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2.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(2): 5-17, DICIEMBRE, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1348665

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: en cirugía cardiovascular, el EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II y STS score son herramientas que brindan pronóstico e información para la toma de decisiones. Es imperativo evaluar el valor predictivo real de los mismos en nuestro medio. Objetivo: evaluar el valor predictivo de los citados scores en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca en el área de cardiología del Hospital Nacional. Metodología: estudio de cohortes, retrospectivo, con muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. La población estuvo constituida por pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca en el periodo comprendido entre enero 2020 a julio 2021. Fueron evaluadas 60 historias clínicas, excluidas 6, quedando finalmente 54 expedientes. Resultado: predominó el sexo masculino 57,14 %, la edad media fue de 60 ± 12 años (rango 26 - 82 años). El EuroSCORE II presentó un riesgo relativo de 10 (IC 95 % 1,3 ­ 90), p=0,004, sensibilidad 80 %, especificidad 78,43 %, VPP 26,67 % (IC 95 % 0,95 a 52,38) y VPN 97,56 % (IC 95 % 91,62 a 100 %). El EuroSCORE I presentó riesgo relativo de 1,6 (IC 95 % 0,2 ­ 10,9) p=0,50, sensibilidad 60 %, especificidad 52,94 %, VPP 11,11 % (IC 95 % 0,00 a 24,82) y VPN 93,10 % (IC 95 % 82,16 a 100 %). El STS score arrojó un riesgo relativo de 3,5 (IC 95 % 0,07 ­ 35), p=0,10, sensibilidad del 20 %, especificidad 93,33 %, valor predictivo positivo del 25 % (IC 95 % 0,00 a 79,93) y valor predictivo negativo 91,30 % (IC 95 % 82,07 a 100 %). La mortalidad global fue 8,93 % y morbilidad 93 %. Conclusión: se demostró un alto valor predictivo negativo en los scores, lo que determinó que pacientes con riesgo bajo e intermedio tuvieran una mortalidad baja.


ABSTRACT Introduction: in cardiovascular surgery, the EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II and STS score are tools that provide prognosis and information for decision making. It is imperative to evaluate their real predictive value in our environment. Objective: to evaluate the predictive value of the aforementioned scores in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the Hospital Nacional cardiology area. Methodology: retrospective cohort study, with non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. The population consisted of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the period from January 2020 to July 2021. 60 medical records were evaluated, 6 excluded, finally leaving 54 records. Result: male sex predominated 57,14 %, the mean age was 60 ± 12 years (range 26 - 82 years old). The EuroSCORE II presented a relative risk of 10 (95 % CI 1.3 - 90), p = 0.004, sensitivity 80 %, specificity 78,43 %, PPV 26,67 % (95 % CI 0,95 to 52,38) and NPV 97,56 % (95 % CI 91,62 to 100 %). The EuroSCORE I presented a relative risk of 1.6 (95 % CI 0.2 - 10.9) p = 0.50, sensitivity 60 %, specificity 52,94 %, PPV 11,11 % (95 % CI 0.00 a 24,82) and NPV 93,10 % (95 % CI 82.16 to 100 %). The STS score yielded a relative risk of 3,5 (95 % CI 0.07 - 35), p = 0.10, sensitivity of 20 %, specificity 93,33 %, positive predictive value of 25 % (CI 95 % 0 .00 to 79.93) and negative predictive value 91,30 % (95 % CI 82.07 to 100 %). Overall mortality was 8,93 % and morbidity 93 %. Conclusion: a high negative predictive value was demonstrated in the scores, which determined that patients with low and intermediate risk had a low mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Cohort Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 919-925, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248908

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Fibrose cardíaca difusa é fator importante na avaliação prognóstica dos pacientes com disfunção ventricular. Mapeamento T1 nativo pela ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) apresenta elevada sensibilidade e é considerado preditor independente de mortalidade por todas as causas e desenvolvimento de insuficiência cardíaca (IC) nos pacientes com cardiomiopatia. Objetivos: Avaliar aplicabilidade da avaliação com mapa T1 nativo em pacientes com IC em um hospital de referência de cardiologia e sua associação com parâmetros estruturais e perfil funcional. Métodos: Estudo transversal com pacientes adultos com IC classes funcionais NYHA I e II, isquêmicos e não isquêmicos, acompanhados em hospital de referência, que realizaram RMC. Os valores de T1 nativo foram analisados em relação a parâmetros estruturais, comorbidades, etiologia e categorização da IC pela fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE). Análises foram realizadas com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Analisados 134 pacientes. Valores de T1 nativo elevados foram encontrados em pacientes com maior dilatação (1004,9 vs 1042,7ms, p=0,001), volume (1021,3 vs 1050,3ms, p<0,01) e disfunção ventricular (1010,1 vs 1053,4ms, p<0,001), mesmo quando analisados isoladamente os não isquêmicos. Pacientes classificados com IC com fração de ejeção reduzida apresentaram maiores valores T1 em relação aos com IC e fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) (992,7 vs 1054,1ms, p<0,001). Dos com ICFEP, 55,2% apresentavam T1 elevado. Conclusões: Mapeamento T1 por RMC é factível para avaliação da IC clínica. Houve associação direta entre maior valor nativo de T1 e menor fração de ejeção, maiores diâmetros e volumes do VE, independentemente da etiologia da IC.


Abstract Background: Diffuse cardiac fibrosis is an important factor in the prognostic assessment of patients with ventricular dysfunction. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) native T1 mapping is highly sensitive and considered an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) development in patients with cardiomyopathy. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of native T1 mapping assessment in patients with HF in a cardiology referral hospital and its association with structural parameters and functional profile. Methods: Cross-sectional study with adult patients with HF NYHA functional classes I and II, ischemic and non-ischemic, followed in a referral hospital, who underwent CMR. Native T1 values were analyzed for structural parameters, comorbidities, etiology, and categorization of HF by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Analyses were performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: Enrollment of 134 patients. Elevated native T1 values were found in patients with greater dilation (1004.9 vs 1042.7ms, p = 0.001), ventricular volumes (1021.3 vs 1050.3ms, p <0.01) and ventricular dysfunction (1010.1 vs 1053.4ms, p <0.001), also present when the non-ischemic group was analyzed separately. Patients classified as HF with reduced ejection fraction had higher T1 values than those with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) (992.7 vs 1054.1ms, p <0.001). Of those with HFPEF, 55.2% had higher T1. Conclusions: CMR T1 mapping is feasible for clinical HF evaluation. There was a direct association between higher native T1 values and lower ejection fraction, and with larger LV diameters and volumes, regardless of the etiology of HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Referral and Consultation , Stroke Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Ventricular Function, Left , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 678-687, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345250

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFEr) é uma doença de alta prevalência que requer hospitalizações repetidas e causa morbimortalidade significativa. Portanto, o reconhecimento precoce de preditores de resultados desfavoráveis é essencial para o manejo do paciente. Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar a relação entre realce tardio pelo gadolínio (RTG) detectado por ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) e os parâmetros de repolarização, como o intervalo QT corrigido (QTc), intervalo Tp-e, ângulo QRS-T frontal detectado pelo eletrocardiograma (ECG) de 12 derivações na ICFEr. Método Neste estudo observacional, retrospectivo, de centro único, foram incluídos 97 pacientes consecutivos com ICFEr submetidos à RMC. A população do estudo foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença de RTG. Foram registradas medidas ecocardiográficas e de RMC e características demográficas. Os intervalos QTc, intervalos Tp-e, e ângulos QRS-T frontais foram calculados a partir do ECG. Um valor de p <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados O RTG foi detectado em 52 (53,6%) de 97 pacientes com ICFEr. Os intervalos QTc (p=0,001), intervalos Tp-e (p<0,001), e os ângulos QRS-T frontais (p<0,001) foram significativamente maiores no grupo RTG quando comparados ao grupo não-RTG. Na análise de regressão univariada realizada para investigar os preditores de RTG na ICFEr, todos os três parâmetros de repolarização alcançaram valores significativos, mas na análise multivariada o único parâmetro de repolarização que permaneceu significativo foi o intervalo Tp-e (OR = 1,085 IC 95% 1,032-1,140, p=0,001). Conclusão Com o prolongamento do intervalo Tp-e, pode-se prever a presença de fibrose miocárdica, a qual é um substrato arritmogênico, em pacientes com ICFEr.


Abstract Background Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a highly prevalent disease that requires repeating hospitalizations, causes significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early recognition of poor outcome predictors is essential for patient management. Objective The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and repolarization parameters such as corrected QT (QTc) interval, Tp-e interval, frontal QRS-T angle detected by 12 lead electrocardiograph (ECG) in HFrEF. Method In this single-center, retrospective observational study included 97 consecutive HFrEF patients who had CMR scan. Study population was divided into two groups according to the presence of LGE. Echocardiographic and CMR measurements and demographic features were recorded. QTc intervals, Tp-e intervals, frontal QRS-T angles were calculated from the ECG. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results LGE was detected in 52 (53.6%) out of 97 HFrEF patients. QTc intervals (p=0.001), Tp-e intervals (p<0.001), frontal QRS-T angles (p<0.001) were found to be significantly higher in LGE group when compared to non-LGE group. In univariate regression analysis which was performed to investigate the predictors of LGE in HFrEF, all three repolarization parameters were reached significant values but in multivariate analysis the only repolarization parameter remained significant was Tp-e interval (OR=1.085 95% CI 1.032-1.140, p=0.001). Conclusion With the prolongation of the Tp-e interval, the presence of myocardial fibrosis which is an arrhythmogenic substrate, can be predicted in patients with HFrEF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gadolinium , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Predictive Value of Tests , Contrast Media
5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 456-459, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288616

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The integrity of articular cartilage determines the functional state of the joint. In recent years, the development of MRI sequences of various articular cartilage has become the focus of many research topics. Objective: The accuracy of diagnosis of knee cartilage injury caused by motion injury was studied retrospectively by meta-three-dimensional software. Methods: Forty-six knee joints of 45 patients with sports injuries, multi-sequence MRI was performed before surgery, including conventional knee MRI (SET1WI, FSEPD/T2WI), 3D SPGR, and 3D FIESTA sequences. Results: According to the operation results, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 3D SPGR combined with conventional MRI sequence evaluation of cartilage damage are the highest, 73%, 98%, 95%, and 90%. Conclusions: 3D SPGR combined with conventional MRI sequences can improve accurate evaluation and diagnosis of cartilage disease over a reasonable scan time. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: A integridade da cartilagem articular determina o estado funcional da articulação. Nos últimos anos, o desenvolvimento de sequências de ressonância magnética de várias cartilagens articulares se tornou o foco de muitos tópicos de pesquisa. Objetivo: A precisão do diagnóstico de lesão da cartilagem do joelho causada por lesão de movimento foi estudada retrospectivamente por software meta-tridimensional. Métodos: Quarenta e seis articulações de joelho de 45 pacientes com lesões esportivas, várias sequências de ressonância magnética foram realizadas antes da cirurgia, incluindo ressonância magnética de joelho convencional (SET1WI, FSEPD / T2WI), 3D SPGR e sequências 3D FIESTA. Resultados: De acordo com os resultados da operação, a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo de 3D SPGR combinado com avaliação de sequência de ressonância magnética convencional de danos na cartilagem são os mais altos, 73%, 98%, 95% e 90%. Conclusões: 3D SPGR combinado com sequências convencionais de ressonância magnética pode melhorar a avaliação precisa e diagnóstico de doença da cartilagem em um tempo de varredura razoável. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: La integridad del cartílago articular determina el estado funcional de la articulación. En los últimos años, el desarrollo de secuencias de resonancia magnética de varios cartílagos articulares se ha convertido en el foco de muchos temas de investigación. Objetivo: La precisión del diagnóstico de la lesión del cartílago de la rodilla causada por una lesión por movimiento se estudió retrospectivamente mediante un software meta-tridimensional. Métodos: Cuarenta y seis articulaciones de rodilla de 45 pacientes con lesiones deportivas, se realizó una resonancia magnética de secuencia múltiple antes de la cirugía, incluida la resonancia magnética de rodilla convencional (SET1WI, FSEPD/T2WI), secuencias 3D SPGR y 3D FIESTA. Resultados: De acuerdo con los resultados de la operación, la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor predictivo positivo y el valor predictivo negativo de 3D SPGR combinados con la evaluación de la secuencia de resonancia magnética convencional del daño del cartílago son los más altos, 73%, 98%, 95% y 90%. Conclusiones: 3D SPGR combinado con secuencias de resonancia magnética convencionales puede mejorar la evaluación y el diagnóstico precisos de la enfermedad del cartílago en un tiempo de exploración razonable. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Athletic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Trauma Severity Indices , Knee Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 531-541, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339195

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A estratificação de risco continua sendo clinicamente desafiadora em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) de etiologia não isquêmica. A galectina-3 é um marcador sérico de fibrose que pode ajudar no prognóstico. Objetivo: Determinar o papel da galectina-3 como preditora de eventos arrítmicos graves e mortalidade total. Métodos: Este é um estudo de coorte prospectivo que incluiu 148 pacientes com IC não isquêmica. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a uma avaliação clínica e laboratorial abrangente para coleta de dados de referência, incluindo níveis de galectina-3 sérica. O desfecho primário foi a ocorrência de síncope arrítmica, intervenções apropriadas do cardioversor desfibrilador implantável, taquicardia ventricular sustentada ou morte súbita cardíaca. O desfecho secundário foi a morte por todas as causas. Para todos os testes estatísticos, considerou-se significativo o valor p<0,05 (bicaudal). Resultados: Em seguimento mediano de 941 dias, os desfechos primário e secundário ocorreram em 26 (17,5%) e 30 (20%) pacientes, respectivamente. A galectina-3 sérica>22,5 ng/mL (quartil mais alto) não foi preditora de eventos arrítmicos graves (HR: 1,98; p=0,152). Os preditores independentes do desfecho primário foram diâmetro diastólico final do ventrículo esquerdo (DDFVE)>73 mm (HR: 3,70; p=0,001), ventilação periódica durante o exercício (VPE) no teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (HR: 2,67; p=0,01) e taquicardia ventricular não sustentada (TVNS)>8 batimentos na monitorização por Holter (HR: 3,47; p=0,027). Os preditores de morte por todas as causas foram: galectina-3>22,5 ng/mL (HR: 3,69; p=0,001), DDFVE>73 mm (HR: 3,35; p=0,003), VPE (HR: 3,06; p=0,006) e TVNS>8 batimentos (HR: 3,95; p=0,007). A ausência de todos os preditores de risco foi associada a um valor preditivo negativo de 91,1% para o desfecho primário e 96,6% para a mortalidade total. Conclusões: Em pacientes com IC não isquêmica, níveis elevados de galectina-3 não foram preditores de eventos arrítmicos graves, mas foram associados à mortalidade total. A ausência de preditores de risco revelou um subgrupo prevalente de pacientes com IC com excelente prognóstico.


Abstract Background: Risk stratification remains clinically challenging in patients with heart failure (HF) of non-ischemic etiology. Galectin-3 is a serum marker of fibrosis that might help in prognostication. Objective: To determine the role of galectin-3 as a predictor of major arrhythmic events and overall mortality. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study that enrolled 148 non-ischemic HF patients. All patients underwent a comprehensive baseline clinical and laboratory assessment, including levels of serum galectin-3. The primary outcome was the occurrence of arrhythmic syncope, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or sudden cardiac death. The secondary outcome was all-cause death. For all statistical tests, a two-tailed p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: In a median follow-up of 941 days, the primary and secondary outcomes occurred in 26 (17.5%) and 30 (20%) patients, respectively. Serum galectin-3>22.5 ng/mL (highest quartile) did not predict serious arrhythmic events (HR: 1.98, p=0.152). Independent predictors of the primary outcome were left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)>73mm (HR: 3.70, p=0.001), exercise periodic breathing (EPB) on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (HR: 2.67, p=0.01), and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT)>8 beats on Holter monitoring (HR: 3.47, p=0.027). Predictors of all-cause death were galectin-3>22.5 ng/mL (HR: 3.69, p=0.001), LVEDD>73mm (HR: 3.35, p=0.003), EPB (HR: 3.06, p=0.006), and NSVT>8 beats (HR: 3.95, p=0.007). The absence of all risk predictors was associated with a 91.1% negative predictive value for the primary outcome and 96.6% for total mortality. Conclusions: In non-ischemic HF patients, elevated galectin-3 levels did not predict major arrhythmic events but were associated with total mortality. Absence of risk predictors revealed a prevalent subgroup of HF patients with an excellent prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Defibrillators, Implantable , Galectin 3/blood , Heart Failure , Prognosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden, Cardiac
7.
Psico USF ; 26(3): 467-481, Jul.-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1351346

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the predictive relationship of socio-demographic variables, cultural adaptation and hope on general well-being (GWB), subjective (SWB), social (SoWB) and psychological (PWB) and in the meaning of life. The participants consisted of 108 immigrants. The instruments used were: bio sociodemographic questionnaire, Mental Health Continuum - Short Form, Dispositional Hope Scale, Acculturation Measures and Meaning of Life Questionnaire. In general, only sociocultural adaptation showed a positive predictive relationship with all types of well-being studied, nonetheless this measure presented a negative predictive relationship regarding the presence of meaning in life. Psychological adaptation was predictively and positively related only to SWB. The perception of cultural distance negatively affected SoWB. The presence of meaning was also negatively predicted by the type of immigration and age. The search for meaning was negatively predicted only by income. The results are important for a better understanding of factors that influence the experience of immigrants in Brazil. (AU)


O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação preditiva de variáveis sociodemográficas, adaptação cultural e esperança sobre o bem-estar geral (BEG), subjetivo (BES), social (BESo) e psicológico (BEP) e no sentido de vida. Os participantes consistiram em 108 imigrantes. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: questionário biossociodemográfico, Mental Health Continuum - Short Form, Escala de Esperança, Acculturation Measures e Questionário de Sentido de Vida. De forma geral, apenas a adaptação sociocultural apresentou relação preditiva positiva com todos os tipos de bem-estar estudados, além de uma relação preditiva negativa com a presença de sentido de vida. A adaptação psicológica relacionou-se preditiva e positivamente apenas com BES. A percepção de distância cultural afetou negativamente BESo. A presença de sentido de vida foi negativamente predita pelo tipo de imigração e idade. A busca por sentido foi negativamente predita pela renda. Os resultados são importantes para a melhor compreensão de fatores que influenciam a vivência de imigrantes no Brasil. (AU)


El presente estudio objetivó evaluar la relación predictiva de variables sociodemográficas, adaptación cultural y esperanza sobre el bienestar general (BEG), subjetivo (BES), social (BESo) y psicológico (BEP) y en el sentido de la vida. Participaron 108 inmigrantes. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: cuestionario biossociodemográfico, Mental Health Continuum - Short Form, Escala de Esperanza, Acculturation Measures y Cuestionario de Sentido de la Vida. En general, solo la adaptación sociocultural mostró una relación predictiva positiva con todos los tipos de bienestar estudiados, además de una relación predictiva negativa con la presencia de sentido de vida. La adaptación psicológica solamente se relaciona de manera predictiva y positiva con el BES. La percepción de distancia cultural afectó negativamente al BESo. La presencia de sentido de vida fue predicha negativamente por el tipo de inmigración y edad. La búsqueda por sentido fue predicha negativamente por los ingresos. Los resultados son importantes para una mejor comprensión de los factores que influyen en la experiencia de los inmigrantes en Brasil. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Personal Satisfaction , Refugees/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Acculturation , Linear Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1387, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357302

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la reestadificación del paciente con tumor de recto irradiado, la elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico puede identificar la fibrosis y diferenciarla del tumor residual. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico en la reestadificación del tumor de recto irradiado. Métodos: Estudio observacional y descriptivo (serie de casos), en 31 pacientes con tumor de recto irradiado, reestadificados mediante elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico. Para determinar la utilidad de la elastografía se calcularon: sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, índice de Youden y concordancia diagnóstica según índice kappa, de la elastografía y del ultrasonido endoscópico por separado, estos resultados fueron comparados en ambas pruebas diagnósticas. El estudio histológico de la pieza quirúrgica fue el estándar de referencia. Resultados: El índice de concordancia del ultrasonido endoscópico (77,4 por ciento), por elastografía (87,1 por ciento). El ultrasonido endoscópico mostró mayor sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo que la elastografía, por lo que la posibilidad de descartar presencia de tumor con un resultado negativo fue superior. La elastografía tuvo mayor especificidad (77,78 por ciento) y valor predictivo positivo (90,91 por ciento) que el ultrasonido endoscópico (22,22 y 75,86 por ciento); fue más útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de tumor. Conclusiones: La utilidad de la elastografía cualitativa asociada al ultrasonido endoscópico, en la reestadificación del tumor de recto irradiado, consiste en incrementar la especificidad del estudio y discernir mejor entre la fibrosis y el tumor residual(AU)


Introduction: Qualitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography can identify fibrosis and differentiate it from residual tumor in the re-staging of patients with irradiated rectal tumors. Objective: To determine the usefulness of qualitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography in the re-staging of the irradiated rectal tumor. Methods: An observational and descriptive study (series of cases) was carried out in 31 patients with irradiated rectal tumor, restaged by means of Qualitative elastography by endoscopic ultrasound. To determine the usefulness of elastography, the following were calculated: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index and diagnostic agreement according to kappa, elastography and endoscopic ultrasound separately; these results were compared in both diagnostic tests. The histological study of the surgical specimen was the reference standard. Results: The concordance index of endoscopic ultrasound (77.4 percent), that obtained by elastography (87.1 percent). Endoscopic ultrasound showed greater sensitivity and negative predictive value than elastography, so the possibility of ruling out the presence of a tumor with a negative result was higher. Elastography had greater specificity (77.78 percent) and positive predictive value (90.91 percent) than endoscopic ultrasound (22.22 and 75.86 percent); it was most helpful in confirming the tumor diagnosis. Conclusions: The usefulness of qualitative elastography associated with endoscopic ultrasound, in the re-staging of the irradiated rectal tumor, consists in increasing the specificity of the study, thus allowing a better discernment between fibrosis and residual tumor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Neoplasm, Residual , Endosonography/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Neoplasm Staging/methods
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1091-1098, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278330

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A quantificação não invasiva da reserva fracionada de fluxo miocárdico (FFR TC ) através de software baseado em inteligência artificial em versão mais atualizada e tomógrafo de última geração (384 cortes) apresenta elevada performance na detecção de isquemia coronariana. Objetivos Avaliar o desempenho diagnóstico da FFR TC na detecção de doença arterial coronariana (DAC) significativa em relação ao FFRi, em tomógrafos de gerações anteriores (128 e 256 cortes). Métodos Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes encaminhados à angiotomografia de artérias coronárias (TCC) e cateterismo (FFRi). Foram utilizados os tomógrafos Siemens Somatom Definition Flash (256 cortes) e AS+ (128 cortes). A FFR TC e a área luminal mínima (ALM) foram avaliadas em software (cFFR versão 3.0.0, Siemens Healthineers, Forchheim, Alemanha). DAC obstrutiva foi definida como TCC com redução luminal ≥50% e DAC funcionalmente obstrutiva como FFRi ≤0,8. Todos os valores de p reportados são bicaudais; e quando <0,05, foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Noventa e três pacientes consecutivos (152 vasos) foram incluídos. Houve boa concordância entre FFR TC e FFRi, com mínima superestimação da FFR TC (viés: -0,02; limites de concordância: 0,14 a 0,09). Diferentes tomógrafos não modificaram a relação entre FFR TC e FFRi (p para interação = 0,73). A FFR TC demonstrou performance significativamente superior à classificação visual de estenose coronariana (AUC 0,93 vs. 0,61, p <0,001) e à ALM (AUC 0,93 vs. 0,75, p <0,001) reduzindo o número de casos falso-positivos. O melhor ponto de corte para a FFR TC utilizando um índice de Youden foi de 0,85 (sensiblidade, 87%; especificidade, 86%; VPP, 73%; NPV, 94%), com redução de falso-positivos. Conclusão FFR TC baseada em inteligência artificial, em tomógrafos de gerações anteriores (128 e 256 cortes), apresenta boa performance diagnóstica na detecção de DAC, podendo ser utilizada para reduzir procedimentos invasivos.


Abstract Background The non-invasive quantification of the fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) using a more recent version of an artificial intelligence-based software and latest generation CT scanner (384 slices) may show high performance to detect coronary ischemia. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic performance of FFRCT for the detection of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in contrast to invasive FFR (iFFR) using previous generation CT scanners (128 and 256- detector rows). Methods Retrospective study with patients referred to coronary artery CT angiography (CTA) and catheterization (iFFR) procedures. Siemens Somatom Definition Flash (256-detector rows) and AS+ (128-detector rows) CT scanners were used to acquire the images. The FFRCT and the minimal lumen area (MLA) were evaluated using a dedicated software (cFFR version 3.0.0, Siemens Healthineers, Forchheim, Germany). Obstructive CAD was defined as CTA lumen reduction ≥ 50%, and flow-limiting stenosis as iFFR ≤0.8. All reported P values are two-tailed, and when <0.05, they were considered statistically significant. Results Ninety-three consecutive patients (152 vessels) were included. There was good agreement between FFRCT and iFFR, with minimal FFRCT overestimation (bias: -0.02; limits of agreement:0.14-0.09). Different CT scanners did not modify the association between FFRCT and FFRi (p for interaction=0.73). The performance of FFRCT was significantly superior compared to the visual classification of coronary stenosis (AUC 0.93vs.0.61, p<0.001) and to MLA (AUC 0.93vs.0.75, p<0.001), reducing the number of false-positive cases. The optimal cut-off point for FFRCT using a Youden index was 0.85 (87% Sensitivity, 86% Specificity, 73% PPV, 94% NPV), with a reduction of false-positives. Conclusion Machine learning-based FFRCT using previous generation CT scanners (128 and 256-detector rows) shows good diagnostic performance for the detection of CAD, and can be used to reduce the number of invasive procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Severity of Illness Index , Artificial Intelligence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Vessels , Machine Learning , Computed Tomography Angiography
10.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 255-260, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346104

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha reportado disfunción olfatoria y anosmia; en la mujer embarazada se presenta hasta en 24.2 %. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia con la que las mujeres embarazadas e infección por SARS-CoV-2 tienen disfunción olfatoria. Métodos: Se preguntó edad, edad gestacional, temperatura, presencia de constipación nasal o rinorrea, mialgias, cefalea, tos o dolor torácico, además de evaluar si las mujeres percibían e identificaban el aroma de jugo de uva, café en polvo y mentol. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. La U de Mann-Whitney y el contraste de proporciones sirvieron para las comparaciones entre los grupos. Resultados: Hubo mayor proporción de mujeres con tos, cefalea, disnea, mialgias, odinofagia, rinorrea, dolor torácico y anosmia en mujeres positivas a SARS-CoV-2. De las pacientes sin COVID-19, 88.9 % detectó cada uno de los aromas; solo 31.8 % del grupo positivo detectó el aroma a uva, 47.7 % el de café y 59.1 % el de mentol, el cual tuvo los porcentajes más altos en sensibilidad (40 %), especificidad (21 %), valores predictivos positivo (59 %) y negativo (11 %). Conclusión: la disfunción olfatoria se presenta en un porcentaje importante de las mujeres embarazadas con COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. Objective: To know the frequency in which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. Methods: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. Results: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). Conclusion: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology
11.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(2): e1075, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280217

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La dehiscencia de la línea de sutura es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes en la cirugía intestinal. Objetivo: Diseñar una escala predictiva para estimar de forma individual la probabilidad de dehiscencia de la línea de sutura intestinal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio, analítico, de cohorte con recogida retrospectiva de datos en el sexenio 2014-2019 en el hospital "Celia Sánchez Manduley". La muestra fue de 437 pacientes y se usó la variable dependiente: dehiscencia de la línea de sutura intestinal y variables independientes: edad, sexo, comorbilidad, hemoglobina, hipoalbuminemia, neoplasia de colon, riesgo anestésico, entre otras. Resultados: En el análisis multivariado se obtuvo un modelo ajustado con las variables: edad mayor de 70 años (p = 0,002), hipoalbuminemia (p = 0,014), anastomosis enterocólica (p = 0,018), cirugía urgente (p = 0,001) e íleo paralítico prolongado (p < 0,001). La escala predictiva fue derivada del modelo estadístico ajustado y clasificado en 3 grupos de riesgo la probabilidad de dehiscencia de la línea de sutura intestinal: bajo (menor de 2 puntos), moderado (entre 3 y 5 puntos) y elevado (mayor de 6 puntos). Presentó una sensibilidad de 89,6 por ciento, especificidad de 89,1 por ciento, porciento predictivo global de 89,2 por ciento, valor predictivo positivo de 66,1 por ciento y valor predictivo negativo de 97,2 por ciento. Tuvo una excelente calibración y un elevado poder discriminativo. Conclusión: Se obtuvo una escala predictiva para estimar de forma individual la probabilidad de dehiscencia de la línea de sutura intestinal(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The suture line dehiscence is one of the most frequent complications in intestinal surgery. Objective: To design a predictive scale for estimating individual probability of suture line dehiscence. Methods: An analytical cohort study, which involved retrospective data collection, was carried out, in the six-year period of 2014-2019, at Celia Sánchez Manduley Hospital. The sample consisted of 437 patients. Dehiscence of the intestinal suture line was used as a dependent variable, while age, sex, comorbidity, hemoglobin, hypoalbuminemia, colon neoplasia, anesthetic risk, among others, were used as independent variables. Results: Through multivariate analysis, an adjusted model was obtained, with the following results for the variables: age over 70 years (P=0.002), hypoalbuminemia (P=0.014), enterocolic anastomosis (P=0.018), urgent surgery (P=0.001), and ileus prolonged paralytic (P < 0.001). The predictive scale was derived from the adjusted statistical model and, based on the probability of dehiscence of the intestinal suture line, classified into three risk groups: low (less than two points), moderate (between 3-5 points) and high (more than six points). It presented a sensitivity of 89.6 percent, a specificity of 89.1 percent, a global predictive percentage of 89.2 percent, a positive predictive value of 66.1 percent, and a negative predictive value of 97.2 percent. It had an excellent calibration and a high discriminative power. Conclusion: A predictive scale was obtained for estimating the individual probability of dehiscence of the intestinal suture line(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/complications , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Suture Techniques/adverse effects , Data Collection , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 558-565, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154500

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) are still increasing in developing countries. Limited access to the health system or more aggressive disease are potential reasons for this. Ethnic and social differences in developed countries seem to make inappropriate to extrapolate data from other centers. We aim to report the epidemiological profile of a PSA-screened population from a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 9.692 men enrolled in a PCa prevention program, comprising total PSA level and digital rectal examination at the first appointment, associated with complementary tests when necessary. Men aged over 40 years-old were included after shared decision-making process. Prostate biopsy (TRUS) was performed when clinically suspected for PCa. After the diagnosis, patients underwent appropriate treatment. Results: TRUS was performed in 5.5% of men and PCa incidence was 2.6%. Overall ratio between number of patients who needed to be screened in order to diagnose one cancer was 38.9 patients, with 2.1 biopsies performed to diagnose a cancer. Positive predictive value (PPV) of TRUS biopsy in this strategy was 47.2%, varying from 38.5% (<50 years-old) to 60% (>80 years-old). We evidenced 70 patients (27.9%) classified as low risk tumors, 74 (29.5%) as intermediate risk, and 107 (42.6%) as high-risk disease. Conclusions: PSA-screening remains controversial in literature. In front of a huge miscegenated people and considering the big proportion of high-risk PCa, even in young men diagnosed with the disease, it is imperative to inform patients and health providers about these data particularities in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Middle Aged
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 157-163, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285317

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered a global public health problem, with changes in lifestyle being the effective way to treat the disease. To date, there is no recommended standard of assessment to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) of patients with NAFLD, so that dietary therapy can be properly guided. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the REE of patients with NAFLD through indirect calorimetry and compare with different predictive formulas of REE and with REE by electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Assess body composition through BIA, with NAFLD staging and the presence of comorbidities. METHODS: They were evaluated in patients with NAFLD over 18 years of age treated at the Gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a tertiary level hospital in southern Brazil. NAFLD staging was performed using liver biopsy or a non-invasive method. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined in all patients. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Comorbidities as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were evaluated. To estimate energy expenditure at rest, Harris-Benedict, Jeor Mifflin-St, World Health Organization and Schofield formulas were used. BIA was used to assess resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body mass, and to measure RMR, indirect calorimetry was also used. Associations between categorical variables were tested with Pearson's χ2 test and between groups with McNemar's test. The level of significance assumed was 5%. The degree of agreement between the REE measurement methods was assessed using the Blan-Altman test. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients were evaluated, 70.5% male, with a mean age of 59 years and a mean BMI of 33.08 kg/m2 ±5.13. The average RMR per CI was 1,753 kcal ±614.58. When comparing the RMR estimate by different formulas with indirect calorimetry, only the Jeor Mifflin-St formula showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001), with a difference of +318.49 kcal. BIA and Harris Benedict's formula presented values closer to CI, 1,658 and 1,845 kcal respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the Jeor Mifflin-St formula should not be used to estimate the RMR in patients with NAFLD. In the absence of indirect calorimetry, some alternatives can be used safely in this population, such as BIA and the predictive formulas of Harris Benedict, Schofield and the World Health Organization.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é considerada, atualmente, um problema de saúde pública global, sendo a mudança no estilo de vida a forma efetiva de tratar a doença. Até o momento não há um padrão de avaliação recomendado para determinar o gasto energético de repouso (GER) de pacientes com DHGNA, para que se possa nortear adequadamente a conduta dietoterápica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o GER de pacientes com DHGNA através da calorimetria indireta (CI) e comparar com diferentes fórmulas preditivas do GER e com GER através da bioimpedância elétrica (BIA). Avaliar a composição corporal através da BIA, com o estadiamento da DHGNA e com a presença de comorbidades. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em pacientes com DHGNA maiores de 18 anos de idade atendidos no ambulatório de Gastroenterologia de um Hospital de nível terciário do Sul do Brasil. O estadiamento da DHGNA foi realizado através de biópsia hepática ou método não invasivo. Peso, altura e índice de massa corporal (IMC) foram determinados em todos os pacientes. Para avaliação da atividade física foi utilizada a versão curta do International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Foram avaliadas as comorbidades hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e dislipidemia. Para a estimativa do gasto energético de repouso utilizou-se as fórmulas de Harris-Benedict, de Jeor Mifflin-St, da Organização Mundial de Saúde e de Schofield. A BIA foi utilizada para avaliação do GER e da massa corporal, e para aferição do GER também se utilizou a CI. Associações entre variáveis categóricas foram testadas com teste χ2 de Pearson e entre grupos com teste de McNemar. O nível de significância assumido foi de 5%. O grau de concordância entre os métodos de mensuração do GER foi aferido pelo teste de Blan-Altman. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 67 pacientes, sendo 70,5% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59 anos e média de IMC 33,08 kg/m2 ±5,13. O GER médio por CI foi de 1.753 kcal ±614,58. Ao comparar a estimativa do GER por diferentes fórmulas com a calorimetria indireta, apenas a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (P=0,0001), com uma diferença de +318,49 kcal. A BIA e a fórmula de Harris Benedict apresentaram valores mais próximos à CI, 1.658 e 1.845 kcal respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos que a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St não deva ser utilizada para estimativa do GER em pacientes com DHGNA. Na ausência da CI algumas alternativas podem ser utilizadas com segurança nesta população, como a BIA e as fórmulas preditivas de Harris Benedict, de Schofield e da Organização Mundial de Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Basal Metabolism , Calorimetry, Indirect , Body Mass Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Energy Metabolism , Middle Aged
14.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-17, jun. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284420

ABSTRACT

Background: Echocardiographic predictors for new onset heart failure in patients with ischemic heart disease with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) or with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) in Ethiopian and Sub-Saharan African is not well-known.Methods: Two hundred twenty-eight patients with ischemic heart disease were retrospectively recruited and followed. Analysis on baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of patients, and risk factors for new onset HFpEF and new onset HFrEF were done. The exclusion criteria were known heart failure at baseline and those who did not have echocardiography data.Results: During the follow up period, heart failure developed in 62.2% (61/98) of ischemic heart disease patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and in 70.1% (92/130) of ischemic heart disease patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. We did not find significant difference between HFrEF and HFpEF in time to new onset heart failure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, left atrium and diastolic left ventricular dimension had significant association with new onset HFrEF on univariate regression analysis. Whereas new onset HFpEF was significantly associated with age, sex, presence of hypertension, Systolic blood pressure and diastolic left ventricular dimension. On cox regression analysis diastolic left ventricular dimension was associated with both new onset HFpEF and HFrEF. Age, diabetes, and dimension of left atrium were also associated with HFrEF.Conclusion: This cohort study in ischemic heart disease patients suggests a key role for the diastolic left ventricular dimension, left atrium size, diabetes, sex and age as predictors of new onset HFrEF and HFpEF. Strategies directed to prevention and early treatment of diabetes, dilatation of left ventricle and left atrium may prevent a considerable proportion of HFrEF or HFpEF.


Antecedentes: Los predictores ecocardiográficos de nuevos eventos de insuficiencia cardiaca en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular preservada (HFpEF) o con fracción de eyección ventricular reducida (HFrEF) no son bien conocidos en la Africa etíope y subsahariana.Métodos: Doscientos veintiocho pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica fueron reclutados y seguidos retrospectivamente. Se realizaron análisis sobre las características clínicas y ecocardiográficas basales de los pacientes, así como los factores de riesgo para un nuevo evento de HFpEF y un nuevo evento de HFrEF. Los criterios de exclusión fueron insuficiencia cardíaca conocida al inicio del estudio y aquellos que no tenían datos de ecocardiografía.Resultados: Durante el período de seguimiento, la insuficiencia cardíaca se desarrolló en el 62,2% (61/98) de pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda preservada y en el 70,1% (92/130) de pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda reducida. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre HFrEF y HFpEF en el tiempo hasta la nueva aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. La presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica, la diabetes y las dimensiones de la aurícula iquierda y del ventrículo izquierdo en diástole tuvieron una asociación significativa con nuevos eventos de HFrEF en el análisis de regresión univariada. Mientras que un nuevo evento de HFpEF se asoció significativamente con la edad, el sexo, la presencia de hipertensión, la presión arterial sistólica y la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica. En el análisis de regresión de cox, la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica se asoció con HFpEF de nuevo inicio y HFrEF. La edad, la diabetes y la dimensión de la aurícula izquierda también se asociaron con HFrEF. Conclusión: Este estudio de cohorte en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica sugiere un papel clave para la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica, el tamaño de la aurícula izquierda, la diabetes, el sexo y la edad como predictores de un nuevo evento de HFrEF y HFpEF. Las estrategias dirigidas a la prevención y el tratamiento temprano de la diabetes, la dilatación del ventrículo izquierdo y la aurícula izquierda pueden prevenir una proporción considerable de HFrEF o HFpEF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Tobacco Use Disorder , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Age Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Risk Assessment/methods , Heart Disease Risk Factors
15.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e217, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289382

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El diagnóstico clínico del hipercortisolismo endógeno puede ser complejo si las manifestaciones clínicas no son patognomónicas. Es importante conocer cuáles son las distintivas en nuestros pacientes, que permitan diagnosticar la enfermedad de forma precoz. Objetivo: Determinar sensibilidad, especificidad y valor predictivo positivo de las manifestaciones clínicas para diagnosticar el hipercortisolismo endógeno. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Grupo I: 65 pacientes con hipercortisolismo endógeno y grupo II (comparación): 75 con sospecha clínica de hipercortisolismo endógeno a los que se les descartó la enfermedad. Se estudiaron pacientes con diagnóstico de hipercortisolismo endógeno (2004-2017), atendidos en el Instituto de Endocrinología. Se determinaron los valores de sensibilidad, especificidad y valor predictivo positivo para el diagnóstico de hipercortisolismo endógeno de cada síntoma y signo por separado, así como para las combinaciones de tres manifestaciones clínicas; además se realizó una regresión logística binaria para identificar las combinaciones de sintomatologías que mejor predicen la presencia de hipercortisolismo endógeno. Se consideró diferencia estadística significativa con p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: La mayoría de los síntomas presentó una sensibilidad inferior al 45 por ciento. La circunferencia de la cintura fue el único signo que mostró alta sensibilidad (76,9 por ciento), baja especificidad (28,6 por ciento) con valor predictivo positivo de 42,0 por ciento. Cuando se presentan dos o tres de estos signos: rubicundez, cara de "luna llena" e hirsutismo la posibilidad de tener hipercortisolismo endógeno es 75,4 por ciento, con valor predictivo positivo de 71 por ciento y, cuando no están presentes la probabilidad de no tenerlo es de 77,5 por ciento. Conclusiones: La combinación de sensibilidad, especificidad y valor predictivo positivo de los síntomas y signos de forma aislada no predice el diagnóstico de la enfermedad; sin embargo, la presencia de dos o tres de los síntomas y/o signos tiene una elevada sensibilidad y valor predictivo positivo para el diagnóstico del hipercortisolismo endógeno. Las combinaciones que mejor predicen la posibilidad de tener un hipercortisolismo endógeno son: piel fina, edema y acné; cara de "luna llena", hirsutismo y rubicundez, así como "giba de búfalo", hematomas y estrías(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The clinical diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism can be complex if clinical manifestations are not pathognomonic. It is important to know what are distinctive in our patients, which allows to diagnose the disease early. Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of clinical manifestations for diagnosis. of endogenous hypercortisolism. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study. Group I was made up of 65 patients with endogenous hypercortisolism; group II (comparison) was made up of 75 patients with clinical suspicion of endogenous hypercortisolism, finally ruled out. We studied patients diagnosed of endogenous hypercortisolism from 2004 to 2017, treated at the Endocrinology Institute. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were determined for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism for each symptom and sign separately, as well as for the combinations of three clinical manifestations; in addition, binary logistic regression was performed to identify the combinations of symptoms that best predict the presence of endogenous hypercortisolism. A statistically significant difference was considered with p ≤ 0.05. Results: Most of the symptoms presented a sensitivity lower than 45 percent. Waist circumference was the only sign that showed high sensitivity (76.9 percent), low specificity (28.6 percent), and positive predictive value of 42.0 percent. When two or three of these signs (redness, "full-moon" face, and hirsutism) are present, the possibility of having endogenous hypercortisolism is 75.4 percent, with positive predictive value of 71 percent; and, when they are not present, the probability of not having it is 77,5 percent. Conclusions: The combination of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the symptoms and signs in isolation does not predict the diagnosis of the disease; however, the presence of two or three of the symptoms and/or signs has a high sensitivity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism. The combinations that best predict the possibility of having an endogenous hypercortisolism are thin skin, edema and acne; "full-moon" face, hirsutism and redness; as well as "buffalo hump," bruises and stretch marks(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference
16.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 193-204, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222629

ABSTRACT

El propósito de esta publicación es describir los fundamentos de los estudios diagnósticos, proporcionando elementos de juicio para evaluar la validez, puntualizar sobre las medidas de utilidad o rendimiento de las mismas y resaltar la importancia de los estudios diagnósticos en la práctica clínica usual. Dentro de los fundamentos de las pruebas diagnósticas se explican los principios básicos sobre las pruebas diagnósticas, la estructura de estas y se detalla cómo se analizan los resultados de la prueba diagnóstica de interés y los resultados de la prueba diagnóstica de referencia. Se evalúa la validez de una prueba diagnóstica examinando tres criterios importantes que sustentan la solidez metodológica de este tipo de estudio: representatividad, constatación y determinación. Por otro lado, se estudia el primer tipo de medidas de rendimiento de una prueba diagnóstica, las medidas de probabilidad (sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo). Cuando los resultados de una prueba diagnóstica son expresados en una escala cuantitativa continua es necesario escoger "el mejor punto de corte" que se corresponda con una alta sensibilidad y especificidad, para así distinguir los enfermos de los sanos. Con este fin, podemos utilizar las propiedades de la curva COR (acrónimo de Característica Operativa del Receptor). En la presente publicación se describe y pormenoriza la construcción de la curva COR y se puntualiza sobre la mejor manera de analizarla y sacarle provecho. Por último, se ilustra cómo un estudio diagnóstico cambia el paradigma de manejo de una enfermedad


The purpose of this publication is to describe the fundamentals of diagnostic studies, providing elements of judgment to evaluate their validity, to point out their usefulness or performance measures, and to highlight the importance of diagnostic studies in usual clinical practice. Within the fundamentals of diagnostic tests, the basic principles of diagnostic tests, their structure, and how the results of the diagnostic test of interest and the results of the reference diagnostic test are analyzed and explained. The validity of a diagnostic test is eva-luated by examining three important criteria that support the methodological soundness of this type of study: representativeness, verification, and determination. On the other hand, the first type of performance measures of a diagnostic test are studied, the probability measures (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, ne-gative predictive value). When the results of a diagnostic test are expressed on a continuous quantitative scale, it is necessary to choose the best cut-off point that corresponds to high sensitivity and specificity, in order to distinguish the sick from the healthy. To this end, we can use the properties of the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) curve. In this publication, the construction of the ROC curve is described and detailed, and the best way to analyze it and take advantage of it is specified. Finally, it illustrates how a diagnostic study changes the paradigm of disease management


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Laboratory Test
17.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(1): e37106, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1289843

ABSTRACT

Resumen: A nivel mundial se estima que en 2018 hubo alrededor de 10 millones de nuevos casos de tuberculosis (TBC). La detección molecular es una herramienta diagnóstica crecientemente utilizada para el diagnóstico de TBC. Los predictores de riesgo para TBC pulmonar son variados y varían de acuerdo a la población estudiada. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: evaluar la performance de la detección de M. tuberculosis por la técnica Xpert® MTB/RIF para el diagnóstico de TBC pulmonar y determinar los factores predictores de presencia de esta enfermedad en pacientes asistidos en el Hospital Pasteur de Montevideo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal. Se incluyeron 254 pacientes, 68 con TBC pulmonar. La sensibilidad de la prueba Xpert® MTB/RIF para detectar M. tuberculosis fue 100% (IC 95%: 91,2-100) y la especificidad 95,1% (IC 95%: 83,9-98,7). En el análisis multivariado se evidenció que los predictores independientes para presencia de TBC pulmonar fueron: contacto cercano con otro caso de TBC (p<0,001), consumo de pasta base de cocaína (p=0,006) y presentarse con adelgazamiento (p<0,001). En suma, la prueba Xpert® MTB/RIF se comportó como una excelente herramienta diagnóstica en nuestra población con elevada prevalencia de TBC pulmonar. Los predictores independientes para esta enfermedad indican que en la población analizada las estrategias de control de esta enfermedad requieren un abordaje multidisciplinario.


Summary: According to global estimations, there were approximately 10 million new cases of tuberculosis in 2018. Molecular diagnosis constitutes a rapidly growing diagnostic tool for tuberculosis. Risk predictors for pulmonary tuberculosis are varied and they depend on the population studied. The study aimed to assess the performance of M. tuberculosis detection by use of Xpert® MTB/RIF diagnostic test to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis and to identify predictive factors for this disease in patients assisted at Pasteur Hospital in Montevideo. A descriptive, observational and transversal study was conducted, which included 254 patients, 68 of which had pulmonary tuberculosis. Sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay to detect M. tuberculosis was 100% (CI 95%: 91.2-100) and specificity 95.1% (CI 95%: 83.9-98.7). Multivariate analysis evidenced the following to be the independent predictors that detect pulmonary tuberculosis: close contact with other cases of tuberculosis (p<0.001), coca-paste consumption (p=0.006) and evidence of loss of weight (p<0,001). To sum up, the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool in our population with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. Independent predictors for this disease show that, in the population studied, control strategies require a multidisciplinary approach.


Resumo: Globalmente, estima-se que em 2018 ocorreram cerca de 10 milhões de novos casos de tuberculose (TB). A detecção molecular é uma ferramenta diagnóstica cada vez mais usada para seu diagnóstico. Os preditores de risco para TB pulmonar são diversos e variam de acordo com a população estudada. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar o desempenho da detecção do M. tuberculosis pela técnica Xpert MTB/RIF para o diagnóstico da TB pulmonar e determinar os fatores preditivos da presença desta doença em pacientes atendidos no Hospital Pasteur de Montevidéu. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal. 254 pacientes foram incluídos, 68 com TB pulmonar. A sensibilidade do teste Xpert® MTB/RIF para detectar M. tuberculosis foi de 100% (IC 95%: 91,2-100) e a especificidade de 95,1% (IC 95%: 83,9- 98,7). A análise multivariada mostrou que os preditores independentes para a presença de tuberculose pulmonar foram: contato próximo com outro caso de tuberculose (p <0,001), consumo de pasta base de cocaína (p = 0,006) e apresentar perda de peso (p <0,001). Em suma, o teste Xpert® MTB/RIF se comportou como uma excelente ferramenta diagnóstica em nossa população com alta prevalência de TB pulmonar. Os preditores independentes para essa doença indicam que, na população analisada, as estratégias de controle da doença requerem uma abordagem multidisciplinar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 40(146): 11-21, mar. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1337785

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la calidad y efectividad del trabajo realizado en el Centro Mamario del Hospital Universitario Austral, mediante la correlación entre las diferentes categorizaciones del BI-RADS, el resultado de la anatomía patológica y el cálculo del respectivo VPP. Correlacionar los resultados con los obtenidos a nivel internacional. Material y método: se realizó una revisión de todas las biopsias guiadas por ultrasonido, se seleccionaron aquellas pacientes estudiadas con algún método de diagnóstico por imágenes en el Centro Mamario del Hospital Universitario Austral y cuya categorización final de BI-RADS fuera de 4 o 5, entre junio de 2014 y mayo de 2017. Los resultados de la anatomía patológica fueron divididos en 3 categorías (benigno, maligno y alto riesgo) Resultados: de una total de 491 pacientes 223 correspondieron a la subcategoría 4a, 69 pacientes a la subcategoría 4b, 85 pacientes a la subcategoría 4c y 114 pacientes a la categoría 5. En las subcategorías 4a y 4b predominaron las lesiones benignas y en la subcategoría 4c y categoría 5 predominaron las lesiones malignas. Los VPP para cáncer de mama obtenidos fueron de 7%, 48%, 84% y 98% para las subcategorías 4a, 4b, 4c y categoría 5 respectivamente. Conclusiones: la investigación demostró que los resultados de los VPP, la calidad y efectividad del trabajo realizado en el Centro Mamario del Hospital Universitario Austral se encuentran dentro de los parámetros internacionales.


Objetive: to determine the quality and effectiveness of the work carried out in the Breast Center of the Austral University Hospital, through the correlation between the different categorizations of the BI-RADS, the result of the pathological anatomy and the calculation of the respective VPP. Correlate the results with those obtained internationally. Material and method: a review of al ultasound-guided biopsies was performed, those patients studied with some diagnostic imaging method were selected in the Breast Center of the Austral University Hospital and whose final categorization of BI-RADS was 4 or 5, between june 2014 and may 2017. The results of the pathological anatomy were divided into 3 categories (bening, malignant and high risk). Results: from a total of 491 patients, 223 corresponded to subcategory 4a, 69 patients to subcategory 4b, 85 patiens to subcategory 4c and 114 patients to category 5. In subcategories 4a and 4b benign lesions predominated and in subcategory 4c and category 5, malignant lesions predominated. The VPP for breast cáncer obtained were 7%, 48%, 84% and 98% for subcategories 4a, 4b, 4c y category 5 respectively. Conclusions: the investigation showed that the results of the PPV, the quality and effectiveness of the work carried out in the Breast Center of the Autral University Hospital are within the international parameters.


Subject(s)
Female , Breast Neoplasms , Biopsy , Punctures , Predictive Value of Tests
19.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 24-29, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251518

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la hiperplasia nodular linfoide del colon se define como > 10 nódulos linfoides visibles en colonoscopia. No existen estudios de su validez al compararlo con la histopatología. Objetivos: determinar la validez del hallazgo de nódulos en colonoscopia para el diagnóstico de hiperplasia nodular linfoide. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo de prueba diagnóstica. Se incluyeron colonoscopias realizadas consecutivamente de 2014 al 2018 con equipos Olympus PCFQ150AI y GIFXP150N con obtención de biopsias. El criterio endoscópico fue la presencia de > 10 nódulos de 2 a 10 mm y el criterio histológico fue hiperplasia de folículos linfoides y mantos de linfocitos en lámina propia o submucosa. Los datos se analizaron en Epidat3.1. Se obtuvo la sensibilidad (S), especificidad (E), valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y negativo (VPN), y coeficientes de probabilidad positivo (LR+) y negativo (LR-) con sus intervalos de confianza. Resultados: se incluyeron 327 colonoscopias, la mediana de edad fue de 84 meses. La principal indicación para la colonoscopia fue sangrado digestivo bajo (38,8%). El hallazgo de nódulos se encontró en el 21% y el sitio de mayor frecuencia fue el colon total (46%), mientras que por histopatología se encontró hiperplasia nodular linfoide en el 38%. El hallazgo de nódulos obtuvo una S de 32% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 24-140), E de 84% (IC 95%: 79-89), VPP de 56% (IC 95%: 44-68), VPN de 67% (IC 95%: 61-72), LR+ de 2,04 (IC 95%: 1,4-3) y LR- de 0,8 (IC 95%: 0,8-0,9). Conclusiones: la validez diagnóstica del hallazgo de nódulos en colonoscopia para hiperplasia nodular linfoide es pobre, por lo que la toma de biopsia debe recomendarse siempre.


Abstract Introduction: Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the colon is characterized by the presence of >10 lymphoid nodules visible in colonoscopy. There are no studies that confirm their validity when compared with histopathology. Objective: To determine the validity of nodules detected at colonoscopy for the diagnosis of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in children. Materials and methods: Prospective study of diagnostic test accuracy. Colonoscopies performed consecutively from 2014 to 2018 using Olympus PCFQ150AI and GIFXP150N biopsy machines were included. The endoscopic criterion was the presence of >10 nodules from 2 to 10mm of diameter, while the histological criterion was presence of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphocyte mantles in lamina propia or submucosa. Data were analyzed in Epidat3.1. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were obtained with their corresponding confidence intervals. Results: 327 colonoscopies were included; the median age was 84 months. The main indication for colonoscopy was lower gastrointestinal bleeding (38.8%). Nodules were found in 21% of the patients, predominantly throughout the whole colon (46%), whereas histopathology found nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in 38%. SE for the finding of nodules was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24-140), SP was 84% (95% CI: 79-89), PPV was 56% (95% CI: 44-68), NPV was 67% (95% CI: 61-72), LR+ was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.4-3) and LR- was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.8-0.9). Conclusions: The validity of the presence of nodules on colonoscopy for the diagnosis of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is poor, so biopsy should always be performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Hyperplasia , Biopsy , Confidence Intervals , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colon , Methods
20.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(1): 9-13, Jan. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156081

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective We evaluated risk factors to determine if there were specific risk factors that could predict massive bleeding in nulliparous women with placenta previa. Methods The participants were classified into two groups. Women with a calculated blood loss ≥ 1,000mL were included in the massive bleeding group. Women without any signs or symptoms related with hypovolemia or with a calculated bleeding volume < 1,000 mL were categorized into the non-massive bleeding group. Results There were 28 patients (40.6%) with massive bleeding and 41 cases (59.4%) with non-massive bleeding. The calculated blood loss and number of cases that required red cell transfusions were statistically different between the groups (< 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in terms of maternal or fetal factors, placental location, or delivery characteristics between the two groups. Conclusion We could not determine the predictive features for massive hemorrhage based on clinical features, delivery features, or placental location.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Placenta Previa , Prenatal Diagnosis , Postpartum Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Parity , Cesarean Section , Predictive Value of Tests , Postpartum Hemorrhage/etiology
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