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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 34-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970357

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health issue of global concern. Conjugation is an important way for fast spreading drug-resistant plasmids, during which the type Ⅳ pili plays an important role. Type Ⅳ pili can adhere on the surfaces of host cell and other medium, facilitating formation of bacterial biofilms, bacterial aggregations and microcolonies, and is also a critical factor in liquid conjugation. PilV is an adhesin-type protein found on the tip of type Ⅳ pili encoded by plasmid R64, and can recognize the lipopolysaccharid (LPS) molecules that locate on bacterial membrane. The shufflon is a clustered inversion region that diversifies the PilV protein, which consequently affects the recipient recognition and conjugation frequency in liquid mating. The shufflon was firstly discovered on an IncI1 plasmid R64 and has been identified subsequently in plasmids IncI2, IncK and IncZ, as well as the pathogenicity island of Salmonella typhi. The shufflon consists of four segments including A, B, C, and D, and a specific recombination site named sfx. The shufflon is regulated by its downstream-located recombinase-encoding gene rci, and different rearrangements of the shufflon region in different plasmids were observed. Mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1, which has attracted substantial attentions recently, is mainly located in IncI2 plasmid. The shufflon may be one of the contributors to fast spread of mcr-1. Herein, we reviewed the discovery, structure, function and prevalence of plasmid mediated shufflon, aiming to provide a theoretical basis on transmission mechanism and control strategy of drug-resistant plasmids.


Subject(s)
Plasmids/genetics , Proteins/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Recombinases , Genes, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2634-2643, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981221

ABSTRACT

The antigen gene expression level of a DNA vaccine is the key factor influencing the efficacy of the DNA vaccine. Accordingly, one of the ways to improve the antigen gene expression level of a DNA vaccine is to utilize a plasmid vector that is replicable in eukaryotic cells. A replicative DNA vaccine vector pCMVori was constructed based on the non-replicative pcDNA3.1 and the replicon of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in this study. An EGFP gene was cloned into pCMVori and the control plasmid pcDNA3.1. The two recombinant vectors were transfected into PK-15 cell, and the plasmid DNA and RNA were extracted from the transfected cells. Real-time PCR was used to determine the plasmid replication efficiency of the two plasmids using plasmid before and after Bcl Ⅰ digestion as templates, and the transcription level of the Rep gene in PCV2 replicon was detected by RT-PCR. The average fluorescence intensity of cells transfected with the two plasmids was analyzed with software Image J, and the transcription level of EGFP was determined by means of real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the replication efficiency of pCMVori in PK-15 cells incubated for 48 h was 136%, and the transcriptions of Rep and Rep' were verified by RT-PCR. The average fluorescence intensity of the cells transfected with pCMVori-EGFP was 39.14% higher than that of pcDNA3.1-EGFP, and the transcription level of EGFP in the former was also 40% higher than that in the latter. In conclusion, the DNA vaccine vector pCMVori constructed in this study can independently replicate in eukaryotic cells. As a result, the expression level of cloned target gene was elevated, providing a basis for developing the pCMVori-based DNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Circovirus/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Replicon/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Plasmids/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1789-1803, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981170

ABSTRACT

Manipulation of genes, including knock-out or knock-in, replacement of gene elements (such as promoters), fusion with a fluorescent protein gene, and construction of in situ gene reporter, is required in most of the biotechnological laboratories. The widely used gene manipulating methods based on two-step allelic exchange are cumbersome in terms of constructing plasmids, transforming and screening. In addition, the efficiency of using this method for long fragment knockout is low. To simplify the process of gene manipulation, we constructed a minimized integrative vector pln2. When a gene needs to be inactivated, an internal fragment of the target gene (non-frameshift) is cloned into the pln2 plasmid. Once the single-crossover recombination between genome and the constructed plasmid occurs, the endogenous gene is segmented by the plasmid backbone and thus inactivated. We developed a toolbox based on pln2 that can be used for different genomic operation mentioned above. With the help of this toolbox, we successfully knocked out large fragments of 20-270 kb.


Subject(s)
Genetic Vectors/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genome
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4708-4717, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008052

ABSTRACT

Plasmids are the most commonly used gene carriers in the field of gene synthesis and sequencing. However, the main problems faced by traditional plasmid DNA extraction technology are low extraction throughput and high production cost, so they cannot meet the growing demand. In this study, a double-magnetic-bead method (DMBM) for plasmid extraction was developed based on the principle of plasmid extraction. The effects of the input of magnetic beads, the size of plasmid DNA fragments, and the volume of bacterial on plasmid DNA extraction were explored. In addition, the quality, throughput, and cost of plasmid DNA extraction were also compared between this technique and the commercial plasmid DNA extraction kits. The results showed that the DMBM can meet the needs of extracting plasmid DNA with different cell densities and fragment lengths. Moreover, the sensitivity and quality of plasmid extraction by the DMBM method were both superior to those of the centrifugal adsorption column method. In addition, this technique could be applied on a 96-channel automated nucleic acid extractor, resulting in higher purity of the extracted plasmid DNA, 80% reduction in extraction time, and 57.1% reduction in cost. It also reduces manual operations, achieving high-throughput and low-cost plasmid DNA extraction, thus may facilitate gene synthesis and sequencing.


Subject(s)
Plasmids/genetics , DNA/genetics , Nucleic Acids , Genetic Techniques , Magnetic Phenomena
5.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 557-565, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985444

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of food-borne diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and the prevalence of mcr genes that mediates mobile colistin resistance in parts of China, 2020. Methods: For 91 DEC isolates recovered from food sources collected from Fujian province, Hebei province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Shanghai city in 2020, Vitek2 Compact biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing platform was used for the detection of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) against to 18 kinds of antimicrobial compounds belonging to 9 categories, and multi-polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to detect the mcr-1-mcr-9 genes, then a further AST, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and bioinformatics analysis were platformed for these DEC isolates which were PCR positive for mcr genes. Results: Seventy in 91 isolates showed different antimicrobial resistance levels to the drugs tested with a resistance rate of 76.92%. The isolates showed the highest antimicrobial resistance rates to ampicillin (69.23%, 63/91) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (59.34%, 54/91), respectively. The multiple drug-resistant rate was 47.25% (43/91). Two mcr-1 gene and ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) positive EAEC (enteroaggregative Escherichia coli) strains were detected. One of them was identified as serotype of O11:H6, which showed a resistance profile to 25 tested drugs referring to 10 classes, and 38 drug resistance genes were predicted by genome analysis. The other one was O16:H48 serotype, which was resistant to 21 tested drugs belonging to 7 classes and carried a new variant of mcr-1 gene (mcr-1.35). Conclusion: An overall high-level antimicrobial resistance was found among foodborne DEC isolates recovered from parts of China in 2020, and so was the MDR (multi-drug resistance) condition. MDR strains carrying multiple resistance genes such as mcr-1 gene were detected, and a new variant of mcr-1 gene was also found. It is necessary to continue with a dynamic monitoring on DEC contamination and an ongoing research into antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colistin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , China/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Plasmids/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1217-1231, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970434

ABSTRACT

The construction of efficient and stable Lactobacillus expression vector is critical for strain improvement and development of customized strains. In this study, four endogenous plasmids were isolated from Lacticaseibacillus paracasei ZY-1 and subjected to functional analysis. The Escherichia coli-Lactobacillus shuttle vectors pLPZ3N and pLPZ4N were constructed by combining the replicon rep from pLPZ3 or pLPZ4, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat from pNZ5319 and the replicon ori from pUC19. Moreover, the expression vectors pLPZ3E and pLPZ4E with the promoter Pldh3 of lactic acid dehydrogenase and the mCherry red fluorescent protein as a reporter gene were obtained. The size of pLPZ3 and pLPZ4 were 6 289 bp and 5 087 bp, respectively, and its GC content, 40.94% and 39.51%, were similar. Both shuttle vectors were successfully transformed into Lacticaseibacillus, and the transformation efficiency of pLPZ4N (5.23×102-8.93×102 CFU/μg) was slightly higher than that of pLPZ3N. Furthermore, the mCherry fluorescent protein was successfully expressed after transforming the expression plasmids pLPZ3E and pLPZ4E into L. paracasei S-NB. The β-galactosidase activity of the recombinant strain obtained from the plasmid pLPZ4E-lacG constructed with Pldh3 as promoter was higher than that of the wild-type strain. The construction of shuttle vectors and expression vectors provide novel molecular tools for the genetic engineering of Lacticaseibacillus strains.


Subject(s)
Lacticaseibacillus , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei , Plasmids/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Lactobacillus/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1142-1162, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970429

ABSTRACT

Lysis is a common functional module in synthetic biology and is widely used in genetic circuit design. Lysis could be achieved by inducing expression of lysis cassettes originated from phages. However, detailed characterization of lysis cassettes hasn't been reported yet. Here, we first adopted arabinose- and rhamnose-inducible systems to develop inducible expression of five lysis cassettes (S105, A52G, C51S S76C, LKD, LUZ) in Escherichia coli Top10. By measuring OD600, we characterized the lysis behavior of strains harboring different lysis cassettes. These strains were harvested at different growth stages, induced with different concentrations of chemical inducers, or contained plasmids with different copy numbers. We found that although all five lysis cassettes could induce bacterial lysis in Top10, lysis behaviors differed a lot at various conditions. We further found that due to the difference in background expression levels between strain Top10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, it was hard to construct inducible lysis systems in strain PAO1. The lysis cassette controlled by rhamnose-inducible system was finally inserted into the chromosome of strain PAO1 to construct lysis strains after careful screen. The results indicated that LUZ and LKD were more effective in strain PAO1 than S105, A52G and C51S S76C. At last, we constructed an engineered bacteria Q16 using an optogenetic module BphS and the lysis cassette LUZ. The engineered strain was capable of adhering to target surface and achieving light-induced lysis by tuning the strength of ribosome binding sites (RBSs), showing great potential in surface modification.


Subject(s)
Rhamnose/pharmacology , Plasmids/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli/metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4744-4755, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970345

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus niger is an important industrial strain which has been widely used for production of enzymes and organic acids. Genome modification of A. niger is required to further improve its potential for industrial production. CRISPR/Cas9 is a widely used genome editing technique for A. niger, but its application in industrial strains modification is hampered by the need for integration of a selection marker into the genome or low gene editing efficiency. Here we report a highly efficient marker-free genome editing method for A. niger based on CRISPR/Cas9 technique. Firstly, we constructed a co-expression plasmid of sgRNA and Cas9 with a replication initiation region fragment AMA1 (autonomously maintained in Aspergillus) by using 5S rRNA promoter which improved sgRNA expression. Meanwhile, a strain deficient in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) was developed by knocking out the kusA gene. Finally, we took advantage of the instability of plasmid containing AMA1 fragment to cure the co-expression plasmid containing sgRNA and Cas9 through passaging on non-selective plate. With this method, the efficiency of gene editing reached 100% when using maker-free donor DNA with a short homologous arm of 20 bp. This method may facilitate investigation of gene functions and construction of cell factories for A. niger.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , Aspergillus niger/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Plasmids/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1576-1588, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927802

ABSTRACT

In order to overcome the challenges of insufficient restriction enzyme sites, and construct a fusion-expression vector with flexible fusion direction, we designed an LB cloning system based on the type IIS and type IIT restriction enzymes LguⅠ and BbvCⅠ. The LB cloning system is constructed by inserting the LB fragment (GCTCTTCCTCAGC) into the multiple cloning site region of the broad-host plasmid pBBR1MCS-3 using PCR. The LB fragment contains partially overlapped recognition sites of LguⅠ and BbvCⅠ. Therefore, the same non-palindromic sequence will be generated by these two restriction endonucleases digestion. This feature can be used to quickly and flexibly insert multiple genes into the expression vector in a stepwise and directed way. In order to verify the efficacy of the cloning system, two glycosyltransferase genes welB and welK of Sphingomonas sp. WG were consecutively fused to the LB cloning vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into Sphingomonas sp. WG by triparental mating. The results showed that gene fusion expression has little effect on sphingan titer, but enhanced the viscosity of sphingan. The viscosity of the sphingan produced by recombinant strain Sphingomonas sp. WG/pBBR1MCS-3-LB-welKB was 24.7% higher than that of the wild strain after fermentation for 84 h, which would be beneficial for its application. In conclusion, the application of LB cloning system were verified using Sphingomonas sp. WG. The LB cloning system may provide an efficient tool for fusion expression of target genes.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation , Plasmids/genetics , Sphingomonas/metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1432-1445, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927791

ABSTRACT

Bacterial multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a global challenge in the fields of medicine and health, agriculture and fishery, ecology and environment. The cross-region spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among different species is one of the main cause of bacterial MDR. However, there is no effective strategies for addressing the intensifying bacterial MDR. The CRISPR-Cas system, consisting of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated proteins, can targetedly degrade exogenous nucleic acids, thus exhibiting high application potential in preventing and controlling bacterial MDR caused by ARGs. This review briefly introduced the working mechanism of CRISPR-Cas systems, followed by discussing recent advances in reducing ARGs by CRISPR-Cas systems delivered through mediators (e.g. plasmids, bacteriophages and nanoparticle). Moreover, the trends of this research field were envisioned, providing a new perspective on preventing and controlling MDR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteriophages/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Plasmids/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1218-1226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927776

ABSTRACT

In order to develop a simple and efficient site-directed mutagenesis solution, the Gibson assembly technique was used to clone the cyclin dependent kinase 4 gene with single or double site mutations, with the aim to simplify the overlap extension PCR. The gene fragments containing site mutations were amplified using a strategy similar to overlap extension PCR. Meanwhile, an empty plasmid was digested by double restriction endonucleases to generate a linearized vector with a short adaptor overlapping with the targeted gene fragments. The gene fragments were directly spliced with the linearized vector by Gibson assembly in an isothermal, single-reaction, creating a recombinant plasmid. After the recombinant plasmids were transformed into competent Escherichia coli DH5α, several clones were screened from each group. Through restriction analysis and DNA sequencing, it was found that the randomly selected clones were 100% target mutants. Since there was neither tedious multiple-round PCR amplification nor frequent DNA extraction operation, and there was no need to digest the original plasmid, this protocol circumvents many factors that may interfere with the conventional site-directed mutagenesis. Hence, genes with single or multiple mutations could be cloned easily and efficiently. In summary, the major defects associated with overlap extension PCR and rolling circle amplification were circumvented in this protocol, making it a good solution for site-directed mutagenesis.


Subject(s)
Clone Cells , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Mutation , Plasmids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 321-330, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878565

ABSTRACT

To construct a prokaryotic promoter report system with wide applicability, a series of pFGH reporter vectors based on lacZ gene and pUC replicon were constructed from plasmid pFLX107 through the replacement of multiple cloning sites and sequence modifications. The plasmid with the lowest background activity was selected as the final report system with the lacZ gene deletion strain MC4100 as the host bacterium, following by testing with inducible promoter araBAD and the constitutive promoter rpsM. The background activity of pFGH06 was significantly lower than that of other plasmids of the same series, and even lower than that of reference plasmid pRCL at 28 °C (P<0.01). Further evaluation tests show that the plasmid pFGH06 could be used to clone and determine the activity of inducible promoter or constitutive promoter, and the complete recognition of the target promoter could be achieved through blue-white selection in the simulation test of promoter screening. Compared with the reported prokaryotic promoter report systems, pFGH06 has the advantages of smaller size, more multiple clone sites, adjustable background activity, high efficiency of promoter screening and recognition, thus with a wide application prospect.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genes, Reporter/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Lac Operon/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , beta-Galactosidase/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 178-186, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878552

ABSTRACT

In order to establish an infectious clone for CDV-3, a commercial vaccine strain of canine distemper virus for mink, to provide reference for the studies of pathogenesis and novel vaccine development of CDV. Thirteen pairs of primers were used to amplify the full-length genome of CDV-3 strain. Five long fragments were obtained based on single restriction site analysis of the whole genome of CDV-3 by RT-PCR. Five fragments were successively inserted into the multiple clone sites in the modified eukaryotic vector of pcDNA3.2 by restriction enzymes and splicing. Meanwhile, the hammerhead ribozyme and hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences were added to the beginning of F1 fragment and the ending of F5 fragment, respectively. Then, the full-length cDNA recombinant plasmid of CDV-3 was obtained and named as pcDNA3.2-CDV-3. In addition, three helper plasmids, expressing the N protein, P protein and L protein of the CDV-3 strain respectively, were constructed. The 293T cells were transfected with the full-length cDNA recombinant plasmid and three helper plasmids by Lipofectamine™ 2000. At 3 days post transfection, the supernatant was added to the monolayer of Vero cells to observe the typical syncytium of CDV. Indirect immunofluorescence and artificial label identification of recombinant virus rCDV-3 were conducted after the occurrence of lesions. Finally, the growth characteristics of wtCDV-3 and rCDV-3 were compared after passaging of rCDV-3. The identification of the full-length cDNA recombinant plasmid and three helper plasmids by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing were consistent with expected. The Vero cells infected with the recombinant rCDV-3 showed typical syncytic. The identification of indirect immunofluorescence and labeled marker, and observation under electron microscope proved that the rCDV-3 was indeed rescued from the recombinant plasmid of pcDNA3.2-CDV-3. In comparison of the virus titers of wtCDV-3, rCDV-3 replicated massively and rapidly and reached the maximize virus titer of 10⁷·⁶⁶⁷ TCID₅₀/mL within 36 h post infection (p.i.) in Vero cells, while wtCDV-3 grew gradually to 10⁶·⁶⁶⁷ TCID₅₀/mL at 72 h p.i. in Vero cells. This reverse genetic system of CDV-3 strain has been established successfully, to provide reference for the studies of pathogenesis and novel vaccine development of CDV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clone Cells , DNA, Complementary , Distemper Virus, Canine/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Vero Cells
14.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 52(4): 31-40, dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340918

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metallo-p-lactamases (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates have been well characterized. Quinolones are commonly used in the treatment of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections; however, data about PMQR in this species are scarce. The objective of this study was to report the simultaneous presence of qnrS and blaV-M-n in P. aeruginosa, and to characterize the qnrS-harboring plasmid. Thirty-eight carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from a hospital in Buenos Aires during 2012. Screening forMBL was assessed by the double disk synergy test using EDTA and carbapenem discs. Plasmid DNA extraction was performed by a method using phenol-chloroform. PCR followed by sequencing was carried out to determine each MBL and PMQR allele. PCR-BseGI-RFLP was performed to detect aac-(6')-Ib-cr. The gyrA-QRDR was sequenced in those PMQR-harboring isolates. Plasmid incompatibility groups and addiction systems were characterized by PCR. The PMQR-carrying plasmid was sequenced using Illumina technology, annotated using RAST and manually curated. Eleven/38 isolates were VIM producers (blaVIM-2 and blaVIM-11) while 1/38 harbored blaIMP-13. One isolate harbored blaVIM-11 and the PMQR qnrSI; however, both markers were located in different plasmids. The qnrSí-harboring plasmid (pP6qnrS1) was 117 945 bp in size, presented 154 CDS and corresponded to the IncR group. In addition to qnrSI, it harbored several aminoglycoside resis-tance markers. Although pP6qnrS1 was non-conjugative, it presented an oriT which made it possible for this plasmid to be transferable. This is the first report on P. aeruginosa carrying both blaVIM-11 and qnrSI, plus the first detection of an IncR plasmid in Argentina.


Resumen Las quinolonas son comúnmente utilizadas en el tratamiento de las infecciones producidas por Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistentes a carbapenems (PARC); aun así, la información sobre la resistencia a quinolonas mediada por plásmidos (PMQR) en esta especie es escasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue reportar la presencia simultánea de los genes qnrS y blaVIM-11 en PARC y caracterizar el plásmido portador de qnrS. Durante 2012 se recuperaron 38 PARC en un hospital de Buenos Aires. El tamizaje para detectar producción de metalo-beta-lactamasas (MBL) se llevó a cabo mediante sinergia de doble disco utilizando EDTA y carbapenems. El ADN plasmídico fue extraído utilizando fenolcloroformo. Para determinar los alelos de los genes implicados en la síntesis de MBL y de PMQR, se llevó a cabo PCR-secuenciación. Para la detección de aac-(6')-Ib-cr se realizó PCR-BseGI-RFLP. En aquellos aislamientos portadores de PMQR se secuenció el gen gyrA. Los grupos de incompatibilidad y sistemas de adicción fueron caracterizados por PCR. El plásmido portador de PMQR fue secuenciado completamente y curado manualmente. De 38 aislamientos, 11 fueron productores de VIM (blaVIM-2 y blaVIM-11), mientras que uno contenía blaIMP-13. Si bien un aislamiento fue portador de blaVIM-11 y de qnrSI, dichos marcadores se encontraban en distintos plásmidos. El plásmido portador de qnrSI (pP6qnrS1) presentó un tamaño de 117.945 pby 154 secuencias codificantes (CDS); este correspondió al grupo de incompatibilidad IncR. Además de qnrSI, el plásmido portaba diversos marcadores de resistencia a aminoglucósidos. Aun cuando pP6qnrS1 no resultó conjugativo, presentó un oriT, de modo que posiblemente sea transferible. Este es el primer informe acerca de PARC portadora de blaVIM-11 y de qnrSI en simultáneo, además, es la primera descripción de un plásmido IncR en Argentina.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , beta-Lactamases , Plasmids/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200397, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136816

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Antibiotic resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is acquired and disseminated mainly by plasmids. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase genes, analyze the genetic diversity by ERIC-PCR, and examine the most common plasmid incompatibility groups (Incs) in clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae from colonization and infection in patients from a hospital in Brazil. METHODS Twenty-seven isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were selected and screened for the presence of carbapenemase genes and Incs by PCR, followed by amplicon sequencing. RESULTS The bla KPC and bla NDM genes were detected in 24 (88.8 %) and 16 (59.2 %) of the isolates, respectively. Thirteen isolates (48.1 %) were positive for both genes. The IncFIB (92.6 %) and IncQ (88.8 %) were the most frequent plasmids, followed by IncA/C, IncHI1B, and IncL/M, indicating that plasmid variability existed in these isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IncHI1B in Brazil. We found eight isolates with clonal relationship distributed in different sectors of the hospital. CONCLUSIONS The accumulation of resistance determinants, the variability of plasmid Incs, and the clonal dissemination detected in K. pneumoniae isolates demonstrate their potential for infection, colonization, and the dissemination of different resistance genes and plasmids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Klebsiella Infections , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Hospitals, Public , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190526, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136834

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the genetic environment of bla KPC-2 in Klebsiella pnemoniae multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. METHODS: Four carbapenemase gene isolates resistant to carbapenems, collected from infected patients from two hospitals in Brazil, were investigated using polymerase chain reaction and plasmid DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The bla KPC-2 gene was located between ISKpn6 and a resolvase tnpR in the non-Tn4401 element (NTEKPC-IId). It was detected on a plasmid belonging to the IncQ1 group. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of the bla KPC-2 gene in the NTEKPC-IId element carried by plasmid IncQ1 from infections in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plasmids/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200370, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Bacillus anthracis is the aetiologic agent of anthrax, a re-emerging, septicaemic, haemorrhagic and lethal disease that affects humans, domestic ruminants and wildlife. Plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 are attributes that confer pathogenicity to B. anthracis strains. This bacterium was used as biological weapon in the World Wars and in the biological attack in the United States of America at 2001. B. anthracis is classified as a Tier 1 bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Anthrax is recognised as a re-emerging disease. Several studies concerning the dynamics of B. anthracis cycle in soil revealed that nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains due to lack of pXO2 plasmid are commonly found in some types of soil. OBJECTIVES This study aimed isolation and identification of B. anthracis spores in soil samples of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Phenotypic and genotypic approaches were used to identify isolates including MALDI-TOF/MS, motility test, susceptibility to gamma phage and penicillin, survey for pag and cap genes as surrogates of pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids, respectively, and sequencing of 16SrRNA-encoding gene. Physicochemical analysis of the soil samples were carried out to describe soil characteristics. FINDINGS We observed the presence of one B. anthracis pXO1+ and pXO2- isolated from clay loam soil; one B. anthracis-like strain pXO1+ and pXO2-isolated from loamy sand; and 10 Bacillus spp. strains sensitive to phage-gamma that need better characterisation to define which their species were recovered from loamy sand. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This work showed promising results and it was the first study to report results from an active surveillance for B. anthracis in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmids/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Spores, Bacterial , Bacillus anthracis/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Virulence Factors/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Soil , Bacillus anthracis/genetics , Bacillus anthracis/pathogenicity , Bacterial Toxins , Virulence , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Antigens, Bacterial
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2387-2397, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878495

ABSTRACT

Recently, fast-growing Vibrio natriegens, as the great potential chassis, has shown a wide application in synthetic biology. Genome editing is an indispensable tool for genetic modification in synthetic biology. However, genome editing tools with high efficiency and fidelity are still to be developed for V. natriegens synthetic biology. To deal with this problem, the physiological characteristics of 6 V. natriegens strains were evaluated, and CICC 10908 strain with fast and stable growth was selected as the host strain for genome editing study. Then, the natural transformation system of V. natriegens was established and optimized. The efficiencies of optimized natural transformation that integrates antibiotic resistance marker cat-sacB or Kan(R) onto the chromosome of V. natriegens could reach 4×10⁻⁵ and 4×10⁻⁴, respectively. Based on the optimized natural transformation, a double-selection cassette was used to achieve seamless genome editing with high efficiency and fidelity. The positive rates of four different types of genetic manipulation, including gene deletion, complementation, insertion and substitution, were 93.8%, 100%, 95.7% and 100%, respectively. Finally, transformation and elimination of the recombinant plasmid could be easily achieved in V. natriegens. This work provides a seamless genome editing system with high efficiency and fidelity for V. natriegens synthetic biology.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , Plasmids/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Vibrio/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2193-2205, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878478

ABSTRACT

Endoglucanase (EG) is an important component of cellulases and play an important role in cellulose degradation. However, its application is limited due to the low yield of endoglucanase from natural microorganisms. Efficient heterologous expression of endoglucanase is an effective way to solve this problem. To obtain the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high-yield endoglucanase, endoglucanase gene was cloned from Clostridium cellulovorans, with a total length of 1 996 bp, encoding 440 amino acids, and the complete expression cassette (PαEGC) was constructed with the PGK promoter sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, α-signal peptide sequence from pPIC9K plasmid and CYC1 terminator sequence from pSH65 plasmid by gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE PCR), and the expression vector of endoglucanase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed by rDNA integration. The relationship between copy number and protein expression was explored. Random multicopy expression of endoglucanase was performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The copy number of endoglucanase was identified by Droplet Digital PCR and explore the relationship between copy number and protein expression.The engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae of endoglucanase with copy numbers of 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 15, 16, 19, 21, 22 and 23 were obtained by rDNA integration, respectively. The results showed that when the copy number was 15, the enzyme activity was the highest, namely 351 U/mL. The engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for endoglucanase was successfully constructed, which can provide reference for the heterologous expression of other industrial enzymes.


Subject(s)
Cellulase/genetics , Genetic Engineering , Industrial Microbiology , Plasmids/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190223, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132217

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gene subcloning, a process in which the nucleotide sequence of interest is excised from on plasmid and inserted into another, seems to be an easy task to done. However, not all subcloning attempts are successful, even when the insert sequence and the double digested target plasmid are successfully purified form agarose gel and thought to be ready for subsequent ligation. In the current study we introduce a reliable, easy, and time consuming method for gene subcloning and also truncation. The stages are all carried out in a single microtube without any running on a gel, making it possible to accomplish a successful gene subcloning or truncation even with low concentrations of DNA molecules. Summarily, subcloning is achieved by mixing the plasmids of interest in a microtube and subjecting to restriction enzymes whose restriction sites flank the segment that is going to be subcloned. Digestion mixture is precipitated in the same microtube using isopropanol and the resultant DNA molecules are allowed to take part in a ligation reaction. The recombinant plasmids of interest are screened by colony PCR. Truncation is achieved by double- digestion of the plasmid of interest using a restriction enzyme whose restriction site flanks the segment that is going to be cut out.


Subject(s)
Plasmids/genetics , Cloning, Molecular/methods , Genetic Vectors , Polymerase Chain Reaction
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