Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 861
Filter
1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 4-14, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011010

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides, predominantly extracted from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Angelica sinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium officinale, Ganoderma lucidum, and Poria cocos, represent principal bioactive constituents extensively utilized in Chinese medicine. These compounds have demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory capabilities, especially anti-liver injury activities, while exhibiting minimal adverse effects. This review summarized recent studies to elucidate the hepatoprotective efficacy and underlying molecular mechanisms of these herbal polysaccharides. It underscored the role of these polysaccharides in regulating hepatic function, enhancing immunological responses, and improving antioxidant capacities, thus contributing to the attenuation of hepatocyte apoptosis and liver protection. Analyses of molecular pathways in these studies revealed the intricate and indispensable functions of traditional Chinese herbal polysaccharides in liver injury management. Therefore, this review provides a thorough examination of the hepatoprotective attributes and molecular mechanisms of these medicinal polysaccharides, thereby offering valuable insights for the advancement of polysaccharide-based therapeutic research and their potential clinical applications in liver disease treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
2.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 51-64, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010597

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is among the most malignant cancers, and thus early intervention is the key to better survival outcomes. However, no methods have been derived that can reliably identify early precursors of development into malignancy. Therefore, it is urgent to discover early molecular changes during pancreatic tumorigenesis. As aberrant glycosylation is closely associated with cancer progression, numerous efforts have been made to mine glycosylation changes as biomarkers for diagnosis; however, detailed glycoproteomic information, especially site-specific N-glycosylation changes in pancreatic cancer with and without drug treatment, needs to be further explored. Herein, we used comprehensive solid-phase chemoenzymatic glycoproteomics to analyze glycans, glycosites, and intact glycopeptides in pancreatic cancer cells and patient sera. The profiling of N-glycans in cancer cells revealed an increase in the secreted glycoproteins from the primary tumor of MIA PaCa-2 cells, whereas human sera, which contain many secreted glycoproteins, had significant changes of glycans at their specific glycosites. These results indicated the potential role for tumor-specific glycosylation as disease biomarkers. We also found that AMG-510, a small molecule inhibitor against Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) G12C mutation, profoundly reduced the glycosylation level in MIA PaCa-2 cells, suggesting that KRAS plays a role in the cellular glycosylation process, and thus glycosylation inhibition contributes to the anti-tumor effect of AMG-510.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glycosylation , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/metabolism , Glycoproteins , Mass Spectrometry , Biomarkers/metabolism , Polysaccharides
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 559-571, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate, but the treatment of lung cancer still lacks low toxicity and efficient anti-tumor drugs. Polysaccharide from radix tetrastigme has development value in anti-tumor treatment methods. This study was to observe the effect of polysaccharide from radix tetrastigme on immune response of Lewis lung cancer mice and explore its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Lewis lung cancer mouse models were established and randomly grouped. The spleen polypeptide group was intragastric with 50 mg/kg spleen polypeptide, and the radix tetrastigme polysaccharide low, medium and high dose groups were intragastric with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg radix tetrastigme polysaccharide, respectively, and the model group and the control group were intragastric with equivolume normal saline. Tumor formation and metastasis were compared. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of tumor cells. Macrophage phagocytosis, apoptosis, M1/M2 polarization, T cell subsets and cytokine levels in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. The proliferation activity of macrophages was detected by methyl thiazolyldiphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Dendritic cell (DC) antigen presenting function was detected by chlorophenol red-β-D-galactopyranoside (CPRG) method. Tumor tissue differentiation antigen cluster 47 (CD47) mRNA and protein expression and macrophage signal regulatory protein α (SIRRP α) expression were detected by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot (WB).@*RESULTS@#The tumor inhibition rates and anti-metastasis rates in the 3-dose radix tetrastigme polysaccharide group and the spleen polypeptide group were higher than those in the model group, and the pathological injury of tumor tissue were severer, and the positive rate of phagocytosis of ink by macrophages and the efficiency of phagocytosis of tumor cells were increased; the apoptosis rate of macrophages was decreased; the proliferation activity of macrophages, polarization ratio of macrophages to M1 type, DC antigen presenting ability, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ levels were increased; the level of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and the expression of tumor tissue CD47, macrophage SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2), and phosphorylation signal regulatory protein α (p-SIRPα) were decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the above indexes between low-dose radix tetrastigme polysaccharide group and spleen polypeptide group (P>0.05), and the effects of radix tetrastigme polysaccharide were dose-dependent.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Radix tetrastigme polysaccharide can inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and immune response in Lewis lung cancer mice, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting SIRP/CD47 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , CD47 Antigen/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cytokines/genetics , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Immunity , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3612-3622, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981492

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of Bletilla striata polysaccharide(BSP) on endogenous metabolites in serum of tumor-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) by untargeted metabolomics techniques and explore the mechanism of BSP in alleviating the toxic and side effects induced by 5-FU. Male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a 5-FU group, and a 5-FU + BSP group, with eight mice in each group. Mouse colon cancer cells(CT26) were transplanted into the mice except for those in the normal group to construct the tumor-bearing mouse model by subcutaneous injection, and 5-FU chemotherapy and BSP treatment were carried out from the second day of modeling. The changes in body weight, diarrhea, and white blood cell count in the peripheral blood were recorded. The mice were sacrificed and sampled when the tumor weight of mice in the model group reached approximately 1 g. TUNEL staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis in the small intestine of each group. The proportions of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow were measured by flow cytometry. Five serum samples were selected randomly from each group for untargeted metabolomics analysis. The results showed that BSP was not effective in inhibiting colon cancer in mice, but diarrhea, leukopenia, and weight loss caused by 5-FU chemotherapy were significantly improved after BSP intervention. In addition, apoptotic cells decreased in the small intestinal tissues and the percentages of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow were significantly higher after BSP treatment. Metabolomics results showed that the toxic and side effects of 5-FU resulted in significant decrease in 29 metabolites and significant increase in 22 metabolites in mouse serum. Among them, 19 disordered metabolites showed a return to normal levels in the 5-FU+BSP group. The results of pathway enrichment indicated that metabolic pathways mainly involved pyrimidine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Therefore, BSP may ameliorate the toxic and side effects of 5-FU in the intestinal tract and bone marrow presumably by regulating nucleotide synthesis, inflammatory damage, and hormone production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Diarrhea , Fluorouracil/adverse effects , Hormones , Metabolomics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Polysaccharides/pharmacology
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2757-2766, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981379

ABSTRACT

In this study, the crude polysaccharides was extracted from Shengfupian and purified by Sevag deproteinization. Then, the purified neutral polysaccharide fragment was obtained by the DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography column and Sephadex G-100 co-lumn. The structure of polysaccharides was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ion chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shengfupian polysaccharides, LPS was used to induce inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. The expression of the CD86 antibody on surface of M1 cells, the function of macrophages, and the content of NO and IL-6 in the supernatant were examined. An immunodepression model of H22 tumor-bearing mice was established, and the immunomodulatory activity of Shengfupian polysaccharides was evaluated based on the tumor inhibition rate, immune organ index and function, and serum cytokine levels. Research indicated that Shengfupian polysaccharides(80 251 Da) was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, and fructose with molar ratio of 0.004∶0.018∶0.913∶0.065. It was smooth and lumpy under the scanning electron microscope. In the concentration range of 25-200 μg·mL~(-1), Shengfupian polysaccharides exhibited little or no toxicity to RAW264.7 cells and could inhibit the polarization of cells to the M1 type and reduce the content of NO and IL-6 in the cell supernatant. It could suppress the phagocytosis of cells at the concentration of 25 μg·mL~(-1), while enhancing the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells within the concentration range of 100-200 μg·mL~(-1). The 200 mg·kg~(-1) Shengfupian polysaccharides could alleviate the spleen injury caused by cyclophosphamide, increase the levels of IL-1β and IL-6, and decrease the level of TNF-α in the serum of mice. In conclusion, Shengfupian polysaccharides has anti-inflammatory effect and weak immunomodulatory effect, which may the material basis of Aconm Lateralis Radix Praeparaia for dispelling cold and relieving pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Interleukin-6/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Infrared
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2667-2678, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981371

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides have significant immunomodulatory activity and have good development value in food and medicine fields. At present, there are many studies on the chemical structure and immune activity of polysaccharides, but the relationship between them of polysaccharides has not been fully explained, which limits the further development and utilization of polysaccharide resources. The immune activity of polysaccharides is closely related to their own structure. This paper systematically summarized the relationship between the relative molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond types, chemical modification, and advanced conformation of polysaccharides and the immune regulation, aiming to provide references for the profound study of polysaccharide structure-activity relationship and utilization of polysaccharides.


Subject(s)
Monosaccharides/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Molecular Weight , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2387-2395, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981315

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese herb and functional food, the fruits of Lycium barbarum has been widely used for thousands of years in China. L. barbarum polysaccharides(LBPs) are predominant active components, which have immunomodulatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, neuroprotective, anti-tumor, and prebiotic activities. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond, branching degree, protein content, chemical modification, and spatial structure of LBPs are closely related to their biological activity. Based on the previous studies of this research team, this paper systematically combed and integrated the research progress of structure, function, and structure-activity relationship of LBPs. At the same time, some problems restricting the clarification of the structure-activity relationship of LBPs were considered and prospected, hoping to provide references for the high value utilization of LBPs and in-depth exploration of their health value.


Subject(s)
Lycium/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents , Polysaccharides/chemistry
8.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 389-396, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study prospectively investigates the association between immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycan traits and ischemic stroke (IS) risk.@*METHODS@#A nested case-control study was conducted in the China suboptimal health cohort study, which recruited 4,313 individuals in 2013-2014. Cases were identified as patients diagnosed with IS, and controls were 1:1 matched by age and sex with cases. IgG N-glycans in baseline plasma samples were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 99 IS cases and 99 controls were included, and 24 directly measured glycan peaks (GPs) were separated from IgG N-glycans. In directly measured GPs, GP4, GP9, GP21, GP22, GP23, and GP24 were associated with the risk of IS in men after adjusting for age, waist and hip circumference, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Derived glycan traits representing decreased galactosylation and sialylation were associated with IS in men (FBG2S2/(FBG2 + FBG2S1 + FBG2S2): odds ratio ( OR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval ( CI): 0.87-0.97; G1 n: OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.63-0.87; G0 n: OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.22). However, these associations were not found among women.@*CONCLUSION@#This study validated that altered IgG N-glycan traits were associated with incident IS in men, suggesting that sex discrepancies might exist in these associations.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Glycosylation , Polysaccharides
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4874-4886, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008065

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is the cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats. Inactivated vaccines and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) indirect hemagglutination reagents are available for prevention and serological detection, but high culture costs and complex antigen quantification have been plagued by production staff. In order to solve these problems in production practice, a sugar fermentation medium with an initial pH value of 7.8, which could improve the production of two antigens simultaneously, was screened out by changing the initial pH value based on previous Mccp metabolomics analysis. Since phenol red can be identified by UV absorption spectrum and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) can bind to anionic capsular polysaccharide, a UV spectrum measurement method for analyzing the culture stage reached by Mccp and a CTAB precipitation test for relative quantification of capsular polysaccharide antigen content in the fermentation broth were established. The UV spectrum observation method can guide the production of Mccp according to the growth curve of Mccp, which greatly reduces the monitoring time of the traditional CCU method and improves the accuracy of the original eye-observation method. The established CTAB precipitation test can complete the monitoring of CPS content within 5 hours, which greatly reduces the time required compared with the traditional differential technique, and its accuracy was verified by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The optimized culture medium and the two correlation comparison methods established in this study can effectively reduce the production cost of Mccp and improve the production efficiency. The two assays have been used in the research at our laboratory, which provides experimental data for further improvement of the production process of CCPP inactivated vaccine and capsular polysaccharide as well as rapid quantification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Goats , Cetrimonium , Mycoplasma , Polysaccharides
10.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 487-495, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study tests the efficacy of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP), carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), baicalin (BA) and silver titanate (ST) in a wound dressings to fight infection, promote healing and provide superior biocompatibility.@*METHODS@#The antibacterial activity of BA and ST was evaluated in vitro using the inhibition zone method. BA/ST/BSP/CMC porous sponge dressings were prepared and characterized. The biocompatibility of BA/ST/BSP/CMC was assessed using the cell counting kit-8 assay. The therapeutic effect of BA/ST/BSP/CMC was further investigated using the dorsal skin burn model in Sprague-Dawley rats.@*RESULTS@#The wound dressing had good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus through BA and ST, while the combination of BSP and CMC played an important role in promoting wound healing. The BA/ST/BSP/CMC porous sponge dressings were prepared using a freeze-drying method with the concentrations of BA and ST at 20 and 0.83 mg/mL, respectively, and the optimal ratio of 5% BSP to 4% CMC was 1:3. The average porosity, water absorption and air permeability of BA/ST/BSP/CMC porous sponge dressings were measured to be 90.43%, 746.1% and 66.60%, respectively. After treatment for 3 and 7 days, the healing rates of the BA/ST/BSP/CMC group and BA/BSP/CMC group were significantly higher than those of the normal saline (NS) group and silver sulfadiazine (SSD) group (P < 0.05). Interleukin-1β expression in the BA/ST/BSP/CMC group at 1 and 3 days was significantly lower than that in the other three groups (P < 0.05). After being treated for 3 days, vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the BA/BSP/CMC group and BA/ST/BSP/CMC group was significantly higher than that in the NS group and SSD group (P < 0.05). Inspection of histological sections showed that the BA/ST/BSP/CMC group and BA/BSP/CMC group began to develop scabbing and peeling of damaged skin after 3 days of treatment, indicating accelerated healing relative to the NS group and SSD group.@*CONCLUSION@#The optimized concentration of BA/ST/BSP/CMC dressing was as follows: 6 mg BSP, 14.4 mg CMC, 0.5 mg ST and 12 mg BA. The BA/ST/BSP/CMC dressing, containing antibacterial constituents, was non-cytotoxic and effective in accelerating the healing of burn wounds, making it a promising candidate for wound healing. Please cite this article as: Gong YR, Zhang C, Xiang X, Wang ZB, Wang YQ, Su YH, Zhang HQ. Baicalin, silver titanate, Bletilla striata polysaccharide and carboxymethyl chitosan in a porous sponge dressing for burn wound healing. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(5): 487-495.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Chitosan/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , Porosity , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Wound Healing , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Bandages , Burns/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Silver Sulfadiazine/pharmacology
11.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 1047-1052, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010582

ABSTRACT

新冠病毒感染疫情严重威胁着世界各国人民的生命健康。目前,对病毒感染的防治研究主要集中在抑制病毒与分子受体的结合上。AXL作为新发现的严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2型(SARS-CoV-2)受体,在协助病毒感染人体呼吸系统中发挥着重要作用,是未来临床干预的潜在靶点。本研究对已发表的单细胞测序数据进行整理和分析,发现AXL在年轻人肺细胞中的表达水平明显高于老年人。人胚肺二倍体成纤维细胞(2BS)是衰老研究的公认细胞株。本文采用2BS细胞构建复制性细胞衰老模型,发现年轻细胞中AXL的蛋白水平明显高于衰老细胞,据此推测年轻人感染的风险可能更高,需要注意防护。我们发现一种羊栖菜褐藻多糖硫酸酯组分(SFW-3)可显著下调年轻2BS细胞中AXL的表达水平,表明SFW-3具有一定的抗SARS-CoV-2感染的研究价值,同时表明2BS细胞株也可作为潜在的SARS-CoV-2体外感染模型。


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sargassum/metabolism , Diploidy , Sulfates/metabolism , COVID-19 , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6434-6441, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008843

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of Poria cocos polysaccharides(PCP) on myocardial cell apoptosis in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury(MI/RI). Male SPF-grade SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group(saline), a model group(saline), low-and high-dose PCP groups(100 and 200 mg·kg~(-1)), and a fasudil group(10 mg·kg~(-1)), with 16 rats in each group. Except for the sham group, the other four groups underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 2 h to establish the MI/RI model. The myocardial infarct area was assessed by TTC staining. Histological changes were observed through HE staining. Myocardial cell apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL staining. Serum lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), creatine kinase MB(CK-MB), interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and IL-18 levels, myocardial superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity and malondialdehyde(MDA) levels were detected by ELISA. Protein expression of B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax), cleaved caspase-3, Ras homolog gene A(RhoA), myosin phosphatase target subunit 1(MYPT-1), phosphorylated MYPT-1(p-MYPT-1), and Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase 1(ROCK 1) were measured by Western blot. Pathological staining of myocardial tissue revealed that in the model group, there was focal necrosis of myocardial tissue, myocardial cell swelling, unclear boundaries, and neutrophil infiltration. These pathological changes were alleviated in the low-and high-dose PCP groups and the fasudil group. Compared with the model group, the low-and high-dose PCP groups and the fasudil group showed significantly reduced myocardial infarct area and myocardial cell apoptosis rate. Compared with the sham group, the model group exhibited elevated serum LDH, CK-MB, IL-1β and IL-18 levels, increased MDA levels, relative protein expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, RhoA, ROCK1 and p-MYPT-1, and decreased myocardial SOD levels and Bcl-2 protein expression. Compared with the model group, the PCP groups and the fasudil group showed lowered serum LDH, CK-MB, IL-1β and IL-18 levels, decreased MDA levels, relative protein expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, RhoA, ROCK1 and p-MYPT-1, and increased myocardial SOD levels and Bcl-2 protein expression. PCP exhibited a certain preventive effect on myocardial tissue pathological damage and myocardial cell apoptosis in MI/RI rats, possibly related to the inhibition of the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway activation, thereby reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 3/metabolism , Interleukin-18 , Wolfiporia , Signal Transduction , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Apoptosis , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine/analogs & derivatives
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6058-6065, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008804

ABSTRACT

The poor solubility of insoluble components of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is an important factor restricting the development of its preparations. Natural polysaccharides of TCM can be used as functional components to increase the solubility of insoluble components. Epimedium flavonoid secondary glycoside components(EFSGC) have been shown to have positive effects on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, but they exhibit poor solubility. Therefore, the strategy of solubilizing EFSGC with TCM polysaccharides was adopted, and its effect on the permeability and stability of EFSGC was evaluated in this study. Based on the equilibrium solubility experiment of EFSGC, it was found that Panax notoginseng crude polysaccharide(PNCP) had the best solubilization effect on EFSGC among the ten kinds of TCM polysaccharides, which increased the solubility of EFSGC from 0.8 mg·mL~(-1) to 13.3 mg·mL~(-1). It should be noted that after the solubilization of EFSGC by preparation technology, the effects on permeability and stability should be considered. Therefore, this study also investigated these two properties. The results showed that PNCP increased the effective transmittance of EFSGC from 50.5% to 71.1%, which could increase the permeability of EFSGC significantly. At the same time, it could improve the stability of EFSGC in the simulated gastric juice environment. In order to explain the solubilization mechanism of PNCP on EGSGC, critical micelle concentration, particle size, potential, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy were analyzed. It was preliminarily inferred that the mechanism was as follows: PNCP and EFSGC could self-assemble into aggregates for solubilization by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction in water. In summary, PNCP can not only improve the solubility of EFSGC but also improve its permeability and stability. This study lays the foundation for the application of TCM polysaccharides as a functional component to solubilize insoluble components.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glycosides , Epimedium/chemistry , Solubility , Cardiac Glycosides , Polysaccharides/chemistry
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5410-5418, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008739

ABSTRACT

Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata polysaccharides(AP) are a class of bioactive macromolecules extracted from the herbs of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and its various processed products. Since the AP was first separated in 1986, its pharmacological effects include immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-depression, organ protection, hypoglycemia, and anti-inflammatory had been found. In recent years, with the development of polysaccharide extraction, separation, and structure identification technologies, more than 20 kinds of AP have been separated from Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and its processed products, and they have ob-vious differences in relative molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond, structural characteristics, and biological activities. In particular, AP may be dissolved, degraded, or allosteric under the complex processing environment of fermentation, soaking, cooking, etc., leading to the diversified structure of AP, which provides a possibility for further understanding of the structure-activity relationship of AP. Therefore, this study systematically reviewed the research progress on the structure and structure-activity relationship of AP, summarized the biological activity and potential action mechanism of AP, and discussed the technical challenges in the development and application of AP, so as to promote the quality control and further development and utilization of AP.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Aconitum/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Technology
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4429-4437, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008697

ABSTRACT

Poria is an important medical herb in clinic. The authors isolated a polysaccharide(PCP-Ⅰ) from Poria in previous studies, which is composed of galactose, mannose, fucose and glucose. PCP-Ⅰ exhibited significant adjuvant effects on H1N1 influenza vaccine, hepatitis B surface antigen and anthrax protective antigen, and its adjuvant activity was stronger than aluminium adjuvant. However, little is known about the chemical structure of PCP-Ⅰ at present. In this study, weak acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the backbone oligosaccharide of PCP-Ⅰ. Then periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were performed to investigate the chemical structural features of PCP-Ⅰ and its hydrolytic oligosaccharide(PCP-Ⅰ-hy-1). These results suggested that the backbone of PCP-Ⅰ was composed of galactose with α anomeric carbon and β anomeric carbon. The linking residues of galactan are(1→),(l→6) and(1→2,6).


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Vaccine , Poria , Hydrolysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Galactose , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Oligosaccharides , Carbon
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4722-4730, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008639

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the regulatory effects of Astragalus polysaccharide(APS) and APS combined with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) on indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase(IDO1) in the colon tumor microenvironment. Sixty Balb/c mice were randomized into a blank group, a model group, an APS group, an APS + 5-FU group, an APS + low-dose 5-FU group, and a 5-FU group. A tumor model was established by subcutaneous transplantation with CT-26 mouse colon cancer cells in other groups except the blank group. After successful modeling, each group was treated with corresponding drugs for 7 days. The general condition, body weight, and tumor volume of the mice were observed and measured daily during the treatment period. The mice were sacrificed at the end of treatment, and the tumor suppression rate and spleen index of the mice were calculated. Western blot and fluorescence quantitative PCR were employed to determine the protein and mRNA levels, respectively, of IDO1 in the tumor tissue of mice. High performance liquid chromatography was employed to measure the levels of tryptophan(Trp) and kynurenine(Kyn) in the tumor tissue of mice. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to observe the histological changes of the tumor tissue, and immunohistochemistry to detect the changes of CD4 and CD8 expression in the tumor tissue. Compared with that in the model group, the tumor volume of mice in each treatment group significantly reduced. The body weights of mice in APS + 5-FU group and 5-FU group significantly reduced from day 4 to day 7 of treatment. In addition, the APS + 5-FU group and 5-FU group showed significantly decreased spleen index. The protein and mRNA levels of IDO1 were significantly down-regulated in the APS, APS + 5-FU, and APS + low-dose 5-FU groups. The drug interventions significantly increased the Trp content and decreased the Kyn content. The APS + 5-FU group showed significantly reduced infiltration of CD4~+ T lymphocytes and increased infiltration of CD8~+ T lymphocytes. APS inhibited the expression of IDO1 in the colon tumor microenvironment to increase CD8~+ T lymphocyte infiltration, and the combination of APS with 5-FU demonstrated better effect.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tumor Microenvironment , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 279-291, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982699

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in cadmium (Cd)-induced myocardial injury. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) and its mediated reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway have been demonstrated to be closely related to myocardial oxidative damage. Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharide (PAP) is a polysaccharide with antioxidant capacity, which exerts protective effect on Cd-induced damage. However, it remains unknown whether PAP can prevent and treat Cd-induced cardiomyocyte damages. The present study was desgined to explore the effect of PAP on Cd-induced damage in H9c2 cells based on MG53 and the mediated RISK pathway. For in vitro evaluation, cell viability and apoptosis rate were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, oxidative stress was assessed by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining and using superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) kits. The mitochondrial function was measured by JC-10 staining and ATP detection assay. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of proteins related to MG53, the RISK pathway, and apoptosis. The results indicated that Cd increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 cells. Cd decreased the activities of SOD and CAT and the ratio of GSH/GSSG, resulting in decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, PAP reversed Cd-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, Cd reduced the expression of MG53 in H9c2 cells and inhibited the RISK pathway, which was mediated by decreasing the ratio of p-AktSer473/Akt, p-GSK3βSer9/GSK3β and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2. In addition, Cd impaired mitochondrial function, which involved a reduction in ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, cytoplasmic cytochrome c/mitochondrial cytochrome c, and Cleaved-Caspase 3/Pro-Caspase 3. Importantly, PAP alleviated Cd-induced MG53 reduction, activated the RISK pathway, and reduced mitochondrial damage. Interestingly, knockdown of MG53 or inhibition of the RISK pathway attenuated the protective effect of PAP in Cd-induced H9c2 cells. In sum, PAP reduces Cd-induced damage in H9c2 cells, which is mediated by increasing MG53 expression and activating the RISK pathway.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Potentilla/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Glutathione Disulfide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Myocytes, Cardiac , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Apoptosis , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 263-278, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982698

ABSTRACT

Platycodon grandiflorus polysaccharide (PGP) is one of the main components of P. grandiflorus, but the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PGP on mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) and explore the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that PGP treatment inhibited the weight loss of DSS-induced UC mice, increased colon length, and reduced DAI, spleen index, and pathological damage within the colon. PGP also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the enhancement of oxidative stress and MPO activity. Meanwhile, PGP restored the levels of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cell-related cytokines and transcription factors in the colon to regulate colonic immunity. Further studies revealed that PGP regulated the balance of colonic immune cells through mesenteric lymphatic circulation. Taken together, PGP exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect and regulates colonic immunity to attenuate DSS-induced UC through mesenteric lymphatic circulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Platycodon , Colon/pathology , Cytokines , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 304-316, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982564

ABSTRACT

The structure of N-glycans on specific proteins can regulate innate and adaptive immunity via sensing environmental signals. Meanwhile, the structural diversity of N-glycans poses analytical challenges that limit the exploration of specific glycosylation functions. In this work, we used THP-1-derived macrophages as examples to show the vast potential of a N-glycan structural interpretation tool StrucGP in N-glycoproteomic analysis. The intact glycopeptides of macrophages were enriched and analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomic approaches, followed by the large-scale mapping of site-specific glycan structures via StrucGP. Results revealed that bisected GlcNAc, core fucosylated, and sialylated glycans (e.g., HexNAc4Hex5Fuc1Neu5Ac1, N4H5F1S1) were increased in M1 and M2 macrophages, especially in the latter. The findings indicated that these structures may be closely related to macrophage polarization. In addition, a high level of glycosylated PD-L1 was observed in M1 macrophages, and the LacNAc moiety was detected at Asn-192 and Asn-200 of PD-L1, and Asn-200 contained Lewis epitopes. The precision structural interpretation of site-specific glycans and subsequent intervention of target glycoproteins and related glycosyltransferases are of great value for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for different diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen , Glycosylation , Polysaccharides/metabolism
20.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 650-662, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982405

ABSTRACT

The syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD) is relatively common globally. Although the pathogenesis of DSSD remains unclear, evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota might play a significant role. Radix Astragali, used as both medicine and food, exerts the effects of tonifying spleen and qi. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) comprises a macromolecule substance extracted from the dried root of Radix Astragali, which has many pharmacological functions. However, whether APS mitigates the immune disorders underlying the DSSD syndrome via regulating gut microbiota and the relevant mechanism remains unknown. Here, we used DSSD rats induced by high-fat and low-protein (HFLP) diet plus exhaustive swimming, and found that APS of moderate molecular weight increased the body weight gain and immune organ indexes, decreased the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and endotoxin, and suppressed the Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-‍κB (TLR4/NF-‍κB) pathway. Moreover, a total of 27 critical genera were significantly enriched according to the linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe). APS increased the diversity of the gut microbiota and changed its composition, such as reducing the relative abundance of Pseudoflavonifractor and Paraprevotella, and increasing that of Parasutterella, Parabacteroides, Clostridium XIVb, Oscillibacter, Butyricicoccus, and Dorea. APS also elevated the contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Furthermore, the correlation analysis indicated that 12 critical bacteria were related to the body weight gain and immune organ indexes. In general, our study demonstrated that APS ameliorated the immune disorders in DSSD rats via modulating their gut microbiota, especially for some bacteria involving immune and inflammatory response and SCFA production, as well as the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. This study provides an insight into the function of APS as a unique potential prebiotic through exerting systemic activities in treating DSSD.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Spleen , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Astragalus Plant/metabolism , Immune System Diseases/drug therapy , Body Weight
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL