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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921790


Cambodia is rich in medicinal plant resources. One hundred and thirty-three medicinal material samples, including the hole herb, root, stem/branch, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, and resin, were collected from the Orussey Herbal Market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and then authenticated by ITS and psbA-trnH. A total of 46 samples were identified based on ITS sequences, belonging to 24 families, 40 genera, and 42 species. A total of 100 samples were identified by psbA-trnH sequences to belong to 42 families, 77 genera, and 84 species. A total of 103 samples were identified by two DNA barcodes. According to the morphological characteristics of the medicinal materials, 120 samples classified into 50 species, 86 genera, and 86 families were identified, and the majority of them were from Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae, and Acanthaceae. Such samples have been commonly used in traditional Cambodian medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and ethnomedicine, but different medical systems focus on different functional aspects of the same medicinal material. The results of this study have demonstrated that DNA barcoding has a significant advantage in identifying herbal products, and this study has provided basic data for understanding the traditional medicinal materials used in Cambodia.

Cambodia , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Humans , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 6-11, nov. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021043


Background: Penthorum chinense Pursh (P. chinense) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plant, which has long been used for the prevention and treatment of hepatic diseases. This study aimed to genetically characterize the varieties of P. chinense from different geographic localities of China by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR technique and verified with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Results: The P. chinense samples were collected from nine different geographic localities. Previously improved RAPD and ISSR markers were utilized for genetic analysis using DNA amplification. The genetic relationship dendrogram was obtained by conducting cluster analysis to the similarity coefficient of improved RAPD and ISSR markers. Improved RAPD yielded 185 scorable amplified products, of which 68.6% of the bands were polymorphic, with an average amplification of 9.25 bands per primer. The ISSR markers revealed 156 alleles with 7.8 bands per primers, where 59.7% bands were polymorphic. Furthermore, the similarity coefficient ranges of RAPD and ISSR markers were 0.71­0.91 and 0.66­0.89, respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that improved RAPD and ISSR methods are useful tools for evaluating the genetic diversity and characterizing P. chinense. Our findings can provide the theoretical basis for cultivar identification, standardization, and molecular-assisted breeding of P. chinense for medicinal use.

Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Magnoliopsida/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , Genetic Markers , China , DNA, Plant/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Microsatellite Repeats , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 164-169
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158408


Gardenia jasminoides is a common garden medicinal plant known for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombic, anti-fibrotic, antiviral, hepatoprotective, lung-protective, renal-protective, retina-protective and neuroprotective activities. It is found in several regions of the world, including China, but information about its genetic characteristics is limited. Here, we employed an improved method of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis (with increased RAMP time) to investigate the genetic link between G. jasminoides samples collected from six different regions of Southern China. Total 26 RAPD primers were selected randomly, among which 23 primers generated reproducible polymorphic amplification bands. A total of 174 bands were obtained, where each primer had amplified 5-13 bands with an average of 7.56 bands per primer. The band size ranged approximately 150-2200 bp. Cluster dendrogram was obtained based on the improved RAPD amplification profiles, which showed that the similarity coefficients among six varieties of G. jasminoides ranged 0.67-0.88. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of G. jasminoides using improved RAPD analysis, which may be useful for the preservation of genetic diversity and identification of Gardenia population.

China , /genetics , /isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Gardenia/classification , Gardenia/genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique/methods , Reproductive Isolation
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1112-1121
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153800


Various parameters including explant-type, medium compositions, use of phytohormones and additives were optimized for direct and indirect regeneration of E. ochreata, a medicinal orchid under threat. Protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) proved to be the best explants for shoot initiation, proliferation and callus induction. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium containing 2.5 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg L-1 kinetin (Kin) and additives (adenine sulfate, arginine, citric acid, 30 mg L-1 each and 50 mg L-1 ascorbic acid) was optimal for shoot multiplication (12.1 shoots and 7.1 PLBs per explant with synchronized growth), which also produced callus. Shoot number was further increased with three successive subcultures on same media and ~40 shoots per explant were achieved after 3 cycles of 30 days each. Additives and casein hydrolysate (CH) showed advantageous effects on indirect shoot regeneration via protocorm-derived callus. Optimum indirect regeneration was achieved on MS containing additives, 500 mg L-1 CH, 2.5 mg L-1 BAP and 1.0 mg L-1 Kin with 30 PLBs and 6 shoots per callus mass (~5 mm size). The shoots were rooted (70% frequency) on one by fourth-MS medium containing 2.0 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid, 200 mg L-1 activated charcoal and additives. The rooted plantlets were hardened and transferred to greenhouse with 63% survival rate. Flow-cytometry based DNA content analysis revealed that the ploidy levels were maintained in in vitro regenerated plants. This is the first report for in vitro plant regeneration in E. ochreata.

Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Chromosomes, Plant , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Culture Media/pharmacology , Cytokinins/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Orchidaceae/genetics , Orchidaceae/growth & development , Orchidaceae/physiology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/physiology , Plant Cells/drug effects , Plant Cells/physiology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Ploidies , Regeneration , Rhizome/drug effects , Rhizome/growth & development
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3,supl.1): 707-720, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727199


This study refers to the use of medicinal plants by populations in the Western Amazon and provides information that can be used in phytochemical studies. It draws upon the traditional knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants in five regions of the state of Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon, focusing on native species. The field research was carried out in five municipalities of the state of Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim and Itapoa do Oeste, characterized by primary economic sectors: agriculture, cattle farming, plant extraction and mineral exploration. Structured interviews were applied to 227 persons chosen because of their prestige in the communities in relation to the knowledge and use of medicinal plants, identifying the therapeutic purpose, parts of the plant used and methods of preparation. The species were taxonomically identified. The ethnobotanic knowledge (inferred by the number of uses of medicinal plants per person) was correlated with the Brazilian region of origin, age, and gender of the interviewees. According to the collected data, 34 botanical families and 53 native species were identified. Of the 53 species, only 7 occur exclusively in the Amazon Forest: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K. Schum., Psidium densicomum Mart. ex DC, Piper cavalcantei Yunck., Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew., Euterpe oleracea Mart., Croton cajucara Benth., Baccharis altimontana G. Heiden. The most common disorders treated with the plants were kidney problems, influenza, generalized infections and inflammations, malaria and high blood pressure. Leaves were the most used parts in preparations. Barks, fruits, roots, flowers, stems, seeds, oils, buds, tubercles, and rhizomes were also mentioned. Thirteen forms of preparations were recorded, and infusion and decoction were the most used. Syrups, juices, flour, sap, oil and parts of the plant blended with milk, honey and coffee or flamed, macerated and in the form of poultice, were also found. Persons from the Southeast region had more information compared with persons from the other regions; persons in the age groups between 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 had more information in comparison with the other age groups; and the female interviewees mentioned significantly more uses of medicinal plants than the male ones. The relatively small number of native Amazon species identified can be the result of the loss of knowledge about medicinal plants in the Amazon because of internal migration, extinction of local indigenous groups, increasing urbanization and consequent globalization of the lifestyles.

Este estudo se refere ao uso de plantas medicinais por populações da Amazônia Ocidental, fornece informações passíveis de utilização em estudos fitoquímicos e resgata o conhecimento tradicional a respeito do uso de plantas medicinais em cinco regiões do estado de Rondônia na Amazônia Brasileira com foco nas espécies nativas. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada nos cinco municípios de Rondônia: Ariquemes, Buritis, Candeias do Jamari, Cujubim e Itapoã do Oeste, caracterizados por atividades econômicas primárias: agricultura, pecuária e extrativismo vegetal e mineral. Entrevistas estruturadas foram aplicadas a 227 pessoas escolhidas por seu prestígio nas comunidades em relação ao conhecimento e uso de plantas medicinais, identificando a finalidade terapêutica, as partes das plantas utilizadas, e os métodos de preparação. As espécies foram taxonomicamente identificadas. O conhecimento etnobotânico (inferido a partir do número de citações por entrevistado) foi correlacionado com a região de origem, idade e gênero dos entrevistados. De acordo com os dados coletados, 34 famílias botânicas e 53 espécies nativas foram identificadas. Dentre as 53 espécies, apenas sete ocorrem exclusivamente na Amazônia: Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K.Schum., Psidium densicomum Mart. ex DC, Piper cavalcantei Yunck., Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew., Euterpe oleracea Mart., Croton cajucara Benth., Baccharis altimontana G. Heiden. As afecções mais comuns tratadas com plantas foram: problemas de fígado, gripe, infecções e inflamações generalizadas, malária, e hipertensão arterial. As folhas são as partes mais utilizadas nas preparações. Também foram mencionadas cascas, frutos, raízes, flores, caules, sementes, óleos, brotos, tubérculos e rizomas. Treze formas de preparação foram registradas sendo mais comuns as infusões e decoctos. Outras formas de preparação observadas foram xarope, suco, farinha, seiva, óleo, partes vegetais misturadas com leite, mel ou café, flambada, macerada e em forma de cataplasma. Pessoas da região Sudeste apresentaram maior número de informações do que as outras regiões; faixas etárias entre 50-59, 60-69 e 70-79 apresentaram maior número de citações que os outros grupos etários; e as mulheres mencionaram significativamente mais usos medicinais em comparação com os homens. O número relativamente pequeno de espécies nativas amazônicas identificadas pode ser um resultado da perda de conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais na Amazônia, devido à migração interna, extinção dos grupos indígenas locais, crescente urbanização e consequente globalização dos estilos de vida.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ethnobotany/instrumentation , Phytotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Ethnobotany/statistics & numerical data , Interviews as Topic/methods
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4): 605-608, 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-695247


Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth) com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O), em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

Among the native medicinal plants of the Brazilian Cerrado, we can find the fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth) with a high economic potencial due to its numerous possivbilities for medicinal and phytochemical use. The industry extracts form the fruits the active ingredients rutin, quercetin and rhamnose, among others, used to manufacture medications and cosmetic products, especially abroad. Knowing the reproductive system of the species is important for its conservation and management. This study aimed to determine the morphometric characteristics of flowers and characterize the reproductive system of D. mollis in a Cerrado area that was anthropomorphically unchanged, in the municipality of Olhos D'água - MG. For the morphometric characteristics, flower diameter, length of the flower, of the ovary and the anther, five pre-anthesis flowers were used. To determine the reproductive system, the pollen:ovule (P:O) ratio was used in 40 flowers. The D. mollis flowers presented a flower length of 3.00 mm, flower diameter of 2.00 mm, ovule length of 2.60 mm, anthers length of 1.57 mm, and the number of anthers and ovules were 20 and 5.8, respectively. The P:O ratio was 765,030, and this index is not affected by the morphometric characteristics. The reproductive system of D. mollis was classified as facultative allogamous.

Fabaceae/classification , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Reproduction/genetics , Genes, Plant , Grassland
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(4): 656-665, 2012. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-664018


O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização de plantas frescas e secas (comerciais) de alfavaca, orégano e tomilho, a obtenção dos óleos essenciais através do método de arraste a vapor e a quantificação dos compostos químicos por CG/EM. As plantas frescas e as secas comerciais foram submetidas às análises de umidade, extrato etéreo, proteína, fibra bruta, cinzas, extrato não nitrogenado, valor calórico, teor de óleo essencial e identificação dos compostos majoritários através da cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas. Dentre a caracterização obtida os resultados na base seca mostraram-se promissores, sendo o teor de proteína e de cinzas na alfavaca seca comercial com 17,34 g 100 g-1 e 8,12 g 100 g-1, respectivamente; a fibra bruta no orégano seco comercial com 15,65 g 100 g-1; o extrato etéreo, o extrato não nitrogenado e o valor calórico no tomilho seco comercial com 9,30 g 100 g-1, 52,72 g 100 g-1 e 356,74 Kcal 100 g-1, respectivamente. Obteve-se o maior rendimento de óleo essencial na alfavaca seca comercial com 1,02%, enquanto a alfavaca fresca apresentou o menor rendimento, com apenas 0,13%. Na alfavaca fresca encontrou-se 87,38% de eugenol e 6,27% de timol, enquanto na alfavaca seca comercial observou-se redução no eugenol (71,12%) e aumento do timol (13,28%). No orégano fresco foram quantificados quatro picos o γ-terpineno (33,45%), 4-terpineol (25,59%), timol (14,21%) e carvacrol (2,30%). Já no óleo essencial de orégano seco comercial houve redução no γ-terpineno (28,73%) e aumento no 4-terpineol (27,58%), timol (19,71%) e carvacrol (3,67%). No óleo essencial do tomilho fresco foram quantificados três picos o borneol (66,66%), timol (13,41%) e linalol (3,24%). Por outro lado, no óleo essencial do tomilho seco comercial houve redução no borneol (37,90%) e aumento no timol (20,61%) e linalol (10,34%). Pode-se concluir que as folhas secas comerciais analisadas de alfavaca, orégano, e tomilho apresentam potencial para o enriquecimento dos alimentos ou para a obtenção dos óleos essenciais.

This study aimed to characterize commercial fresh and dry medicinal plants (basil, oregano and thyme), to obtain essential oil by the steam distillation method and to quantify chemical compounds by means of GC/MS. The fresh and dry plants were subjected to the following analyses moisture, ether extract, protein, crude fiber, ash, non-nitrogenous extract, caloric value, essential oil content and identification of major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Considering the obtained characterization, the following results on dry basis proved promising: protein and ash content in commercial dry basil with 17.34 g 100 g-1 and 8.12 g 100 g-1, respectively; crude fiber in commercial dry oregano with 15.65 g 100 g-1; ether extract, non-nitrogenous extract and caloric value in commercial dry thyme with 9.30 g 100 g-1, 52.72 g 100 g-1 and 356.74 Kcal 100 g-1, respectively. The highest essential oil yield was obtained for commercial dry basil with 1.02% and the lowest yield was obtained for fresh basil with only 0.13%. Chromatography indicated 87.38% eugenol and 6.27% thymol in fresh basil. For commercial dry basil, the chromatogram showed a reduction in eugenol (71.12%) and an increase in thymol (13.28%). Four peaks were quantified for fresh oregano the γ-terpinene (33.45%), 4-terpineol (25.59%), thymol (14.21%) and carvacrol (2.30%). For the essential oil of commercial dry oregano, there was a decrease in γ-terpinene (28.73%) and an increase in 4-terpineol (27.58%), thymol (19.71%) and carvacrol (3.67%). In the chromatogram of the essential oil of fresh thyme, three peaks were quantified: borneol (66.66%), thymol (13.41%) and linalool (3.24%). On the other hand, in the chromatogram of the essential oil of commercial dry thyme, there was a decrease in borneol (37.90%) and an increase in thymol (20.61%) and linalool (10.34%). It can be concluded that commercial dry leaves of basil, oregano and thyme are feasible to enrich foods or to obtain essential oils.

Diagnosis , Oils, Volatile , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Chemical Compounds , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Ocimum/classification , Origanum/classification , Thymus serpyllum/classification
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(4): 467-474, 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-611451


Objetivou-se, com a realização da pesquisa, avaliar modificações fisiológicas e anatômicas em plantas de melissa, cultivadas sob malhas termorrefletoras (Aluminet®), em diferentes níveis de sombreamento, visando conhecer a plasticidade fenotípica em resposta de adaptação a diferentes quantidades de luz. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por plantas submetidas a pleno sol e a 20 e 60 por cento de intensidade luminosa, e arranjados conforme o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC). As quantificações de clorofila foram feitas em quatro repetições, as medições das epidermes e parênquimas foram repetidas 15 vezes e utilizou-se 10 repetições para as avaliações das características de cloroplastos e grãos de amido destes. Plantas submetidas a 20 por cento de intensidade luminosa apresentaram maior quantidade de clorofila a e, portanto, maior razão clorofila a/b. Comparativamente, as folhas de melissa a pleno sol e a 60 por cento de luz apresentaram células da epiderme adaxial mais espessas, mas as células da epiderme abaxial mostraram características encontradas em folhas de sombra, ou seja, mais finas. Quanto maior a intensidade luminosa, maior o número de cloroplastos, porém, a pleno sol mostraram-se mais finos e com menor área. Os grãos de amido de plantas cultivadas sob ambientes sombreados tiveram maior área e ocuparam maior parte nos cloroplastos de plantas a 60 por cento de intensidade luminosa. Assim, plantas de melissa, quando submetidas ao sombreamento, tiveram plasticidade fenotípica.

The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological and anatomical modifications in lemon balm plants, cultivated under thermo-reflector nets (Aluminet®) at different levels of shading, in order to understand the phenotypic plasticity in adaptation response to different light quantities. The treatments were characterized by plants subjected to full sun and 20 and 60 percent of luminous intensity, and arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). The quantifications of chlorophylls were done in four replicates, the measurements of epidermis and parenchymas were repeated 15 times and 10 replicates were used to evaluate characteristics of chloroplasts and their starch grains. Plants subjected to 20 percent of luminous intensity showed higher quantity of chlorophyll a and, therefore, higher chlorophyll a/b ratio. Lemon balm leaves under full sun and 60 percent of light showed thicker adaxial epidermis cells, but the abaxial epidermis cells showed characteristics found in shaded leaves, i.e., they were slender. The higher the light intensity, the larger the number of chloroplasts; however, under full sun, they were slender and had smaller area. The starch grains of leaves grown under shaded environments showed larger area and, at 60 percent of luminous intensity, occupied the largest part of chloroplasts. Thus, lemon balm plants, subjected to shading conditions, showed phenotypic plasticity.

Adaptation, Biological/physiology , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Dark Adaptation/physiology , Dark Adaptation/genetics , Melissa/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Brazil , Chloroplasts/physiology , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/chemistry , Plant Epidermis/anatomy & histology , Plant Epidermis/physiology , Plant Epidermis/genetics
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(2): 151-156, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-596388


Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc. (mama-cadela) é uma planta medicinal nativa do Cerrado, utilizada na medicina tradicional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a possibilidade de propagação de mama-cadela por meio de estacas de raízes, sob o efeito de reguladores de crescimento e de diferentes substratos. No experimento 1 foram avaliados os efeitos da aplicação de ácido indol-butírico (AIB) e ácido naftaleno-acético (ANA) na concentração de 1000 mg L-1 e três substratos (S1- areia; S2 - 75 por cento de areia + 25 por cento de substrato comercial; S3 - 50 por cento de areia + 50 por cento de substrato comercial). No experimento 2 foram avaliadas 4 doses de AIB: 0 - testemunha; 250 mg L-1 (1,3426 mM ); 500 mg L-1 (2,6853 mM) e 1000 mg L-1 (5,3706 mM); e 4 doses de ácido naftaleno-acético (ANA): 0 - testemunha; 250 mg L-1 (1,2295 mM); 500 mg L-1 (2,458 mM); e 1000 mg L-1 (4,918 mM). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições de seis estacas por parcela. No experimento 1, os substratos compostos por areia e areia (75 por cento) + substrato comercial (25 por cento) proporcionaram os maiores Índices de pegamento. A aplicação de AIB (1000 mg L-1) proporcionou aumentos relativos de 30,8 por cento e 51,3 por cento, no IMP quando comparada com a testemunha e a aplicação de ANA, respectivamente. No experimento 2, observou-se resposta quadrática significativa da aplicação de AIB sobre o IMP. A dose de 500 mg L-1 (2,6853 mM) promoveu maior IMP. Não houve efeito significativo das doses de ANA para os parâmetros avaliados. Não houve efeito significativo relevante de substratos ou hormônios sobre os demais parâmetros avaliados. Estes resultados evidenciam o potencial de utilização de estacas de raiz de mama-cadela para a produção de mudas clonais desta espécie.

Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc. (mama-cadela) is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado and largely used in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to verify the propagation of mama-cadela by means of root cutting under the effect of plant growth regulators and different substrates. In experiment 1, the effects of indole butyric acid (IBA) and naphthylacetic acid (NAA) at the concentration of 1000 mg L-1 were evaluated together with three substrates (S1 - sand; S2 - 75 percent sand + 25 percent commercial substrate; S3 - 50 percent sand + 50 percent commercial substrate). In experiment 2, 4 IBA levels were evaluated: 0 - control; 250 mg L-1 (1.3426 mM ); 500 mg L-1 (2.6853 mM) and 1000 mg L-1 (5.3706 mM), as well as 4 NAA levels: 0 - control; 250 mg L-1 (1.2295 mM); 500 mg L-1 (2.458 mM) and 1000 mg L-1 (4.918 mM). The adopted experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replicates of six cuttings per plot. In experiment 1, substrates containing sand and sand (75 percent) + commercial substrate (25 percent) promoted the highest average rooting indexes. Application of IBA (1000 mg L-1) led to increases of 30.8 percent and 51.3 percent in the average rooting indexes compared to control and NAA application, respectively. In experiment 2, there was a significant quadratic response of IBA application on the average rooting index. The level of 500 mg L-1 (2.6853 mM) promoted the highest average rooting index. There was no significant effect of NAA levels for the evaluated parameters. Similarly, there was no significant effect of substrates or hormones on the remaining parameters evaluated. These results show the potential use of mama-cadela root cuttings for the production of clonal seedlings of this species.

Agricultural Cultivation , Brosimum gaudichaudii , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Substrates for Biological Treatment/analysis , Substrates for Biological Treatment/statistics & numerical data
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 12(1): 96-104, jan.-mar. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578940


As pesquisas realizadas a partir de recursos genéticos de espécies medicinais nativas somente serão aplicadas se o material genético estiver seguro quanto à sobrevivência e disponibilidade. O objetivo deste artigo foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica adotando como critério a escolha de artigos publicados em conceituadas revistas nacionais e internacionais, que permitissem melhor entendimento dos aspectos etnobotânicos, ecológicos e químicos de importante planta medicinal e aromática: Siparuna guianensis Aublet. Como tem sido apontada como uma das espécies prioritárias de conservação para a região do cerrado brasileiro, os estudos da propagação devem ser incentivados para que este recurso genético esteja disponível às gerações futuras.

Studies with genetic resources of native medicinal species will only be applied if their genetic material is safe regarding survival and availability. The aim of this study was to do a literature review adopting as criterion the choice of papers published in renowned national and international journals to allow better understanding on ethnobotanical, ecological and chemical aspects of an important medicinal and aromatic plant, Siparuna guianensis Aublet. Since the latter has been considered one of the major species for the conservation of Brazilian cerrado, studies on its propagation should be encouraged in order to make this genetic resource available to future generations.

Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Ethnopharmacology , Grassland , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 14(2): 294-302, 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-484565


Endophytic microorganisms are relatively unstudied as potential sources of novel natural products for medical and commercial exploitation. The aim of this work was to investigate some Brazilian tropical savannah trees Cassia leptophylla and Prunus spp. in order to isolate the endophytic microorganisms associated with these plants. The samples were disinfected to eliminate the epiphytic population. Colonies were diluted and displayed as drops in media and growing colonies were inactivated. Staphylococcus coagulase-positive strain was used as indicator microorganism and subjected to the antibioses test. Data showed that the microorganisms isolated from Cassia leptophylla had no inhibition against Staphylococcus. On the other hand, microorganisms isolated from Prunus spp. leaves showed antibacterial activity and inhibited Staphylococcus when cultivated in peptone agar as well as in yeast extract agar. Investigation proceeds in order to classify the isolated microorganisms presenting bioactive substance and exploit the potential of the compounds produced to inhibit the indicator bacteria. Other bioactive properties will be investigated.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Staphylococcus
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(4): 1123-1130, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520036


Ephedra, also known as “ma huang”, is a dioecious, drought- and frost-resistant, perennial, evergreen shrub with compelling medicinal value. The genus is represented by 42 species around the world, 9 of which were provisionally reported from Pakistan. Species of the genus have a controversial taxonomy due to their overlapping morphological features. Conventional tools alone are not sufficient for characterizing the species. The objective of present study was to assess the genetic variability present in different biotypes of Ephedra growing in Pakistan using molecular markers. A total of six genotypes collected from diverse geographic zones of Pakistan were used. The DNA of all genotypes was amplified using nine randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers to study genetic variability at the molecular level. The dissimilarity coefficient matrix based on the data of 9 RAPD primers was used to construct a dendrogram which was then used to group the genotypes in clusters. Based on the dendrogram and dissimilarity coefficient matrix, the RAPD markers used here revealed a moderate to high level of genetic polymorphism (6 to 49%) among the genotypes. It was found that the collection of genotype accessions from Swat Valley in northwestern Pakistan was most distantly related to the other five collections. More molecular markers including functional genes and ribosomal spacer regions are suggested to find a better estimate of the genetic diversity present in Ephedra growing in Pakistan. The information provided here is useful for identifying valuable Ephedra variants which will be used for medicinal purposes and earning foreign currency.

DNA, Plant , Ephedra/genetics , Genetic Variation , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Base Sequence , DNA Primers , Ecosystem , Genetic Markers , Genotype , Pakistan , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 9(1)Jan. 2006.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-432462


For studying genetic diversity in natural populations of Terminalia, a medicinal plant, our attempts to isolate high quality DNA using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were unsuccessful. We therefore combined CTAB based isolation, and column based purification step, to isolate DNA from Terminalia arjuna. The DNA isolated using this standardized protocol was high in quality and suitable for restriction digestion and generation of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

DNA, Plant/isolation & purification , Genetic Variation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Terminalia/genetics , DNA, Plant/genetics , Cetrimonium Compounds , Genetic Markers , Genetics, Population , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
Genet. mol. biol ; 29(3): 539-542, 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-450295


In Brazil leaf infusions of the plant Pterocaulon polystachyum DC (Asteraceae) are used to treat digestive problems. We used plants from six P. polystachyum populations to prepare fresh aqueous leaf infusions at the concentration normally used in Brazil (2.5 g L-1) and at twice (5 g L-1) and four times (10 g L-1) this concentration. We rooted onion bulbs in a water control or one of the infusions for 24 h and used the in vivo onion (Allium cepa) root-tip cell test to investigate the potential mutagenicity of the infusions by calculating the mitotic index for the control and the experimental treatments and comparing them using the Chi-squared test (chi2, p = 0.05). There was a highly significant decrease in the mitotic index of root-tip cells treated with infusion as compared to those exposed to water only. These results indicate that P. polystachyum infusions present cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity and therefore have therapeutic potential.

Asteraceae/genetics , Onions/genetics , Mutagenicity Tests , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-458662


Os estudos de genotoxicidade com plantas têm crescido juntamente com o aumento do uso terapêutico e com o interesse de comprovação da eficácia das mesmas nas mais diversas finalidades farmacológicas.Isso deve-se ao fato de muitas das plantas utilizadas por um grande número de pessoas,apesar de possuírem propriedades farmacológicas, também podem causar alterações no DNA.Os riscos são ainda maiores quando o uso de tratamentos clínicos alternativos dá-se de forma não controlada, sem a devida atenção quanto a identificação correta da planta, a parte do vegetal a ser utilizada e a forma de preparo e administração.Nessa revisão são abordados aspectos da atividade mutagênica de algumas plantas medicinais.

Mutagenesis , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(6): 475-506, Oct. 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-417066


The modern approach to the development of new chemical entities against complex diseases, especially the neglected endemic diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria, is based on the use of defined molecular targets. Among the advantages, this approach allows (i) the search and identification of lead compounds with defined molecular mechanisms against a defined target (e.g. enzymes from defined pathways), (ii) the analysis of a great number of compounds with a favorable cost/benefit ratio, (iii) the development even in the initial stages of compounds with selective toxicity (the fundamental principle of chemotherapy), (iv) the evaluation of plant extracts as well as of pure substances. The current use of such technology, unfortunately, is concentrated in developed countries, especially in the big pharma. This fact contributes in a significant way to hamper the development of innovative new compounds to treat neglected diseases. The large biodiversity within the territory of Brazil puts the country in a strategic position to develop the rational and sustained exploration of new metabolites of therapeutic value. The extension of the country covers a wide range of climates, soil types, and altitudes, providing a unique set of selective pressures for the adaptation of plant life in these scenarios. Chemical diversity is also driven by these forces, in an attempt to best fit the plant communities to the particular abiotic stresses, fauna, and microbes that co-exist with them. Certain areas of vegetation (Amazonian Forest, Atlantic Forest, Araucaria Forest, Cerrado-Brazilian Savanna, and Caatinga) are rich in species and types of environments to be used to search for natural compounds active against tuberculosis, malaria, and chronic-degenerative diseases. The present review describes some strategies to search for natural compounds, whose choice can be based on ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomical studies, and screen for their ability to bind to immobilized drug targets and to inhibit their activities. Molecular cloning, gene knockout, protein expression and purification, N-terminal sequencing, and mass spectrometry are the methods of choice to provide homogeneous drug targets for immobilization by optimized chemical reactions...

Humans , Biodiversity , Drug Design , Gene Targeting/methods , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antimalarials , Antitubercular Agents , Brazil , Malaria/drug therapy , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
Genet. mol. biol ; 28(3): 431-434, July-Sept. 2005.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-416323


The inheritance of head color and tightness in globe artichoke was studied utilizing crosses between inbreed lines and between clones and self-pollinated clones from different genetic origins. These genetic materials were sowed in a completely randomized design with 20 plants per plot and genotype. Globe artichoke heads were classified into three colors (purple-green, purple and green) and three head tightness types (compact, fairly compact and soft) and the segregating ratios for these traits tested in each offspring using the chi-square test. Crosses between green and purple inbreed lines produced only purple-green heads but F2 generation segregated at a purple-green:purple:green ratio of 9:3:4. The self-pollinated compact head clones produced a compact head:fairly compact head:soft head ratio of 12:3:1. The remaining crosses between lines and among clones and backcrosses verified these ratios. These results suggest that two loci with a simple recessive epistasis are involved in the inheritance of head color and that two loci with simple dominant epistasis are involved in the expression of the different head tightness types. The inheritance models proposed here could be helpful in predicting the appearance of artichoke heads if breeders need to obtain hybrid seeds for a desirable phenotype.

Epistasis, Genetic , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Clone Cells , Heredity , Inbreeding
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 Dec; 39(12): 1263-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59112


Hairy roots were induced from shoot buds and seedling hypocotyls of Holostemma by infection with agropine type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains. Type of explant, Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain used for infection, co-culture time and photoperiod influenced the transformation frequencies. Hairy roots were induced from seedling hypocotyls and shoot bud explants upon infection with agropine type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains. The hairy roots were thin, whitish in colour and showed negatively geotropic growth. The transformed nature of hairy roots was confirmed by opine analysis.

Apocynaceae/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Rhizobium/isolation & purification , Transformation, Genetic
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 5(3): 78-83, sept.-dic. 2000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-295507


Se presentan los resultados obtenidos al evaluar el potencial toxicogenético de un extracto fluido con un menstruo etanólico al 70 porciento de Ocimun basilicum L. en 3 sistemas de ensayos a corto plazo, se emplean 2 modelos in vitro el sistema Salmonella/microsoma (Ames) y el de segregación mitótica con el hongo diploide Aspergillus nidulans D-30 y otro in vivo que utiliza el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón. En el ensayo de Ames se observó una respuesta positiva con las cepas de Salmonella typhimurium TA-98 con activación metabólica en el rango de concentraciones de 1 500 y 5 000 m g/placa y TA-1535 sin activación metabólica en el rango de concentraciones de 50, 150, 500 y 1 500 m g/placa. En el ensayo de segregación mitótica, se evaluaron concentraciones desde 0,005 a 1,00 mg de sólidos totales/mL, sin detectar aumentos significativos concentración-dependiente en la Frecuencia de Sectores Segregantes por Colonias (FSC). En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se ensayaron dosis de 500, 1 000 y 2 000 mg/kg de peso corporal (pc). Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el extracto de Ocimun basilicum L. fue mutagénico en el sistema Salmonella/microsoma, moderadamente citotóxico en el ensayo de segregación mitótica sin mostrar daño genético en esta prueba. En el ensayo in vivo no se observó respuesta genotóxica en las dosis estudiadas

Aspergillus nidulans/genetics , Herbal Medicine , Mutagenicity Tests , Ocimum basilicum/genetics , Ocimum basilicum/toxicity , Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Salmonella typhimurium , Micronucleus Tests , Mice
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 5(3): 102-5, sept.-dic. 2000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-295512


Se presentan los resultados obtenidos al evaluar el potencial mutagénico de un extracto fluido con un menstruo etanólico al 70 porciento de Teloxys ambrosiodes L. Weber (apasote) en 2 sistemas de ensayos a corto plazo, empleando el sistema in vitro Salmonella/microsom (Ames) y el sistema in vivo, utilizando el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón. En el ensayo de Ames se observó una respuesta positiva con las cepas de Salmonella typhimurium con y sin activación metabólica dentro del rango de concentraciones estudiadas. En el ensayo de inducción de micronúcleos se emplearon dosis de 500, 1 000 y 2 000 mg/kg de peso corporal (pc). Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el extracto de Teloxys ambrosioides L. Weber fue mutagénico en el sistema Salmonella/microsoma. En el ensayo in vivo no se observó respuesta genotóxica en las dosis estudiadas

Animals, Laboratory , Herbal Medicine , Mice , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Salmonella typhimurium