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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Subject(s)
Soil , Seed Bank , Pakistan , Plants , Seeds , Ecosystem , Poaceae
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257969, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364513

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated variation in vegetative and reproductive phenological events of four phylogenetically related plant species subjected to a seasonal environment. To this aim, we sampled 15 individuals of each plant species every fortnight for one year, between January and December of 2017. To assess when a given phenophase occurred more intensely in the population, the Fournier intensity index was used and the synchrony of individuals of the sample in a given phenological event was estimated using the activity index. The Rayleigh (Z) test was used to determine whether the phenological events have seasonal distribution. The relationship of abiotic factors (photoperiod, precipitation, relative humidity and temperature) with the intensity of phenophases was evaluated for each plant species using generalized linear models (GLMs). The phenophases of all plants showed a seasonal distribution pattern, as well as variation in synchrony of phenophases and specific sets of abiotic factors significantly influenced their phenophases. New leaves, for example, were produced throughout the seasons, with intense leaf fall in the dry season. Flowering periods, on the other hand, did not overlap. Indeed, species exhibited sequential flowering and asynchronous flowering among individuals. Our results suggest that the phenological patterns of four sympatric plant species are directly linked to climatic variables, but different abiotic factors affected different phenophases.


Neste estudo, avaliamos a variação nos eventos fenológicos vegetativos e reprodutivos de quatro espécies de plantas filogeneticamente relacionadas submetidas a um ambiente sazonal. Para isso, amostramos 15 indivíduos de cada espécie quinzenalmente, pelo período de um ano, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. Para avaliar quando uma determinada fenofase ocorreu de modo mais intenso na população foi utilizado o índice de intensidade de Fournier e a sincronia dos indivíduos da amostra em determinado evento fenológico foi estimada utilizando-se o índice de atividade. O teste de Rayleigh (Z) foi usado para determinar se os eventos fenológicos têm distribuição sazonal. A relação dos fatores abióticos (fotoperíodo, precipitação, temperatura e umidade relativa) com a intensidade das fenofases foi avaliada para cada espécie de planta usando modelos lineares generalizados (GLMs). As fenofases de todas as plantas apresentaram um padrão de distribuição sazonal, bem como variação na sincronia das fenofases e conjuntos específicos de fatores abióticos influenciaram significativamente suas fenofases. Folhas novas, por exemplo, foram produzidas ao longo das estações, com intensa queda de folhas na estação seca. Os períodos de floração, por outro lado, não se sobrepuseram. De fato, as espécies exibiram floração sequencial e floração assíncrona entre os indivíduos. Nossos resultados sugerem que os padrões fenológicos das quatro espécies de plantas simpátricas estão diretamente ligados às variáveis climáticas, mas diferentes fatores abióticos afetaram diferentes fenofases.


Subject(s)
Plants , Seasons , Growth and Development , Environment , Sympatry/physiology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252143, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364526

ABSTRACT

Cadmium (Cd) is one of non-essential heavy metals which is released into environment naturally or anthropogenically. It is highly persistent toxic metals that are exceptionally distressing industrial and agriculture activities by contaminating soil, water and food. Its long-duration endurance in soil and water results in accumulation and uptake into plants, leading to the food chain. This becomes a serious global problem threatening humans and animals as food chain components. Living organisms, especially humans, are exposed to Cd through plants as one of the main vegetative food sources. This review paper is concentrated on the symptoms of the plants affected by Cd toxicity. The absorption of Cd triggers several seen and unseen symptoms by polluted plants such as stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis and wilting. Apart from that, factors that affect the uptake and translocation of Cd in plants are elaborated to understand the mechanism that contributes to its accumulation. By insight of Cd accumulation, this review also discussed the phytoremediation techniques-phytoextraction, phytostimulation, phytostabilization, phytovolatization and rhizofiltration in bioremediating the Cd.


O cádmio (Cd) é um dos metais pesados ​​não essenciais que é liberado no meio ambiente de forma natural ou antropogênica. São metais tóxicos altamente persistentes que prejudicam excepcionalmente as atividades industriais e agrícolas, contaminando o solo, a água e os alimentos. Sua resistência de longa duração no solo e na água resulta em acúmulo e absorção pelas plantas, levando à cadeia alimentar. Isso se torna um sério problema global que ameaça humanos e animais como componentes da cadeia alimentar. Os organismos vivos, principalmente os humanos, são expostos ao Cd através das plantas como uma das principais fontes de alimento vegetativo. Este artigo de revisão concentra-se nos sintomas das plantas afetadas pela toxicidade do Cd. A absorção de Cd desencadeia vários sintomas visíveis e invisíveis por plantas poluídas, como crescimento atrofiado, clorose, necrose e murcha. Além disso, são elaborados fatores que afetam a absorção e translocação de Cd nas plantas para entender o mecanismo que contribui para o seu acúmulo. A partir do conhecimento do acúmulo de Cd, esta revisão também discutiu as técnicas de fitorremediação - fitoextração, fitoestimulação, fitoestabilização, fitovolatização e rizofiltração na biorremediação do Cd.


Subject(s)
Plants/toxicity , Cadmium , Metals, Heavy , Food/toxicity
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514964

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los páramos de Boyacá cubren el 18.3 % de la superficie de Colombia, y son diversos en flora y fauna, además, registran una alta variabilidad climática, topográfica y de hábitats, que permite que estos ecosistemas sean centros de diversidad en el Neotrópico, y por tanto albergan una alta diversidad de briófitos. Objetivo: Analizar la estructura y composición de las comunidades de briófitos de los complejos de páramos de Boyacá. Métodos: a partir de información de literatura, bases de datos y revisión de herbarios, se evaluó la composición florística y la completitud de muestreo para los complejos de páramos y sustratos. Resultados: Se encontraron 5 132 ejemplares, con 343 especies de musgos que fue el grupo más diverso, 256 hepáticas y dos antocerotes. El análisis de completitud de muestreo es representativo en un 98 %. Además, encontramos que la preferencia de sustratos es el terrícola con 409 especies y el cortícola con 341. La diversidad alfa del orden 0D mostró que Tota-Bijagual-Mamapacha (TBM) es el complejo más diverso con 368 especies, y Pisba (124) el menos diverso; el índice 1D mostró que el complejo (TBM) presentó 178 especies consideradas comunes, y la dominancia de especies (2D) fue mayor en el complejo Iguaque-Merchán con 119 taxa dominantes y en menor número Guantiva-La Rusia (105) y TBM (102). Conclusiones: El análisis de la diversidad beta mostró que el 62 % de la disimilitud en la composición de especies entre los complejos se debe al recambio de especies, igualmente sucede con la divergencia por sustratos que es del 51 %. Los briófitos en los páramos de Boyacá representan el 36.05 % de la diversidad colombiana, y el 2.96 % a nivel mundial.


Introduction: The Boyacá paramos cover 18.3 % of the Colombian surface, and are diverse in flora and fauna, moreover, have a high temperature, topography, and habitats, which allow these ecosystems to be centers of diversity in the Neotropics, and therefore they harbor a high diversity of bryophytes. Objectives: Analyze the structure and composition of the bryophyte communities of the paramos in the Boyacá complexes. Methods: Using literature, databases and herbariums records, the floristic composition, and the completeness of the sampling for the paramo and substrate complexes was evaluated. Results: We analyzed 5 132 specimens, with 343 species of mosses being the most diverse group, 256 liverworts and two hornworts. The sampling completeness analysis is 98 % representative. In addition, we found that the preference of substrates is terrestrial with 409 species and corticolous with 341. Alpha diversity of order 0D showed that Tota-Bijagual-Mamapacha (TBM) is the most diverse complex with 368 species, and Pisba (124) the least diverse; the 1D index showed that the complex (TBM) presented 178 species considered common, and the dominance of species (2D) was higher in the Iguaque-Merchán Complex with 119 dominant taxa and Guantiva-La Russia (105) and TBM (105) to a lesser number. (102). Conclusions: the analysis of beta diversity showed that 62 % of the dissimilarity in the composition of species between the complexes is due to the species turnover, the same happens with the divergence by substrates that is 51 %. Bryophytes in the Boyacá paramos represent 36.05 % of Colombian diversity, and 2.96 % worldwide.


Subject(s)
Plants/classification , Bryophyta/anatomy & histology , Biodiversity , Colombia
6.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 14(2): 1-12, 20230428.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1443038

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades a menudo constituyen alteraciones fisiológicas que requieren acciones inminentes según su gravedad, ante ello, las mujeres andinas ponen en práctica sus conocimientos y actitudes ancestrales a fin de resolverlas, por ser el medio más inmediato. Objetivo: Interpretar las actitudes en el uso de plantas para el tratamiento de algunos eventos ginecológicos, de las mujeres andinas procedentes de la provincia de Hualgayoc, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cualitativo, exploratorio, de diseño fenomenológico ­ hermenéutico, desarrollado con 16 mujeres andinas, mediante una entrevista semiestructurada, en base a una guía de entrevista con validez de contenido óptima. Los resultados emergieron a partir de la codificación abierta, axial y selectiva y se presentan organizados en subcategorías y categorías. Resultados: Las categorías obtenidas fueron las actitudes favorables hacia la utilización de plantas y las situaciones ginecológicas para su uso, entre las subcategorías están: complacencia por los efectos alcanzados, seguridad para continuar usándolas, aptitud para aconsejar su uso, saberes sobre sus acciones terapéuticas, eventos para su utilización y formas de preparación de las plantas. Discusión: Diversos estudios internacionales convergen en actitudes similares, que se manifiestan en una mayor confianza en la medicina tradicional, conductas favorables de aceptación, convicción en sus efectos, proyección anímica de mejora y disposición para continuar con su uso. Conclusión: Las mujeres mostraron su satisfacción por los resultados obtenidos con el uso de plantas medicinales, al ser beneficiosas, oriundas de su zona y no generar gasto, su uso frecuente fue para paliar dolores durante la menstruación, infecciones de la vagina y trabajo de parto


Introduction: Diseases often represent physiological changes that require immediate action depending on the severity. Faced with these changes, Andean women put into practice their ancestral knowledge and attitudes to find a solution, as they are the most immediate means at their disposal. Objective: To interpret the attitudes of Andean women in the province of Hualgayoc, Peru, towards using plants for treating some gynecological events. Materials and Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, hermeneutic phenomenological design study was conducted with 16 Andean women through a semi-structured interview based on an interview guide with optimal content validity. The results emerged from open, axial, and selective coding and were organized into subcategories and categories. Results: The categories obtained were favorable attitudes towards using plants and gynecological situations for using plants. The subcategories include satisfaction with the results achieved, safety to continue using plants, aptitude to advise on the use of plants, knowledge of plant's therapeutic effects, events for using plants, and methods of preparing them. Discussion: Several international studies converge on similar attitudes, manifested in greater trust in traditional medicine, favorable acceptance behavior, belief in its effects, a mental projection of getting well, and willingness to continue its use. Conclusion: The women were satisfied with the results obtained from the use of medicinal plants because they were beneficial, indigenous to their region, and did not involve any expense. The frequent use of plants was to alleviate pain during menstruation, vaginal infections, and labor.


Introdução: As doenças frequentemente constituem alterações fisiológicas que requerem ações iminentes de acordo com sua gravidade, diante disso, as mulheres andinas colocam em prática seus conhecimentos e atitudes ancestrais para resolvê-las, pois este é o meio mais imediato. Objetivo: Interpretar as atitudes das mulheres andinas da província de Hualgayoc, Peru, em relação ao uso de plantas para o tratamento de alguns eventos ginecológicos. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo qualitativo, exploratório, fenomenológico-hermenêutico, desenvolvido com 16 mulheres andinas, por meio de uma entrevista semiestruturada, baseada em um guia de entrevista com validade de conteúdo ideal. Os resultados emergiram de uma codificação aberta, axial e seletiva e são apresentados organizados em subcategorias e categorias. Resultados: As categorias obtidas foram atitudes favoráveis ao uso de plantas e situações ginecológicas para seu uso, entre as subcategorias estão: satisfação com os efeitos alcançados, segurança para continuar usando-as, aptidão para aconselhar seu uso, conhecimento sobre suas ações terapêuticas, eventos para seu uso e formas de preparar as plantas. Discussão: Vários estudos internacionais convergem em atitudes semelhantes, que se manifestam em uma maior confiança na medicina tradicional, comportamentos favoráveis de aceitação, convicção em seus efeitos, projeção de melhoria do humor e disposição para continuar com seu uso. Conclusão: As mulheres ficaram satisfeitas com os resultados obtidos com o uso de plantas medicinais, pois elas são benéficas, nativas de sua área e não geram gastos; seu uso frequente foi para aliviar a dor durante a menstruação, infecções vaginais e parto.


Subject(s)
Plants , Plants, Medicinal , Women , Attitude , Women's Health , Genital Diseases, Female
7.
Homeopatia Méx ; (n.esp): 88-100, feb. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1416732

ABSTRACT

Entre los supuestos no convencionales de la homeopatía, el uso de medicamentos en diluciones altas (HD, por sus siglas en inglés) es una causa de objeciones y escepticismo entre la comunidad científica, formada dentro del paradigma de la dependencia de la dosis de la farmacología clásica. La investigación que busca evidenciar los efectos de las HD homeopáticas recurre a varios modelos experimentales (in vitro, plantas y animales). Objetivo: Describir los resultados de estudios con alta calidad metodológica que han demostrado los efectos positivos de las HD homeopáticas sobre las plantas. Métodos: Tomando como fuente de referencia las revisiones publicadas hasta 2015, actualizamos la información añadiendo datos de estudios recientes incluidos en la base de datos PubMed. Resultados: De los 167 estudios experimentales analizados, 48 cumplieron los criterios mínimos de calidad metodológica, de los cuales 29 detectaron efectos específicos de las diluciones homeopáticas altas sobre las plantas mediante la comparación con controles adecuados. Conclusiones: A pesar de que la mayor parte de los experimentos presentaba una calidad metodológica por debajo del estándar, los estudios que emplearon sistemáticamente reproducibilidad y controles negativos demostraron indiscutibles efectos significativos de las HD homeopáticas sobre las plantas.


Among the non-conventional assumptions of homeopathy, the use of medicines in high dilutions (HD) is a cause for objections and skepticism among the scientific community, trained within the dose-dependency paradigm of classic pharmacology. Research aiming at evidencing the effects of homeopathic HD has resource to several experimental models (in vitro, plants and animals). Aim: To describe the results of studies with high methodological quality that demonstrated positive effects of homeopathic HD on plants. Methods: Taking reviews published until 2015 as reference source, we updated the information through addition of data from recent studies included in database PubMed. Results: From 167 experimental studies analyzed, 48 met the minimum criteria of methodological quality, from which 29 detected specific effects of homeopathic high dilutions on plants through comparison to adequate controls. Conclusions: Despite the substandard methodological quality of most experiments, studies with systematic use of negative controls and reproducibility demonstrated significant indisputable effects of homeopathic HD on plants.


Subject(s)
Plants/drug effects , Dynamization , Homeopathic Remedy
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2579-2599, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981217

ABSTRACT

Color is an important indicator for evaluating the ornamental traits of horticultural plants, and plant pigments is a key factor affecting the color phenotype of plants. Plant pigments and their metabolites play important roles in color formation of ornamental organs, regulation of plant growth and development, and response to adversity stress. It has therefore became a hot topic in the field of plant research. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a vital genomics tool that specifically reduces host endogenous gene expression utilizing plant homology-dependent defense mechanisms. In addition, VIGS enables characterization of gene function by rapidly inducing the gene-silencing phenotypes in plants. It provides an efficient and feasible alternative for verifying gene function in plant species lacking genetic transformation systems. This paper reviews the current status of the application of VIGS technology in the biosynthesis, degradation and regulatory mechanisms of plant pigments. Moreover, this review discusses the potential and future prospects of VIGS technology in exploring the regulatory mechanisms of plant pigments, with the aim to further our understandings of the metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms of different plant pigments as well as improving plant color traits.


Subject(s)
Plant Viruses/genetics , Plants/genetics , Gene Silencing , Plant Development , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genetic Vectors
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2265-2283, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981202

ABSTRACT

Natural plant-derived diterpenoids are a class of compounds with diverse structures and functions. These compounds are widely used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food additives industries because of their pharmacological properties such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. In recent years, with the gradual discovery of functional genes in the biosynthetic pathway of plant-derived diterpenoids and the development of synthetic biotechnology, great efforts have been made to construct a variety of diterpenoid microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, resulting in gram-level production of many compounds. This article summarizes the construction of plant-derived diterpenoid microbial cell factories through synthetic biotechnology, followed by introducing the metabolic engineering strategies applied to improve plant-derived diterpenoids production, with the aim to provide a reference for the construction of high-yield plant-derived diterpenoid microbial cell factories and the industrial production of diterpenoids.


Subject(s)
Diterpenes/metabolism , Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Plants/genetics , Synthetic Biology
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2190-2203, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981197

ABSTRACT

Abscisic acid, a plant hormone that inhibits growth, is a key factor in balancing plant endogenous hormones and regulating growth and metabolism. Abscisic acid can improve the drought resistance and salt tolerance of crops, reduce fruit browning, reduce the incidence rate of malaria and stimulate insulin secretion, so it has a broad application potential in agriculture and medicine. Compared with traditional plant extraction and chemical synthesis, abscisic acid synthesis by microorganisms is an economic and sustainable route. At present, a lot of progress has been made in the synthesis of abscisic acid by natural microorganisms such as Botrytis cinerea and Cercospora rosea, while the research on the synthesis of abscisic acid by engineered microorganisms is rarely reported. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yarrowia lipolytica and Escherichia coli are common hosts for heterologous synthesis of natural products due to their advantages of clear genetic background, easy operation and friendliness for industrial production. Therefore, the heterologous synthesis of abscisic acid by microorganisms is a more promising production method. The author reviews the research on the heterologous synthesis of abscisic acid by microorganisms from five aspects: selection of chassis cells, screening and expression enhancement of key enzymes, regulation of cofactors, enhancement of precursor supply and promotion of abscisic acid efflux. Finally, the future development direction of this field is prospected.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid/metabolism , Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Plants/metabolism , Yarrowia/metabolism
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 566-585, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970392

ABSTRACT

WUSCHEL-related homebox (WOX) gene family is a type of plant specific transcription factor, and belongs to the homeobox (HB) transcription factor superfamily. WOX genes play an important role in plant development, such as stem cell regulation and reproductive progress, and have been identified in many plant species. However, the information of mungbean VrWOX genes is limited. In this study, we identified 42 VrWOX genes in mungbean genome using Arabidopsis AtWOX genes as BLAST queries. VrWOX genes are unevenly distributed on 11 mungbean chromosomes, and chromosome 7 contains the most VrWOX genes. VrWOX genes are classified into three subgroups, the ancient group, the intermediate group and the modern/WUSCHEL group, which contains 19, 12 and 11 VrWOX members, respectively. Intraspecific synteny analysis revealed 12 VrWOX duplicated gene pairs in mungbean. Mungbean and Arabidopsis thaliana have 15 orthologous genes, and mungbean and Phaseolus vulgaris have 22 orthologous genes, respectively. The gene structure and conserved motif are different among VrWOX genes, indicating their functional diversity. The promoter regions of VrWOX genes contain different number and type of cis-acting elements, and VrWOX genes show distinct expression levels in eight mungbean tissues. Our study investigated the bioinformation and expression profiles of VrWOX genes, and provided essential information for further functional characterization of VrWOX genes.


Subject(s)
Vigna/genetics , Fabaceae/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Plants
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 537-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970390

ABSTRACT

The WUSCHEL related-homeobox (WOX) family is one of the plant-specific transcription factor families, playing important roles in plant growth and development. In this study, 51 WOX gene family members were identified from the genome data of Brassica juncea by searching and screening with HUMMER, Smart and other software. Their protein molecular weight, amino acids numbers, and isoelectric point were analyzed by using Expasy online software. Furthermore, bioinformatics software was used to systematically analyze the evolutionary relationship, conservative region, and gene structure of the WOX gene family. The mustard WOX gene family was divided into three subfamilies: ancient clade, intermediate clade, and WUS clade/modern clade. Structural analysis showed that the type, organization form and gene structure of the conservative domain of WOX transcription factor family members in the same subfamily were highly consistent, while there was a certain diversity among different subfamilies. 51 WOX genes are distributed unevenly on 18 chromosomes of mustard. Most of the promoters of these genes contain cis acting elements related to light, hormone and abiotic stress. Using transcriptome data and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, it was found that the expression of mustard WOX gene was spatio-temporal specific, among which BjuWOX25, BjuWOX33, and BjuWOX49 might play an important role in the development of silique, and BjuWOX10, BjuWOX32, and BjuWOX11, BjuWOX23 respectively might play an important role in the response to drought and high temperature stresses. The above results may facilitate the functional study of mustard WOX gene family.


Subject(s)
Mustard Plant/genetics , Multigene Family/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Plants/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Phylogeny , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 472-487, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970386

ABSTRACT

Flow cytometry is a multi-parameter, rapid and efficient method for qualitative analysis and quantitative determination of various fluorescently labeled particles in liquid flow. Flow cytometry has been applied in multiple disciplines such as immunology, virology, molecular biology, cancer biology and infectious disease monitoring. However, the application of flow cytometry in plant research is hampered due to the special composition and structure of plant tissues and cells, such as cell walls and secondary metabolites. In this paper, the development, composition and classification of flow cytometry were introduced. Subsequently, the application, research progress and application limitations of flow cytometry in plant field were discussed. At last, the development trend of flow cytometry in plant research was prospected, which provides new perspectives for broadening the potential application scope of plant flow cytometry.


Subject(s)
Flow Cytometry/methods , Plants , Fluorescent Dyes
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 425-445, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970383

ABSTRACT

Phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway is one of the most important secondary metabolic pathways in plants. It directly or indirectly plays an antioxidant role in plant resistance to heavy metal stress, and can improve the absorption and stress tolerance of plants to heavy metal ions. In this paper, the core reactions and key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway were summarized, and the biosynthetic processes of key metabolites such as lignin, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins and relevant mechanisms were analyzed. Based on this, the mechanisms of key products of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in response to heavy metal stress were discussed. The perspectives on the involvement of phenylpropanoid metabolism in plant defense against heavy metal stress provides a theoretical basis for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of heavy metal polluted environment.


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Antioxidants
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22106, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a native plant from the Amazon whose seeds contain a high concentration of caffeine. Aqueous extract of guarana is widely used in the world. In this study, the objective was to develop and validate a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of caffeine in extracts and commercial beverages based on guarana. A sensitive, simple, and viable high performance liquid chromatographic method without the need of an analyte extraction procedure was developed and validated according to Brazilian and international requirements. The method presented high performance, fulfilling Brazilian and international requirements, in addition to allowing product compliance tests. Results confirmed high selectivity and linearity (>0.999) between 5 to 135 ug/mL, with no significant matrix effect. Detection and quantification limits were 0.02 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL, respectively. Precision was less than 4 %, and accuracy varied from 99.9-120 %. Applicability of the method was demonstrated by conducting a limited evaluation in products containing caffeine. Commercial extracts showed quite different caffeine levels, while carbonated drinks follow Brazilian and American recommendations. Our results indicate that the developed method can be used to evaluate the quality of the guarana extract and of products containing caffeine


Subject(s)
Seeds/classification , Caffeine/agonists , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Paullinia/adverse effects , Plants/classification , Beverages/classification , Total Quality Management/standards
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22320, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439541

ABSTRACT

Abstract Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the seed of a multipurpose plant of pharmaceutical interest, as its mucilage can be used as a natural matrix to develop extended-release dosage forms and potentially replace synthetic polymers. In this study, a 3² factorial design with two replicates of the central point was applied to optimize the development of extended-release granules of metformin HCl. The total fiber content of the mucilage as well as the friability and dissolution of the formulations were evaluated. The lyophilized mucilage presented a high total fiber content (42.63%), which suggests a high efficiency extraction process. Higher concentrations of the mucilage and metformin HCl yielded less friable granules. In addition, lower concentrations of metformin HCl and higher concentrations of the mucilage resulted in slower drug release during the dissolution assays. The release kinetics for most formulations were better represented by the Hixson-Crowell model, while formulations containing a higher concentration of the mucilage were represented by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Nonetheless, five formulations showed a longer release than the reference HPMC formulation. More desirable results were obtained with a higher concentration of the mucilage (13-18%) and a lower concentration of metformin (40%).


Subject(s)
Flax/classification , Plant Mucilage/agonists , Metformin/analysis , Plants/adverse effects , Polymers/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23011, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505852

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oil-in-water photoprotective nanoemulsions (NEs) were developed using Babassu (BBS) lipophilic extract, nonionic surfactants, and low concentrations of organic sunscreens by ultrasonic processing. BBS extract was chosen due to its suitable physicochemical properties (acidity index, peroxide index, refraction index, and relative density) and predominance of saturated fatty acids, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which promote biological activities and high oxidative stability. NEs were characterized by mean droplet size, morphology, polydispersity index (PdI), pH, and organoleptic properties, and the physical stability of the NEs was evaluated for 120 days at room temperature. The sun protection factor (SPF) was determined, and the photostability and in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed for NEs. All NEs remained stable for 120 days, with a droplet size <150 nm and a monomodal distribution profile. The pH values were compatible with the skin's pH. NE3 showed a spherical morphology, with a mean droplet size of 125.15 ± 0.16 nm and PdI of 0.145 ± 0.032. NE3 containing BBS extract and sunscreens presented an SPF of 35.5 ± 3.0, was photostable after 6 h of radiation and was non-cytotoxic to fibroblast cells. Thus, NE3 could be considered a promising formulation for developing synergic plant-extract sunscreen photoprotective products for the market


Subject(s)
Plants/adverse effects , Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/agonists , Arecaceae/classification , Vegetable Fats , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Sun Protection Factor/classification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20412, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Treatment with plant is considered an effective option against increased antibiotic resistance. In this study antibiofilm activity of methanol (CH3OH), chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water (H2O) extracts of Hypericum atomarium Boiss. which is member of Hypericum genus was evaluated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and antibacterial performance against Gram (+) and Gram (-) strains and also bioactive compounds of extract were analysed using by HPLC and GC-MS. According to antibacterial activity test results the extracts were effective all Gram (+) bacteria and Gram (-) Chromobacterium violaceum (MICs ranging from 0.42 µg/ml to 4.3 mg). Inhibition effect of biofilm formation was found to be different rate in extracts (methanol-63%, chloroform-52%). The major flavonoids were detected (−)-epicatechin (2388.93 µg/ml) and (+)-catechin (788.94 µg/ml). The main phenolic acids were appeared as caffeic acid 277.34 µg/ml and chlorogenic acid 261.79 µg/ml. And according to GC results α-pinene was found main compound for three solvent extracts methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate 67.05, 62.69, 49.28% rate respectively


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Biofilms/classification , Hypericum/classification , Sprains and Strains/complications , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromobacterium/isolation & purification , Acetates/classification
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Turnera , Plants , Soil , Symbiosis , Ecosystem , Plant Leaves
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245862, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339337

ABSTRACT

Abstract Except for a few stick insects that are economically valuable, most species be considered to be forest pests, so it is extremely important to obtain plant host-use information of more stick insects. In this paper, the plant hosts of three species of stick insects were recorded for the first time. We also discovered these stick insects can feed upon the flowers or leaves of plants. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Hypericum choisianum Wall. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) attacked Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) and Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Debregeasia orientalis C. J. Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finally, we were lucky enough to also obtain photographs of them mating and feeding.


Resumo Exceto por alguns insetos-pau que são economicamente valiosos, a maioria das espécies pode ser considerada praga florestal, por isso é extremamente importante obter informações sobre o uso de hospedeiros de plantas de mais insetos-pau. Neste artigo, as plantas hospedeiras de três espécies de bicho-pau foram registradas pela primeira vez. Também descobrimos que esses bichos-pau podem se alimentar de flores ou folhas de plantas. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) atacou a parede de Hypericum choisianum. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) atacou Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) e Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae orientaled) atacou Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finalmente, tivemos a sorte de também obter fotos deles se acasalando e se alimentando.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants , Insecta , Tibet , Plant Leaves , Flowers
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