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1.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 71(3): 208-217, sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353230

ABSTRACT

Las proteínas y polisacáridos con frecuencia son utilizados simultáneamente en la industria de alimentos. Las interacciones entre ambos biopolímeros juegan un papel importante en la estructura y estabilidad de muchos alimentos procesados ya que pueden resultar en un sistema con propiedades bioactivas diferentes como ocurre en el caso de las funcionales. Objetivo. Evaluar los cambios en la capacidad antioxidante de un sistema hidrocoloide mixto formado por un hidrolizado enzimático proteico de frijol endurecido (P. vulgaris) y goma modificada de flamboyán (Delonix regia) (SHM). Materiales y métodos. El estudio se hizo entre febrero-octubre, 2014, en Mérida, México. Se modificó enzimáticamente el concentrado proteico de P. vulgaris con Pepsina-Pancreatina® y la goma extraída del flamboyán mediante carboximetilación, preparando dispersiones al 1% de cada uno de los biopolímeros, determinado la fluorescencia intrínseca de Trp (FIT) como indicador de la interacción entre ambos biopolímeros y la actividad antioxidante y quelante del sistema resultante. Resultados. Se obtuvo un hidrolizado proteico extensivo con 28,8% de grado de hidrólisis y una goma de flamboyán con grado de sustitución de 0,91. La mayor interacción entre ambos biopolímeros, se obtuvo empleando una relación 5:1 del SHM a pH 4 de acuerdo con el valor de FIT. Conclusiones. Los sistemas hidrocoloides mixtos preparados con hidrolizado extensivo de las proteínas Phaseolus vulgaris y goma modificada de flamboyán presentaron un incremento en la actividad antioxidante, respecto del hidrolizado dependiendo del mecanismo de oxidación, así como de las condiciones de pH en que se encuentra el sistema y la interacción entre ambos componentes(AU)


Proteins and polysaccharides are frequently used simultaneously in the food industry. The interactions between both biopolymers play an important role in the structure and stability of many processed foods since they can result in a system with different bioactive properties as in the case of functional ones. Objective. Evaluate the changes in the antioxidant capacity of mixed hydrocolloid system formed by a hard to cook bean (P. vulgaris) protein enzymatic hydrolyzate and modified flamboyant gum (Delonix regia) (SHM). Materials and methods. The study was conducted from February to October 2014 in Merida, Mexico. For this, the protein concentrate of P. vulgaris was treated with Pepsin-Pancreatin® and the gum extracted from the flamboyant were modified enzymatically by carboxymethylation, preparing 1% dispersions of each of the biopolymers, determining the intrinsic Trp fluorescence (FIT) as an indicator of the interaction between both biopolymers and the antioxidant and chelating activity of the resulting system. Results. The main results indicated that an extensive protein hydrolyzate with 28.8% degree of hydrolysis and a flamboyant gum with a substitution degree of 0.91 were obtained. The greatest interaction between both biopolymers was obtained using a 5:1 ratio of SHM to pH 4 according to the FIT value. Conclusions. The mixed hydrocolloid systems prepared with extensive hydrolyzate of the hard to cook P. vulgaris and modified flamboyant gum proteins showed an increase in antioxidant activity, compared to the hydrolyzate depending on the oxidation mechanism, as well as the pH conditions used and interaction between both component(AU)


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides , Protein Stability , Food Handling , Fabaceae , Antioxidants , Biopolymers , Food Industry , Colloids
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e930, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades infecciosas del tracto respiratorio se encuentran entre las primeras causas de entidades respiratorias en edades extremas de la vida. Objetivo: Describir las bases inmunológicas de la enfermedad y el nuevo candidato vacunal conjugado antineumocócico PCV7-TT desarrollado en Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos Medline, Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS, Cochrane Library y Web of Science, de documentos publicados entre mayo del 2018 y marzo del 2020. Se seleccionaron los 64 artículos de mayor relevancia y novedad. Resultados: Streptococcus pneumoniae es el agente etiológico de la enfermedad neumocócica; se le atribuye alrededor de un millón de defunciones anuales, principalmente en países en vías de desarrollo. Es un coco Gram-positivo, anaerobio facultativo y encapsulado que se encuentra dividido en 48 serogrupos y 97 serotipos tipificados. Presenta varios factores de virulencia que garantizan su mecanismo de patogenicidad; uno de los más importantes es el polisacárido capsular que constituye la diana de las vacunas antineumocócicas conjugadas y no conjugadas existentes. En el presente artículo se consideró la proteína de superficie C del neumococo como un posible candidato en la investigación y desarrollo de vacunas preventivas. Asimismo, las vesículas extracelulares podría ser un posible candidato para adyuvante vacunal con fines preventivos y terapéuticos. Conclusiones: El neumococo es un problema de salud a nivel global y el uso de vacunas conjugadas antineumocócicas constituye la herramienta más eficaz para su prevención. El candidato vacunal PCV7-TT desarrollado en Cuba es seguro, bien tolerado, inmunogénico y no inferior a las vacunas actualmente registradas(AU)


Introduction: Infectious diseases of the respiratory tract are among the leading causes of respiratory conditions in patients at extreme ages. Objective: Describe the immunological bases of the disease and the new conjugate pneumococcal vaccine candidate PCV7-TT developed in Cuba. Methods: A search was conducted in the databases Medline, Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS, Cochrane Library and Web of Science for documents published from May 2018 to March 2020. The 64 most relevant and novel papers were selected. Results: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumococcal disease, a condition causing about one million deaths a year worldwide, mainly in developing countries. It is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic encapsulated coccus divided into 48 serogroups and 97 typified serotypes. Several virulence factors ensure its pathogenicity mechanism. One of the most important of these is the capsular polysaccharide constituting the target of the existing conjugate and non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccines. The study considered pneumococcal surface protein C as a possible candidate for the research and development of preventive vaccines. On the other hand, extracellular vesicles could be a possible vaccine adjuvant candidate for preventive and therapeutic use. Conclusions: Pneumococcus is a global health problem, and the use of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines is the most effective tool for its prevention. The vaccine candidate PCV7-TT developed in Cuba is safe, well-tolerated, immunogenic and not inferior to the vaccines so far registered(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Polysaccharides , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Communicable Diseases , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Virulence Factors , Extracellular Vesicles , Membrane Proteins
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 53-58, Mar. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum (also called wolfberry), a famous Chinese traditional medicine and food ingredient, is well recognized for its significant role in preventing obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its preventive effects on fat accumulation are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to determine the effects and mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. MTT was used to detect the proliferation of 3T3-Ll preadipocytes. Oil red O staining and colorimetric analysis were used to detect cytosolic lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology was used to detect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c (PPARc), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein a (C/EBPa), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression. RESULTS: The concentration of LBP from 25 to 200 lg/mL showed a tendency to inhibit the growth of preadipocytes at 24 h, and it inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In the preadipocytes treated with 200 lg/mL LBP, there were reduced lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and its effect was opposite to that of rosiglitazone (ROS), which significantly reduced the PPARc, C/EBPa, aP2, FAS, and LPL mRNA expression of adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: LBP exerts inhibitive effects on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the cytoplasm accumulation of lipid droplets during induced differentiation of preadipocytes toward mature cells. Above phenomenon might link to lowered expression of PPARc, C/EBPa, aP2, FAS, and LPL after LBP treatment. Thus, LBP could serve as a potential plant extract to treat human obesity or improve farm animal carcass quality via adjusting lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides , Plant Extracts , Adipocytes , Lycium/chemistry , Cell Differentiation , 3T3-L1 Cells , Cell Proliferation , Adipogenesis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879170

ABSTRACT

Atractylodis Rhizoma(AR) is a traditional Chinese medicinal material for food and medicine, with the functions of eli-minating dampness, strengthening the spleen, expelling wind evil and dispersing cold. AR contains a variety of compounds, including sesquiterpenoids, alkynes, triterpenoids, aromatic glycosides, polysaccharides and so on. At present, the researches on AR mainly focus on volatile components, with relatively fewer researches on non-volatile components. Polysaccharide from Atractylodis Rhizoma(ARP) is an important material basis among non-volatile components for the efficacy. Due to its many biological activities such as immunomodulatory activity, anti-tumors, anti-virus and anti-oxidation, ARP has certain research value and potential. The diversity of the polysaccharide structure is the basis for biological functions, but it also increases the difficulty of carbohydrate research. The research on the extraction, separation, purification, structure and activity of ARP is in the preliminary exploration stage, still with many shortcomings. Herein, recent advancements in the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of ARP were summarized in this article to provide scientific reference for the in-depth systematic research of ARP and the development of AR resources.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Polysaccharides , Rhizome , Triterpenes
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879153

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the extraction rate of crude polysaccharides and the yield of polysaccharides from Hippocampus served as test indicators. The comprehensive evaluation indicators were assigned by the R language combined with the entropy weight method. The Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology(BBD-RSM) and the deep neural network(DNN) were employed to screen the optimal parameters for the polysaccharide extraction from Hippocampus. These two modeling methods were compared and verified experimentally for the process optimization. This study provides a reference for the industrialization of effective component extraction from Chinese medicinals and achieves the effective combination of modern technology and traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Dietary Carbohydrates , Hippocampus , Neural Networks, Computer , Polysaccharides , Temperature
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879126

ABSTRACT

Isatidis Radix is the dried root of the Isatis indigotica, with pharmacological effects such as heat-clearing and detoxification, cooling blood and pharyngeal relief, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. It is often used clinically to prevent and treat influenza and other diseases. In this paper, relevant domestic and foreign literatures in recent years were summarized, and it was found that Isatidis Radix lignans, indole alkaloids, polysaccharides, etc. were the main active components against influenza virus. Then its pharmacological effects and the mechanism of action were reviewed, providing a basis for in-depth research on the antiviral effect of Isatidis Radix.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Isatis , Orthomyxoviridae , Plant Roots , Polysaccharides
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878989

ABSTRACT

In this paper, Asarum polysaccharides(AP) were extracted, and its composition was analyzed to study the activity against H1 N1 influenza virus in vitro and its intervention effect on mice with kidney Yang deficiency syndrome. AP was prepared by the strategy of water extraction and alcohol precipitation, the content was determined, and its monosaccharide composition was analyzed. The cell Real-time monitoring system and Reed-Muench model were adopted to evaluate the antiviral activity of AP in vitro. And the mouse model of kidney Yang deficiency syndrome was established in vivo to compare the efficacy of Mahuang Xixin Fuzi Decoction(MXF) and AP. MXF group and AP group were treated with clinical equivalent doses of 1.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) and 0.077 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) respectively, once a day for 6 consecutive days. Real-time PCR was used to detect the relative expression of M gene of H1 N1 influenza virus and cytokines in lung tissue. The content of AP in Asarum was 25.22%, and the protein content was 0.8%. And the monosaccharide composition was identified as L-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose. TI values of Tamiflu, MXF and AP were 30.00, 8.06 and 10.33, respectively. Three different doses of AP could significantly reduce the concentration of virus in supernatant. Compared with the model mice, lung indexes of MXF group and AP group decreased significantly(P<0.05), and the relative expression of M gene decreased significantly(P<0.05). The relative expressions of IL-10 and IFN-γ were up-regulated to varying degrees, while the relative gene expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 were down-regulated to different degrees. In addition, AP could significantly enhance the expression of TNF-α(P<0.01). AP had a good anti-influenza virus activity in vitro, and could protect mice with kidney Yang deficiency syndrome by reducing the viral load in lung tissue, decreasing inflammation damage in lung tissue, and regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with the prescription of MXF, AP had a better antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asarum , Cytokines/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/genetics , Lung , Mice , Polysaccharides
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878974

ABSTRACT

The differences of the active ingredients in Dendrobium huoshanense of different growth years and their protective effects on acute liver injury were studied to provide evidence for optimizing harvest time. The contents of polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total alkaloids in D. huoshanense of different growth years were determined by UV spectrophotometry, and the contents of gigantol in D. huoshanense were determined by HPLC. C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into blank control group(saline), modeling group(saline), high-dose(7.5 g·kg~(-1)) and low-dose(1.25 g·kg~(-1)) groups of D. huoshanense of different growth years. Each group was intragastrically administered every day for 2 weeks. 500 mg·kg~(-1) paracetamol was injected intraperitoneally 2 h after last treatment except the control group. After 12 hours, the serum and liver tissues were collected to detect the activities of ALT and AST, and the levels of SOD and MDA. The hepatic histopathological examination was performed. The results showed that the chemical constituents of D. huo-shanense of different growth years were significantly different(P<0.05). The contents of polysaccharide and gigantol of D. huoshanense of 2 growth years were the highest. The contents of flavonoids and alkaloids of D. huoshanense of 3 growth years were the hig-hest, followed by the D. huoshanense of 2 growth years, and the lowest were that of 1 growth year. Compared with the modeling group, D. huoshanense of different growth years could decrease the activities of ALT and AST in serum. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA reduced significantly, while those of SOD increased markedly. Histopathological results suggested that all D. huoshanense samples were effective in the reduction of the necrosis of hepatocytes in different degrees. The results of the multi-component SPSS paired tests showed that polysaccharide and gigantol probably played a leading role in the liver protection effects, while D. huoshanense of 2 growth years showed the best efficacy. The optimal harvesting time of D. huoshanense is 2 growth years.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dendrobium , Liver , Mice , Polysaccharides
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878878

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides are macromolecular compounds formed by more than 10 monosaccharide molecules linked by glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides have a wide range of sources, high safety and low toxicity, with a variety of biological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-virus, immune regulation, lowering blood glucose, and lowering blood lipids. Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and low inflammation. In recent years, the treatment of T2 DM with polysaccharide has become a research hotspot. Polysaccharides can not only make up for the side effects such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, gastrointestinal injury caused by long-term treatment of acarbose, biguanidine and sulfonylurea, but also play an effective role in reducing glucose by regulating glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, intestinal flora, etc. In this paper, the research progress of polysaccharides in the treatment of T2 DM was reviewed. In addition, the hot spots such as the hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharides with structural modifications were summarized, providing theoretical guidance for the development of active polysaccharide hypoglycemic medicines and the further study of action mechanism.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin Resistance , Polysaccharides
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1081-1091, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878615

ABSTRACT

The enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) is a polysaccharide composed of polysaccharide repeats that are located in the outer membrane of almost all Enterobacteriaceae bacteria and has diverse biological functions. ECA is synthesized by the synergistic action of multiple genes that are present in clusters on the genome of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, forming the ECA antigen gene cluster, an important virulence factor that plays a role in host invasion and survival of Enterobacteriaceae in vivo. ECA also plays an important role in the maintenance of the bacterial outer membrane permeability barrier, flagella gene expression, swarming motility, and bile salts resistance. In addition, ECALPS, anchored in the core region of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, is an important surface antigen for bacteria, stimulating high levels of antibody production in the host and could be a target for vaccine research. This review summarizes ECA purification, genes involved in ECA biosynthesis, its immunological characteristics, biological functions and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides , Polysaccharides
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200401, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249212

ABSTRACT

Abstract The cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are considered as one of the important group of biopolymers having significant ecological, industrial, and biotechnological importance. Cyanobacteria are regarded as a very abundant source of structurally diverse, high molecular weight polysaccharides having variable composition and roles according to the organisms and the environmental conditions in which they are produced. Due to their structural complexity, versatility and valuable biological properties, they are now emerging as high-value compounds. They are possessing exceptional properties and thus are being widely explored for various applications like in food and pharmaceutical industries, in bioremediation for removal of heavy metals, for soil conditioning, as biopolymers, bioadhesives, and bioflocculants. However, poor understanding of their complex structural properties, lack of concrete information regarding the genes encoding the proteins involved in the EPS biosynthetic pathways, their process of production and about the associated factors controlling their structural stability, strongly limits their commercialization and applications in the various fields of biotechnology. Owing to the above context, the present review is aimed to organize the available information on applications of cyanobacterial EPSs in the field of biotechnology and to identify the research gaps for improved industrial utilization and commercialization of these biomaterials.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology/methods , Cyanobacteria , Polysaccharides
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 36-42, sept. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For more than a decade, water-soluble, eco-friendly, biocompatible, and low-toxicity fluorescent nanomaterials have received considerable attention for their numerous in vivo and in vitro applications in biomedical imaging, disease diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Owing to their tunable photoluminescence properties, carbon-based luminescent nanomaterials have shown great potential in bioimaging, photocatalysis, and biosensing among other applications. RESULTS: Marine environments provide excellent resources for the fabrication of these nanomaterials, because many marine organisms contain interesting trigger organic compounds that can be used as precursors. Herein, we synthesize multi-color emissive carbon dots (CDs) with an intrinsic photoluminescence quantum yield of 20.46%. These nanostructures were achieved through the one-step hydrothermal treatment of marine polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate, obtained from shark cartilage, in aqueous solution. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully demonstrate the low toxicity of our marine resource-derived CDs in zebrafish, and provide an initial assessment of their possible use as a bioimaging agent. Notably, the newly synthesized CDs localize in the intestines of zebrafish larvae, thereby indicating their biocompatibility and potential use as in vivo dyes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Sharks , Carbon/chemistry , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Zebrafish , Carbon/toxicity , Cartilage , Quantum Dots/toxicity , Luminescence , Nanostructures , Coloring Agents/toxicity , Coloring Agents/chemistry
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 848-864, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138622

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los adultos mayores son especialmente vulnerables a sufrir enfermedades asociadas al tracto gastrointestinal, ya que el envejecimiento conlleva naturalmente a un desbalance en la diversidad y cantidad de los microorganismos presentes en el intestino. Por ello, la suplementación de su dieta con oligosacáridos y polisacáridos no digestibles (OPND) ha cobrado gran relevancia científica. Esto, con el propósito de prevenir y revertir, en parte, los cambios negativos en la microbiota intestinal derivados del envejecimiento. Se ha observado que la suplementación de OPND en adultos mayores genera variados beneficios, entre los que destacan una mejora en el sistema inmune, una mayor absorción de calcio, reducción en la incidencia de alergias, reducción de la constipación y una disminución en los niveles de glicemia y colesterol sanguíneos. Debido a que, los efectos del consumo de OPND en adultos mayores han sido escasamente discutidos en la literatura científica en idioma castellano, el propósito de esta revisión es abordar el tema haciendo énfasis en la realidad chilena y latinoamericana. Ello, con miras a fomentar la incorporación de OPND en alimentos y programas de alimentación dirigidos específicamente a personas de la tercera edad.


ABSTRACT Since aging naturally leads to an imbalance in the diversity and quantity of microorganisms present in the intestine, older people are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, supplementing the diet of elderly persons with non-digestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (OPND) has gained scientific relevance. Supplementation aims to prevent and (partially) revert the negative changes in intestinal microbiota due to aging. It has been observed that OPND supplementation in older adults provides several benefits, including an improvement in the immune system, increased calcium absorption, a reduction in the incidence of allergies, a reduction in constipation and a decrease in blood levels of cholesterol and glucose. Because the effects of OPND supplementation in older adults has been scarcely discussed in the scientific literature in the Spanish language, the purpose of this review is to address the issue with emphasis on the Chilean and Latin-American reality. The article promotes the incorporation of OPND in processed food and feeding programs specifically designed for older people in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oligosaccharides , Polysaccharides , Aged , Probiotics , Functional Food , Prebiotics
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 750-756, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138611

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El género Cyttaria pertenece a la familia Cyttariaceae, existen 11 especies descritas a nivel mundial. En Chile y Argentina podemos encontrar sólo siete de ellas, conocidas como "Digüeñes" del Mapudungun "diweñ", hongos parásitos obligados de árboles de Nothofagus. Este género, se distribuye naturalmente en el hemisferio sur y tiene gran importancia desde el punto de vista alimenticio. A pesar del extenso conocimiento sobre la taxonomía, ecología y composición químico-nutricional de algunas especies de Cyttaria, su potencial nutracéutico ha recobrado interés recientemente. En esta investigación, se determinó la composición químicaproximal y actividad citotóxica de los polisacáridos de C. berteroi y C. hariotii. Para caracterizar la composición nutricional de las especies de Cyttaria, se utilizó la metodología de AOAC y se avaluó el potencial citotóxico de sus polisacáridos mediante el ensayo MTT (bromuro de 3- (4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il) -2,5-difeniltetrazolio) frente a las líneas celulares de cáncer de colon humano (HCT-116), leucemia humana (U-937) y cáncer de mama (MCF-7). Los resultados evidenciaron que C. berteroi presentó un alto contenido de proteínas y lípidos en comparación con C. hariotii. Además, los polisacáridos de C. hariotii tienen un mayor efecto citotóxico frente a la línea celular de leucemia (IC50= 2100 µg/mL), cáncer de colon (IC50= 3700 µg/mL) y cáncer de mama (IC50=9470 µg/mL). En consecuencia, se concluye que los metabolitos de C. berteroi y la actividad citotóxica en líneas tumorales de los polisacáridos de C. hariotii podrían representar una oportunidad para la obtención de un potencial producto nutracéutico.


ABSTRACT The Cyttaria genus belongs to the Cyttariaceae family, with 11 species described worldwide. In Chile and Argentina, seven of them are found. They are known as "Digüeñes", from the Mapudungun "diweñ", and are parasitic fungi of Nothofagus trees. They are naturally distributed in the southern hemisphere and are of great importance from a nutritional point of view. Despite extensive knowledge about the taxonomy, ecology, and chemical-nutritional composition of some Cyttaria species, their nutraceutical potential has recently gained interest. In this investigation, the chemical-proximal composition and cytotoxic activity of the C. berteroi and C. hariotii polysaccharides were determined. To identify the nutritional composition of the Cyttaria species, the AOAC methodology was used and the cytotoxic potential of their polysaccharides was evaluated by means of the MTT test (3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5 bromide-diphenyltetrazolium) against the cell lines of human colon cancer (HCT-116), human leukemia (U-937) and breast cancer (MCF-7). The results showed that C. berteroi had a high protein and lipid content compared to C. hariotii. Also, C. hariotii polysaccharides had a greater cytotoxic effect against the colon cancer cell line (IC50= 3700 µg/mL), leukemia (IC50= 2100 µg/mL) and breast cancer (IC50= 9470 µg/mL). Therefore, it is concluded that C. berteroi metabolites and cytotoxic activity in C. hariotii polysaccharide tumor lines could represent an opportunity to obtain a potential nutraceutical product.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polysaccharides , Fungi , Lipids , Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Leukemia , Colonic Neoplasms , Nutritive Value
15.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79(Único): 1-6, 31 mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1342776

ABSTRACT

Com objetivo de produzir pão sem glúten com composição química aprimorada e boa qualidade sensorial, foram elaboradas três formulações com diferentes quantidades de mucilagem de quiabo: (F0) 0 mL; (F1) 100 mL; (F2) 150mL. Determinou-se: rendimento da mucilagem, composição centesimal, valor calórico e atributos sensoriais dos pães por meio de escala hedônica. A mucilagem aumentou o rendimento das F1 e F2. Não houve diferença no teor de proteínas e o teor de lipídios de 7,9 g 100 g-1 (F1) e 6,0 g 100 g-1 (F2) foram inferiores ao da F0. A umidade da F1 (32,15 g 100 g-1) foi menor que nas demais formulações, enquanto cinzas (0,70 g 100 g-1), carboidrato (56,75 g 100 g-1) e valor calórico (308,1 kcal 100 g-1) foram superiores. No teste sensorial, todos os atributos foram avaliados nas categorias "gostei ligeiramente" e "gostei extremamente" pela maioria dos julgadores. A F1 obteve avaliações superiores às da F2 para textura, cor e impressão global e não diferiu em nenhum dos atributos na F0. Conclui-se que a F1 pode ser uma opção viável na busca de pão sem glúten com composição química aprimorada, por conter menor teor de lipídio e umidade, maior teor de cinzas e boa aceitação sensorial. (AU)


With the goal of producing gluten-free bread with improved chemical composition and good sensorial quality, three formulations were prepared with different amounts of okra mucilage: (F0) 0 mL; (F1) 100 mL; (F2) 150 mL. From this was determined: mucilage yield, centesimal composition, caloric value and sensory attributes of bread by hedonic scale. Mucilage increased the yield of F1 and F2. There was no difference in protein content and the lipid content of 7.9 g 100 g-1 (F1) and 6.0 g 100 g-1 (F2) were lower than that of F0. The moisture content of F1 (32.15 g 100 g-1) was lower than the other formulations, while ash (0.70 g 100 g-1), carbohydrate (56.75 g 100 g-1) and caloric value (308,1 kcal 100 g-1) were higher. In the sensory test, attributes were rated in the categories "liked slightly" and "liked extremely" by most judges. F1 scored higher than F2 for texture, color and overall impression and did not differ in any of the attributes at F0. It can be concluded that F1 may be a viable option in the search for gluten-free bread with improved chemical composition, as it contains lower lipid and moisture content, higher ash content and good sensory acceptance. (AU)


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides , Bread/analysis , Celiac Disease , Hibiscus , Diet, Gluten-Free , Plant Mucilage , Abelmoschus
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878863

ABSTRACT

Fucoidan(FPS) is an effective component of the Chinese patent medicine named Haikun Shenxi, which treats schronic renal failure in clinics, and has the potential anti-aging effects. However, it is still unclear whether FPS can improve renal aging, especially the molecular mechanism of its anti-aging. The human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells(HK-2) in vitro were divided into normal group(N), D-gal model group(D), low dose of FPS group(L-FPS), high dose of FPS group(H-FPS) and vitamin E group(VE), and treated by the different measures, respectively. More specifically, the HK-2 cells in each group were separately treated by 1 mL of 1% fetal bovine serum(FBS) or D-galactose(D-gal, 75 mmol·L~(-1)) or D-gal(75 mmol·L~(-1))+FPS(25 μg·mL~(-1)) or D-gal(75 mmol·L~(-1))+FPS(50 μg·mL~(-1)) or D-gal(75 mmol·L~(-1))+VE(50 μg·mL~(-1)). After the treatment for 24 h, firstly, the effects of D-gal on senescence-associated β-galactosidase(SA-β-gal) staining characteristics and klotho, P53 and P21 protein expression le-vels, as well as adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase(AMPK)-uncoordinated 51-like kinase 1(ULK1) signaling pathway activation in the HK-2 cells were detected, respectively. Secondly, the effects of FPS and VE on SA-β-gal staining characteristics and klotho, P53 and P21 protein expression levels in the HK-2 cells exposed to D-gal were investigated, respectively. Finally, the effects of FPS and VE on microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3) protein expression level and AMPK-ULK1 signaling pathway activation in the HK-2 cells exposed to D-gal were examined severally. The results indicated that, for the HK-2 cells, the dose of 75 mmol·L~(-1) D-gal could induce the changes of SA-β-gal staining characteristics and klotho, P53 and P21 protein expression levels. That is causing cells aging. FPS and VE could both ameliorate the changes of SA-β-gal staining characteristics and klotho, P53 and P21 protein expression levels in the HK-2 cells exposed to D-gal. That is anti-cells aging, here, the functions of FPS and VE are similar. D-gal could not only induce cell aging but also increase LC3Ⅱ, phosphorylated-AMPK(p-AMPK) and phosphorylated-ULK1(p-ULK1) protein expressions, and activate autophagy-related AMPK-ULK1 signaling pathway. FPS and VE could both improve the changes of LC3Ⅱ, p-AMPK and p-ULK1 protein expression levels in the HK-2 cells exposed to D-gal. That is inhibiting autophagy-related AMPK-ULK1 signaling pathway activation. On the whole, for the human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells aging models induced by D-gal, FPS similar to VE, can ameliorate renal cells aging by possibly inhibiting autophagy-related AMPK-ULK1 signaling pathway activation. This finding provides the preliminary pharmacologic evidences for FPS protecting against renal aging.


Subject(s)
Aging , Autophagy , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Polysaccharides , Signal Transduction
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878828

ABSTRACT

In this study, the roots, stems and leaves of diploid and autotetraploid Dendrobium huoshanense were used as materials to compare their contents of polysaccharides and alkaloids, and the transcriptome sequencing analysis was carried out. The results showed that the contents of polysaccharides and alkaloids in the roots, stems and leaves of tetraploid were 7.6%, 34.5%, 17.2%, 0.01%, 0.024% and 0.035% higher than those of diploid D. huoshanense, respectively. The contents of active components in different tissues were significantly different. There were 3 687 differentially expressed genes in diploid and tetraploid D. huoshanense, of which 2 346 genes were up-regulated and 1 341 down regulated. Go functional analysis showed that these genes were mainly involved in growth and development, stress resistance and other related functions. KEGG pathway analysis showed that most of the differential genes were concentrated in the processes of carbon metabolism, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism. The differential expression of key genes involved in the metabolism of polysaccharides, terpenes and polyketones, amino acid metabolism, hormone synthesis and signal transduction in diploid and tetraploid plants may be the main reason for the high energy content, the increase of active components and the growth potential of tetraploid plants.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Dendrobium/genetics , Diploidy , Plant Roots , Polysaccharides , Transcriptome
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2313-2326, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878488

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is one of the common post-translational modifications of proteins to regulate the ability of tumor invasion, metastasis and tumor heterogeneity by interacting with glycan-binding proteins such as lectins and antibodies. Glycan microarray can be constructed by chemical synthesis, chemical-enzyme synthesis or natural glycan releasing. Glycan microarray is an essential analytical tool to discover the interaction between glycan and its binding proteins. Here we summarize the standard techniques to construct glycan microarray for the application in cancer vaccine, monoclonal antibody and diagnostic markers.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Glycosylation , Lectins/metabolism , Microarray Analysis , Neoplasms , Polysaccharides
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the glucose-lowering effect of the polysaccharide fractions of .@*METHODS@#The crude polysaccharides of were chromatographed on DEAE cellulose column using H2O and 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution as the eluent and DEAE-water and DEAE-salt with high polysaccharide contents were collected. The two fractions were separated using Sephadex G-100 gel column to obtain 4 polysaccharide fractions TOPW-1, TOPW-2, TOPS-1, and TOPS-2. The anti-oxidation activity of the polysaccharide fractions was investigated with ABTS method. The fractions TOPW-1 and TOPS-1 with consistent UV detection signals were collected and HPGPC was used to determine their relative molecular mass. The monosaccharide composition in homogeneous TOPW-1 was determined by acid hydrolysis combined with HPLC. The inhibitory activities of TOPW-1 and TOPS-1 against DPP4, adipocyte glucose intake and lipase activity were tested to preliminarily assess their glucose-lowering effect. In a mouse model of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic, the glucose-lowering effect of TOPS-1 (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/kg) and its effect on blood lipid metabolism were investigated in comparison with Xiaoke pills (5 pills/kg) and Danshen tablets (0.5 g/kg).@*RESULTS@#TOPW-1 was a homogeneous polysaccharide composed mainly of D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-fucose, with weak antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects. TOPS-1 was not a single polysaccharide and at the concentration of 500 μg/mL showed an high ABTS clearance rate (90.15%). In the mouse model of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, treatment with TOPS-1 (0.2 g/kg) enhanced the activity of lipase and significantly reduced fasting glucose level and serum contents of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol without causing death in the mice. The glucose-lowering effects of TOPS-1 was not significant at the low (0.1 g/kg) or high (0.4 g/kg) dose, and a high dose tended to increase the mortality of the mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@# polysaccharides have anti-oxidation, glucose-lowering and lipid-lowering effects in mice, and their glucose-lowering effect is probably medicated by reducing oxidative stress and ameliorating lipid metabolism disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Glucose , Hypoglycemic Agents , Mice , Polysaccharides , Trametes
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828421

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine polysaccharide is an important active biological macromolecule, which has a broad application prospect. However, there are still many deficiencies in the quality evaluation and control of polysaccharides. Based on the existing problems in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides, current review analyzes the methods of extraction, separation and purification, characteristic identification, content determination and structure analysis of Chinese medicine polysaccharides, and draws the following conclusions: ①Based on the clinical application of Chinese medicine, decoction is recommended as the extraction method in the basic study of effective substances of Chinese medicine polysaccharides; ②On the basis of impurity removal, HPGPC can achieve the separation, purification and content determination of Chinese medicine polysaccharides at the same time, supplemented by MS or NMR can achieve the quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese medicine polysaccharides; ③Based on the characteristic identification, select the suitable pure polysaccharide, dextran or monosaccharide reference; ④HPSEC-MALLS-RID is specific, accurate, and beneficial to the study of structure-activity mechanism of polysaccharides. The review suggested that the comprehensive evaluation and control of the quality of Chinese medicine polysaccharides should be based on extraction, separation and purification, on the premise of characteristic identification, on the basis of content determination, supplemented by structural analysis, which is to provide useful reference for the quality research of Chinese medicine polysaccharides.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Monosaccharides , Polysaccharides , Quality Control
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