuous in the petiole, stem and fruits. Differences in the quantified foliar parameters are observed, however, only the density of trichomes, stomata and the thickness of the cuticle are positively correlated with the altitudinal gradient, indicating phenotypic plasticity. Histochemical analysis of laticifers and other stem idioblasts of A. odoratawas performed for the first time.


Araujia odorata, es un subarbusto nativo de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay, cuyo látex, raíces y hojas son utilizados en medicina popular. Se plantea como objetivo realizar un estudio morfo-anatómico foliar de seis poblaciones del Noroeste Argentino en un gradiente altitudinal (359-2155 m.s.n.m) y determinar la naturaleza de los compuestos presentes en laticíferos de tallos y frutos mediante técnicas convencionales de anatomía vegetal. Las poblaciones estudiadas no evidenciaron diferencias morfo-anatómicas significativas. Presentan hojas simples, venación pinnada broquidódroma, lámina isolateral anfiestomática, estomas braqui, anomo y anficiclocíticos, tricomas eglandulares, nervio medio con haz bicolateral y laticíferos no-articulados continuos en pecíolo, tallo y frutos. Se observan diferencias en los parámetros foliares cuantificados, sin embargo, solo la de densidad de tricomas, estomas y el espesor de cutícula se correlacionan positivamente con el gradiente altitudinal indicando plasticidad fenotípica. Se realiza por primera vez un análisis histoquímico de los laticíferos y otros idioblastos del tallo A. odorata.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Apocynaceae/anatomy & histology , Argentina , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Altitude , Fruit/anatomy & histology
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37083, Jan.-Dec. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359784

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze stem anatomical characteristics of Trapa natans from five Skadar Lake locations (L1 - Milovica bay, L2 ­ inflow of the Moraca river, L3 - Kamenik, L4 - Grmozur, L5 - Lipovik) with different concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, Co and Pb, during the summer period of the year 2012. Cross sections of stem were made using cryotechnic procedure. For all analyzed quantitative anatomical parameters, the minimum values at the location L2 were recorded, with the presence of maximum content for all investigated metals in stem of Trapa natans. On the other hand, except for cobalt, at the location L4 the minimum concentration for all investigated metals were recorded. Plants collected from this location have the largest average values of the most measured anatomical parameters. The results of Discriminant Analysis showed that plants from different location could be clearly classified into three groups according to their stem quantitative anatomical characteristics which corresponds with heavy metals content. Our research also showed that there is no statistically significant correlation between the content of most investigated metals (Co, Cu, Pb and Zn) and the values of anatomical parameters. Statistically significant negative correlation was found between Mn content in stem and values of two anatomical characters (stem cross-sectional area and Mn content, r = - 0.88; p < 0.05; number of hypodermal cell layers and Mn content, r = - 0.90; p < 0.05).


Subject(s)
Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Metals, Heavy , Lythraceae
9.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 621-625, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888790

ABSTRACT

Three new coumarins, integmarins A-C (1-3), and a new coumarin glycoside, integmaside A (4) were isolated from the leaves and stems of Micromelum integerrimum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, and their absolute configurations were assigned according to the ECD data of the in situ formed transition metal complexes and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD data. Compounds 1 and 2 are two rare coumarins with butyl and propyl moieties at the C-6 position; compound 3 is a novel coumarin with a highly oxidized prenyl group, and compound 4 is a rare bisdihydrofuranocoumarin glycoside.


Subject(s)
Coumarins/isolation & purification , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Rutaceae/chemistry
10.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447

ABSTRACT

This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.


Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132155

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso, commonly known as "imbuia", "canela-imbuia" or "imbuia-amarela" in Brazil, is a tree of the Southern Atlantic Forest. The present study investigates the anatomy of leaf and stem, volatile oil chemistry, as well as cytotoxicity and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of O. porosa. Species identification was achieved by anatomy features, mainly due to paracytic and anomocytic stomata; non-glandular trichomes; biconvex midrib and petiole with a collateral open arc vascular bundle; presence of a sclerenchymatous layer, starch grains and crystal sand in the stem; and the presence of phenolic compounds in the epidermis, phloem and xylem of the midrib, petiole and stem. The main volatile components of the essential oil were α-pinene (19.71%), β-pinene (13.86%) and bicyclogermacrene (24.62%). Cytotoxicity against human cancer cell (MCF-7), mouse cancer cell (B16F10) and mouse non-tumoral cell (McCoy) was observed as well as insecticidal activity of the essential oil against susceptible 'Ft. Dix' bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by topical application.


Subject(s)
Bedbugs , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Ocotea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Toxicity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Histocytochemistry
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180670, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132160

ABSTRACT

Abstract Studies evaluating the influence of nutrients on plant anatomy are very important because nutritional deficiencies can alter the thickness and shape of certain tissues, compromising their functionality what can explain the reduction of productivity. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical changes in cherry tomato plants subjected to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) deficiencies. The experiment was conducted in nutrient solution and the plants subjected to three treatments: complete solution (Control), Ca restriction (1 mmol L-1 of Ca) and Mg omission (without Mg). The experimental design was completely randomized, with three repetitions. Sixty days after seedling transplanting leaves and stem were collected and submitted to anatomical evaluations. Ca or Mg deficiency promotes most evident anatomical changes in chlorophyllous and vascular tissues of the leaves, rather than in the stems. Leaves of 'Sindy' tomato plants with a concentration of 1.7 g kg-1 of Mg and visual symptoms of Mg deficiency present hyperplasia of both tissues, phloem and xylem. This deficiency also promotes increases in the thickness of mesophyll, spongy parenchyma and palisade parenchyma, and consequently of leaf thickness. The midrib of the leaves with a concentration of 10 g kg-1 of Ca, without visual symptoms of deficiency presented phloem hypertrophy and hyperplasia.


Subject(s)
Calcium/analysis , Solanum lycopersicum/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Magnesium/analysis , Phloem/metabolism , Xylem/metabolism
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 304-310, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989439

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Neotropical green-belly stink bug, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. in the main production areas of Brazil. It usually feeds on the stems of young plants (seedlings) causing heavy damage by affecting the plant growth and mitigating seed yield. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine body position (upward or downward) of the bug on plant (seedling) stem during feeding and not feeding activities. Ten visual records were taken per day, each spaced one hour during 30 days of 10 adult bugs of similar age exposed to maize seedlings inside cages (plastic tubes). At each observation, it was recorded if the bug was feeding on the stem (i.e., stylets inserted into the plant tissue) or not, and its body position. During feeding, waveforms were recorded using the EPG (electropenetrography) technique, which were correlated with histological studies to reveal the feeding sites. Results indicated that when they were feeding, the majority of the bugs were in the downward position. In contrast, when the bugs were on the plants, and not feeding, they were mostly in the upward position. Waveforms generated using the EPG coupled with histological studies demonstrated that during ingestion bugs fed from the xylem vessels and from the parenchyma tissue using cell rupture strategy in the latter. No clear explanation was found to explain the preferred downward body position during ingestion, but some hypothesis are speculated.


Resumo O percevejo barriga-verde, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) é uma praga importante do milho, Zea mays L. nas principais áreas produtoras do Brasil. Usualmente alimenta-se nas hastes de plantas jovens (plântulas) causando danos severos no seu crescimento e reduzindo o rendimento de grãos. Estudos foram conduzidos em laboratório para determinar a posição do corpo (voltado para cima ou para baixo) dos percevejos nas hastes das plântulas de milho durante as atividades de alimentação e não-alimentação. Foram feitas dez observações por dia, espaçadas por uma hora, durante 30 dias em 10 percevejos adultos com idade semelhante sobre plântulas de milho colocadas em gaiolas (tubos de plástico). Em cada observação, anotou-se se o percevejo estava se alimentando (i.e., estiletes bucais inseridos no tecido vegetal) ou não, e a posição do corpo. Durante a alimentação, ondas eletromagnéticas foram registradas utilizando-se o EPG (técnica da eletropenetrografia), as quais foram correlacionadas com estudos histológicos para revelar os locais de alimentação. Os resultados indicaram que quando os percevejos estavam se alimentando, a maioria estava voltado para baixo. Em contraste, os percevejos sem se alimentar nas plântulas estavam a maioria voltados para cima. As ondas geradas pelo EPG junto com os estudos histológicos revelaram que os percevejos se alimentaram dos vasos do xilema e do tecido parenquimatoso usando a estratégia de ruptura celular no último. Não foi encontrada uma explicação clara para a preferência dos percevejos em se alimentarem na posição voltados para baixo, mas algumas hipóteses são especuladas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zea mays/parasitology , Heteroptera/physiology , Seedlings/parasitology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Posture/physiology , Plant Stems/parasitology
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2552-2558, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773227

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to comprehensively assess the difference of alkaloid components between old stems and tender stems of Gelsemium elegans by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF/MS~E) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector( HPLC-UV). Firstly,the different components in old stems and tender stems were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MSEcombined with principal component analysis( PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA),respectively. As a result,17 major different components were found. At the same time,the distribution of these alkaloids in old stems and tender stems was determined,and the alkaloids with higher polarity are relatively higher in the tender stems,while the old stems are in the opposite case. In addition,three main components in the G. elegans were quantified by HPLC-UV. The results showed that the contents of koumine and humantenmine in old stems were higher than those in tender stems,and the content of gelsemine in tender stems was relatively high. This study systematically evaluated the differences of alkaloids between the old stems and tender stems of G. elegans,and quantified the main three alkaloids. It laid the foundation of the safe and effective application of G. elegans.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gelsemium , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Extracts , Plant Stems , Chemistry
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1793-1798, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773165

ABSTRACT

Aiming at the phenomenon of heavy metal Cd exceeding the standard of Chuanxiong medicinal materials,the accumulation of 12 inorganic elements,including heavy metals,in Ligusticum chuanxiong was studied in this paper. It was found that the contents and distribution of most inorganic elements in the stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong were higher than those in the rhizomes at seedling and shooting stages. The content of most elements in rhizome reached the highest at harvest stage,and the distribution ratio of some elements in rhizome was higher than that in stem and leaf at harvest stage. But rhizome,stem and leaf of L. chuanxiong have relatively stable absorption capacity and enrichment effect on different elements,and are less affected by growth period and position. Rhizomes and stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong were enriched with Cd,and stems and leaves also accumulated Pb at seedling stage and stem stage. The absorption capacity of Pb in stems and leaves of L. chuanxiong was higher than that of rhizomes,and the ability of absorbing Cd was less than that of rhizomes at harvest time. The total uptake of Cd and Pb by L. chuanxiong decreased with the prolongation of growth time,but the proportion of Cd and Pb in rhizome increased,so that the content of Cd and Pb increased with the prolongation of growth time.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ligusticum , Chemistry , Metals, Heavy , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2096-2101, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773122

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents from the stems and leaves of Clausena emarginata were separated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20,and PR-HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis,as well as comparisons with the data reported in the literature. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the 90% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of C. emarginata,which were identified as siamenol( 1),murrastanine A( 2),3-formyl-1,6-dimethoxycarbazole( 3),3-methoxymethylcarbazole( 4),3-methylcarbazole( 5),murrayafoline A( 6),3-formylcarbazole( 7),3-formyl-1-hydroxycarbazole( 8),3-formyl-6-methoxycarbazole( 9),murrayanine( 10),murrayacine( 11),girinimbine( 12),nordentatin( 13),chalepin( 14),8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-pentylisocoumarin( 15) and ethyl orsellinate( 16). Compounds 1-4,14-16 were isolated from C. emarginata for the first time. Among them,compounds 1,2,15 and 16 were isolated from the genus Clausena for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60,SMMC-7721,A-549,MCF-7 and SW480 in vitro. Compounds 12 and 14 showed significant inhibitory effects against various human cancer cell lines with IC_(50) values comparable to those of doxorubicin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Clausena , Chemistry , Doxorubicin , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 224-229, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985002

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the differences of cardiotoxicity of alcohol extract from root, stem and leaf of Chloranthus serratus in the rats, and discuss preliminarily its mechanism of toxicity. Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups: blank, root alcohol, stem alcohol and leaf alcohol, with 8 in each group. After 14 days of continuous intragastric administration, the body mass change curves were drawn. The cardiac coefficient was calculated. The contents of creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH) as well as the content changes of oxidative stress indexes - total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of rats were detected. The cardiac pathomorphology changes in the rats were observed. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) in myocardial tissue was detected. Results Body mass growth rate: stem alcohol group was the smallest, followed by leaf alcohol group. The difference of cardiac coefficient of every group had no statistical significance (P>0.05). The myocardial tissues of stem alcohol group suffered the most serious damage, followed by the leaf alcohol group. The contents of CK, CK-MB, LDH and α-HBDH in stem alcohol group increased (P<0.05). The increase of MDA content and decrease of T-SOD content in stem alcohol group had statistical significance compared with the blank group and root alcohol group, while the leaf alcohol group only had statistical significance in the decrease of T-SOD content compared with the blank group (P<0.05). The positive expression of ICAM-1 enhanced and the expression of HO-1 protein decreased in every group after the intervention of different extracts. The change trend was stem alcohol > leaf alcohol > root alcohol group. Conclusion The alcohol extract from the stem has the highest cardiotoxicity, followed by the leaf extract, and its mechanism of toxicity may be related to oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cardiotoxicity , Ethanol , Heart/drug effects , Malondialdehyde , Myocardium/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 140-144, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effects of the black buckwheat leaf (BBL) in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice and its effects on pancreas and spleen.@*METHODS@#Forty male C57 / B16 mice (SPF) were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group (n=10) and the experimental group (n=30), the experimental group were fed with high sugar and high fat, combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in small dose to establish the model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Those thirty model mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10), diabetes mellitus group (DM), low dose of BBL (DM+L) treated group, high dose of BBL (DM+H) treated group. The mice in the NC group and the DM group were given normal saline per day, and the DM+L group and DM+H group were treated with black tartary buckwheat at the doses of 0.21g/kg·d and 0.42g/kg·d respectively. After 14 days. All mice were executed by cervical dislocation, then blood samples were collected, pancreas and spleen were removed for subsequent experiments. The serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and insulin were detected. TNF-α protein in spleen tissue was detected by ELISA kit. The morphology of pancreas tissue was observed by HE staining, and the spleen coefficient was calculated. The expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue were detected.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH in the model group were increased significantly, while the serum level of insulin was decreased significantly (P<0.05), the expression of TNF-α protein in spleen tissues was obviously raised, the expressions of IRS-1 mRNA and IRS-1 protein in pancreatic tissue in model group were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the serum levels of FBG, TC and TCH were decreased significantly in the BBL treated groups. The serum insulin level, spleen coefficient, TNF-α protein expression level in spleen tissue, IRS-1 mRNA expression and IRS-1 protein expression levels in pancreatic tissue in BBL treated group were increased significantly (P< 0.05). High-dose black tartary buckwheat leaves (0.42g/kg·d) exerted a more significant effect.@*CONCLUSION@#Stem and leaf of black bitter buckwheat has significant therapeutic effects on reducing blood sugar and blood fat in type 2 diabetic mice, and has certain protective effects on pancreas and spleen of diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Fagopyrum , Chemistry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pancreas , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Spleen , Streptozocin
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3738-3744, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773658

ABSTRACT

Seventeen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of Sapium discolor by using various chromatographic techniques,including silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,MCI,ODS,and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as sapiumin F( 1),kadsulignan C( 2),ciwujiatone( 3),ethylbrevifolin carboxylate( 4),7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin( 5),fraxetin( 6),fraxidin( 7),isofraxidin( 8),6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin( 9),5,6,7,8-tetramethoxycoumarin( 10),8-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin( 11),3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid( 12),3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid( 13),3'-methoxyellagic acid 4'-O-α-rhamnopyranoside( 14),4,5-didehydro-chebulic acid triethyl ester( 15),ent-kaurane-3-oxo-16α,17-diol( 16),and abscisic acid( 17) by spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is a new compound. Except for compounds 4,11,and 13,the remaining compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro antineuroinflammatory activities,and the results showed that compounds 6 and 15 significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells,with IC50 values of 6. 06 and 6. 05 μmol·L-1,respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Line , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Phytochemicals , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Sapium , Chemistry
20.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 298-302, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776883

ABSTRACT

Jatrogricaine A (1), a new diterpenoid possessing a 5/6/6/4 carbon ring system, together with eight known diterpenoids (2-9) were isolated from the stems of Jatropha podagrica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and compound 3 showed significant inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells with an IC of 13.44 ± 0.28 μmol·L, being comparable to the positive control, quercetin (IC 17.00 ± 2.10 μmol·L).


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Carbon , Diterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Jatropha , Chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , Macrophages , Metabolism , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry
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