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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2757-2766, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981379

ABSTRACT

In this study, the crude polysaccharides was extracted from Shengfupian and purified by Sevag deproteinization. Then, the purified neutral polysaccharide fragment was obtained by the DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography column and Sephadex G-100 co-lumn. The structure of polysaccharides was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ion chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shengfupian polysaccharides, LPS was used to induce inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. The expression of the CD86 antibody on surface of M1 cells, the function of macrophages, and the content of NO and IL-6 in the supernatant were examined. An immunodepression model of H22 tumor-bearing mice was established, and the immunomodulatory activity of Shengfupian polysaccharides was evaluated based on the tumor inhibition rate, immune organ index and function, and serum cytokine levels. Research indicated that Shengfupian polysaccharides(80 251 Da) was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, and fructose with molar ratio of 0.004∶0.018∶0.913∶0.065. It was smooth and lumpy under the scanning electron microscope. In the concentration range of 25-200 μg·mL~(-1), Shengfupian polysaccharides exhibited little or no toxicity to RAW264.7 cells and could inhibit the polarization of cells to the M1 type and reduce the content of NO and IL-6 in the cell supernatant. It could suppress the phagocytosis of cells at the concentration of 25 μg·mL~(-1), while enhancing the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells within the concentration range of 100-200 μg·mL~(-1). The 200 mg·kg~(-1) Shengfupian polysaccharides could alleviate the spleen injury caused by cyclophosphamide, increase the levels of IL-1β and IL-6, and decrease the level of TNF-α in the serum of mice. In conclusion, Shengfupian polysaccharides has anti-inflammatory effect and weak immunomodulatory effect, which may the material basis of Aconm Lateralis Radix Praeparaia for dispelling cold and relieving pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Interleukin-6/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Infrared
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2667-2678, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981371

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides have significant immunomodulatory activity and have good development value in food and medicine fields. At present, there are many studies on the chemical structure and immune activity of polysaccharides, but the relationship between them of polysaccharides has not been fully explained, which limits the further development and utilization of polysaccharide resources. The immune activity of polysaccharides is closely related to their own structure. This paper systematically summarized the relationship between the relative molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond types, chemical modification, and advanced conformation of polysaccharides and the immune regulation, aiming to provide references for the profound study of polysaccharide structure-activity relationship and utilization of polysaccharides.


Subject(s)
Monosaccharides/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Molecular Weight , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2387-2395, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981315

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese herb and functional food, the fruits of Lycium barbarum has been widely used for thousands of years in China. L. barbarum polysaccharides(LBPs) are predominant active components, which have immunomodulatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, neuroprotective, anti-tumor, and prebiotic activities. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond, branching degree, protein content, chemical modification, and spatial structure of LBPs are closely related to their biological activity. Based on the previous studies of this research team, this paper systematically combed and integrated the research progress of structure, function, and structure-activity relationship of LBPs. At the same time, some problems restricting the clarification of the structure-activity relationship of LBPs were considered and prospected, hoping to provide references for the high value utilization of LBPs and in-depth exploration of their health value.


Subject(s)
Lycium/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents , Polysaccharides/chemistry
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6058-6065, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008804

ABSTRACT

The poor solubility of insoluble components of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is an important factor restricting the development of its preparations. Natural polysaccharides of TCM can be used as functional components to increase the solubility of insoluble components. Epimedium flavonoid secondary glycoside components(EFSGC) have been shown to have positive effects on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, but they exhibit poor solubility. Therefore, the strategy of solubilizing EFSGC with TCM polysaccharides was adopted, and its effect on the permeability and stability of EFSGC was evaluated in this study. Based on the equilibrium solubility experiment of EFSGC, it was found that Panax notoginseng crude polysaccharide(PNCP) had the best solubilization effect on EFSGC among the ten kinds of TCM polysaccharides, which increased the solubility of EFSGC from 0.8 mg·mL~(-1) to 13.3 mg·mL~(-1). It should be noted that after the solubilization of EFSGC by preparation technology, the effects on permeability and stability should be considered. Therefore, this study also investigated these two properties. The results showed that PNCP increased the effective transmittance of EFSGC from 50.5% to 71.1%, which could increase the permeability of EFSGC significantly. At the same time, it could improve the stability of EFSGC in the simulated gastric juice environment. In order to explain the solubilization mechanism of PNCP on EGSGC, critical micelle concentration, particle size, potential, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy were analyzed. It was preliminarily inferred that the mechanism was as follows: PNCP and EFSGC could self-assemble into aggregates for solubilization by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction in water. In summary, PNCP can not only improve the solubility of EFSGC but also improve its permeability and stability. This study lays the foundation for the application of TCM polysaccharides as a functional component to solubilize insoluble components.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glycosides , Epimedium/chemistry , Solubility , Cardiac Glycosides , Polysaccharides/chemistry
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4429-4437, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008697

ABSTRACT

Poria is an important medical herb in clinic. The authors isolated a polysaccharide(PCP-Ⅰ) from Poria in previous studies, which is composed of galactose, mannose, fucose and glucose. PCP-Ⅰ exhibited significant adjuvant effects on H1N1 influenza vaccine, hepatitis B surface antigen and anthrax protective antigen, and its adjuvant activity was stronger than aluminium adjuvant. However, little is known about the chemical structure of PCP-Ⅰ at present. In this study, weak acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the backbone oligosaccharide of PCP-Ⅰ. Then periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were performed to investigate the chemical structural features of PCP-Ⅰ and its hydrolytic oligosaccharide(PCP-Ⅰ-hy-1). These results suggested that the backbone of PCP-Ⅰ was composed of galactose with α anomeric carbon and β anomeric carbon. The linking residues of galactan are(1→),(l→6) and(1→2,6).


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Vaccine , Poria , Hydrolysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Galactose , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Oligosaccharides , Carbon
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 60-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970502

ABSTRACT

In this study, five polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum(LBPs)(LBP-1-LBP-5) were selectively extracted by different extraction methods, and the chemical composition, structural characteristics, and biological activities of LBPs were explored. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that alkaloids were not detected in the five LBPs. The total polysaccharide content was(81.95%±1.6%)-(92.96%±0.76%), the uronic acid content was(8.26%±0.46%)-(24.81%±0.46%), and the protein content was(0.06%±0.03%)-(1.35%±0.13%). The monosaccharide compositions of the five LBPs were basically same, mainly including glucose, xylose, and galactose. However, there was significant difference in the content ratio of different monosaccharide. The results of infrared spectra analysis indicated that the five LBPs had typical infrared spectral characteristics of polysaccharides. The results of nuclear magnetic resonance characteristic spectrum analysis revealed that the five LBPs had two configurations of α and β. Meanwhile, there were triple helix structures in LBP-2, LBP-3, and LBP-4, which enhanced the activities of polysaccharides. The results of activities screening suggested that the biological activities of the five LBPs were significantly different. LBP-3 showed the highest lipid oxidation clearance rate, and its antioxidant activity was equivalent to that of the positive control group. The inhibitory rate of LBP-4 on α-amylase and its activation rate of alcohol dehydrogenase were better than those of other fractions, and the inhibitory rate of LBP-4 on α-amylase was slightly higher than that of the positive control group when the mass concentration was 10 g·L~(-1). LBP-2 showed stronger inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and hyaluronidase. This study provides references for the precise development and utilization of LBPs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Lycium/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Monosaccharides
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 443-454, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970481

ABSTRACT

To improve the quality control methods of Poria and develop and utilize its resources fully, alkaline extraction was used in this study to determine the yield and content of alkali-soluble polysaccharides of Poria. The alkali-soluble extracts of Poria were obtained according to the optimum extraction conditions on the basis of single-factor test, and 30 batches of samples were determined. The structure and chemical composition of the alkali-soluble extracts was characterized by high-performance gel permeation chromatography(HPGPC), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry(FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone(PMP-HPLC). The results showed that the content of the alkali-soluble extracts was in the range of 46.98%-73.86%. The main component was β-(1→3)-glucan, and its molecular mass was about 1.093×10~5. Further, the content of alkali-soluble polysaccharides of Poria was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC coupled with the evaporative light scattering detector(HPLC-ELSD), and 30 batches of samples were measured. The results indicated that the content of alkali-soluble polysaccharides determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry was in the range of 73.70%-92.57%, and the content of samples from Hubei province was slightly higher than that from Yunnan province, Anhui province and Hunan province. The content of alkali-soluble polysaccharides determined by HPLC-ELSD was in the range of 51.42%-76.69%, and the samples from Hunan province had slightly higher content than that from the other three provinces. The content determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry was higher than that by HPLC-ELSD. However, the content determined by HPLC-ELSD was close to that of alkali-soluble extract, which could accurately characterize the content of alkali-soluble polysaccharides in Poria, and the method was simple and repeatable. Therefore, it is recommended that the quantitative analysis method for alkali-soluble extract and alkali-soluble polysaccharides by HPLC-ELSD be used in the quality standards of Poria in Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Subject(s)
Poria/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , China , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Reference Standards , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
8.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 401-420, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939907

ABSTRACT

Bacterial surface glycans perform a diverse and important set of biological roles, and have been widely used in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. The majority of bacterial surface glycans are decorated with diverse rare functional groups, including amido, acetamidino, carboxamido and pyruvate groups. These functional groups are thought to be important constituents for the biological activities of glycans. Chemical synthesis of glycans bearing these functional groups or their variants is essential for the investigation of structure-activity relationships by a medicinal chemistry approach. To date, a broad choice of synthetic methods is available for targeting the different rare functional groups in bacterial surface glycans. This article reviews the structures of naturally occurring rare functional groups in bacterial surface glycans, and the chemical methods used for installation of these groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
9.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 387-392, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929269

ABSTRACT

Most bacterial cell surface glycans are structurally unique, and have been considered as ideal target molecules for the developments of detection and diagnosis techniques, as well as vaccines. Chemical synthesis has been a promising approach to prepare well-defined oligosaccharides, facilitating the structure-activity relationship exploration and biomedical applications of bacterial glycans. L-Galactosaminuronic acid is a rare sugar that has been only found in cell surface glycans of gram-negative bacteria. Here, an orthogonally protected L-galactosaminuronic acid building block was designed and chemically synthesized. A synthetic strategy based on glycal addition and TEMPO/BAIB-mediated C6 oxidation served well for the transformation of commercial L-galactose to the corresponding L-galactosaminuronic acid. Notably, the C6 oxidation of the allyl glycoside was more efficient than that of the selenoglycoside. In addition, a balance between the formation of allyl glycoside and the recovery of selenoglycoside was essential to improve efficiency of the NIS/TfOH-catalyzed allylation. This synthetically useful L-galactosaminuronic acid building block will provide a basis for the syntheses of complex bacterial glycans.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Glycosides , Oligosaccharides , Oxidation-Reduction , Polysaccharides/chemistry
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 36-42, sept. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For more than a decade, water-soluble, eco-friendly, biocompatible, and low-toxicity fluorescent nanomaterials have received considerable attention for their numerous in vivo and in vitro applications in biomedical imaging, disease diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Owing to their tunable photoluminescence properties, carbon-based luminescent nanomaterials have shown great potential in bioimaging, photocatalysis, and biosensing among other applications. RESULTS: Marine environments provide excellent resources for the fabrication of these nanomaterials, because many marine organisms contain interesting trigger organic compounds that can be used as precursors. Herein, we synthesize multi-color emissive carbon dots (CDs) with an intrinsic photoluminescence quantum yield of 20.46%. These nanostructures were achieved through the one-step hydrothermal treatment of marine polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate, obtained from shark cartilage, in aqueous solution. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully demonstrate the low toxicity of our marine resource-derived CDs in zebrafish, and provide an initial assessment of their possible use as a bioimaging agent. Notably, the newly synthesized CDs localize in the intestines of zebrafish larvae, thereby indicating their biocompatibility and potential use as in vivo dyes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Sharks , Carbon/chemistry , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Zebrafish , Carbon/toxicity , Cartilage , Quantum Dots/toxicity , Luminescence , Nanostructures , Coloring Agents/toxicity , Coloring Agents/chemistry
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 768-775, dic. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058140

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bioactive compounds are substances present in low doses in foods mostly from the plant kingdom. Their consumption can influence physiological or cellular processes and has a beneficial effect on health. Fucoidans and beta-glucans are bioactive compounds that share the characteristic of being carbohydrates of the polysaccharide type, specifically of the soluble fiber kind. These compounds can be found in foods available in Chile and part of the Chilean diet; foods include, brown algae and some cereals. The concentration of these compounds in foods is variable, and depends on factors like season, cultivation, germination, and method of preparation and conservation. The current literature shows the potential beneficial effects of fucoidan and beta-glucans compounds in human health, which include: anticoagulant, immuno-modulator and antidiabetic and immunomodulating. The effects depend, among other factors, on their bioavailability and molecular weight. The objective of this review was to describe the potential beneficial effects of these bioactive compounds, analyze their characteristics and properties, and provide consumption recommendations that may lead to achieving the expected beneficial effects. To that end, relevant and recent scientific literature was analyzed.


RESUMEN Los compuestos bioactivos corresponden a aquellos elementos presentes en los alimentos, que influyen en procesos fisiológicos o celulares, cuyo consumo produce un efecto beneficioso para la salud, encontrándose en alimentos principalmente del reino vegetal y cuyas concentraciones en los alimentos son en mínimas dosis. Los fucoidanos y los beta-glucanos, son compuestos bioactivos que comparten la característica de ser un carbohidrato, de tipo polisacárido, específicamente fibra de tipo soluble, encontrándose presente en alimentos disponibles en nuestro país y que son parte de nuestra dieta, como las algas pardas y algunos cereales. La concentración de estos compuestos en los alimentos, es fluctuante y depende de factores como la estacionalidad, cultivo, germinación, método de preparación y conservación. En la bibliografía actual, se evidencian los potenciales efectos beneficiosos de fucanos y beta-glucanos para la salud humana como anticoagulante, antidiabético e inmunomodulador, la intensidad de estos efectos dependen de su biodisponibilidad y del peso molecular. El objetivo de esta revisión fué profundizar respecto a los potenciales efectos beneficiosos de estos compuestos bioactivos, analizar sus características, propiedades, además de relacionar una recomendación de consumo que permita alcanzar los efectos beneficiosos esperados. Para ello se analizó la bibliografía científica atingente, relevante y reciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polysaccharides/administration & dosage , Polysaccharides/chemistry , beta-Glucans/administration & dosage , beta-Glucans/chemistry , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Phytochemicals/administration & dosage , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/chemistry
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7256, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951731

ABSTRACT

Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI. CPS was successfully enzymatically degraded using mannase and the weighted average molecular weights of CPS and ECPS were 434.6 kDa and 211.7 kDa. The results of biological activity assays suggested that the enzymatically hydrolyzed polysaccharide had superior antimelanogenic activity and antioxidant effect than the original polysaccharide. ECPS exhibited antimelanogenic activity by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase, MITF, and TRP-1 without cytotoxic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. In conclusion, ECPS have the potential to become a skin whitening product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Melanoma, Experimental/pathology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cuscuta/chemistry , Melanocytes/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Hydrolysis , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/chemistry
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 175-189, Jan,-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886635

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis is a type of red alga that contains seaweed polysaccharide agar. In this study, a novel non-agar seaweed polysaccharide fraction named GCP (short of crude polysaccharide obtained from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis) was isolated from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis. Structural analysis showed that GCP shows triple helical chain conformation when dissolved in water and has many branches and long side chains. Also, 1→3 linkage is the major linkage and the sugar structures are galactopyranose configurations linked by β-type glycosidic linkages. Two macromolecular substance fractions (GCP-1 and GCP-2) were purified by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography. Moreover, a splenocyte damage assay and splenocyte proliferation assay were used to analyse the bioactivities of GCP, GCP-1 and GCP-2. It was demonstrated that polysaccharides could protect splenocyte damaged by H2O2; GCP-2 shows a greatest protection rate, that is, 92.8%, which significantly enhanced the splenocyte proliferation, and GCP showed the highest proliferation rate, 9.30%. The results suggested that this type of novel non-agar polysaccharide displayed remarkable antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities and early alkali treatment could decrease the activities. It may represent a potential material for health food and clinical medicines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Seaweed/chemistry , Rhodophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Periodic Acid/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Molecular Weight
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 680-690, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788964

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A new strain of Thermomyces lanuginosus was isolated from the Atlantic Forest biome, and its β-xylosidases optimization in response to agro-industrial residues was performed. Using statistical approach as a strategy for optimization, the induction of β-xylosidases activity was evaluated in residual corn straw, and improved so that the optimum condition achieved high β-xylosidases activities 1003 U/mL. According our known, this study is the first to show so high levels of β-xylosidases activities induction. In addition, the application of an experimental design with this microorganism to induce β-xylosidases has not been reported until the present work. The optimal conditions for the crude enzyme extract were pH 5.5 and 60 °C showing better thermostability at 55 °C. The saccharification ability of β-xylosidase in the presence of hemicellulose obtained from corn straw raw and xylan from beechwood substrates showed a xylo-oligosaccharide to xylose conversion yield of 80 and 50%, respectively, at 50 °C. Our data strongly indicated that the β-xylosidases activities was not subjected to the effects of potential enzyme inhibitors often produced during fermentation process. These data suggest the application of this enzyme studied for saccharification of hemicellulose, an abundant residue in the American continents, thus providing an interesting alternative for future tests for energy production.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/enzymology , Xylosidases/metabolism , Fermentation , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Substrate Specificity , Temperature , Xylose/metabolism , Biomass , Zea mays/chemistry , Enzyme Activation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(3): 188-195, May 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750646

ABSTRACT

Background The role of polysaccharides isolated from the Ganoderma species of fungi in innate immunity has recently become a topic of research. Although some work has been conducted concerning Ganoderma lucidum, the characteristics of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma neojaponicum (Imazeki) as immunomodulatory agents are largely unknown. The aims for this study were to isolate and characterize the intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) of G. neojaponicum from STR reactor. Results The production of EPS and IPS was optimized on day 4 of the cultivation time in 2 L STR reactor based on the amount of biomass yield, total carbohydrate, β-glucan and a-glucan content. Further analysis, both the EPSs and IPSs showed the enhancement on proliferation and increment of phagocytosis activities of macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines. Using an oral toxicity test, we also observed that 2000 mg/kg body weight/day dosage of dried G. neojaponicum mycelium does not cause any significant toxic effects on Sprague-Dawley rats in 14 d of administration. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that the IPSs and EPSs of G. neojaponicum have the potential to be used as immunomodulating agents to stimulate the innate immune system for fighting infectious diseases. The polysaccharides from G. neojaponicum have to be further commercially explored as an alternative for medicinal Ganoderma variety of G. lucidum production.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Ganoderma , Immunologic Factors , Phagocytosis , Toxicity Tests, Acute , beta-Glucans/analysis , Cell Proliferation , Immunity, Innate , Macrophages
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(2): 105-109, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741217

ABSTRACT

Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae.


Extratos seco, fresco e glicólico de Zingiber officinale foram obtidos para avaliar suas ações por meio de ensaio de sobrevivência em G. mellonella contra infecção por Enterococcus faecalis. Oitenta larvas foram divididas em: 1) Suspensão de E. faecalis (controle); 2) E. faecalis + extrato fresco de Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + extrato seco de Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + extrato glicólico de Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Solução tampão fosfato salina (PBS). Para o grupo de controle, 5 µL de inóculo de suspensão padronizada (107 células/mL) de E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) foi injetado na última proleg esquerda de cada lagarta. Para os grupos com tratamento, após a injeção de E. faecalis, os extratos foram injetados na última proleg direita. Após as injeções, as lagartas foram armazenadas a 37 °C e o número de animais mortos foi registrado diariamente em 168 h (7 dias) para analisar a curva de sobrevivência. As lagartas foram consideradas mortas quando elas não mostraram qualquer movimento após o toque. A infecção por E. faecalis levou à morte de 85% das lagartas após 168 h. Não obstante, nos grupos de tratamento com associação dos extratos, houve um aumento nas taxas de sobrevivência de 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) e 66% (DEO) das lagartas. Em todos os grupos com tratamento, as lagartas apresentaram um aumento na sobrevivência, com diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação ao grupo controle (p=0,0029). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os tratamentos com os diferentes extratos (p=0,3859). Pode concluir-se que os extratos testados mostraram atividade antimicrobiana contra a infecção por E. faecalis, aumentando a sobrevivência das lagartas de G. mellonella.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, GABA-A/chemistry , Binding Sites , Benzamidines/chemistry , Benzamidines/metabolism , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Conserved Sequence , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drug Design , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/chemistry , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/metabolism , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glycosylation , Models, Molecular , Mutation/genetics , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Subunits , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, GABA-A/genetics , Synaptic Transmission
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 125-133, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741616

ABSTRACT

The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Hibiscus/chemistry , Industrial Waste/analysis , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/economics , Beverages/analysis , Beverages/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/economics , Food, Fortified/economics , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Industrial Waste/economics , Mexico , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/economics , Polysaccharides/analysis , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/economics , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Solubility
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Feb; 51(1): 81-86
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154240

ABSTRACT

Annatto tree (Bixa orellana L.) is native to Brazil and is now under cultivation in many parts of world for its reddish orange ‘annatto’ dye. There are three types of landraces in annatto and they are distinguished based on fruit shape i.e., ovate, conical and hemispherical, whose pigment yield differs. Since annatto pigment yield varies with landrace, it is necessary to characterize markers towards the identification of landraces. In this study, we characterized water soluble polysaccharides (WSP) of twigs from three landraces using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC) for their potential use as chemotaxonomic markers to distinguish the landraces. GLC analysis on WSP showed hemispherical type contained 38% rhamnose, while conical and ovate types contained 17% and 34% glucose, respectively. Thus, glucose and rhamnose content of WSP could be used to distinguish the three landraces. Further, differences in calculated molecular weight as revealed by SEC (281.8, 151.3 and 79.4 kDa for conical, hemispherical and ovate types, respectively) could also be used to distinguish the three landraces.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers/chemistry , Biomarkers/metabolism , Bixaceae/classification , Bixaceae/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Solubility , Water/chemistry
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jan; 52(1): 89-96
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150337

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCCB 123 was grown in a synthetic medium for β-1,3 glucanase production. From the culture filtrate, β-1,3 glucanase was purified with a molecular mass of 45 kDa. The enzyme was a metallozyme as its β-1,3 glucanase activity got inhibited by the metal chelator EDTA. Optimum pH and temperature for β-1,3 glucanase activity on laminarin was found to be 7 and 50 °C respectively. The MCCB 123 β-1,3 glucanase was found to have good lytic action on a wide range of fungal isolates, and hence its application in fungal DNA extraction was evaluated. β-1,3 glucanase purified from the culture supernatant of P. aeruginosa MCCB 123 could be used for the extraction of fungal DNA without the addition of any other reagents generally used. Optimum pH and temperature of enzyme for fungal DNA extraction was found to be 7 and 65 °C respectively. This is the first report on β-1,3 glucanase employed in fungal DNA extraction.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/isolation & purification , Glycoside Hydrolases/chemistry , Molecular Weight , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , Temperature
20.
Homeopatia Méx ; 82(687): 31-37, nov.-dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733390

ABSTRACT

La caléndula es una planta originaria de Europa cuyas propiedades curativas seaprovechan desde épocas remotas, por lo que actualmente es cultivada en todoel mundo. Extractos y ungüentos elaborados con este vegetal han mostrado susvirtudes para cicatrizar heridas y atender afecciones de la piel, y este saber empíricoha sido comprobado a través de diversos estudios científicos, como los que serevisan a lo largo del presente artículo. En Homeopatía, su tintura se emplea como antiséptica, analgésica y cicatrizantede la piel y la mucosa bucal, mientras que sus dinamizaciones se prescriben aindividuos nerviosos, irritables, con marcada tendencia a los sobresaltos y muysensibles a los estímulos sensoriales. Además de esto, Caléndula officinalis tienela capacidad de ayudar en el tratamiento de problemas crónicos y agudos relacionadoscon lesiones externas o en diferentes sistemas, como las vías urinarias, lossistemas respiratorio y digestivo, y los órganos reproductivos femeninos.


Calendula is a plant native to Europe whose healing properties are used sinceancient times, so it is now cultivated worldwide. Extracts and ointments made fromthis plant have shown their strengths to heal wounds and treat skin conditions, andthis empirical knowledge has been proven through scientific studies, such as thosereviewed throughout this article. In Homeopathy, the tincture is used as antiseptic, analgesic and healingof the skin and oral mucosa, while their dynamizations are prescribed to irritable,with a marked tendency to shocks and very sensitive to sensory stimuli people.In addition, Calendula officinalis has the ability to help in the treatment of chronicand acute problems related to external injuries or different systems, like urinary,respiratory and digestive systems, and female reproductive organs.


Subject(s)
/pharmacology , Carotenoids/chemistry , Wound Healing , Flavonoids/chemistry , Mother Tincture , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Sapogenins/chemistry , Homeopathic Therapeutics
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