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Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 878-883, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009443


Objective To investigate the role of proanthocyanidins (PC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response and its possible mechanism in RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were cultured and treated with PBS and different concentrations of PC for 24 hours, followed by 1 μg/mL LPS for 6 hours. Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of interleukin1β (IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrotic factor α (TNF-α), IL-4 and arginase 1 (Arg1) in RAW264.7 macrophages. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effects of PBS group, LPS group and PC combined with LPS group on M1 and M2 polarization of macrophages. The protein expressions of silenced information regulator 1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor kappa B p65(NF-κB p65) and acetylated NF-κB p65 (Ace-p65) were detected by Western blot analysis after different concentrations of PC treatment. Co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect the binding effect of SIRT1 to NF-κB p65 in macrophages treated with PC. Results Compared with PBS group, the mRNA expression of macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α decreased and the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 and Arg1 increased in PC group. Compared with LPS group, PC combined with LPS group could significantly inhibit M1 polarization and promote M2 polarization of macrophages. With the increase of PC concentration, the expression of SIRT1 was up-regulated, and NF-κB p65 protein did not change significantly. The expression of Ace-p65 protein decreased significantly when treated with high concentration of PC. Conclusion PC can significantly alleviate the LPS-induced inflammatory response by up-regulating the expression of SIRT1 and inhibiting NF-κB pathway in RAW264.7 macrophages.

Animals , Mice , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages , NF-kappa B , Proanthocyanidins , RNA, Messenger , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Braz. dent. sci ; 26(4): 1-9, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1511772


Objective: This study evaluated Proanthocyanidin protective effect on dentin subjected to erosion and its inhibition on degradation of the demineralized organic matrix (DOM). Material and Methods: The tested groups were: G1 - 10% Proanthocyanidin gel (test group), G2 - 1.23% NaF (positive control 1), G3 - 0.012% Chlorhexidine (positive control 2) and G4 ­ Placebo (negative control with no active compound) and two methodologies were performed: contact profilometry and ICTP ELISA method. To quantify dentin wear, profilometry was performed. Data were submitted to Analysis of Variance followed by Fisher's LSD Test. To assess the collagen degradation, ICTP ELISA method was performed. Data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Dunn ́s test. Simple linear regression and Pearson Correlation test were also performed (p<0.05). Results: The profilometry showed significantly lower wear of G1 when compared to other groups and G2, G3 and G4, which did not present significant difference among them. In the ICTP ELISA analysis, G1 and G4 did not show significant differences and the same happened between G2 and G3. However, G1 and G4 had lower values of collagen degradation compared to groups G2 and G3. Data showed that degraded DOM is a significant predictor to explain the values obtained through the ICTP ELISA. Conclusions: The results allow to verify that 10% proanthocyanidin provided less tooth wear and decreased degradation of the DOM, suggesting a good ability to prevent dentin erosion. The regression analysis also suggests that contact profilometry is a good strategy to quantify dentin wear (AU)

Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou o efeito protetor da proantocianidina na dentina submetida à erosão e sua inibição na degradação da matriz orgânica desmineralizada (MOD). Material e Métodos: Os grupos testados foram: G1 - gel de Proantocianidina 10% (grupo teste), G2 - NaF 1,23% (controle positivo 1), G3 - Clorexidina 0,012% (controle positivo 2) e G4 - Placebo (controle negativo sem princípio ativo) e duas metodologias foram realizadas: perfilometria de contato e método ICTP ELISA. Para quantificar o desgaste da dentina, a perfilometria foi realizada. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância seguida do Teste LSD de Fisher. Para avaliar a degradação do colágeno, foi realizado o método ICTP ELISA. Resultados: Os dados foram submetidos ao teste de Kruskal-Wallis seguido do teste de Dunn. Regressão linear simples e teste de correlação de Pearson também foram realizados (p<0,05). A perfilometria mostrou desgaste significativamente menor do G1 quando comparado aos outros grupos e G2, G3 e G4, que não apresentaram diferença significativa entre si. Na análise ICTP ELISA, G1 e G4 não apresentaram diferenças significativas e o mesmo ocorreu entre G2 e G3. No entanto, G1 e G4 apresentaram valores menores de degradação do colágeno em relação aos grupos G2 e G3. Os dados mostraram que a MOD degradada é um preditor significativo para explicar os valores obtidos pelo ICTP ELISA. Conclusão: Os resultados permitem verificar que a proantocianidina a 10% proporcionou menor desgaste dentário e diminuição da degradação da MOD, sugerindo uma boa capacidade de prevenir a erosão dentinária. Também sugere que a perfilometria de contato é uma boa estratégia para quantificar o desgaste da dentina (AU)

Preventive Health Services , Tooth Erosion , Proanthocyanidins , Dentin , Tooth Wear
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(37): 121-134, jul.-dic. 2021. gráficos, mapas, tablas e ilustraciones
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365195


Abstract Aim. In vitro antimicrobial activities of seven wines (5 reds and 2 whites) from the Douro region (Iberian Peninsule) against eleven clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori were evaluated. Methods. The disk diffusion method, using Columbia Agar supplemented with horse blood (CAB), were used to determine the antimicrobial properties of some wine components against H. pylori strains. Potential interactions of antioxidants contained in the wines and two antimicrobials (amoxicillin and metronidazole) were studied by the disk diffusion method. Results. All the tested strains showed growth in CAB supplemented with 9% of the tested wines but none of them grew in media supplemented with 45% and 67.5% of wine. Similarly, all the tested strains grew in media with the concentration of proanthocyanidins present in the different types of the studied wines. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the wine antioxidant components tested (benzoic acid, catechin, quercetin, and resveratrol) indicate that resveratrol was the most powerful inhibitory substance against H. pylori. An effect of potentiation between amoxicillin and metronidazole and the antioxidants tested was also established. The interaction of amoxicillin and resveratrol or metronidazole and catechin increased the antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. Conclusions. The results obtained suggested a potential role of resveratrol as a chemopreventive agent for H. pylori infection.

Resumen Objetivo. Se evaluó las actividades antimicrobianas in vitro de siete vinos (5 tintos y 2 blancos) de la región del Duero (Peninsula Ibérica) frente a once cepas de Helicobacter pylori de origen clínico. Métodos. Para determinar las propiedades antimicrobianas de algunos componentes del vino sobre las cepas de H. pylori se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión en disco en placas de agar Columbia suplementado con sangre de caballo (CAB). La potential interacción entre las sustancias antioxidantes presentes en los vinos y dos antimicrobianos (amoxicilina y metronidazol) se determinó usando la técnica de difusión en disco. Resultados. Todas las cepas ensayadas mostraron crecimiento en CAB suplementado con el 9% de los vinos analizados, pero no se obtuvo crecimiento de ninguna de las cepas en medios suplementados con el 45% y el 67,5% de vino. Asimismo, todas las cepas ensayadas crecieron en medios con la concentración de proantocianidinas presentes en los diferentes tipos de vinos estudiados. Los valores de concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) de los componentes antioxidantes de los vinos ensayados (ácido benzoico, catequina, quercetina y resveratrol) indican que el resveratrol fue la sustancia más potente en la inhibición del crecimiento de H. pylori. También se estableció un efecto de potenciación entre amoxicilina y metronidazol y los antioxidantes ensayados. Las interacciones amoxicilina + resveratrol y metronidazol + catequina aumentaron la actividad antimicrobiana contra H. pylori. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren un papel potencial del resveratrol como agente quimiopreventivo de la infección por H. pylori.

Humans , Helicobacter pylori , In Vitro Techniques , Proanthocyanidins , Infections
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 39-41, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280088


ABSTRACT Grape proanthocyanidin is a good health product, without side effects and excellent biological activity, but research in the field of sports tonic is still relatively slow. Currently, the technology of preparation and extraction of grape proanthocyanidins is relatively mature. This fact laid the groundwork for sports tonic proanthocyanidin research. This study first described the biological structure of proanthocyanidin in grapes, and built the immune system of volleyball players before and after taking proanthocyanidin sports supplements. He then analyzed the factors that influence immunity. The results show that the primary index subsystem is consistent with the total system in each phase, but there are still few differences over time, which can be divided into four phases: development, recession, recovery and stability; at the level of scientific training it is reasonable. Male and female athletes take exercise supplements containing proanthocyanidin at each level of training. Regarding humoral immunity and cellular immunity, there was no adverse reaction. This study may offer some reference value for other athletes before and after taking proanthocyanidin as a sports supplement.

RESUMO A proantocianidina da uva é um produto bom para a saúde, sem efeitos colaterais e excelente atividade biológica, mas a pesquisa no campo do tônico esportivo ainda é relativamente lenta. Atualmente, a tecnologia de preparação e extração das proantocianidinas de uva está relativamente madura. Este fato lançou as bases para a investigação da proantocianidina desportiva tónica. Este estudo descreveu, em primeiro lugar, a estrutura biológica da proantocianidina das uvas, e construiu o sistema imunitário dos jogadores de voleibol antes e depois de tomar suplementos desportivos de proantocianidina. Em seguida analisou os fatores que influenciam a imunidade. Os resultados mostram que o subsistema de índice primário é coerente com o sistema total em cada fase, mas ainda há poucas diferenças no tempo, que podem ser divididas em quatro fases: desenvolvimento, recessão, recuperação e estabilidade; no plano de formação científico e razoável. Os atletas do sexo masculino e feminino tomam suplementos de exercício contendo proantocianidina em cada estágio de treinamento. Com respeito à imunidade humoral e à imunidade celular não houve reação adversa. Este estudo pode oferecer algum valor de referência para outros atletas antes e depois de tomar proantocianidina como suplemento desportivo.

RESUMEN La proantocianidina de la uva es un producto bueno para la salud, sin efectos colaterales y excelente actividad biológica, pero la investigación en el campo del tónico deportivo aun es relativamente lenta. Actualmente, la tecnología de preparación y extracción de las proantocianidinas de uva está relativamente madura. Este hecho lanzó las bases para la investigación de la proantocianidina deportiva tónica. Este estudio describió, en primer lugar, la estructura biológica de la proantocianidina de las uvas, y construyó el sistema inmunitario de los jugadores de voleibol antes y después de tomar suplementos deportivos de proantocianidina. Enseguida analizó los factores que influencian la inmunidad. Los resultados muestran que el subsistema de índice primario es coherente con el sistema total en cada fase, pero aun hay pocas diferencias en el tiempo, que pueden ser divididas en cuatro fases: desarrollo, recesión, recuperación y estabilidad; en el plano de la formación científica es razonable. Los atletas del sexo masculino y femenino toman suplementos de ejercicio conteniendo proantocianidina en cada nivel de entrenamiento. Con respecto a la inmunidad humoral y a la inmunidad celular no hubo reacción adversa. Este estudio puede ofrecer algún valor de referencia para otros atletas antes y después de tomar proantocianidina como suplemento deportivo.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Dietary Supplements , Proanthocyanidins/administration & dosage , Athletic Performance/physiology , Volleyball/physiology , Immunity/drug effects
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(2): 61-73, maio 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1282737


Introdução:Os sistemas adesivos possibilitama execução de restaurações estéticas e minimamente invasivas, sendo, portanto,objeto de pesquisas para contornar os problemas que se apresentam no procedimento restaurador.Objetivo:Avaliar in vitroa resistência de união de um sistema adesivo autocondicionante, e deste modificado com soluções extrativas de semente de uva.Metodologia:Duas soluções extrativas foram preparadas comextrato de semente de uva em pó dissolvido em acetona e etanol. A partir delas e de umadesivo,seis sistemas adesivos autocondicionantes experimentais foram preparados, diferindo quanto aosolvente utilizado eàsproporções entre adesivo puro e solução extrativa(7,5%, 15% e 30%). Setenta incisivos bovinos hígidos tiveram as raízes removidas com disco de carborundum e as faces vestibulares desgastadas comlixas d'água de granulação 120, 240, 600 e 1200 sob refrigeração até expor a dentina superficial. Os dentes foram distribuídos aleatoriamenteem sete grupos distintos: Controle; A7,5; A15; A30; E7,5; E15; e E30, contendo 10 elementos cada. A aplicação dos adesivos foi executada de acordo com as recomendações do fabricante do adesivo controle. A restauração foi realizada com uma matriz de silicone com dimensões 2mm de altura e 4mm de diâmetro e inserido o material restaurador em incremento único e fotopolimerizado por 40s. Após três meses armazenados em água destilada, os espécimes foram submetidos ao teste de resistência de união. Foi empregado ométodo estatísticoTeste Paramétrico Anova 1 Fator e pós-teste de Tamhane (p<0,05). Resultados:Os grupos A7,5, E7,5 e E30 não apresentaram diferença em relação ao grupo Controle; A15 e A30 mostraram desempenho estatisticamente semelhante entre si; e E15 não apresentou diferença estatística em relação aos outros adesivos.Conclusões:A adição de proantocianidina teve efeitos diferentes,dependendodos solventes e das concentrações utilizadas, mas sem alterar significativamente o desempenho do adesivo (AU).

Introduction:Adhesive systems make it possible to perform aestheticand minimally invasive restorations, being the subject of research to circumvent the problems that arise in the restorative procedure.Objective:Evaluate in vitrothe bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system,and modified with extractive grape seed solutions. Methodology:Two extractive solutions were prepared with powdered grape seed extract dissolved in acetone and ethanol. From them and an adhesive, six experimental self-etching adhesive systems were prepared, differing in terms of the solvent used and the proportions between pure adhesive and extractive solution(7.5%, 15% and 30%). Seventy healthy bovine incisors had their roots removed with carborundum disc and the vestibular faces were worn with sandpaper with granulation water 120, 240, 600 and 1200 under refrigeration until the superficial dentin was exposed. The teeth were randomly assigned to seven different groups: Control; A7.5; A15; A30; E7.5; E15; and E30, containing 10 elements each. The application of the adhesives was carried out according to the recommendations of the manufacturer of the control adhesive. The restoration was performed with a silicone matrix with dimensions 2mm high and 4mm indiameter and the restorative material was inserted in a single increment and light cured for 40s. After three months stored in distilled water, the specimens were submitted to the bond strength test. The statistical method Parametric Test Anova 1 Factor and Tamhane post-test (p<0.05) were used. Results:Groups A7.5, E7.5 and E30 showed no difference in relation to the Control group; A15 and A30 showed a statistically similar performance; and E15 showed no statistical difference in relation to the other adhesives. Conclusions:The addition of proanthocyanidin had different effects, depending on the solvents and concentrations used, but without significantly altering the performance ofthe adhesive (AU).

Introducción: Sistemas adhesivos permiten realizar restauraciones estéticas y mínimamente invasivas, siendo objeto de investigación para sortear problemas que surgen en elprocedimiento restaurador. Objetivo: Evaluar in vitrola fuerza de unión de un sistema adhesivoautograbante y modificado con soluciones extractivas de semilla de uva. Metodología: Se prepararon dos soluciones extractivas con extracto de semilla de uva en polvo disuelto en acetona y etanol. A partir de ellos y de un adhesivo, se prepararon seis sistemas experimentales de adhesivos autograbantes, que se diferencian en cuanto al solvente utilizado y las proporciones entre adhesivo puro y solución extractiva (7,5%, 15% y 30%). Setenta incisivos bovinos sanos fueron removidos con un disco de carborundo y las caras vestibulares fueron usadas com lija de agua de granulación 120, 240, 600 y 1200 bajo refrigeración hasta que la dentina superficial quedo expuesta. Los dientes se asignaron aleatoriamente a siete grupos diferentes: Control; A7,5; A15; A30; E7,5; E15; y E30, que contiene 10 elementos cada uno. La aplicación de los adhesivos se realizó siguiendo las recomendaciones del fabricante del adhesivo de control. La restauración se realizó con matriz de silicona con 2mm de altura y 4mm de diámetro y el material restaurador se insertó en un solo incremento y se fotopolimerizó durante 40s. Tres meses después, almacenados em agua destilada, las muestras se sometieron a la prueba de resistencia de la unión. Se utilizó el método estadístico Prueba Paramétrica Factor Anova 1 y post-prueba de Tamhane (p<0,05). Resultados: Los grupos A7,5, E7,5 y E30 no mostraron diferencias em relación con el grupo Control; A15 y A30 mostraron un desempeño estadísticamente similar; y E15 no mostró diferencia estadística en relación con los otros adhesivos. Conclusiones: La adición de proantocianidina tuvo diferentes efectos, dependiendo de los disolventes y concentraciones utilizadas, pero sin alterar significativamente el rendimiento del adhesivo (AU).

Animals , Cattle , Dental Polishing/instrumentation , Proanthocyanidins , Flexural Strength , Solvents , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Brazil , Analysis of Variance , Dental Cements/chemistry , Grape Seed Extract
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6353-6365, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921794


In this paper, the newly isolated tannins were sorted after a review of the literature concerning tannins in recent 10 years, and their research progress was summarized in terms of extraction, isolation, pharmacological activity and metabolism. Hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins are the main structural types. Modern research shows that tannins have many pharmacological effects, such as bacteriostasis, antioxidation, antitumor, antivirus and blood glucose reduction, and have broad development prospects. They are usually extracted by water, ethanol and acetone and isolated and purified by macroporous resin and gel column chromatography. The packings commonly adopted for the column chromatography mainly included Sephadex LH-20, Diaion HP-20, MCI-gel CHP-20 and Toyopearl HW-40. Modern analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(NMR), fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry(FAB-MS) and circular dichroism(CD) are generally used for the structural identification of tannins. Howe-ver, their isolation, purification and structural identification are still challenging. It is necessary to use a variety of high-throughput screening methods to explore their pharmacological activities and to explore the material basis responsible for their functions through experiments in vivo.

China , Hydrolyzable Tannins , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Proanthocyanidins , Tannins
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4131-4138, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888072


Eleven condensed tannins were isolated from the roots of Indigofera stachyodes by various column chromatography techniques including silica gel, octadecyl silica(ODS), Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). These compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties, nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS) data as stachyotannin A(1), epicatechin-(2β→O→7,4β→8)-epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-catechin(2), cinnamtannin D1(3), cinnamtannin B1(4), epicatechin-(2β→O→7,4β→8)-epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epicatechin(5), gambiriin C(6), proanthocyanidin A1(7), proanthocyanidin A2(8), aesculitannin B(9), proanthocyanidin A4(10), and procyanidin B5(11). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2-11 were isolated from Indigofera for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 1, 2, and 4-11 showed inhibitory effects on thrombin-induced ATP release in platelets.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Indigofera , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Extracts , Proanthocyanidins
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2923-2930, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888030


The present study determined the quantitative markers of total proanthocyanidins in the purification of the industrial waste Choerospondias axillaris pericarp based on the comparison results of high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and mass spectrometry(MS) and optimized the purification process with two stable procyanidins as markers. The adsorption and desorption of five different macroporous adsorption resins, the static adsorption kinetics curve of NKA-Ⅱ resin, the maximum sample load, and the gradient elution were investigated. The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was employed for qualitative analysis of the newly-prepared total proanthocyanidins of C. axillaris pericarp. As revealed by the results, NKA-Ⅱ resin displayed strong adsorption and desorption toward total proanthocyanidins. The sample solution(50 mg·mL~(-1)) was prepared from 70% ethanol crude extract of C. axillaris pericarp dissolved in water and 7-fold BV of the sample solution was loaded, followed by static adsorption for 12 h. After 8-fold BV of distilled water and 6-fold BV of 10% ethanol were employed to remove impurities, the solution was eluted with 8-fold BV of 50% ethanol, concentrated, and dried under reduced pressure, and purified total proanthocyanidin powder was therefore obtained. Measured by vanillin-hydrochloric acid method, the purity and transfer rate of total proanthocyanidins were 47.67% and 59.92%, respectively, indicating the feasibi-lity of the optimized process. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS qualitative analysis identified 16 procyanidins in C. axillaris total proanthocyanidins. The optimized purification process is simple in operation and accurate in component identification, and it can be applied to the process investigation of a class of components that are difficult to be separated and purified. It can also provide technical support and research ideas for the comprehensive utilization of industrial waste.

Adsorption , Anacardiaceae , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Extracts , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Resins, Synthetic , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 238-246, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115494


Oryza sativa L. rice has large amounts of proteins and minerals, besides presenting several pigmented varieties. Red rice is distinguishable due to its great nutritional value compared to the regular white variety. Its red pericarp pigmentation is due to the bioactive compounds that are responsible for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical characterization, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity of flours of three different red rice cultures (Rubi, Virgínia and Pequeno). All samples presented specific levels of carbohydrates for cereals with low fat content and excellent levels of protein and resistant starch. In addition, the samples had a high antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity. Antihyperglycemic capacities were measured as percent inhibition for amylase (56.7-76.5%) and glycosidase (81.0-76.6%), respectively, and antihypertensive capacity as the percentage inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (38.4-34.7%). In addition, Pequeno flour presented the best results for antioxidant and antihyperglycemic capacity in comparison to the two flours tested. Thus, all red rice flours can be a source of functional compounds when added to food.

El arroz integral (Oryza sativa L.) posee importantes cantidades de proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fitoquímicos. El arroz rojo se destaca por su gran valor nutricional. La pigmentación roja del pericarpio está asociado al contenido de compuestos bioactivos, que están directamente relacionados a los beneficios de salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta lo antes expuesto se propuso evaluar las caracteristicas físico-químicas, capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva de las harinas de tres diferentes cultivos de arroz rojo (Rubí, Virginia y Pequeño). Todas las muestras presentaron niveles específicos de carbohidratos para cereales con bajo contenido de grasa y altos contenidos de proteína y almidón resistente. Además, las muestras presentaron una alta capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva. La capacidad anti-hiperglicémica se midió en porcentaje de inhibidores de α-amilasa (56.7-76.5%) y α-glucosidasa (81.0-76.6%), respectivamente; y capacidad antihipertensiva como el porcentaje de inhibición de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (38.4-34.7%). El cultivar Pequeño presentó mayor capacidad antioxidante y anti-hiperglucémica en comparación a los demás cultivares. Así, todas las harinas de arroz rojo pueden ser vehículos de compuestos funcionales en los alimentos.

Oryza/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Starch , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Edible Grain , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Glucosidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
Rev. bras. odontol ; 77(1): 1-5, jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103883


Objetivo: avaliar o efeito biomodificador dos agentes de ligações cruzadas nas propriedades mecânicas do colágeno dentinário. Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo laboratorial in vitro, nos quais foram confeccionadas 18 barras de dentina a partir de terceiros molares humanos extraídos e livres de cárie. Os espécimes foram desmineralizados em ácido fosfórico a 10%, por 5 horas, distribuídos aleatoriamente nos grupos distintos e mantidos em suas respectivas soluções de pré-tratamento: água destilada (AD), Proantocianidina a 6,5% (PAC6,5) e Cardanol a 6,5% (CAR6,5) por períodos de 1 hora. Foram realizados os testes de flexão de três pontos para obtenção do módulo de elasticidade (ME) e modificação de massa (MM). Foram submetidos ao teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnoff seguido, do teste de ANOVA à um critério e pós teste de Tukey para a MM, e Dunns para diferença de ME (p<0,05). Resultados: Os valores obtidos no ME mostraram mudanças estatísticas notáveis em todos os grupos testados, quando comparados ao controle negativo (p<0,001), assim como na variação de massa foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas nos valores médios entre os grupos testados (p=0,012). Conclusão: o uso da PAC6,5 irá melhorar as propriedades mecânicas do colágeno

Objective: to evaluate the biomodifying effect of cross-linking agents on the mechanical properties of the teeth. Material and Methods: this is an in vitro laboratory study, in which 18 bars of dentin were made from extracted, caries-free human third molars. The samples were demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid for 5 hours, randomly distributed in different groups and kept in their pre-treatment solutions: distilled water (AD), Proanthocyanidin at 6.5% (PAC6.5) and Cardanol at 6.5% (CAR6.5) for periods of 1 hour. Three-point bending tests were performed to obtain the modulus of elasticity (ME) and mass modification (MM). They were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test followed by the Kruskal-Wallis' test and the Tukey's post-test for mass modification, and Kruskal-Wallis' test after a Dunn's test for difference in the modulus of elasticity(p <0.05). Results: the values selected in the ME show possible statistical changes in all groups tested, when compared to the negative control (p<0.001), as well as the mass variation. Data were shown in the average values between the groups tested (p = 0.012). Conclusion: The use of PAC6.5 will improve the mechanical properties of the collection

Collagen , Collagen/chemistry , Proanthocyanidins , Distilled Water , Phenol
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 238-247, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829020


Objective@#This study aimed to explore the protective effect of procyanidin B2 (PCB2) on acute liver injury induced by aflatoxin B (AFB ) in rats.@*Methods@#Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, AFB , AFB + PCB2, and PCB2 groups. The latter two groups were administrated PCB2 intragastrically (30 mg/kg body weight) for 7 d, whereas the control and AFB groups were given the same dose of double distilled water intragastrically. On the sixth day of treatment, the AFB and AFB + PCB2 groups were intraperitoneally injected with AFB (2 mg/kg). The control and PCB2 groups were intraperitoneally administered the same dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). On the eighth day, all rats were euthanized: serum and liver tissue were isolated for further examination. Hepatic histological features were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Weight, organ coefficient (liver, spleen, and kidney), liver function (serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin), oxidative index (catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), inflammation factor [hepatic interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression and serum IL-6], and bcl-2/bax ratio were measured.@*Results@#AFB significantly caused hepatic histopathological damage, abnormal liver function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and bcl-2/bax ratio reduction compared with DMSO-treated controls. Our results indicate that PCB2 treatment can partially reverse the adverse liver conditions induced by AFB .@*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that PCB2 exhibits a protective effect on acute liver injury induced by AFB .

Animals , Male , Rats , Aflatoxin B1 , Toxicity , Biflavonoids , Pharmacology , Catechin , Pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Poisons , Toxicity , Proanthocyanidins , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200051, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134789


Abstract Proanthocyanidin has been shown to be efficient in inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases. Objective The aim of this in situ study was to evaluate the protective effect of Proanthocyanidin-based mouthrinses either with naturally acidic or with a neutral pH applied on dentin subjected to erosion. Methodology Eight volunteers wore one palatal device in two phases (7 days washout) with 16 samples per group (n=8). The groups under study were: First Phase/ G1 - 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 7.0, Experimental group 1 - Purified Grape Seeds Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins), G2 - 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 3.0, Experimental group 2 - Purified Grape Seeds Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins). Second Phase/ G3 - 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse (pH 7.0, Positive control group), G4 - no previous treatment (Negative control group). Each device was subjected to 3 erosive cycles (5 minutes) per day for 5 days. Treatments with different mouthrinses were applied once after the second erosive challenge (5 minutes). Profilometry was used to quantify dentin loss (µm). Results Data were analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA followed by Fisher's test (p<0.05). G1 (1.17±0.69) and G3 (1.22±0.25) showed significantly lower wear values with no statistical difference between them. G2 (2.99±1.15) and G4 (2.29±1.13) presented higher wear values with no significant differences between them. Conclusion The 10% proanthocyanidin mouthrinse (pH 7.0) could be a good strategy to reduce dentin wear progression.

Humans , Proanthocyanidins/pharmacology , Dentin/drug effects , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(4): 1-9, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1121989


Objective: Vital bleaching is a popular treatment option for discolored teeth; but at post-treatment stage, loss of adhesion is highly reported. Literature focused on antioxidant application for the answer of this issue. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of six different antioxidants on color stability of bleached teeth. Material and Methods: This study included total of 84 extracted intact non-carious lower incisors. 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied on the labial surfaces of specimens in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. The bleached teeth were divided into 7 groups. No antioxidants were applied to the control group. For the experimental groups, the following antioxidants were applied for 10 minutes each: 5% proanthocyanidin, 5% sodium ascorbate, 5% lycopene, %5 green tea, %5 white tea and %5 α-tocopherol. CIE L*, a* and b* values of the teeth were measured by a spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences among the groups. Multiple comparisons were examined with Tukey HSD. Results: The one-way ANOVA test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups (p < 0.005). Highest color change was observed in lycopene group and the lowest in green tea group. Conclusion: Proanthocyanidin, white tea and green tea could be considered as post-bleaching antioxidant alternatives based on their herbal nature. (AU)

Objetivo: O clareamento vital é uma opção popular de tratamento para dentes descoloridos, mas na fase pós-tratamento, a perda de adesão é altamente relatada. A literatura enfocou a aplicação de antioxidantes para a resposta desta questão. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os efeitos de seis diferentes antioxidantes na estabilidade da cor de dentes clareados. Material e Métodos: Este estudo incluiu um total de 84 incisivos inferiores extraídos, intactos e não cariados. Peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% foi aplicado nas superfícies labiais dos espécimes de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Os dentes clareados foram divididos em 7 grupos. Nenhum antioxidante foi aplicado ao grupo controle. Para os grupos experimentais, os seguintes antioxidantes foram aplicados por 10 minutos cada: proantocianidina a 5%, ascorbato de sódio a 5%, licopeno a 5%, chá verde a 5%, chá branco a 5% e α-tocoferol a 5%. Os valores CIE L *, a * e b * dos dentes foram medidos por um espectrofotômetro. ANOVA um fator foi usada para determinar as diferenças entre os grupos. As comparações múltiplas foram examinadas com Tukey HSD. Resultados: O teste ANOVA revelou uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (p <0,005). A maior mudança de cor foi observada no grupo do licopeno e a menor no grupo do chá verde. Conclusão: Proantocianidina, chá branco e chá verde podem ser considerados como alternativas antioxidantes pós-clareamento com base em sua natureza fitoterápica. (AU)

Humans , Tea , alpha-Tocopherol , Proanthocyanidins , Lycopene
Acta cir. bras ; 35(8): e202000802, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130668


Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin B2 (GSPB2) preconditioning on oxidative stress and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in mice after renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR). Methods Forty male ICR mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Group A: mice were treated with right nephrectomy. Group B: right kidney was resected and the left renal vessel was clamped for 45 minutes. Group C: mice were intraperitoneally injected with GSPB2 before RIR established. Group D: mice were intraperitoneally injected with GSPB2 plus brusatol before RIR established. Creatinine and urea nitrogen of mice were determined. Pathological and morphological changes of kidney were checked. Expressions of Nrf-2, HO-1, cleaved-caspase3 were detected by Western-blot. Results Compared to Group B, morphology and pathological damages of renal tissue were less serious in Group C. Western-blot showed that expressions of Nrf-2 and HO-1 in Group C were obviously higher than those in Group B. The expression of cleaved-caspase3 in Group C was significantly lower than that in Group B. Conclusion GSPB2 preconditioning could attenuate renal oxidative stress injury and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis by up-regulating expressions of Nrf-2 and HO-1 and down-regulating the expression of cleaved-caspase-3, but the protective effect could be reversed by brusatol.

Animals , Male , Mice , Reperfusion Injury , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Proanthocyanidins/therapeutic use , Proanthocyanidins/pharmacology , Grape Seed Extract/therapeutic use , Grape Seed Extract/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Mice, Inbred ICR
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1207-1216, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038614


Aims to investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on production performance, metabolism, and anti-oxidative status of Holstein dairy cattle in early lactation. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein dairy cattle were assigned to four groups (CON, G20, G40 and G80) and supplied with 0, 20, 40, and 80mg GSPE/kg of body weight/day. G20 significantly increased milk yield compared with other groups. Milk protein and non-fat-solids were increased in G20, G40 and G80 groups compared with the control group only at the 7th day during the experiment. No significant difference was observed in milk fat and somatic cell count, nor on parameters of energy metabolism in blood, liver function and kidney function between the four groups. There was no significant difference in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and hydrogen peroxide between the groups; but the malondialdehyde content of G20 significantly increased at day 14 in comparison with CON, and tended to increase at the 28th day. In conclusion, feeding 20mg GSPE/kg of body weight/day was associated with a significant increase in milk yield without detrimental effects on liver or kidney function and with substantial energy metabolism and antioxidant parameters improvement in early lactation dairy cattle.(AU)

O presente trabalho visa investigar os efeitos do extrato de semente de uva Proanthocyanidin (GSPE) sobre o desempenho da produção, o metabolismo e o status antioxidante de gado leiteiro Holstein em lactação precoce. Quarenta e oito vacas leiteiras multíparas Holstein foram divididas em quatro grupos (CON, G20, G40 e G80) e receberam 0, 20, 40 e 80mg de GSPE/kg de peso corporal/dia, respectivamente. O G20 aumentou significativamente o rendimento do leite em comparação com os outros grupos. A proteína e os sólidos não gordurosos do leite foram aumentados nos grupos G20, G40 e G80 somente no sétimo dia durante a experiência. Não foi observada diferença significativa na gordura do leite e na contagem de células somáticas, bem como nos parâmetros de metabolismo energético no sangue, na função hepática e na função renal entre os grupos em relação ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença significativa na glutationa peroxidase, na dimutase de superóxido, na capacidade antioxidante total e no peróxido de hidrogênio entre os grupos, mas o conteúdo malondialdeído do G20 aumentou significativamente no dia 14 em comparação com o CON, e tendia a aumentar no dia 28. Em conclusão, a alimentação de 20mg de GSPE/kg de peso corporal/dia foi associada a um aumento significativo no rendimento do leite, sem efeitos nocivos sobre a função hepática ou a renal, com o metabolismo de energia substancial e a melhoria dos parâmetros antioxidantes de gado leiteiro no início da lactação.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Lactation/drug effects , Proanthocyanidins , Milk , Grape Seed Extract/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 7(2): 182-186, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005753


Introdução: a utilização de diferentes polifenóis no aumento das propriedades mecânicas do colágeno dentinário tem sido bastante empregada, sendo o ácido tânico um polifenol com propriedade biológica bastante pronunciada. Objetivo: avaliar o potencial biomodificador do ácido tânico (AT) em diferentes concentrações em colágeno dentinário. Métodos: os fatores sob investigação foram módulo de elasticidade, mensurado por meio de um ensaio de flexão de três pontos (n=10) e variação de massa (n=10), aferidos com uma balança de precisão, sendo, para tanto, avaliados os seguintes elementos: ácido tânico (0,1; 1 e 10%), proantocianidina (6,5%) e água destilada (controle). Resultados: quanto ao módulo de elasticidade, os grupos tratados com ácido tânico apresentaram valores, estatisticamente, superiores (p<0,05) aos demais grupos, não sendo observadas diferenças entre suas diferentes concentrações. Para os valores de variação de massa, os grupos que foram imersos em agentes biomodificadores apresentaram valores estatisticamente (p<0,05) superiores ao grupo controle. Conclusão: o ácido tânico se apresenta como um potencial agente biomodificador do colágeno dentinário, independente da concentração utilizada, aumentando o seu módulo de elasticidade e gerando um ganho de massa após uma hora de imersão.

Introduction: The use of different polyphenols in the increase of the mechanical properties of dentin collagen has been widely used, thus, tannic acid being a polyphenol with very pronounced biological proprieties. Objective: to evaluate the biomodifying potential of tannic acid (AT) in different concentrations in dentin collagen. Methods: the factors under investigation were modulus of elasticity, measured by a three-point bending test (n = 10), and mass variation (n = 10), measured by means of a precision scale, being the following substances evaluated: tannic acid (0.1, 1 and 10%), proanthocyanidin (6.5%) and distilled water (control). Results: As for the modulus of elasticity, the groups treated with tannic acid presented statistically higher values (p <0.05) in relation to the other groups, and no differences were observed between the different concentrations. For the values of mass variation, the groups that were immersed in biomodifiers showed statistically (p <0.05) values higher than the control group. Conclusion: tannic acid presents as a potential biomodifying agent of dentin collagen, regardless of the concentration used, increasing its modulus of elasticity and generating a mass gain after one hour of immersion.

Collagen , Dental Cements , Proanthocyanidins , Polyphenols
RFO UPF ; 24(1): 162-169, 29/03/2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1049277


Objetivo: realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca da eficácia de utilização da clorexidina (CHX) e de outros tipos de inibidores de metaloproteinases (MMPs) na resistência de união da camada híbrida. Métodos: a busca bibliográfica foi realizada na base de dados PubMed, nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 2018. A pesquisa ocorreu em três fases, com os descritores previamente selecionados. Foram incluídas publicações dos últimos 10 anos no formato de pesquisas científicas realizadas in vitro ou in vivo. Após análise, obedecendo aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram incluídos sete estudos na presente revisão. Resultados/Revisão de literatura: na interface adesiva, os estudos mostram que as MMPs são ativadas durante a etapa de ataque ácido realizada nos protocolos de aplicação de sistemas adesivos, podendo ser ativada tanto por procedimentos adesivos com condicionamento ácido prévio como por sistemas adesivos autocondicionantes. Além da CHX, outras substâncias foram pesquisadas e se mostraram eficazes na inibição de MMPs. Considerações finais: por meio da inibição da atividade das MMPs, é possível obter uma maior durabilidade da interface adesiva e uma menor degradação hidrolítica do colágeno presente na camada híbrida. (AU)

Objective: to perform a literature review on the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) and other types of metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPs) on hybrid layer bond strength. Methods: the bibliographic search was performed in PubMed, in the months of november and december of 2018. The research was carried out in three phases with the previously selected descriptors. Publications have been included in the last 10 years in the form of scientific research conducted in vitro or in vivo. After analysis, following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 7 studies were included in the present review. Results / Literature review: in the adhesive interface, the studies show that the MMPs are activated during the acid attack stage carried out in the application protocols of adhesive systems, and can be activated either by adhesive procedures with prior acid conditioning or self-etching adhesive systems. In addition to CHX, other substances were investigated and shown to be effective in inhibiting MMPs. Final considerations: through the inhibition of the MMPs activity it is possible to obtain a greater durability of the adhesive interface and lower hydrolytic degradation of the collagen present in the hybrid layer. (AU)

Humans , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Benzalkonium Compounds/chemistry , Fibrillar Collagens/drug effects , Proanthocyanidins/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 778-783, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773533


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of procyanidin B2 (PCB2) on the intestinal barrier and against enteritis in mice with trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#A mouse model of TNBS-induced colitis was established in male Balb/c mice aged 6-8 weeks. The successfully established mouse models were randomly divided into PCB2 treatment group (=10) and model group (=10) and were treated with daily intragastric administration of PCB2 (100 mg/kg, 0.2 mL) and 0.2 mL normal saline, respectively. After 4 weeks, the disease symptoms, intestinal inflammation, intestinal mucosal cell barrier function and the changes in PI3K/AKT signaling were evaluated using HE staining, immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The disease activity index of the mice was significantly lower and the mean body weight was significantly greater in PCB2 group than in the model group in the 3rd and 4th weeks of intervention ( < 0.05). The levels of colonic inflammation and intestinal mucosal inflammatory mediators IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly lower while IL-10 was significantly higher in PCB2 group than in the model group ( < 0.05). Compared with those in the model group, the mice in PCB2 treatment group showed a significantly lower positive rate of bacterial translocation in the mesenteric lymph nodes and a lower thiocyanate-dextran permeability of the intestinal mucosa ( < 0.05). Western blotting showed that PCB2 treatment significantly increased the expressions of claudin-1 and ZO-1 ( < 0.05) and significantly lowered the expression levels of p-PI3K and p-AKT in the intestinal mucosa as compared with those in the model group ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#PCB2 suppresses intestinal inflammation and protects intestinal mucosal functions and structural integrity by inhibiting intestinal PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, suggesting the potential of PCB2 as a new drug for Crohn's disease.

Animals , Male , Mice , Biflavonoids , Catechin , Colitis , Colon , Enteritis , Intestinal Mucosa , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proanthocyanidins , Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 250-255, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776520


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of procyanidin on periprosthetic osteolysis caused by tricalcium phosphate (TCP) wear particles in the mouse calvaria and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty-eight male ICR mice were randomly divided into sham group, TCP group, and procyanidin (0.2 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg)-treated group (n=12). A periprosthetic osteolysis model in the mouse calvaria was established by implanting 30 mg of TCP wear particles onto the surface of bilateral parietal bones following removal of the periosteum. On the 2 day post-operation, procyanidin (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg) was locally injected to the calvaria under the periosteum every other day. After 2 weeks, all the mice were sacrificed to collect the blood samples and the calvaria. Periprosthetic osteolysis and osteoclastogenesis in the mouse calvaria were observed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and HE staining. mRNA levels of TRAP, capthesin K, c-Fos and NFATc1 in the periprosthestic bone tissue were examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Serum contents of total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC) and MDA, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined by chemical colorimetry. Protein expressions of autophagic biomarkers such as Beclin-1 and LC-3 in periprosthetic bone tissue of the calvaria were examined by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with sham group, periprosthetic osteolysis, osteoclastogenesis, mRNA levels of TRAP, capthesin K, c-Fos and NFATc1, and serum MDA content were increased significantly in the TCP group (P<0.05), whereas serum T-AOC level and SOD activity were decreased. The protein expressions of Beclin-1 and LC-3, and the conversion of LC3-II from LC3-I were both up-regulated markedly in the mouse calvaria of TCP group (P<0.05). Compared with TCP group, osteolysis, osteoclastogenesis, mRNA levels of TRAP, capthesin K, c-Fos and NFATc1 and serum MDA content were decreased obviously in the procyanidine group (P<0.05), serum T-AOC level and SOD activity were increased, the expressions of Beclin-1 and LC-3, and the conversion of LC3-II from LC3-I were down-regulated obviously in the mouse calvaria of procyanidin group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Procyanidin has a protective effect of periprosthetic osteolysis caused by TCP wear particles in the mouse calvaia, its mechanism may be mediated by inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy.

Animals , Male , Mice , Autophagy , Biflavonoids , Pharmacology , Calcium Phosphates , Catechin , Pharmacology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Osteolysis , Oxidative Stress , Proanthocyanidins , Pharmacology , Prostheses and Implants , Random Allocation , Skull
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(3): 226-231, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950449


ABSTRACT Purpose: Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a devastating casualty agent in chemical warfare. There is no effective antidote to treat NM-induced ocular injury. We aimed to assess the effects of proanthocyanidin (PAC) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on NM-induced ocular injury. Methods: Eighteen male rats were divided into the following 4 groups: NM, NM + PAC, NM + CoQ10, and control. The 3 NM groups received a single dose of NM (0.02 mg/μL) on the right eye to induce ocular injury. The control group received saline only. Thirty minutes after the application of NM, the NM + PAC group received PAC (100 mg/kg) via gastric gavage, while the NM + CoQ10 group received CoQ10 (10 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. PAC and CoQ10 were administered once a day for 5 consecutive days. The rats were then sacrificed. Macroscopic images of the eyes were examined and eye tissues were collected for histology. Results: The treatment groups were compared to the control group with regard to both corneal opacity and lid injury scores. The findings were not significantly different for both the NM + PAC and NM + CoQ10 groups. In both the NM + PAC and NM + CoQ10 groups, the histological changes seen in the NM group demonstrated improvement. Conclusions: Our results indicate that PAC and CoQ10 treatments have therapeutic effects on NM-induced ocular injury in a rat model. PAC and CoQ10 may be novel options in patients with NM-induced ocular injury.

RESUMO Objetivo: A mostarda de nitrogênio (MN) é um agente de guerra química devastador. Não existe um antídoto eficaz para tratar lesões oculares induzidas por MN. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos da proantocianidina (PAC) e da coenzima Q10 (CoQ10) na lesão ocular induzida por MN. Métodos: Dezoito ratos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos: MN, MN + PAC, MN + CoQ10 e Controle. Três grupos receberam uma dose única de MN (0,02 mg/μL) destilada no olho direito para gerar lesão ocular. Os animais do grupo controle receberam apenas solução salina. Trinta minutos após a aplicação de MN nos animais, o grupo MN + PAC recebeu PAC (100 mg/kg) por gavagem gástrica, enquanto a CoQ10 (10 mg/kg) foi administrada ao grupo MN + CoQ10 por meio de injeção intraperitoneal. A administração de PAC e de CoQ10 foi realizada uma vez por dia, durante 5 dias consecutivos. Os ratos foram, então, sacrificados. Imagens macroscópicas dos olhos foram examinadas e tecidos oculares foram coletados para histologia. Resultados: Os grupos de tratamento foram comparados ao grupo de controle quanto à opacidade da córnea e quanto aos escores de lesão da cobertura da córnea. Os resultados foram insignificantes para ambos os grupos. Ambos, o grupo MN+PAC e o grupo MN+CoQ10, apresentaram melhoras das alterações histológicas observadas no grupo MN. Conclusões: Nossos resultados indicam que os tratamentos com PAC e com CoQ10 têm efeitos terapêuticos sobre lesões oculares induzidas por MN em um modelo em ratos. A proantocianidina e a CoQ10 podem ser uma nova opção nesses casos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Burns, Chemical/drug therapy , Eye Injuries/drug therapy , Ubiquinone/analogs & derivatives , Proanthocyanidins/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Chemical Warfare Agents , Eye Injuries/chemically induced , Ubiquinone/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Mechlorethamine