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Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210183, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1422257


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of desensitizing agents for the obliteration of dentinal tubules subjected or not to a simulated oral environment. Material and Methods: Dentinal discs (n=8) treated with Riva-Star (RS) or PRG-Barrier-Coat (PRG) were submitted (cycled) or not submitted (control) to erosive-abrasive-thermal cycles and evaluated using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis. The variables analyzed were tubule obliteration and dentin surface chemical composition. Data were analyzed by non-parametric tests (p<0.05). Results: The cycled and control groups did not differ significantly for the responses in each material. The PRG control and cycled groups had fewer visible tubules and a higher proportion of totally obliterated tubules than the RS groups. The percentages of silver coverage were higher in the RS-control than in the RS-cycled. There was a significant inverse correlation between the presence of silver and non-obliterated tubules (R=-0.791; p<0.001). The percentages of carbon, aluminum, strontium, and potassium were significantly higher in the PRG-control and PRG-cycled compared to the RS control. The percentages of calcium, phosphorus, and silver were significantly higher in the RS compared to the PRG groups. PRG-control showed a higher percentage of boron than RS-control. Conclusion: PRG promoted greater tubule obliteration than SR. Simulated stress did not affect the obliterating effect of each agent. Greater silver coverage corresponded to a lower proportion of non-obliterated tubules in RS. Carbon, aluminum, strontium, boron, and potassium predominated in the dentin surface treated with PRG, while calcium, phosphorus, and silver prevailed in RS groups (AU).

Potassium Iodide , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Dentin Sensitivity/drug therapy , Dentin Desensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques , Statistics, Nonparametric
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 231-233, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248728


Abstract Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi of the genus Sporothrix. The authors report a case of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with therapeutic failure after 18 months of itraconazole and terbinafine associated with cryosurgery. The patient was cured after the introduction of saturated potassium iodide solution. Sporothrix brasiliensis was the identified species, presenting a susceptibility profile to itraconazole and terbinafine. This fact suggests that therapeutic failure is probably related to the host-fungus interaction rather than drug resistance. It is possible that the immunomodulatory action of the saturated potassium iodide solution may have played an important role in curing this patient.

Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Itraconazole , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics ; : e4-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741987


OBJECTIVES: Biofilm formation is critical to dental caries initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nicotine exposure on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation concomitantly with the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium iodide (KI) salts. This study examined bacterial growth with varying concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI salts and nicotine levels consistent with primary levels of nicotine exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary screening experiment was performed to investigate the appropriate concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI to use with nicotine. With the data, a S. mutans biofilm growth assay was conducted using nicotine (0–32 mg/mL) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose with and without 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI. The biofilm was stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. RESULTS: The presence of 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation by 52%, 79.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide additional evidence regarding the biofilm-enhancing effects of nicotine and demonstrate the inhibitory influence of these salts in reducing the nicotine-induced biofilm formation. A short-term exposure to these salts may inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation.

Biofilms , Dental Caries , Gentian Violet , Mass Screening , Nicotine , Potassium Chloride , Potassium Iodide , Salts , Sodium Chloride , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Sucrose
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 907-909, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038282


Abstract: We report 73 cases of cutaneous sporotrichosis from the Community Dermatology program, at the central and mountain areas of the state of Guerrero, Mexico. A similar number of cases was found between children and adults, mostly peasants and school-age children with rural occupations. Upper limbs were the mostly affected and the predominant clinical form was lymphocutaneous (56.16%). All cultures corresponded to Sporothrix schenckii (sl). Treatment was done with potassium iodide in 54 patients, achieving clinical and mycological cure in all cases.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Mexico/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 871-873, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897024


Abstract Sporotrichosis is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis and is characterized by a subacute or chronic development of a cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular lesion. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp, which may manifest in different clinical forms. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and is more likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a 47-year-old male patient with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was treated with potassium iodide, which resulted in clinical improvement of the lesions.

Humans , Male , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Alcoholism/complications , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Sporotrichosis/complications , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1272210


Introduction: Limited information is available on the usefulness of the PIMATM analyser in predicting antiretroviral treatment eligibility and outcome in a primary healthcare clinic setting in disadvantaged communities in KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa.Materials and methods: The study was conducted under the eThekwini Health Unit; Durban; KwaZulu-Natal. Comparison of the enumeration of CD4+ T-cells in 268 patients using the PIMATM analyser and the predicate National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS) was undertaken during January to July 2013. Bland-Altman analysis to calculate bias and limits of agreement; precision and levels of clinical misclassification at various CD4+ T-cell count thresholds was performed.Results: There was high precision of the PIMATM control bead cartridges with low and normal CD4+ T-cell counts using three different PIMATM analysers (%CV 5). Under World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines (

Anti-Retroviral Agents , HIV Infections/therapy , Potassium Iodide
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 174-184, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116054


BACKGROUND: Increased oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms in iodide excess-induced thyroid disease. Metallothioneins (MTs) are regarded as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oxidative stress. Our aim is to investigate the effects of propylthiouracil (PTU), a thyroid peroxidase inhibitor, perchlorate (KClO4), a competitive inhibitor of iodide transport, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on mitochondrial superoxide production instigated by high concentrations of iodide in the thyroids of MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II KO) mice. METHODS: Eight-week-old 129S7/SvEvBrd-Mt1(tm1Bri) Mt2(tm1Bri)/J (MT-I/II KO) mice and background-matched wild type (WT) mice were used. RESULTS: By using a mitochondrial superoxide indicator (MitoSOX Red), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, we demonstrated that the decreased relative viability and increased LDH release and mitochondrial superoxide production induced by potassium iodide (100 µM) can be relieved by 300 µM PTU, 30 µM KClO4, or 10 U/L TSH in the thyroid cell suspensions of both MT-I/II KO and WT mice (P<0.05). Compared to the WT mice, a significant decrease in the relative viability along with a significant increase in LDH release and mitochondrial superoxide production were detected in MT-I/II KO mice(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that PTU, KClO4, or TSH relieved the mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of iodide in the thyroids of both MT-I/II KO and WT mice. MT-I/II showed antioxidant effects against high concentrations of iodide-induced mitochondrial superoxide production in the thyroid.

Animals , Mice , Antioxidants , Iodide Peroxidase , Iodides , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metallothionein , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress , Potassium Iodide , Propylthiouracil , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides , Suspensions , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 32(1): 187-190, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, INS-PERU | ID: lil-745238


La esporotricosis diseminada es una presentación infrecuente de esta micosis. Aunque ha sido descrita en sujetos inmunocompetentes, con frecuencia existe compromiso de la inmunidad mediada por células T. Reportamos el caso de una mujer con diabetes tipo 2 no controlada que desarrolló esporotricosis cutánea diseminada. El curso de la enfermedad presentó varias complicaciones que incluyeron hepatitis secundaria a itraconazol y artritis de la rodilla con cultivo positivo para Sporothrix schenckii durante el tratamiento con solución saturada de ioduro de potasio. La discusión del caso incluye aspectos de la patogénesis de la esporotricosis diseminada y el manejo de la infección y sus complicaciones.

Disseminated sporotrichosis is a rare presentation of this mycosis. Although it has been described in immunocompetent individuals, there is often T cell-mediated immune compromise. We report the case of a woman with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes who developed disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis. The course of the disease presented several complications including hepatitis secondary to itraconazole and knee arthritis with culture positive for Sporothrix schenckii during treatment with saturated solution of potassium iodide. The case discussion includes aspects of the pathogenesis of disseminated sporotrichosis and management of the infection and its complications.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Arthritis , Diabetes Mellitus , Sporotrichosis , Itraconazole , Potassium Iodide , Peru
Korean Leprosy Bulletin ; : 13-15, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125588


Since Mycobacterium Leprae was founded by Dr. Armauer Hansen in 1873, leprosy was proven to infectious disease by a germ not from hereditaty, from a cause, or from sin. For it has no definite method of treatment, made a conclusion at the 1st international leprosy association meeting at Berlin in 1897, isolation is the only way to prevent the disease. So all country started to built a leprosarium and isolated the leprosy patients. Various methods and drugs were used for leprosy treatment including potassium iodide, arsenic, antimony, copper, sera, vaccines and aniline dyes and then X-ray, radium, electric current till 1925. Chaulmoogra oil was introduced to western world in 1854 by Dr. FJ Mouat and used for the leprosy treatment drug. Dr RM Wilson in Kwangju Leprosy Hospital started to use Chaulmoogra oil since 1909 and reported the results of it at JAMA in 1923. But it was replaced to sulfones in 1940'. Mordern treatment started in 1937 when Parke-Davis co. synthesized promin But promin is expensive and have to injection. Then Dapsone delivered from promin and it could be used per oral. Dr. RM Wilson In Aeyang Hospsoital (former Kwangju leposy hospial) started to use Dapson in 1946 with his son Dr. J Wilson. And it was the first episode to use DDS in Korea. When Dr. Cochraine came and visited all the leprosy centers in Korea in 1955 he noticed that some hospital like Aeyangwon and St. Nazarus used DDS but not other hospital. DDS was adopted as main drug of choice in Carville, Loisiana but noticed dapsone resistant bacilli and then WHO recommended the MDT from 1981.

Humans , Antimony , Arsenic , Berlin , Coloring Agents , Communicable Diseases , Copper , Dapsone , Korea , Leprosy , Mycobacterium leprae , Potassium Iodide , Radium , Sulfones , Vaccines , Western World
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. 73 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-762498


A esporotricose é uma micose causada por espécies do complexo Sporothrix. Apesar do itraconazol ser o fármaco de escolha devido a sua efetividade e segurança, casos de falência terapêutica em gatos com esta micose têm sido descritos. O iodeto de potássio em cápsulas é uma opção terapêutica nos casos felinos. Adicionalmente, este fármaco é uma alternativa em pacientes humanos não responsivos ao itraconazol. A associação do iodeto de potássio e agentes antifúngicos pode apresentar melhores resultados quando comparada à monoterapia com estes fármacos. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte, o qual teve como objetivo descrever a resposta terapêutica ao iodeto de potássio em cápsulas via oral (5 mg/kg a cada 24 horas) associado ao itraconazol via oral (100 mg/gato a cada 24 horas) em gatos com esporotricose refratária ao itraconazol, assistidos no Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Dermatozoonoses em Animais Domésticos do Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas/Fiocruz no período de 2012 a 2013. Foram incluídos no estudo 38 gatos, dos quais foi observado cura clínica em 24, falência terapêutica em cinco e óbito em três gatosEm seis casos houve abandono do tratamento. O tempo mediano de tratamento até a cura clínica foi 20 semanas. Vinte e nove animais apresentaram efeitos adversos clínicos, sendo 26 classificados como grau leve. Emagrecimento, hiporexia e vômitos foram os efeitos adversos clínicos mais observados. Quatro animais apresentaram efeitos adversos laboratoriais, representado pelo aumento dos valores das enzimas hepáticas. A utilização de iodeto de potássio em cápsulas associado ao itraconazol se mostrou um esquema terapêutico efetivo e seguro, sendo uma opção na esporotricose felina refratária ao itraconazol.

Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by Sporothrix species complex.Itraconazol is the drug of choice for the treatment of the disease due to itseffectiveness and safety. However, cases of treatment failure in cats have beenreported. Potassium iodide capsules are an option for the feline cases.Additionally, the drug is an alternative to human patients unresponsive toitraconazole. The association of potassium iodide and antifungal agents mayprovide better results when compared to the mono therapy with these drugs. A cohort study was conducted, which aimed to describe the therapeutic response oforal potassium iodide (5 mg/kg every 24 hours) associated with oral itraconazole(100 mg/cat every 24 hours) in cats with sporotrichosis refractory to itraconazole,followed up at the Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Dermatozoonoses emAnimais Domésticos do Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas/Fiocruz between 2012 and 2013. Of the 38 cats included in the study, 24 were cured,treatment failure ocurred in five and death in three cats. In six cases there wasnon-compliance with treatment. The median time from treatment until clinical curewith the combination was 20 weeks. Twenty-nine animals presented clinical adverse effects, which were classified as mild in 26 animals. Weight loss,hiporexia and vomiting were the most frequently observed. Four animals showed laboratory adverse effects represented by an increase in liver enzymes. The useof potassium iodide associated with itraconazole has proved to be an effective andsafe therapeutic regimen and, therefore, represents an option in the treatment offeline sporotrichosis refractory to itraconazol.

Cats , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Itraconazole/adverse effects , Potassium Iodide
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 197-201, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195540


PURPOSE: Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Inorganic iodide has been used in combination with antithyroid drugs for more effective normalization of thyroid hormones in some cases of severe thyrotoxicosis. This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics of childhood thyrotoxicosis and effectiveness of inorganic iodide in the early phase of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-seven pediatric patients (53 girls/14 boys, 11.1+/-3.4 years of age), with newly diagnosed thyrotoxicosis due to Graves disease were recruited. Forty-nine patients were treated with antithyroid drugs alone, while 18 patients were treated with combination of antithyroid drugs and potassium iodide. Initial thyroid function tests and levels of thyroid antibodies were recorded for all patients. Thyroid function tests were repeated 2 and 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. Measurement thyroid antibodies were done 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. RESULTS: Mean triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group receiving combined therapy of antithyroid drugs and potassium iodide after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the patients receiving antithyroid drugs alone. Eight weeks after the initiation of treatment, thyroid function tests in the two groups did not show significant differences. CONCLUSION: The use of potassium iodide in combination with antithyroid drug is effective for more rapid normalization of thyroid hormones in the early phase treatment of childhood thyrotoxicosis, but larger studies with adequate power are needed in future.

Adolescent , Child , Humans , Antibodies , Antithyroid Agents , Graves Disease , Hyperthyroidism , Potassium Iodide , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotoxicosis , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(5): 548-553, oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-691162


Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix complex, endemic in Abancay, Peru. Is acquired by traumatic inoculation with plant material. Common clinical presentations are lymphatic cutaneous and fixed cutaneous disease. We report 2 cases of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance. The first case was a patient of 65 years old with no risk factors and the second case was a 67 year old diabetic patient. Subjects underwent mycological culture with Sabouraud agar, with isolation of Sporothrix schenckii and clinical dignosis of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance. One patient received oral treatment with saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) with a initial dose of 3 drops tid up to a maximum dose of 40 drops tid. Mycological and clinical cure was achieved after 2 months of treatment. We should consider the unusual clinical presentations of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis with granulomatous appearance that present morphological and clinical features in diabetic and nondiabetic patients older than 60 years from endemic areas and communicate adequate response to treatment with SSKI in one case.

La esporotricosis es una micosis subcutánea ocasionada por el complejo Sporothrix, endémica en Abancay, Perú. Se adquiere por inoculación traumática con material vegetal. Las formas clínicas comúnmente descritas son la cutánea linfática y cutánea fija. Presentamos dos casos de pacientes adultos con una esporotricosis cutánea fija granulomatosa. El primer caso era una paciente de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes de riesgo y el segundo era una paciente de 67 años, diabética. El diagnóstico se realizó por cultivo micológico aislándose Sporothrix schenckii. Un caso se trató con solución saturada de yoduro de potasio (SSKI), vía oral, alcanzando la cura micológica y clínica tras dos meses de tratamiento. La otra paciente no acudió a tratamiento. Se revisan las presentaciones clínicas inusuales de la esporotricosis cutánea fija y la forma granulomatosa que presenta características morfológicas y clínicas poco habituales en pacientes diabéticos y no diabéticos mayores de 60 años provenientes de zonas endémicas.

Aged , Female , Humans , Granuloma/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Granuloma/drug therapy , Granuloma/microbiology , Potassium Iodide/administration & dosage , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(3): 396-402, jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676241


Potassium iodide, as a saturated solution, is a valuable drug in the dermatologist's therapeutic arsenal and is useful for the treatment of different diseases due to its immunomodulatory features. However, its prescription has become increasingly less frequent in dermatology practice. Little knowledge about its exact mechanism of action, lack of interest from the pharmaceutical industry, the advent of new drugs, and the toxicity caused by the use of high doses of the drug are some possible explanations for that. Consequently, there are few scientific studies on the pharmacological aspects, dosage and efficacy of this drug. Also, there is no conventional standard on how to manipulate and prescribe the saturated solution of potassium iodide, which leads to unawareness of the exact amount of the salt being delivered in grams to patients. Considering that dosage is directly related to toxicity and the immunomodulatory features of this drug, it is essential to define the amount to be prescribed and to reduce it to a minimum effective dose in order to minimize the risks of intolerance and thus improve treatment adherence. This review is relevant due to the fact that the saturated solution of potassium iodide is often the only therapeutic choice available for the treatment of some infectious, inflammatory and immune-mediated dermatoses, no matter whether the reason is specific indication, failure of a previous therapy or cost-effectiveness.

Iodeto de potássio, sob a forma de solução saturada, é um valioso medicamento no arsenal terapêutico do dermatologista. É usado há mais de um século e útil para doenças de fisiopatologias diversas em virtude de seu caráter imunomodulador. Prescrevê-lo, entretanto, tem se tornado cada vez menos frequente na prática dermatológica. O pouco conhecimento sobre seu exato mecanismo de ação, o desinteresse da indústria farmacêutica com o advento de novos fármacos, além da toxicidade do medicamento pelas altas doses utilizadas são algumas das possíveis justificativas. Dessa forma, os estudos científicos envolvendo seus aspectos farmacológicos, posológicos e de eficácia são relativamente raros. Consequentemente, não se convencionou uma padronização na forma de manipular e prescrever a solução saturada de iodeto de potássio, o que causa um verdadeiro desconhecimento da dose exata em gramas do sal que está sendo fornecida aos pacientes. Ao considerar que a dose está diretamente relacionada toxicidade e o conhecimento da característica imunomoduladora dessa droga, é importante definir a quantidade a ser fornecida, reduzindo-a até a dose mínima eficaz, de forma a diminuir a intolerância e melhorar a adesão ao tratamento. A relevância do tema se deve ao fato da solução saturada de iodeto de potássio ser, muitas vezes, a única escolha na terapêutica disponível para o tratamento de algumas dermatoses de origem infecciosa, inflamatória ou imunomediada, quer por indicação específica, por falha de outro medicamento ou por seu custo acessível.

Humans , Dermatologic Agents , Potassium Iodide , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Potassium Iodide/administration & dosage , Potassium Iodide/adverse effects , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy , Thyroid Gland/drug effects
Rev. méd. hondur ; 79(2): 81-84, abr.-jun. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-644957


Introducción: La esporotricosis linfocutánea es una micosis subcutánea de evolución sub-aguda o crónica, que es más frecuente en adultos entre los 16 y 30 años de edad pero que también se presenta en la niñez, sobre todo en áreas rurales. Se caracteriza por nódulos que se reblandecen y luego se ulceran, lo cual constituye el chancro inicial. Dos o tres semanas después se observan nódulos eritematovioláceos, no dolorosos siguiendo el trayecto linfático regional. El diagnóstico definitivo se realiza al aislar el agente causal mediante cultivo. En nuestro país el tratamiento usual y eficaz sigue siendo el yoduro de potasio. Caso Clínico: Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 2 años de edad, con dermatosis de 2 semanas de evolución con historia de trauma 2 semanas antes del inicio de las lesiones, caracterizada por úlcera costrosa en dorso de mano derecha con presencia de adenopatías blandas, no dolorosas siguiendo la cadena ganglionar de antebrazo y brazo derecho. Conclusiones: La esporotricosis puede presentarse a cualquier edad aún en niños tan pequeños como este paciente de 2 años. La solución saturada de yoduro de potasio es muy eficaz en el manejo de esta patología por lo que aunado a su bajo costo sigue siendo de elección en países en vías de desarrollo...

Humans , Male , Child , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Mycoses/classification , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Hand Dermatoses/complications , Skin Ulcer/diagnosis
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(2): 89-93, Mar.-Apr. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-584139


BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic disease caused by a dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. The first and most traditional treatment is potassium iodide in satured solution (SSKI) used by DE BEURMANN in 1907. For its effectiveness, it is still used for cutaneous sporotrichosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with SSKI in relation to clinical cure, side effects, length of treatment and reactivation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records over a 24-year period (1981-2005). Patients of all ages who were treated in the hospital´s division of dermatology were included in the study providing that they had a positive culture of S. schenckii. Satured solution of potassium iodide (3 to 6g per day) was the treatment prescribed. For children, half of the dose was prescribed. RESULTS: The lymphocutaneous disease was prevalent, the cure rate was 94.7 percent, side effects were described in 5.5 percent of the cases, mean length of treatment was 3.5 months and possible reactivation was observed in 11.1 percent. CONCLUSION: SSKI is an effective drug, with many side effects, but with low frequency. Resolution was for maximum six months of treatment. SSKI has been found to be a very effective drug in this retrospective study of culture-proven cases of cutaneous and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. It should be used as first drug of choice especially in resource-limited settings.

FUNDAMENTOS: Esporotricose é doença subaguda ou crônica causada pelo fungo dimórfico Sporothrix schenckii. O primeiro e mais tradicional tratamento é o iodeto de potássio em solução saturada (SSKI) usado por De Beurmann em 1907. Por ser eficaz,ainda é muito utilizada no nosso meio para o tratamento da esporotricose cutânea. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o tratamento da esporotricose cutânea com SSKI em relação à cura clínica, efeitos colaterais, tempo de tratamento e recidiva. MÉTODOS: A partir da revisão dos resultados de exames do laboratório de Micologia da Clínica de Dermatologia da Santa Casa de SP, durante 1981 a 2005, foram incluídos pacientes de qualquer idade com lesão cutânea sugestiva de esporotricose e cultura positiva para S. schenckii. Em todos pacientes o tratamento prescrito foi SSKI na dose de 3 a 6g/dia para adultos, por um período de até duas semanas após cura clínica. Em crianças foi utilizada a metade da dose. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio da forma cutânea localizada, taxa de cura de 94,7 por cento, efeitos colaterais em 5,5 por cento, média de tempo de tratamento de 3,5 meses e 11,1 por cento de provável recidiva. CONCLUSÃO: A SSKI é eficaz, com diversos efeitos colaterais, porém de baixa frequência, permanecendo indicada para as formas cutâneas da esporotricose.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. viii,40 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-762499


A esporotricose é uma micose subaguda ou crônica ca usada pelo fungo dimórfico Sporothrix schenckii que infecta o ser humano e uma variedade de animais . O felino doméstico é o animal mais susceptível à doença e desempenha um papel importante na transmissão zoonótica, especialmente no Rio de Janeiro, onde ocorre uma epidemia envolvendo os seres humanos, cães e gatos desde 1998. A efetividade do iodeto de potássio foi avaliada em uma coorte longitudinal constituída por gatos com esporotricose confirmada pelo isolamento de S. schenckii em cultura. Os gatos foram acompanhados no Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Dermatozoonoses em Animais Domésticos, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz, entre abril de 2010 e julho de 2011 e fora m submetidos à terapia com iodeto de potássio (KI) em cápsulas na dose entre 2,5 mg/kg e 20 mg/kg, a cada 24 horas. A cura clínica foi obtida em 47,9 por cento dos gatos, em 37,5 por cento ocorreu falência terapêutica, 10,4 por cento abandonaram o tratamento e 4,2 por cento foram a óbito. Efeitos adversos clínicos foram observados em 52,1 por cento dos casos. Treze gatos apresentaram leve aumento nos níveis das transaminases hepáticas durante o tratamento, dos quais, seis apresentavam sinais clínicos sugestivos de hepatotoxicidade. Em comparação com estudos prévios realizados com itraconazol e solução saturada de iodeto de potássio, o tratamento com KI em cápsulas é uma alternativa promissora no tratamento da esporotricose felina.

Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrixschenckii, which infects man as well as other mammals. The domestic cat is the animal most affected by this mycosis and plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a large number of cases involving man, dogs and cats since 1998. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of potassium iodide treatment, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis confirmed by isolation of S.schenckii in culture at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz between April 2010 and July 2011. All cats received potassium iodide capsules,2.5mg/kg to 20mg/kg, once a day. The cure rate was 47.9 percent, treatment failure 37.5 percent,treatment abandonment 10.4 percent and death 4.2 percent. Clinical adverse effects were observed in52.1 percent of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide (SSKI), potassium iodide capsules are analternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

Cats , Amphotericin B , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/epidemiology , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Potassium Iodide
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 39-48, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20134


In mass casualty situation due to radiological accidents, it is important to start aggressive management with rapid triage decisions. External contamination needs immediate decontamination and internal contamination should be treated with special expertise and equipment to prevent the rapid uptake of radionuclides by target organs. Acute radiation syndrome shows a sequence of events that varies with the severity of the exposure. More severe exposures generally lead to more rapid onset of symptoms and severe clinical findings. After the massive exposure, various systems of the body reflect their severe damages that can lead to death within hours or up to several months. The disease progression has classically been divided into four stages: prodromal, latent, manifest illness, and recovery or death. Three characteristic clusters of symptoms including the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome are all associated with the acute radiation syndrome. The standard medical management of the patients with a potentially survivable radiation exposure includes good medical, surgical and supportive measures. Specific treatment with cytokines and bone marrow transplantation should be considered. The management of internal contamination is much the same as the treatment of poisoning. The standard decontamination should be applied to reduce uptake, and the chelating agents can be administered to enhance the clearance of radioisotopes. Radioactive iodine (131I) as one of the nuclear fission products can increase the incidence of thyroid cancer in children. Potential benefit of potassium iodide prophylaxis is greater especially in neonates, infants and small children.

Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Acute Radiation Syndrome , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Chelating Agents , Cytokines , Decontamination , Disease Progression , Etodolac , Incidence , Iodine , Mass Casualty Incidents , Nuclear Fission , Potassium Iodide , Radioisotopes , Thyroid Neoplasms , Triage
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 23(3): 244-247, Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949669


The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 2% iodine potassium iodide (IKI) used as a final rinse after the cleaning and shaping procedures in mesial root canals of mandibular molars infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy two mandibular first molars were used. The root canals were infected with Enterococcus faecalis for 30 days. After the infection procedures, the root canals were cleaned and shaped by using the ProTaper rotary system and manual files. The teeth were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (N=18). In group 1, the root canals were irrigated with sterile distilled water (control). In group 2, the root canals were irrigated with 1% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during instrumentation. In group 3, root canals were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during instrumentation and a five minute final irrigation using 2 % IKI. In group 4, the root canals were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during instrumentation and a 15 minutes final irrigation with 2 % IKI. Bacteria colony-forming units (CFU) from root canals were semi-quantified and the presence of negative cultures among the groups was compared using Fisher’s test (p < 0,05). The order of effectiveness was: 1% NaOCl plus 2% IKI for 15 minutes (95%), 1% NaOCl plus 2% IKI for 5 minutes (44%), 1% NaOCl (17%) and sterile distilled water (0%). Fisher’s exact test showed a significant difference among the groups (p<0.05). It was concluded that under in vitro conditions, IKI was able to eliminate the Enterococcus faecalis from infected dentin significantly in a 15-minute time frame after the cleaning and shaping procedures.

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto in vitro del yoduro de potasio yodado al 2% posterior a la preparacion quimiomecanica en conductos radiculares infectados con Enterococcus faecalis. Para este estudio, se emplearon 72 primeras molares inferiores permanentes de humanos, los cuales fueron infectados con Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Los conductos fueron preparados mediante instrumentacion rotatoria y distribuidos de manera aleatoria en cuatro grupos de acuerdo al irrigante empleado: Grupo 1, agua destilada esteril; Grupo 2, NaOCl al 1%; Grupo 3: NaOCl al 1% IKI al 2% durante cinco minutos; y, Grupo 4: NaOCl al 1% mas IKI al 2% durante 15 minutos. Se tomaron muestras pre y postoperatorias de los conductos y se realizo la semicuantificacion microbiologica de las unidades formadoras de colonias de las bacterias. Fue comparada la presencia de cultivos negativos en los grupos mediante el test de Fisher utilizando un nivel de significancia de p < 0.05. El orden de efectividad para la desinfeccion de los conductos radiculares de mayor a menor fue: NaOCl al 1 % mas IKI al 2% durante 15 minutos (95%), NaOCl al 1% mas IKI al 2% durante 5 minutos (44%), NaOCl al 1% (17%) y agua destilada (0%). Se concluye, que bajo las condiciones in vitro de este estudio, el yoduro de potasio yodado empleado despues de la instrumentacion fue capaz de eliminar significativamente a la bacteria Enterococcus faecalis en un tiempo de 15 minutos.

Humans , Potassium Iodide/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Iodine Compounds/pharmacology , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Molar/microbiology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Water , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology , Bacterial Load , Therapeutic Irrigation , Mandible
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139768


Background: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most widely used endodontic irrigant because of its excellent antimicrobial, organic tissue dissolving, and lubricating properties. However, it is highly cytotoxic to the periapical tissues. Aim: This study evaluated in vitro the extrusion of 5.25% NaOCl through the apical foramina of mesiobuccal (MB) root canals of maxillary first molars in two experimental conditions: Before apical debridement and after apical debridement with different instrument sizes to ensure direct access to the apical foramen (apical patency). Materials and Methods: Coronal accesses were prepared in 17 teeth and the apical foramina of the distobuccal and palatal root canals were sealed. The teeth were held in acrylic receptacles with the roots turned upwards to reproduce their position in the maxillary dental arch. The receptacles were filled with a starch/KI solution (a reagent that changes its color to blue after contacting NaOCl) covering the roots. The experiment had two phases: P1: Irrigation of the MB canals with 5.25% NaOCl without previous establishment of apical patency; P2: Canal irrigation after use of size 10 K-file and size 15 Flexofile as patency files. Only specimens with no NaOCl extrusion in P1 were assigned to P2. NaOCl was delivered pressureless at the canal entrance. The moment that the starch/KI solution contacted NaOCl was captured on digital photographs. Results and Conclusions: There was no NaOCl extrusion in nine specimens in P1, but all of these teeth had irrigant extrusion in P2. The 5.25% NaOCl used as an endodontic irrigant showed great capacity to extrude beyond both intact and small-sized apical foramina of MB root canals of maxillary first molars.

Coloring Agents/diagnosis , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Equipment Design , Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials/etiology , Humans , Materials Testing , Maxilla , Molar , Periapical Tissue/drug effects , Photography, Dental , Potassium Iodide/diagnosis , Root Canal Irrigants/adverse effects , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Sodium Hypochlorite/adverse effects , Starch/diagnosis , Surface Properties
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 747-752, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313459


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of potassium iodide on the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB and fibronectin.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The experiment was performed with 72 SD rats weighing about 180-220 g. The animals were randomly assigned into nine groups. Group A, B, C (n=8) served as control and were fed with distilled water for 1 month, 2 month, 3 month respectively. Group D, E, F (n=8) served as lead exposed and were fed with water with 0.5% lead acetate for 1 month, 2 month, 3 month respectively. Group G, H, I (n=8) served as potassium iodide and lead exposed and were treated with 0.5% lead acetate simultaneously taking potassium iodide 3 mg/100 g weight by intragastric administration for 1 month, 2 month, 3 month respectively. Animals of different groups were sacrificed at the end of the treatment. Ultrastructure of kidney was observed by electron microscopy; Expression of NF-kappaB and FN protein and mRNA in kidney were measured respectively by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Electron microscopic examination revealed potassium iodide could restrain the denaturalization in epithelial cells and mitochondrial cristae. The expressions of NF-kappaB protein (0.2315 +/- 0.0624, 0.3213 +/- 0.0740, 0.4729 +/- 0.0839) and mRNA (0.4370 +/- 0.0841, 0.5465 +/- 0.0503, 0.6443 +/- 0.0538) in all the lead exposed groups continuously increased compared with correspondent control groups; Group I was decreased obviously compared with group F. The expressions of FN protein (0.4243 +/- 0.0595, 0.4917 +/- 0.0891) and mRNA (0.8650 +/- 0.0880, 0.8714 +/- 0.0980) in group E and F increased compared with group B and C, but the expressions of FN protein in group I significantly decreased compared with group F; The expressions of FN mRNA in Group H and I significantly decreased compared with group E and F.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The potassium iodide can ameliorate renal ultrastructure and degrade expression of nuclear factor-kappaB and fibronectin induced by lead.</p>

Animals , Male , Rats , Disease Models, Animal , Fibronectins , Genetics , Metabolism , Kidney , Metabolism , Kidney Diseases , Metabolism , Pathology , Lead Poisoning , Metabolism , Pathology , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Metabolism , Potassium Iodide , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley