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1.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(4): 248-254, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515216

ABSTRACT

La pentalogía de Cantrell es una rara anomalía congénita caracterizada por la asociación de ectopia cordis con defectos en la pared toracoabdominal, el diafragma, el esternón y pericárdicos, y anomalías cardíacas intrínsecas. En diagnóstico prenatal, la ecografía se utiliza sistemáticamente entre las 11 y 14 semanas de gestación, evaluando marcadores de alteraciones cromosómicas como la sonolucencia nucal, el hueso nasal y la morfología patológica del ductus venoso, entre otros. Además, permite examinar la anatomía fetal y diagnosticar anomalías mayores, como acrania-anencefalia, holoprosencefalia, defectos de la pared abdominal y toracoabdominal, entre los que se incluye la pentalogía de Cantrell. Se reporta un feto con los hallazgos clásicos de pentalogía de Cantrell, que fue expulsado a las 13 semanas de gestación bajo protocolo de interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. Madre de 23 años, G1P0, sin exposiciones teratogénicas, en cuyo feto se encontró ectopia cordis, asas intestinales e hígado por fuera de la cavidad abdominal en las 10 y 12 semanas de gestación. El objetivo de este estudio es aportar a la literatura un reporte de pentalogía de Cantrell, siendo el primero reportado en Colombia en el primer trimestre de gestación, mostrando la importancia de la ecografía sistemática durante este periodo, en el marco de la posibilidad de interrupción voluntaria del embarazo.


Cantrells pentalogy is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the association of ectopia cordis with intrinsic cardiac anomalies and various anatomical defects found in the thoracoabdominal wall, diaphragm, sternum and pericardium. Ultrasound is used routinely between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation during prenatal diagnosis. It evaluates markers of chromosomal alterations such as nuchal sonolucency, the nasal bone, and the pathological morphology of the ductus venosus, among others. Furthermore, it allows the diagnosis of altered fetal anatomy and major abnormalities such as acrania-anencephaly, holoprosencephaly, abdominal and thoraco-abdominal wall defects including Cantrells pentalogy. In this case report, we present a fetus with the classic findings of Cantrells pentalogy, which was expelled during the 13th week of gestation under the protocol of voluntary interruption of pregnancy. The mother, a 23-year-old woman, G1P0, without teratogenic exposures, in whom during the routine ultrasound of the 10th and 12th weeks of gestation ectopia cordis, intestinal loops and liver outside the abdominal cavity were found on the fetus. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the literature a case report of pentalogy of Cantrell, diagnosed through prenatal ultrasound, being the first reported in Colombia during first trimester of gestation, showing the importance of routine ultrasound, in the context of access to a voluntary termination of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Pentalogy of Cantrell/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Abortion, Induced , Ectopia Cordis/etiology , Pentalogy of Cantrell/surgery , Pentalogy of Cantrell/complications
3.
FEMINA ; 51(4): 233-239, 20230430. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512399

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o índice de sucesso do tratamento da gravidez ectópica com o protocolo de dose única do metotrexato e verificar sua correlação com variáveis clínicas e dados dos exames complementares. Métodos: É um estudo epidemiológico observacional, analítico, retrospectivo, de delineamento transversal. Foi realizado de janeiro de 2014 a agosto de 2020 em um hospital público, de ensino, em nível terciário, do Sul do Brasil. Em 73 casos com diagnóstico de gestação ectópica íntegra, foi utilizado o protocolo de dose única de metotrexato intramuscular, com a dose de 50 mg/m2 de superfície corporal. As variáveis do estudo foram relacionadas ao sucesso do tratamento e abordaram as características clínicas na admissão, dos exames complementares e do tratamento realizado. As variáveis foram comparadas por análise de regressão de Poisson. O nível de significância estabelecido foi de p < 0,05. Resultados: O índice de sucesso foi de 83,6%, e em nove casos foi necessária uma segunda dose da medicação. Nível de ß-hCG inicial superior a 5.000 mUI/mL foi relacionado a menor chance de sucesso (odds ratio ajustado de 0,20 [0,05-0,95]). Tamanho da imagem anexial, presença de líquido livre na cavidade abdominal e demais variáveis estudadas não afetaram a chance de sucesso do tratamento. Conclusão: O protocolo de dose única de metotrexato mostrou-se uma opção válida para o tratamento da gestação ectópica íntegra, notadamente quando o nível de ß-hCG inicial é inferior 5.000 mUI/mL.


Objective: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the success rate of treatment of ectopic pregnancy with the single-dose methotrexate protocol and to verify its correlation with clinical variables and complementary exam data. Methods: This is a retrospective epidemiological observational analytical cross-sectional study. It was carried out from January 2014 to August 2020 in a tertiary level teaching hospital in southern Brazil. In 73 cases with a diagnosis of intact ectopic pregnancy, the intramuscular methotrexate single-dose protocol was applied with a dose of 50 mg/m2 of body surface. The study variables were related to the success of the treatment and addressed the clinical characteristics on admission, the complementary exams and the treatment performed. The variables were compared by Poisson regression analysis. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The success rate was 83.6%, and in nine cases a second dose of the medication was necessary. An initial ß-hCG level greater than 5,000 mIU/mL was related to a lower chance of success (adjusted odds ratio of 0.20 [0.05- 0.95]). The size of the adnexal image, the presence of free fluid in the abdominal cavity and other variables studied did not affect the chance of a successful treatment. Conclusion: The methotrexate single-dose protocol proved to be a valid option for the treatment of intact ectopic pregnancy, notably when the initial ß-hCG level is below 5,000 mIU/mL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ascitic Fluid , Salpingostomy , Smoking/adverse effects , Abdominal Pain/complications , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Hospitals, Public , Infertility, Female/complications , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Intrauterine Devices/adverse effects
4.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20210293, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449160

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the relationship between the ductus venosus (DV) and the variables of fetal growth in the first trimester in a Colombian pregnant population. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with secondary data obtained from a multicenter study.526 patients were included between weeks 11 and 14 for gestational ultrasound follow-up attended in three health care institutions in Bogotá, Colombia, between May 2014 and October 2018. A bivariate descriptive analysis was carried out where the relationship between the characteristics of the DV in the first trimester and ultrasound findings. Results: the flow wave of the DV in the first trimester was normal in the entire sample, with a pulsatility index of the ductus venosus (DVPI) of 0.96±0.18. In addition, a negative correlation was found between the crown-rump length (CRL) and the DVPI (p<0.05). Conclusion: there is a relationship between the DVPI regarding the CRL, indicating an interest in this early marker in relation to fetal growth alterations; however, more studies are required to determine the usefulness of this variable with respect to fetal growth.


Resumen Objetivos: evaluar la relación entre el ductus venoso (DV) y las variables del crecimiento fetal en primer trimestre en una población de gestantes colombianas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo con datos secundarios obtenidos de un estudio multicéntrico. Se incluyeron 526 pacientes entre las semanas 11 a 14 para seguimiento ecográfico gestacional atendidas en tres instituciones prestadoras de salud en Bogotá, Colombia, entre mayo del 2014 y octubre del 2018. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo bivariado donde se evaluó la relación entre las características del DV en primer trimestre y los hallazgos ecográficos. Resultados: la onda de flujo del DV en primer trimestre fue normal en la totalidad de la muestra, con un índice medio de pulsatilidad del ductus venoso (IPDV) de 0,96±0.18. Se encontró una correlación negativa entre la longitud cefalocaudal (LCC) y el IPDV (p<0.05). Conclusión: existe una relación entre el IPDV respecto a la LCC, señalando un interés de este marcador temprano en relación con las alteraciones del crecimiento fetal, sin embargo, se requieren más estudios para determinar la utilidad entre esta variable respecto al crecimiento fetal


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placental Insufficiency , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Crown-Rump Length , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(4): 192-200, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449720

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the use of different treatment options for ectopic pregnancy and the frequency of severe complications in a university hospital. Methods Observational study with women with ectopic pregnancy admitted at UNICAMP Womeńs Hospital, Brazil, between 01/01/2000 and 12/31/2017. The outcome variables were the type of treatment (first choice) and the presence of severe complications. Independent variables were clinical and sociodemographic data. Statistical analysis was carried out by the Cochran-Armitage test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and multiple Cox regression. Results In total 673 women were included in the study. The mean age was 29.0 years (± 6.1) and the mean gestational age was 7.7 (± 2.5). The frequency of surgical treatment decreased significantly over time (z = -4.69; p < 0.001). Conversely, there was a significant increase in the frequency of methotrexate treatment (z = 4.73; p < 0.001). Seventy-one women (10.5%) developed some type of severe complication. In the final statistical model, the prevalence of severe complications was higher in women who were diagnosed with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy at admission (PR = 2.97; 95%CI: 1.61-5.46), did not present with vaginal bleeding (PR = 2.45; 95%CI: 1.41-4.25), had never undergone laparotomy/laparoscopy (PR = 6.69; 95%CI: 1.62-27.53), had a non-tubal ectopic pregnancy (PR = 4.61; 95%CI: 1.98-10.74), and do not smoke (PR = 2.41; 95%CI: 1.08-5.36). Conclusion there was a change in the first treatment option for cases of ectopic pregnancy in the hospital during the period of analysis. Factors inherent to a disease that is more difficult to treat are related to a higher frequency of severe complications.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar as diferentes opções de tratamento para gravidez ectópica e a frequencia de complicações graves em um hospital universitário. Métodos Estudo observacional com mulheres com gravidez ectópica admitidas no Hospital da Mulher da UNICAMP, no Brasill, entre 01/01/2000 e 31/12/2017. As variáveis de desfecho foram o tipo de tratamento (primeira escolha) e a presença de complicações graves. As variáveis independents foram dados clínicos e sociodemográficos. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de Cochran-Armitage, teste de qui-quadrado, teste de Mann-Whitney e Regressão de Cox Múltipla. Resulados No total, 673 mulheres foram incluídas no estudo. A idade médica foi de 29.0 anos (± 6.1) e a idade gestacional media foi de 7.7 (± 2.5). A frequencia de tratamento cirúrgico diminuiu significativamente ao longo dos anos(z = -4.69; p < 0.001). Simultaneamente, houve um aumento da frequencia do tratamento clínico(z = 4.73; p < 0.001). Setenta e uma mulheres (10.5%) desenvolveram algum tipo de complicação grave. No modelo estatístico final, a prevalência de complicações graves foi maior nas mulheres que tiveram diagnóstico de gestação ectópica rota à admissão (PR = 2.97; 95%CI: 1.61-5.46), que não apresentaram sangramento vaginal (PR = 2.45; 95%CI: 1.41-4.25), sem antecedentes de laparotomia/laparoscopia (PR = 6.69; 95%CI: 1.62-27.53), com gravidez ectópica não-tubária (PR = 4.61; 95%CI: 1.98-10.74), e não tabagistas (PR = 2.41; 95%CI: 1.08-5.36). Conclusão Houve uma mudança na escolha do primeiro tratamento indicado nos casos de gravidez ectópica durante o período analisado. Os fatores inerentes a doença relacionados a maior dificuldade de tratamento foram associados a maior frequencia de complicações graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy, Tubal , Uterine Hemorrhage
6.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1510241

ABSTRACT

Background First trimester antenatal care (ANC) initiation has been shown to improve the health outcomes for both mothers and unborn children. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of first trimester ANC use and associated factors among adolescent mothers in Rwanda. Methods This study was a cross-sectional study and analyzed the data of 6th Rwanda demographic and health survey (RDHS 2019-2020). Proportion, bivariate and multivariable analysis were employed to identify factors associated with first ANC use. Results The prevalence of first trimester antenatal care utilization among 354 adolescent mothers was 46%. Advanced age (AOR=1.82; 95%CI = 1.096-2.305), secondary education level (AOR=1.36; 95%CI = 1.080 - 1.960), coming to rich family (AOR = 2.10; 95%CI = 1.830 ­ 5.162), residing near health facility (AOR=1.17; 95%CI= 1.065 - 2.011), permitted to go to health facility (AOR=2.13; 95%CI = 1.857 ­ 3.363) were positively associated with ANC services use. However, the negative association was found with later pregnancy desire (AOR = 0.42; 95%CI = 0.149 ­ 0.781). Conclusion The prevalence of first trimester ANC was low. In view of that, more effort should be made to increase adolescent mothers' knowledge regarding the ANC services utilization and timely booking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnant Women , Mothers
7.
Salud mil ; 41(1): e301, abr. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1531239

ABSTRACT

Introducción: escasos son los estudios que investigan el conocimiento sexual y las conductas sexuales de las mujeres dentro de un periodo tan importante como lo es el embarazo. En esta etapa se producen una serie de cambios que repercuten en su vida y por lo tanto en su sexualidad, por tal motivo es que surge realizar este trabajo de investigación. Objetivo: evaluar el nivel de conocimiento y conducta sexual durante la gestación, en un grupo de gestantes que acuden al Centro de Atención Periférica Número 8 perteneciente a la Dirección General de Atención Periférica de la Dirección Nacional de Sanidad de la Fuerzas Armadas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un análisis observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo de cohorte transversal de los datos obtenidos a través de entrevistas realizadas a embarazadas. Se entrevistan gestantes que cursan los tres trimestres de embarazo y concurren a sus controles obstétricos en el periodo comprendido entre el 22 de abril y 22 de julio de 2021 que cumplen con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Para alcanzar el objetivo se aplicó un cuestionario con respuestas cerradas que consta de 11 preguntas basadas en conocimientos y conductas sexuales en gestantes. Resultados: el 52% de nuestras pacientes gestantes encuestadas tienen más de 30 años, 52% cursa su primera gestación y 51% un embarazo no deseado, pero si aceptado. El 61% de ellas dicen que el estar embarazadas afectó su actividad sexual, 39% refiere que son más satisfactorias las relaciones sexuales en el segundo trimestre, 78% manifiesta que el mantener relaciones sexuales no adelanta el parto, el 83% expresa que la posición menos recomendada es boca arriba, el 9% no saben dónde se localiza el tapón mucoso y el 100% de las encuestadas no tuvo educación sobre sexualidad en los controles prenatales. Conclusiones: durante el embarazo se producen cambios anatómicos, psicológicos y emocionales que provocan cambios en la actividad sexual. La educación que tienen sobre sexualidad es nula por lo que es recomendable la implementación de programas formativos de educación sexual en gestantes y sus parejas para afrontar una salud sexual plena.


Introduction: there are few studies that investigate the sexual knowledge and sexual behaviors of women in such an important period as pregnancy. During this stage, a series of changes take place that have repercussions in their lives and therefore in their sexuality, which is the reason why this research work has been carried out. Objective: to evaluate the level of knowledge and sexual behavior during pregnancy in a group of pregnant women attending the Peripheral Care Center Number 8 belonging to the General Directorate of Peripheral Care of the National Health Directorate of the Armed Forces. Materials and methods: an observational, descriptive and prospective cross-sectional cohort analysis of the data obtained through interviews with pregnant women was carried out. Pregnant women in the three trimesters of pregnancy and attending their obstetric check-ups between April 22 and July 22, 2021 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were interviewed. To achieve the objective, a questionnaire with closed answers consisting of 11 questions based on knowledge and sexual behaviors in pregnant women was applied. Results: 52% of our pregnant patients surveyed were over 30 years of age, 52% were in their first pregnancy and 51% had an unwanted pregnancy, but accepted it. 61% of them said that the pregnancy was unwanted. Sixty-one percent of them say that being pregnant affected their sexual activity, 39% say that sexual relations are more satisfactory in the second trimester, 78% say that having sexual relations does not advance labor, 83% say that the least recommended position is on the back, 9% do not know where the mucus plug is located and 100% of the respondents had no education on sexuality in prenatal checkups. Conclusions: During pregnancy there are anatomical, psychological and emotional changes that cause changes in sexual activity. The education they have about sexuality is null, so it is advisable to implement sex education programs for pregnant women and their partners in order to achieve full sexual health.


Introdução: há poucos estudos que investiguem o conhecimento sexual e o comportamento sexual das mulheres durante um período tão importante como a gravidez. Nesta fase, ocorre uma série de mudanças que têm repercussões em suas vidas e, portanto, em sua sexualidade, razão pela qual este estudo de pesquisa foi realizado. Objetivo: avaliar o nível de conhecimento e comportamento sexual durante a gravidez em um grupo de mulheres grávidas que freqüentam o Centro de Atenção Periférica Número 8 pertencente à Direção Geral de Atenção Periférica da Direção Nacional de Saúde das Forças Armadas. Materiais e métodos: foi realizada uma análise observacional, descritiva e prospectiva de coorte transversal dos dados obtidos através de entrevistas com mulheres grávidas. Foram entrevistadas mulheres grávidas no terceiro trimestre de gestação e que compareceram aos check-ups obstétricos entre 22 de abril e 22 de julho de 2021, que preenchiam os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Para alcançar o objetivo, foi aplicado um questionário com respostas fechadas que consiste em 11 perguntas baseadas em conhecimentos e comportamentos sexuais em mulheres grávidas. Resultados: 52% de nossas pacientes grávidas pesquisadas tinham mais de 30 anos de idade, 52% estavam grávidas pela primeira vez e 51% tiveram uma gravidez indesejada, mas aceitaram-na. 61% deles dizem que estar grávida afetou sua atividade sexual, 39% dizem que as relações sexuais são mais satisfatórias no segundo trimestre, 78% dizem que ter relações sexuais não antecipa o trabalho de parto, 83% dizem que a posição menos recomendada é na parte de trás, 9% não sabem onde o plugue de muco está localizado e 100% dos entrevistados não tiveram nenhuma educação sobre sexualidade nos check-ups pré-natais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Sexuality/statistics & numerical data , Pregnant Women , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(1): 81-86, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Aproximadamente un 4% de mujeres embarazadas presentan tumoraciones anexiales en el primer trimestre de gestación, siendo la mayoría quistes anexiales simples. Solo el 1,5% persisten tras el primer trimestre y en torno al 0,9% son malignos. CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de 31 años que consultó en urgencias por sangrado y amenorrea de 5 semanas. La ecografía transvaginal evidenció un saco gestacional intraútero y una tumoración anexial izquierda compleja de 68 mm, multilocular, sólida, de ecogenicidad mixta, con septos gruesos y un área sólida vascularizada de 40 mm, sospechosa de neoplasia de ovario. Se realizó manejo quirúrgico conservador mediante anexectomía bilateral laparoscópica en la octava semana de gestación. El diagnóstico fue de adenocarcinoma mucinoso infiltrante bien diferenciado en ovario derecho, coexistente con tumor mucinoso borderline en ovario izquierdo (etapa IC FIGO). El embarazo cursó con normalidad, a excepción de feto pequeño para la edad gestacional en la semana 39. Se finalizó la gestación en la semana 40 mediante parto vaginal. Debido al deseo de la paciente, la cirugía se realizó en el primer trimestre de embarazo en lugar de en el segundo como se recomienda. La cirugía se completó meses después del parto, con histerectomía y apendicectomía laparoscópica. DISCUSIÓN: El cáncer de ovario es el segundo tumor ginecológico más diagnosticado durante el embarazo. Suele diagnosticarse en el primer trimestre debido al cribado ecográfico gestacional. Ocurre en mujeres con baja paridad y en sus últimos años de edad reproductiva. Esto podría verse reflejado en un aumento de su incidencia debido al retraso de la edad materna al primer embarazo. Normalmente se diagnostica en etapa I, siendo entonces la supervivencia superior al 90% a los 5 años. En etapas iniciales en mujeres embarazadas, la laparoscopia es tan válida como la laparotomía.


INTRODUCTION: Approximately 4% of pregnant women present adnexal tumors in the first trimester of gestation, the majority being simple adnexal cysts. Only 1.5% persist after the first trimester and around 0.9% are malignant. CASE REPORT: 31-year-old patient who came to the emergency room because of spotting and 5-week amenorrhea. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed an intrauterine gestational sac and a 69 mm complex multiocular-solid left adnexal tumor, with thick septa and a solid vascularized area of 40 mm, with suspicion of ovarian neoplasia. Conservative surgical management was performed through laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in eighth week of gestation. The diagnosis was a well-differentiated infiltrating mucinous adenocarcinoma in the right ovary, and a coexisting borderline mucinous tumor in the left ovary (FIGO stage IC). The pregnancy proceeded normally except for a small for gestational age fetus at week 39 and pregnancy was completed at week 40 by vaginal delivery. Due to the patients wishes, the surgery was performed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy instead in the 2nd as is recommended. Final surgery was completed after giving birth, with laparoscopic hysterectomy and appendectomy. DISCUSSION: Ovarian cancer is the second most diagnosed gynecological tumor during pregnancy. It is usually diagnosed during the first trimester with gestational ultrasound screening. It occurs in women with low parity and in their later years of reproductive age. This could be reflected in an increase in its incidence due to the delay in the age of first pregnancy. Normally it is diagnosed in stage I, when the survival rate is superior to 90% after 5 years. In early stages, laparoscopic surgery in pregnant women is as valid as laparotomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/surgery , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Laparoscopy , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/pathology , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/diagnostic imaging , Hysterectomy/methods , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology
9.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 34: 1-11, fev. 02, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372997

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite penicillin being the drug of choice for the treatment of syphilis, many pregnant women who test positive for syphilis do not receive the drug as recommended by the Ministry of Health, contributing to the increase in costs associated with congenital syphilis. Objective: This study aims to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of administering at least one dose of 2.4 million IU of benzathine penicillin in the first trimester of pregnancy as soon as the result of a positive rapid treponemal test performed during antenatal care in primary care units of the Brazilian National Health System. Methods: An analytical model was proposed based on a decision tree. The perspective of the analysis was the one used in The Brazilian National Health System. The clinical outcomes were abortion, prematurity, neonatal death, stillbirth, and congenital syphilis, estimated in terms of disability-adjusted life-years. Only direct costs were considered. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: The model predicted that the most efficient strategy is the one that includes the administration of penicillin in primary care for cases of gestational syphilis. This strategy is more effective, although more costly. The cost per disability-adjusted life-years averted with the use of this strategy was estimated at R$49.79 (US$ 10.67). Conclusion: The prenatal strategy in primary care units that includes the administration of penicillin to pregnant women with syphilis during the first trimester of pregnancy has the greatest potential to be cost-effective.


Introdução: A despeito de a penicilina ser o medicamento de escolha para o tratamento da sífilis, muitas gestantes com teste positivo para sífilis não recebem o medicamento como recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde, concorrendo para o aumento dos custos associados à sífilis congênita. Objetivo: Estimar a razão de custo-efetividade incremental da administração de pelo menos uma dose de 2,4 milhões de Unidades Internacionais de penicilina benzatina no primeiro trimestre de gravidez, tão logo se tenha o resultado de um teste rápido treponêmico positivo realizado na consulta pré-natal em unidades de atenção primária do Sistema Único de Saúde. Métodos: Um modelo analítico foi proposto a partir de uma árvore de decisão. A perspectiva da análise foi a do Sistema Único de Saúde. Os desfechos em saúde foram aborto, prematuridade, morte neonatal, natimorto e sífilis congênita, estimados em termos de anos de vida ajustados a incapacidades (disability-adjusted life-years). Apenas os custos diretos foram considerados. Análises de sensibilidade determinística e probabilística foram realizadas. Resultados: O modelo previu que a estratégia mais eficiente é aquela que inclui a administração da penicilina na atenção primária aos casos de sífilis gestacional. Embora essa estratégia possa representar maior custo, apresenta maior efetividade. O custo por disability-adjusted life-years evitado com o uso dessa estratégia foi estimado em R$49,79. Conclusão: A estratégia de pré-natal nas unidades de atenção primária que inclui a administração da penicilina em gestantes com sífilis ainda no primeiro trimestre de gestação é a que apresenta o maior potencial para ser custo-efetiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Penicillin G Benzathine/therapeutic use , Prenatal Care/economics , Primary Health Care , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , Penicillin G Benzathine/economics , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Cost-Benefit Analysis
10.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 38(3): e1973, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408718

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La adiposidad central como factor desencadenante de resistencia a la insulina precoz constituye una amenaza potencial de riesgo metabólico y cardiovascular en el embarazo. Objetivo: Determinar la capacidad discriminante de las grasas abdominales sobre la resistencia a la insulina, diagnosticada por el índice triglicéridos/glucosa-IMC al finalizar el primer trimestre del embarazo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico de 526 gestantes con embarazo simple y edad gestacional entre 12 y 13 semanas, entre los años 2016 y 2020. Se estudió el test de triglicéridos/glucosa-IMC y las grasas abdominales por ultrasonido. Se utilizaron las curvas ROC (Receiver operating characteristic Curve) para discriminar la resistencia a la insulina al finalizar el primer trimestre de la gestación, cuando aumentan las grasas abdominales. Resultados: La grasa subcutánea fue la que presentó mayor área bajo la curva en la discriminación de la resistencia a la insulina, con un nivel de sensibilidad y especificidad aceptable. Conclusiones: La grasa subcutánea, aunque con bajo valor discriminativo, puede considerarse como augurio de resistencia a la insulina y de diabetes gestacional. Se requiere profundizar en el estudio de las grasas abdominales dado el conocimiento de su impacto en los desórdenes metabólicos en el curso avanzado de la gestación(AU)


Introduction: Central adiposity as a triggering factor for early insulin resistance is a potential threat of metabolic and cardiovascular risk in pregnancy. Objective: To determine the discriminating capacity of abdominal fat over insulin resistance, diagnosed by the triglyceride/glucose-BMI index at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods: An analytical and observational study was carried out with 526 pregnant women of singleton pregnancy and gestational age between twelve and thirteen weeks, between 2016 and 2020. The triglyceride/glucose-BMI test was studied, together with abdominal fats by ultrasound. ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves were used to discriminate insulin resistance at the end of the first trimester of gestation, when abdominal fats increase. Results: Subcutaneous fat presented the highest area under the curve in the discrimination of insulin resistance, with an acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions: Subcutaneous fat, although with low discriminative value, can be considered as a harbinger of insulin resistance and gestational diabetes. Further study of abdominal fat is required, given the knowledge of its impact on metabolic disorders in late gestation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal/metabolism , Obesity, Abdominal/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve
11.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(2): 209-217, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS, MMyP | ID: biblio-1379507

ABSTRACT

La evidencia de epidemias e infecciones se manifestó en las Américas -destacando Panamá entre los países afectados-, África y otros lugares. En el año 2016 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró una emergencia internacional por la presencia de casos de microcefalia y otros trastornos neurológicos en algunas áreas afectadas por el virus Zika. Actualmente se han notificado infecciones por este virus transmitidas por mosquitos en un total de 86 países y territorios. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo estimar la prevalencia e identificar los factores de riesgo del virus Zika en embarazadas de Panamá, como grupo vulnerable ante esta afección. Si la infección por el virus del Zika es mayormente leve en adultos, en las gestantes se deben temer riesgos fetales graves en los casos de infección en el primer trimestre del embarazo. Sin embargo, todavía no hay suficientes investigaciones que aporten datos científicos para conocer el alcance de este riesgo y las consecuencias precisas de una infección fetal(AU)


The evidence of epidemics and infections was manifested in the Americas -Panama standing out among the affected countries-, Africa and other places. In 2016, the world Health Organization (WHO) declared an international emergency due to the presence of cases of microcephaly and other neurological disorders in some areas affected by the Zika virus. Mosquito-borne infections with this virus have now been reported from a total of 86 countries and territories. The objective of this article is to estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors of the Zika virus in pregnant women in Panama, as a vulnerable group to this disease. If Zika virus infection is mostly mild in adults, serious fetal risks should be feared in pregnant women in cases of infection in the first trimester of pregnancy. However, there is still not enough research that provides scientific data to know the extent of this risk and the precise consequences of a fetal infection(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Aedes , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Signs and Symptoms , Risk Factors , Exanthema , Fetal Diseases , Fever , Myalgia , Microcephaly
12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(12): 904-910, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357085

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the mean uterine artery pulsatility index (UtAPI) in each trimester of pregnancy as a predictor of early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) in Colombian pregnant women. Methods The UtAPI was measured in singleton pregnancies in each trimester. Uterine artery pulsatility index as predictor of PE was evaluated by odds ratio (OR), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and Kaplan-Meier diagram. Results Analysis in the 1st and 3rd trimester showed that abnormal UtAPI was associated with early PE (OR: 5.99: 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.64-21.13; and OR: 10.32; 95%CI: 2.75-42.49, respectively). Sensitivity and specificity were 71.4 and 79.6%, respectively, for developing PE (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.922). The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that a UtAPI of 0.76 (95%CI: 0.58-1.0) in the 1st trimester was associated with early PE, and a UtAPI of 0.73 (95%CI: 0.55-0.97) in the 3rd trimester was associated with late PE. Conclusion Uterine arteries proved to be a useful predictor tool in the 1st and 3rd trimesters for early PE and in the 3rd trimester for late PE in a pregnant population with high prevalence of PE.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o índice médio de pulsatilidade da artéria uterina (UtAPI) em cada trimestre da gravidez como preditor de pré-eclâmpsia (PE) precoce ou tardia em gestantes colombianas. Métodos O UtAPI foi medido em gestações únicas em cada trimestre. O UtAPI como preditor de PE foi avaliado por odds ratio (OR), curvas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) e diagrama de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados A análise no 1° e 3° trimestres mostrou que um UtAPI anormal foi associado com PE inicial (OR: 5,99; intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 1,64-21,13; OR: 10,32; IC95%: 2,75-42,49, respectivamente). A sensibilidade e a especificidade foram de 71,4 e 79,6%, respectivamente, para o desenvolvimento de PE (area under the curve [AUC]: 0,922). A curva de Kaplan-Meier mostrou que um UtAPI de 0,76 (IC95%: 0,58- 1,0) no 1° trimestre foi associado com PE precoce, e que um UtAPI de 0,73 (IC95%: 0,55-0,97) no 3° trimestre foi associado com PE tardia. Conclusão As artérias uterinas mostraram ser uma ferramenta preditora útil no 1° e 3° trimestres para PE inicial e no 3° trimestre para PE tardia em uma população de gestantes com alta prevalência de PE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Uterine Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pulsatile Flow , Biomarkers , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Placenta Growth Factor
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1358322

ABSTRACT

Se describe los casos de tres pacientes a quien se les realiza diagnóstico de colestasis intrahepática del embarazo (CIE) de aparición temprana. En dos de ellos el diagnóstico se relacionó con infección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). Reconocer que esta enfermedad puede presentarse de manera temprana en el embarazo y su relación con la infección por el VHC es fundamental para hacer un diagnóstico oportuno de ambas enfermedades y tomar las conductas terapéuticas adecuadas, mejorando así el pronóstico materno y fetal.


It is of great importance to acknowledge that this disease can occur early in pregnancy and that its relationship with HCV infection is a key point for a prompt diagnosis, allowing taking timely appropriate therapeutic decisions, aimed at improving the fetal prognosis.


Descrevemos os casos de três pacientes com diagnóstico de colestase intra-hepática da gravidez de início precoce. Em dois deles o diagnóstico estava relacionado à infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC). Reconhecer que esta doença pode se manifestar precocemente na gravidez e sua relação com a infecção pelo VHC é fundamental para fazer um diagnóstico oportuno de ambas as doenças e assumir condutas terapêuticas adequadas, melhorando assim o prognóstico materno e fetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pruritus , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/diagnosis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/etiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Chlorpheniramine/therapeutic use , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis
14.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 563-567, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388879

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad de la colecistectomía laparoscópica durante el embarazo, reportando complicaciones y desenlaces obstétricos y perinatales en nuestra institución. Materiales y Método: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional. Se incluyeron pacientes embarazadas, con diagnóstico de patología biliar sometidas a colecistectomía laparoscópica. Se describieron variables sociodemográficas, obstétricas, complicaciones o muerte posoperatoria. Resultados: Se realizaron 46 colecistectomías laparoscópicas, edad media de 25 años; 82,6% cursaban el segundo trimestre de embarazo; mostrando tasa de complicaciones de 4,4% directamente relacionadas con el procedimiento sin mortalidad materna. Discusión: Se asocia a la cirugía biliar a una tasa elevada de complicaciones durante el embarazo, sin embargo, existe mayor evidencia que apoya la idea de la intervención temprana en enfermedad biliar sintomática, con un mayor riesgo de muerte fetal bajo manejo conservador que bajo un abordaje quirúrgico, así como mayor tasa de recurrencia. Se ha demostrado que la cirugía no aumenta el riesgo de mortalidad para la madre y el feto y su retraso puede resultar en un incremento de morbilidad a corto y largo plazo. Conclusiones: Observamos una baja tasa de complicaciones asociadas al procedimiento quirúrgico, así como una nula mortalidad materna.


Aim: To evaluate the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy, reporting complications and obstetric and perinatal outcomes in our institution. Materials and Method: Retrospective, observational study. Pregnant patients with a diagnosis of biliary pathology undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables, complications or postoperative death were described. Results: 46 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed, mean age 25 years; 82.6% were in the second trimester of pregnancy; showing a complication rate of 4.4% directly related to the procedure with zero maternal mortality. Discussion: Biliary surgery is associated with a high rate of complications during pregnancy, however, there is more evidence supporting the idea of early intervention in symptomatic biliary disease, with a higher risk of fetal death under conservative management than under a laparoscopic approach, 14 as well as a higher recurrence ratecd. Surgery has been shown not to increase the risk of mortality for the mother and the fetus and its delay may result in an increase in morbidity in the short and long term. Conclusión: We observed a low rate of complications associated with the surgical procedure, as well as no maternal mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy Complications/surgery , Pregnancy Outcome , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/adverse effects , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Retrospective Studies , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/methods
15.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(2): 441-450, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340654

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate prenatal care provided to low-risk pregnant women users of the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) (Public Health System) in the city of Joinville, SC. Methods: this is a cross-sectional observational study carried out from March 2018 to February 2019, through interview and analysis of the Pregnant Card of puerperal over 18 years old, from Joinville, who underwent prenatal care at SUS, excluding recent given up puerperal. Prenatal care was evaluated according to the recommended criteria by the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program. Results: 683 mothers were interviewed. The criteria with the highest levels of adequacy were accessibility (99.6%), early initiation on prenatal care (92.7%) and 6 or more consultations (87.1%) and the criteria with the lowest rates of adequacy were the set of guidelines (17.7%) and the third and first trimester exams (42.5% and 63.5% respectively). Conclusion: it is concluded that the prenatal care provided by SUS in the city of Joinville, despite the almost universal accessibility, the early onset and the prevalence of puerperal women with more than 6 consultations, showed a sharp decline in the analysis of the recommended indicators.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a assistência pré-natal prestada a gestantes de baixo risco usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde da cidade de Joinville - SC. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal realizado de março de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019, mediante entrevista e análise do Cartão da Gestante de puérperas maiores de 18 anos, procedentes de Joinville, que realizaram o pré-natal no SUS, sendo excluídas puérperas desistentes. Avaliou-se a assistência pré-natal mediante critérios preconizados pelo Programa de Humanização no Pré-natal e Nascimento. Resultados: foram entrevistadas 683 puérperas. Os critérios com maiores índices de adequação foram acessibilidade (99,6%), início precoce do pré-natal (92,7%) e realização de 6 ou mais consultas (87,1%) e os critérios que apresentaram as menores taxas de adequação foram o conjunto de orientações (17,7%) e os exames do terceiro e primeiro trimestre (42,5% e 63,5% respectivamente). Conclusão: conclui-se que a assistência pré-natal realizada pelo SUS da cidade de Joinville, não obstante da acessibilidade praticamente universal, do início precoce e da prevalência de puérperas com mais de 6 consultas, demonstrou declínio acentuado na análise dos indicadores preconizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Health Evaluation/statistics & numerical data , Unified Health System , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Humanizing Delivery , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women
16.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(6): 442-451, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341144

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To determine the adequacy of compliance with antenatal care (ANC) by pregnant women in Peru and to identify the associated factors. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study of data from the 2019 Peruvian Demographic and Family Health Survey (Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar, ENDES, in Spanish) was conducted. The dependent variable was adequate compliance with ANC (provided by skilled health care professionals; first ANC visit during the first trimester of pregnancy; six or more ANC visits during pregnancy; ANC visits with appropriate content) by women aged 15 to 49 years in their last delivery within the five years prior to the survey. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a log-binomial regression model. Results A total of 18,386 women were analyzed, 35.0% of whom adequately complied with ANC. The lowest proportion of compliance was found with the content of ANC (42.6%). Sociodemographic factors and those related to pregnancy, such as being in the age groups of 20 to 34 years and 35 to 49 years, havingsecondaryor higher education, belonging to a wealth quintile of the population other than the poorest, being from the Amazon region, not being of native ethnicity, having a second or third pregnancy, and having a desired pregnancy, increased the probability of presenting adequate compliance with ANC. Conclusion Only 3 out of 10women in Peru showed adequate compliancewith ANC. Compliance with the content of ANC must be improved, and strategies must be developed to increase the proportion of adequate compliance with ANC.


Resumo Objetivo Determinar a adequação do cumprimento dos cuidados pré-natais (CPN) por mulheres grávidas no Peru e identificar os fatores associados. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo analítico transversal dos dados da Pesquisa Demográfica e de Saúde da Família Peruana de 2019 (Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar, ENDES, em espanhol). A variável dependente foi conformidade adequada coma CPN (fornecida por profissionais de saúde qualificados; primeira visita CPN durante o primeiro trimestre de gravidez; seis ou mais visitas CPN durante a gravidez; visitas CPN com conteúdo apropriado) por mulheres de 15 a 49 anos em seu último parto nos cinco anos anteriores à pesquisa. Os índices de prevalência bruta e ajustada e seus intervalos de confiança de 95% foram calculados usando um modelo de regressão log-binomial. Resultados Foi analisado um total de 18.386 mulheres, das quais 35,0% cumpriram adequadamente o CPN. A menor proporção de conformidade foi encontrada com o conteúdo de ANC (42,6%). Fatores sociodemográficos e aqueles relacionados à gravidez, como estar na faixa etária de 20 a 34 anos e 35 a 49 anos, ter educação secundária ou superior, pertencer a um quintil de riqueza da população que não a mais pobre, ser da região da selva, não ser de etnia nativa, ter um segundo ou terceiro gravidez, e tendo uma gravidez desejada, aumentou a probabilidade de apresentar conformidade adequada com CPN. Conclusão Apenas 3 em cada 10 mulheres no Peru mostraram conformidade adequada com o CPN. O cumprimento do conteúdo do CPN deve ser melhorado, e estratégias devem ser desenvolvidas para aumentar a proporção de cumprimento adequado com o CPN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Parity , Peru/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Residence Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Maternal Age , Health Care Surveys , Educational Status , Facilities and Services Utilization , Income , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(2): 163-174, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388647

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La deficiencia de vitamina D es muy prevalente durante la gestación, siendo cada vez más numerosos los estudios que relacionan esta condición con peores resultados perinatales. El objetivo del presente trabajo es describir los resultados perinatales y el curso del embarazo de una cohorte de gestantes deficitarias en vitamina D durante el primer trimestre del embarazo, suplementándolas con colecalciferol, así como establecer una comparación entre los resultados perinatales de aquellas pacientes con déficit o insuficiencia que lograron niveles normales de vitamina D en el tercer trimestre frente a aquellas que no lo lograron. Como objetivo secundario se describe el curso del embarazo de una cohorte de pacientes que durante el mismo periodo de tiempo del estudio presentaban normovitaminosis al inicio de la gestación. MÉTODOS: La cohorte de 190 pacientes analizada procede de casos consecutivos en la primera consulta de embarazo. Se determinaron los niveles de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25-OH-D) en la analítica del primer trimestre de 190 gestantes diferenciando entre valores normales (>30ng/mL), insuficiencia (30-15 ng/mL) y deficiencia (<15 ng/mL). Las pacientes con insuficiencia se suplementaron con 1000 UI/día de colecalciferol y las pacientes con deficiencia con 2000 UI/día. En el tercer trimestre se determinaron de nuevo los niveles de 25-OH-D en las pacientes suplementadas, suspendiendo la prescripción en caso de haberse normalizado los valores. Se comparan estadísticamente los resultados perinatales entre aquellas pacientes que mejoraron con la suplementación frente a aquellas que no lo hicieron. RESULTADOS: De las 190 pacientes analizadas, un 45% presentaban insuficiencia; un 27,5% deficiencia; y un 27,5% valores normales. De forma global, un 61% de las pacientes suplementadas habían normalizado sus niveles de vitamina D en la analítica del tercer trimestre, suspendiéndose la prescripción. De ese 61% normalizado, un 63% pertenecían al grupo de insuficiencia y un 37% al de deficiencia. Dentro del grupo suplementado con colecalciferol, un 1,4% de las pacientes desarrollaron hipertensión arterial, mientras que un 33% desarrollaron diabetes en el embarazo, de las cuales un 87% la controlaron exclusivamente con dieta y un 13% precisaron insulina. Un 3,6% de las gestaciones cursaron con retraso del crecimiento y la tasa de prematuridad fue igualmente del 3,6%. La tasa de cesáreas fue del 23%, de las cuales un 77% fueron indicadas intraparto y un 23% cesáreas programadas. El peso medio al nacimiento fue 3205g. Dentro del grupo con valores normales de 25-OH-D en el primer trimestre de la gestación, ninguna paciente desarrolló hipertensión arterial, mientras que un 15% presentaron diabetes gestacional controlada con dieta. Un 3,8% de dichas gestaciones cursaron con retrasos del crecimiento y la tasa de prematuridad fue del 1,9%. La tasa de cesáreas fue del 23%, de las cuales un 50% fueron indicadas intraparto y el 50% restante programadas. El peso medio al nacimiento fue de 3280g. En el análisis comparativo de los resultados perinatales entre el grupo de pacientes suplementadas que normalizaron sus cifras de vitamina D y aquellas que no lo hicieron, no se hallan diferencias estadísticamente significativas para ninguno de los parámetros analizados. CONCLUSIONES: La elevada tasa de hipovitaminosis D en la muestra analizada apoya la extensión del cribado y suplementación a todas las embarazadas y no solamente a aquellas con factores de riesgo. Dado que no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los niveles de vitamina D en el tercer trimestre y las variables perinatales estudiadas, podemos concluir que en nuestro estudio la suplementación con vitamina D no se ha comportado como factor protector de eventos obstétricos adversos.


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during pregnancy, with an increasing number of studies linking this condition with worse perinatal outcomes. The objective of this present work is to describe the perinatal results and the course of pregnancy in a cohort of pregnant women deficient in vitamin D during the first trimester of pregnancy, supplementing them with cholecalciferol, as well as to establish a comparison between perinatal results of those patients with deficiencnieve or insufficiency who achieved normal levels of vitamin D in the third trimester compared to those who did not. As a secondary objective, the course of pregnancy is described in a cohort of patients who presented normal levels at the beginning of gestation during the same period of time of the study. METHODS: The cohort of 190 patients analyzed comes from consecutive cases in the first pregnancy visit. The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) were determined in the analysis of the first trimester of 190 pregnant women, differentiating between normal values (> 30ng / mL), insufficiency (30-15 ng / mL) and deficiency (<15 ng / mL). Patients with insufficiency were supplemented with 1000 IU/day of cholecalciferol and patients with deficiency with 2000 IU/day. In the third trimester, the 25-OH-D levels were determined again in the supplemented patients, suspending the prescription if the values had normalized. Perinatal outcomes are statistically compared between those patients who improved with supplementation versus those who did not. RESULTS: Of the 190 patients analyzed, 45% had insufficiency; 27.5% deficiency; and 27.5% normal values. Overall, 61% of the supplemented patients had normalized their vitamin D levels in the third trimester analysis, suspending the prescription. Within that 61% normalized, 63% belonged to the insufficiency group and 37% to the deficiency group. In the group supplemented with cholecalciferol, 1.4% of the patients developed arterial hypertension, while 33% developed diabetes in pregnancy, of which 87% controlled it exclusively with diet and 13% required insulin. 3.6% of pregnancies had intrauterine growth restriction and the prematurity rate was also 3.6%. The caesarean section rate was 23%, of which 77% were indicated intrapartum and 23% scheduled caesarean sections. The mean weight at birth was 3205g. Within the group with normal 25-OH-D values in the first trimester of pregnancy, no patient developed hypertension, while 15% had diet-controlled gestational diabetes. 3.8% of these pregnancies had intrauterine growth restriction and the prematurity rate was 1.9%. The cesarean section rate was 23%, of which 50% were indicated intrapartum and the remaining 50% scheduled. The mean weight at birth was 3280g. In the comparative analysis of the perinatal results between the group of supplemented patients who normalized their vitamin D levels and those who did not, no statistically significant differences were found for any of the parameters analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of hypovitaminosis D in the analyzed sample supports the extension of screening and supplementation to all pregnant women and not only to those with risk factors. Since no statistically significant differences were observed between vitamin D levels in the third trimester and the perinatal outcomes studied, we can conclude that in our study vitamin D supplementation has not behaved as a protective factor against adverse obstetric events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Cohort Studies , Dietary Supplements
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 107-112, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the obstetric and sociodemographic characteristics of gestational diabetic women who maintained hyperglycemia in the postpartum period (6-12 weeks postpartum). Methods This is a longitudinal cohort study with women who have had gestational diabetes and/or macrosomic children between March 1st, 2016 and March 1st, 2017. Between 6 and 12 weeks after birth, women who had gestational diabetes collected fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance test, and glycated hemoglobin results. The data were collected from medical records and during an interview in the first postpartum consultation. A statistical analysis was performed using frequency, percentage, Chi- Squared test, Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and multivariate Poisson regression. The significance level adopted for the statistical tests was 5%. Results One hundred and twenty-two women were included. Most of the women were younger than 35 years old (70.5%), white, multiparous, and with no history of gestational diabetes. Thirteen percent of the participants developed persistent hyperglycemia. A univariate analysis showed that maternal age above 35 years, being overweight, having grade 1 obesity and weight gain under 5 kg was related to the persistence of hyperglycemia in the postpartum period. Conclusion Maternal age above 35 years, obesity and overweight, and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes in the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with hyperglycemia during the postpartum period.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar características sociodemográficas e obstétricas de mulheres com diabetes gestacional que mantêm hiperglicemia no período pós-parto (6-12 semanas pós-parto). Métodos Este é um estudo longitudinal de coorte com mulheres com diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional e/ou macrossomia fetal entre 1° de março de 2016 a 1° de março de 2017. As mulheres coletaram glicemia de jejum, teste de tolerância a glicose e hemoglobina glicada entre 6 a 12 semanas pós-parto. Os dados foram coletados de prontuários médicos e durante entrevista na primeira consulta de revisão pós-parto. Uma análise estatística foi realizada através do cálculo de frequências, porcentagens, teste do qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fisher, teste de Mann-Whitney e regressão multivariada de Poisson. A significância estatística adotada foi de 5%. Resultados Cento e vinte e duas mulheres foram incluídas. A maioria delas tinha menos de 35 anos de idade (70,5%), eram brancas, multíparas, e não tinham história de diabetes gestacional. Treze por cento das participantes desenvolveu hiperglicemia persistente. A análise univariada mostrou que os fatores relacionados com a persistência de hiperglicemia no período pós-natal foram: idade materna acima de 35 anos, sobrepeso, obesidade grau 1 e ganho de peso abaixo de 5 quilos. A análisemultivariada incluiu o diagnóstico no primeiro trimestre como fator de risco para hiperglicemia persistente. Conclusão Mulheres acima de 35 anos, obesidade, sobrepeso e diagnóstico de diabetes gestacional no primeiro trimestre estão relacionados com hiperglicemia persistente no período pós-parto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Puerperal Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/physiopathology , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications/physiopathology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Puerperal Disorders/physiopathology , Puerperal Disorders/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Blood Glucose , Brazil/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Hyperglycemia/blood
19.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(1): 23-32, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388627

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar si los casos positivos de cribado combinado de trisomía 21 (t21) o trisomía 18 (t18) en ausencia de aneuploidía (falsos positivos- FP) se relacionan con complicaciones de la gestación, ajustando por factores demográficos y clínicos de riesgo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de pacientes que acudieron para cribado del primer trimestre. Los casos fueron las pacientes con FP de riesgo combinado de t21 superior a 1/270 o riesgo de t18 superior a 1/100. Se consideraron complicaciones de la gestación: óbito fetal, parto prematuro menor de 34 semanas o prematuro menor de 37 semanas, preeclampsia, retrasos de crecimiento, pequeño para la edad gestacional (CIR, PEG) y diabetes gestacional (DG). Se ajustó por obesidad, edad, paridad, tabaquismo, y técnicas de reproducción asistida. RESULTADO: Se obtuvieron 204 casos de FP, 149 FP para trisomía 21, 41 para trisomía 18, y 14 FP para ambos riesgos. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa de FP t21 con óbito fetal (OR=3,5; ic95% 1,4-8,7; p=0,01), parto prematuro menor de 37 semanas (OR=2,2; IC95% 1,4-3,4; p=0,001), preeclampsia (OR =2,6; IC95% 1,17-6,1; p=0,02), PEG (OR =2,2; IC95% 1,2-4,1; p=0,02), CIR (OR=2,8; IC95% 1,6-5,1; p=0,001), y DG (OR=2,1; IC95% 1,2-3,7; p=0,01). Los FP t18 se asociaron con óbito (OR=8,9; IC95% 2,9-27; p=0,002). CONCLUSIÓN: Los FP del cribado del primer trimestre, para trisomía 21 y trisomía 18, se asocian con resultados obstétricos adversos.


We have studied whether positive cases of combined trisomy 21 (t21) or 18 (t18) screening in the absence of aneuploidy (false positives -FP-) are related to pregnancy complications adjusting for demographic and clinical risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study nested in a cohort of patients who came for first trimester aneuploidy screening. The cases were patients with FP combined risk of t21 (greater than 1/270) or t18 risk (greater than 1/100). The control group was a sample of patients with low-risk screening. We considered pregnancy complications: stillbirth, premature delivery before 34 and 37 weeks, preeclampsia, growth retardation, small for gestational age (FGR, SGA), and gestational diabetes (GD). Or were adjusted for obesity, age, parity, smoking, and assisted reproduction techniques. RESULTS: 204 cases of FP were obtained, 149 FP for trisomy 21, 41 for trisomy 18, and 14 FP for both risks. A statistically significant association between t21 FP was found with stillbirth (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.4-8.7; p = 0.01), preterm delivery less than 37 weeks (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.4; p = 0.001), preeclampsia (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.17-6.1; p = 0.02), SGA (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1, 2-4.1; p = 0.02), FGR (OR = 2.8; 95% CI 1.6-5.1; p = 0.001), and GD (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 −3.7; p = 0.01). FP t18s were associated with fetal loss (OR= 8.9 (95% CI 2.9-27) p = 0.002. CONCLUSION: FP from first trimester screening for t21 and t18 are associated with adverse obstetric outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Trisomy/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Mass Screening , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , False Positive Reactions , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/epidemiology
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