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1.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 21(1): 120-132, 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1553660

ABSTRACT

El consumo de alcohol se considera un fenómeno complejo y multifactorial que puede estudiarse a través de diversas posturas teóricas, sin embargo, algunas teorías existentes carecen de sufi-cientes elementos para explorar y comprender dicho fenómeno. Por lo anterior, se propone una Teoría de Rango Medio que aborde los factores personales, ambientales y representaciones so-ciales del consumo de alcohol en jóvenes universitarios a partir de la Teoría Cognitiva Social de Bandura y de la conceptualización de la representación social de Moscovici. Para ello, se utilizó el método de Estructura Conceptual-Teórico-Empírico propuesto por Fawcett, compuesto por cinco pasos. La teoría derivada de este método contribuye en la identificación de un fenómeno específico para la disciplina mediante la determinación de conceptos y su relación con el con-sumo de alcohol en jóvenes universitarios. Además, de la incorporación de las representaciones sociales como elemento innovador para la profundización del fenómeno. Esta propuesta puede ser considerada en futuras investigaciones para ser probada y contribuir significativamente en el desarrollo de conocimiento sobre el consumo de alcohol


Alcohol consumption is considered a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that can be studied through various theoretical positions; however, some existing theories lack sufficient elements to explore and understand this phenomenon. Therefore, a Middle Range Theory is proposed that addresses personal, environmental, and social representations of alcohol consumption in young university students based on Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and Moscovici's conceptualiza-tion of social representation. For this, the method of Conceptual-Theoretical-Empirical Structure proposed by Fawcett was used, consisting of five steps. The theory derived from this method con-tributes to the identification of a specific phenomenon for the discipline by determining concepts and their relationship with alcohol consumption in young university students. In addition, the incorporation of social representations as an innovative element for the deepening of the phenom-enon. This proposal can be considered in future research to be tested and contribute significantly to the development of knowledge about alcohol consumption


O consumo de álcool é considerado um fenômeno complexo e multifatorial que pode ser estu-dado por meio de vários posicionamentos teóricos, porém, algumas teorias existentes carecem de elementos suficientes para explorar e compreender esse fenômeno. Assim, propõe-se uma Teoria de Médio Alcance que aborda as representações pessoais, ambientais e sociais do consu-mo de álcool em universitários com base na Teoria Social Cognitiva de Bandura e na conceitu-ação de representação social de Moscovici. Para isso, foi utilizado o método da Estrutura Con-ceitual-Teórico-Empírica proposto por Fawcett, composto por cinco etapas. A teoria derivada desse método contribui para a identificação de um fenômeno específico da disciplina ao deter-minar conceitos e sua relação com o consumo de álcool em jovens universitários. Além disso, a incorporação das representações sociais como elemento inovador para o aprofundamento do fenômeno. Essa proposta pode ser considerada em pesquisas futuras a serem testadas e contribuir significativamente para o desenvolvimento do conhecimento sobre o consumo de álcool


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Risk Factors , Adult , Protective Factors , Social Representation
2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3890, ene.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1431835

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analizar los factores asociados con el uso inconsistente del preservativo masculino en hombres VIH negativos que tienen sexo con hombres. Método: estudio transversal, analítico, nacional realizado de forma online en todas las regiones de Brasil, en 2020, a través de redes sociales y sitios de citas. El uso inconsistente del preservativo se definió como el uso ocasional o no usarlo nunca. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos, pruebas de asociación y regresión logística binaria. Resultados: 1222 (85%) de los 1438 participantes informaron uso inconsistente del preservativo. Las variables "homosexuales" (ORA: 2,03; IC 95%: 1,14-3,59; p = 0,016), "tener pareja estable" (ORA: 2,19; IC 95%: 1,55-3,09; p<0,001), "sexo oral" (ORA: 2,41; IC 95%: 1,31-4,43; p = 0,005), "anal insertivo" (ORA: 1,98; IC 95%: 1,10-3,58; p = 0,023) y "diagnóstico de ITS" (ORA: 1,59; IC 95%: 1,13-2,24; p = 0,007) se asociaron de forma independiente con el uso inconsistente del preservativo masculino. Las variables "recibió consejo de un amigo sobre la prueba del VIH" (ORA: 0,71; IC 95%: 0,52-0,96; p = 0,028) y "trabajador sexual" (ORA: 0,26; IC 95%: 0,11-0,60; p = 0,002) fueron factores protectores. Conclusión: las variables estudiadas indicaron que hay una fuerte relación entre las parejas estables y el aumento de la confianza y la baja adherencia al uso del preservativo, lo que coincide con otros estudios.


Objective: to analyze the factors associated with inconsistent use of male condoms among HIV-negative men who have sex with other men. Method: a cross-sectional, analytical and nationwide study conducted online in all the Brazilian regions in 2020, via networks and in dating websites. Inconsistent condom use was defined as occasional use or as never using it. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed, as well as association and binary logistic regression tests. Results: inconsistent condom use was reported by 1,222 (85%) of all 1,438 participants. The "homosexuals" (ORAdj: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.14-3.59; p=0.016), "having a fixed partner" (ORAdj: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.55-3.09; p<0.001), "oral sex" (ORAdj: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.31-4.43; p=0.005), "insertive anal" (ORAdj: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.10-3.58; p=0.023) and "STI diagnosis" (ORAdj: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.13-2.24; p=0.007) variables were independently associated with inconsistent use of male condoms. The "receiving advice on HIV test from a friend" (ORAdj: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52-0.96; p=0.028) and "sex worker" (ORAdj: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.60; p=0.002) variables were protective factors. Conclusion: the variables under study pointed to a strong relationship between steady partners and increased trust and low adherence to condom use, corroborating other studies.


Objetivo: analisar os fatores associados ao uso inconsistente do preservativo masculino entre homens HIV negativos que fazem sexo com homens. Método: estudo transversal, analítico, de abrangência nacional realizado on-line em todas as regiões do Brasil, em 2020, por meio de redes sociais e em sites de relacionamento. O uso inconsistente do preservativo foi definido como uso ocasional ou nunca ter usado. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas descritivas, testes de associação e regressão logística binária. Resultados: o uso inconsistente do preservativo foi relatado por 1222 (85%) dos 1438 participantes. As variáveis "homossexuais" (ORA: 2,03; IC 95%: 1,14- 3,59; p = 0,016), "ter parceiro fixo" (ORA: 2,19; IC 95%: 1,55-3,09; p<0,001), "sexo oral" (ORA: 2,41; IC 95%: 1,31-4,43; p = 0,005), "anal insertivo" (ORA: 1,98; IC 95%: 1,10-3,58; p = 0,023) e "diagnóstico de IST" (ORA: 1,59; IC 95%: 1,13-2,24; p = 0,007) foram independentemente associadas ao uso inconsistente do preservativo masculino. As variáveis "recebeu aconselhamento de amigo sobre teste de HIV" (ORA: 0,71; IC 95%: 0,52-0,96; p = 0,028) e "profissional do sexo" (ORA: 0,26; IC 95%: 0,11-0,60; p = 0,002) foram fatores de proteção. Conclusão: as variáveis estudadas apontaram uma forte relação das parcerias fixas com o aumento da confiança e uma baixa adesão ao uso do preservativo, o que corrobora com outros estudos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Condoms , Unsafe Sex , Protective Factors , Sexual and Gender Minorities
3.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 852, 30 Junio 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451425

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION. Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for developing severe new coronavirus disease. Bariatric surgery prior to infection could behave as a protective factor against serious infections and death. OBJECTIVE. To describe the impact of bariatric surgery on the severity and mortality of patients with obesity and new coronavirus disease; through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the specialized literature from 2020-2022. METHODOLOGY. Publications indexed in databases such as Pubmed, Tripdatabase, and Google scholar, on the impact of previous bariatric surgery on the evolution and prognosis of patients with new coronavirus disease were taken. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess quality and risk of bias. RevMan 5.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS. Eight cohort studies were included, with a population of 137 620 adult subjects with obesity and new coronavirus disease; of these, 5638 (4.09%) had a history of bariatric surgery. In the meta-analysis, it was determined that, in subjects with obesity and new coronavirus disease, the history of bariatric surgery had a protective effect against the use of mechanical ventilation [OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.62-0.75] (p<0.001) and mortality [OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.50-0.65] (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS. The history of bariatric surgery in subjects with obesity seems to have a protective effect against the severity defined by the use of mechanical ventilation in patients with obesity and mortality due to the new coronvirus disease; therefore, the resumption of bariatric surgical activity, at pre-pandemic levels, could represent an additional benefit for candidate subjects.


INTRODUCTION. Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for developing severe new coronavirus disease. Bariatric surgery prior to infection could behave as a protective factor against serious infections and death. OBJECTIVE. To describe the impact of bariatric surgery on the severity and mortality of patients with obesity and new coronavirus disease; through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the specialized literature from 2020-2022. METHODOLOGY. Publications indexed in databases such as Pubmed, Tripdatabase, and Google scholar, on the impact of previous bariatric surgery on the evolution and prognosis of patients with new coronavirus disease were taken. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess quality and risk of bias. RevMan 5.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS. Eight cohort studies were included, with a population of 137 620 adult subjects with obesity and new coronavirus disease; of these, 5638 (4.09%) had a history of bariatric surgery. In the meta-analysis, it was determined that, in subjects with obesity and new coronavirus disease, the history of bariatric surgery had a protective effect against the use of mechanical ventilation [OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.62-0.75] (p<0.001) and mortality [OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.50-0.65] (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS. The history of bariatric surgery in subjects with obesity seems to have a protective effect against the severity defined by the use of mechanical ventilation in patients with obesity and mortality due to the new coronvirus disease; therefore, the resumption of bariatric surgical activity, at pre-pandemic levels, could represent an additional benefit for candidate subjects.


Subject(s)
Mortality , Bariatric Surgery , Patient Acuity , Protective Factors , COVID-19 , Obesity/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory System , Obesity, Morbid , Cardiovascular System , Body Mass Index , Ecuador , Hypertension , Metabolic Diseases
4.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 905, 30 Junio 2023. tabs., grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La paradoja de la obesidad propone que, en determinadas enfermedades, los enfermos con obesidad tienen menor mortalidad. OBJETIVO. Asociar el índice de masa corporal con la mortalidad a 30 días en adultos con choque séptico. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, analítico, retrospectivo, multicéntrico. Se analizaron 673 pacientes con choque séptico, ingresados en terapia intensiva de dos hospitales de la ciudad de la ciudad de Quito ­ Ecuador, durante enero 2017 - diciembre 2019. Criterios de inclusión: Mayores a 18 años, choque séptico, registro de peso, talla y condición vital al día 30. Criterios de exclusión: Orden de no reanimación, embarazadas, protocolo de donación de órganos, cuidados paliativos. Las variables se recolectaron a partir de las historias clínicas digitales y físicas de los centros participantes. Las estimaciones de riesgo calculadas se presentaron como OR (Odds Ratio) en el análisis bivariado y OR Adj (OR ajustado) para el análisis multivariado. Un valor de p <0.05 se consideró estadísticamente significativo. Todos los análisis estadísticos se realizaron usando el software estadístico R® (Versión 4.1.2). RESULTADOS. La edad promedio fue de 65 años, índice de masa corporal promedio 25,9 Kg/m2 (+4,9 Kg/m2). El 54,3% tuvo índice de masa corporal > 25 Kg/m2. La mortalidad general fue 49.2%. Sujetos con sobrepeso y obesidad tuvieron menor mortalidad, OR: 0,48 (IC 95%: 0.34, 0.68; p <0.0001) y OR 0.45 (IC 95 %: 0.28, 0.70; p =0.001) respectivamente, con similar tendencia en el análisis multivariado. Los sujetos con peso bajo tuvieron la mayor mortalidad (OR: 2.12. IC 95%: 0.91 - 5.54. p: 0.097). DISCUSIÓN. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la teoría de paradoja de obesidad, sin embargo, no se realizó evaluación según los niveles de obesidad. CONCLUSIÓN. La mortalidad en choque séptico es menor en sujetos con sobrepeso y obesidad comparada con sujetos con peso normal o bajo peso.


The obesity paradox proposes that, in certain diseases, patients with obesity have lower mortality. OBJECTIVE. To associate body mass index with 30-day mortality in adults with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Observational, analytical, retrospective, multicenter, retrospective study. We analyzed 673 patients with septic shock, admitted to intensive care in two hospitals in the city of Quito - Ecuador, during January 2017 - December 2019. Inclusion criteria: older than 18 years, septic shock, weight, height and vital condition at day 30. Exclusion criteria: Do not resuscitate order, pregnant women, organ donation protocol, palliative care. Variables were collected from the digital and physical medical records of the participating centers. Calculated risk estimates were presented as OR (Odds Ratio) in bivariate analysis and OR Adj (adjusted OR) for multivariate analysis. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R® statistical software (Version 4.1.2). RESULTS. The mean age was 65 years, mean body mass index 25.9 kg/m2 (+4.9 kg/m2). Body mass index > 25 kg/m2 was 54.3%. Overall mortality was 49.2%. Overweight and obese subjects had lower mortality, OR: 0.48 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.68; p<0.0001) and OR 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.28, 0.70; p=0.001) respectively, with similar trend in multivariate analysis. Underweight subjects had the highest mortality (OR: 2.12. 95% CI: 0.91 - 5.54. p: 0.097). DISCUSSION. The results obtained support the obesity paradox theory, however, assessment according to obesity levels was not performed. CONCLUSIONS. Mortality in septic shock is lower in overweight and obese subjects compared to normal weight or underweight subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Shock, Septic , Body Mass Index , Mortality , Critical Care , Focal Infection , Obesity , Bacterial Infections , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Tertiary Healthcare , APACHE , Ecuador , Overweight , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Protective Factors , Obesity Paradox , Intensive Care Units
5.
Arq, bras psicol ; ;75(esp)30/03/2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516927

ABSTRACT

A eclosão, em 2020, da pandemia Covid-19 agudizou certos problemas brasileiros, a exemplo da pobreza que fica escancarada e da clara exposição do caráter discriminatório do chamado Estado de Direito. É possível amalgamar essas duas referências, pobreza e direitos, ao campo da chamada justiça social, quando ela traz a crença no Estado com o seu enunciado de igualdade, afirmado pela sociedade liberal. Entretanto, não é apenas nesse momento pandêmico que constatamos para quais humanos os direitos são destinados e como se dão suas maciças violações, pois, quando percorremos a história brasileira, vislumbramos a insustentabilidade da proposta de um mundo comum e igual para todos. A aplicação diferenciada da lei e a naturalização da violência que recai sobre alguns como prática de proteção de alguns outros põem a nu as relações militarizadas de poder. É com tais problematizações que propomos, no presente artigo, análises da relação Estado, justiça e militarização do cotidiano.


Subject(s)
Judicial Decisions , State , Protective Factors
6.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-10, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1413422

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in China in 2019 and later ignited a global pandemic. Contrary to expectations, the effect of the pandemic was not as devastating to Africa and its young population compared to the rest of the world. To provide insight into the possible reasons for the presumed immune sufficiency to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Africa, this review critically examines literature published from 2020 onwards on the dynamics of COVID-19 infection and immunity and how other prevalent infectious diseases in Africa might have influenced the outcome of COVID-19. Studies characterising the immune response in patients with COVID-19 show that the correlates of protection in infected individuals are T-cell responses against the SARSCoV-2 spike protein and neutralising titres of immunoglobin G and immunoglobin A antibodies. In some other studies, substantial pre-existing T-cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in many people from diverse geographical locations without a history of exposure. Certain studies also suggest that innate immune memory, which offers protection against reinfection with the same or another pathogen, might influence the severity of COVID-19. In addition, an initial analysis of epidemiological data showed that COVID-19 cases were not severe in some countries that implemented universal Bacillus Calmette­Guerin (BCG) vaccination policies, thus supporting the potential of BCG vaccination to boost innate immunity. The high burden of infectious diseases and the extensive vaccination campaigns previously conducted in Africa could have induced specific and non-specific protective immunity to infectious pathogens in Africans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccination , Coronavirus , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Communicable Diseases , Pandemics , Immunity
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253492, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440794

ABSTRACT

O racismo é um fenômeno que impacta a vida da população negra, direcionando-a para uma condição de marginalização social, inclusive profissionalmente. Diante disso, o presente estudo, qualitativo, objetivou analisar as estratégias de enfrentamento ao racismo adotadas por universitários negros de uma instituição pública de ensino superior no processo de construção de suas carreiras. Adotando-se como referencial a Teoria de Construção da Carreira, 27 entrevistas semiestruturadas foram conduzidas com graduandos (16 do gênero feminino e 11 do gênero masculino) autodeclarados negros de uma universidade situada na região Sudeste do Brasil. Os dados coletados foram submetidos a Análise de Similitude, por meio do software IRaMuTeQ, que demonstrou, a partir de uma árvore máxima, que os discursos dos participantes estiveram centrados no termo "racismo" e em quatro troncos de similitude relacionados aos vocábulos: "negro", "falar", "situação" e "acontecer". Os resultados indicaram que o racismo é um dos fatores que impactam a carreira dos sujeitos, sobretudo por sustentar práticas discriminatórias veladas e limitar oportunidades profissionais. Em resposta a ele, quatro estratégias de enfrentamento foram identificadas: a) diálogo com sujeitos próximos; b) busca por suporte junto à rede de apoio constituída na universidade; c) denúncia de seus impactos; e d) adoção de ações individuais de transformação da realidade. Os achados permitem identificar a adoção de diferentes estratégias individuais e coletivas de enfrentamento ao racismo, que devem ter seu desenvolvimento estimulado pelas instituições de ensino superior, a fim de que se tornem práticas sistematizadas que favoreçam a discussão sobre o fenômeno em âmbitos acadêmico e profissional.(AU)


The phenomenon of racism impacts the lives of Black population, leading them to social marginalization, including professionally. Thus, this qualitative study analyzes the coping strategies adopted by Black undergraduates from a public higher education institution to confront racism during career construction. Adopting the Career Construction Theory as a framework, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted (16 women and 11 men) with self-declared black undergraduates from a university located in southeastern Brazil. Similarity analysis of the collected data, performed using the IRaMuTeQ software, showed that, from a maximum tree, the participants' speeches centered around the term "racism" and on four similarity trunks related to the words: "black", "talk", "situation" and "happen". Results indicated that racism majorly impacts the subjects' careers, especially by upholding veiled discriminatory practices and limiting professional opportunities. To cope with it, undergraduates adopt four main strategies: a) dialogue with close subjects; b) search for support with the support network established at the university; c) denunciation of its impacts; and d) adoption of individual strategies to transform reality. The findings point to different actions, individual and collective, adopted to fight racism, whose development should be supported by higher education institutions so that they become systemic practices that favor discussing the phenomenon in academic and professional fields.(AU)


El racismo es un fenómeno que impacta la vida de la población negra, llevándola a una condición de marginación social, incluso a nivel profesional. Así, este estudio cualitativo, tuvo por objetivo analizar las estrategias de afrontamiento el racismo que utilizan los universitarios negros de una Institución Pública de Educación Superior en el proceso de construcción de sus carreras. Tomando como referencia la Teoría de Construcción de Carrera, se realizaron 27 entrevistas semiestructuradas a estudiantes (16 mujeres y 11 hombres) autodeclarados negros de una universidad en la región Sureste de Brasil. Los datos recolectados se sometieron a un Análisis de Similitud, desarrollado utilizando el software IRaMuTeQ, que demostró, a partir de un árbol máximo, que los discursos de los participantes se centraron en el término "racismo" y en cuatro troncos de similitud relacionados con las palabras: "negro", "hablar", "situación" y "pasar". Los resultados indicaron que el racismo es uno de los factores que impactan la carrera, especialmente por sostener prácticas discriminatorias veladas y limitar las oportunidades profesionales. En respuesta a ello, se identificaron cuatro estrategias de afrontamiento: a) diálogo con sujetos cercanos; b) búsqueda de apoyo en la red constituida en la universidad; c) denuncia de sus impactos; y d) adopción de acciones individuales para transformar la realidad. Los hallazgos permiten identificar la adopción de diferentes estrategias, individuales y colectivas, para enfrentar el racismo, las cuales deben tener su desarrollo estimulado por las instituciones de educación superior, para que se conviertan en prácticas sistematizadas que favorezcan la discusión del fenómeno en el ámbito académico y profesional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Students , Universities , Adaptation, Psychological , Career Choice , Career Mobility , Racism , Poverty , Prejudice , Problem Solving , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Race Relations , Rejection, Psychology , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Self Concept , Social Behavior , Social Change , Social Class , Social Identification , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Socialization , Societies , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Awareness , Work , Ethnicity , Family , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Color , Cultural Diversity , Crime , Cultural Characteristics , Culture , Personal Autonomy , Dehumanization , Qualitative Research , Racial Groups , Education , Emotions , Employee Incentive Plans , Resilience, Psychological , Altruism , Bullying , Social Stigma , Social Discrimination , Genocide , Enslavement , Protective Factors , Social Capital , Physical Appearance, Body , Work Performance , Social Segregation , Political Activism , Work Engagement , Ethnocentrism , Extremism , Social Oppression , Freedom , Respect , Empowerment , Sociodemographic Factors , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Antiracism , Hate , Hierarchy, Social , Household Work , Human Rights , Learning , Minority Groups
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e254483, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440795

ABSTRACT

Compreender as estratégias de resolução de conflitos utilizadas por adolescentes na relação com seus pais é fundamental para entender como ocorre seu desenvolvimento saudável. Este artigo investigou a resolução de conflitos de adolescentes em situações de confronto entre o seu domínio pessoal e o controle parental. 36 adolescentes com idades entre 15 e 17 anos, divididos igualmente conforme o sexo, responderam a uma entrevista semiestruturada, que continha quatro situações de conflito hipotéticas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo semântica e a testes não paramétricos. Os resultados foram categorizados em sete estratégias: Assunção de culpa, Submissão, Mentira, Hostilidade, Diálogo/Explicação, Negociação e Outra. A forma predominante de resolução utilizada foi o Diálogo/Explicação, considerada como uma forma recorrente de defender o domínio pessoal. Foram encontradas diferenças em relação ao sexo dos participantes e à situação hipotética. Por fim, os resultados são discutidos em termos de grau de autonomia e tipo de defesa do domínio pessoal.(AU)


Understanding the conflict resolution strategies used by adolescents in their relationship with their parents is fundamental to understanding how their healthy development occurs. This article investigated the resolution of conflicts by adolescents in confrontation situations between their personal domain and parental control. A total of 36 adolescents, aged 15 to 17 years, divided equally according to sex, answered a semi-structured interview that contained four hypothetical conflict situations. Data were subjected to semantic content analysis and non-parametric tests. The results were categorized into seven strategies: Assumption of Guilt, Submission, Lie, Hostility, Dialogue/Explanation, Negotiation, and Other. The predominant form of resolution used was Dialogue/Explanation, considered a recurrent form of defense of the personal domain. Differences were found depending on the participants' gender and the hypothetical situation. Finally, the results are discussed regarding the degree of autonomy and type of defense of the personal domain.(AU)


Enterarse de las estrategias de resolución de conflictos que los adolescentes utilizan en la relación con sus padres es fundamental para comprender cómo ocurre el desarrollo saludable de los adolescentes. A partir de una entrevista semiestructurada, presentamos cuatro situaciones hipotéticas de conflicto que fueron analizadas y respondidas por 36 adolescentes de entre 15 y 17 años, divididos según el género. Los datos se sometieron a un análisis de contenido semántico y a pruebas no paramétricas. Los resultados se categorizaron en siete estrategias de resolución de conflictos: Asunción de culpa, Sumisión, Mentira, Hostilidad, Diálogo/Explicación, Negociación y Otros. La forma de resolución más utilizada fue Diálogo/Explicación, y esta categoría fue una forma de defensa del dominio personal. Asimismo, se encontraron diferencias en función del género de los participantes y conforme la situación hipotética. Los resultados se discuten en términos de grado de autonomía y tipo de defensa del dominio personal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent , Negotiating , Family Conflict , Anxiety , Orientation , Parent-Child Relations , Personal Satisfaction , Personality , Personality Development , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychosexual Development , Psychotherapy , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Role , Sex , Authoritarianism , Social Behavior Disorders , Social Change , Social Dominance , Social Environment , Socialization , Stereotyping , Stress, Psychological , Avoidance Learning , Taboo , Temperament , Temperance , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Career Choice , Attitude , Child Advocacy , Child Welfare , Choice Behavior , Mental Health , Puberty , Adolescent Behavior , Parenting , Intergenerational Relations , Codependency, Psychological , Interview , Communication , Comprehensive Health Care , Privacy , Adult , Sexuality , Conduct Disorder , Feedback, Psychological , Disclosure , Dangerous Behavior , Principle-Based Ethics , Decision Making , Harm Reduction , Moral Development , Dissent and Disputes , Trust , Friends , Adolescent Development , Sexual Development , Dominance-Subordination , Education , Educational Status , Ego , Emotions , Escape Reaction , Fear , Emotional Intelligence , Sense of Coherence , Forgiveness , Protective Factors , Social Norms , Emotional Adjustment , Underage Drinking , Peer Influence , Conservative Treatment , Perfectionism , Cell Phone Use , Incivility , Self-Management , Ethnocentrism , Freedom , Frustration , Psychological Distress , Social Integration , Empowerment , Transtheoretical Model , Disinformation , Social Cohesion , Citizenship , Gestalt Therapy , Family Support , Psychological Well-Being , Guilt , Happiness , Hormones , Hostility , Human Development , Human Rights , Identity Crisis , Individuation , Juvenile Delinquency , Anger , Leisure Activities , Life Change Events , Loneliness , Love , Deception , Morals , Narcissism , Object Attachment
9.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(3): 203-215, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521829

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad respiratoria aguda por coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Objetivos: Examinar el uso de recursos sanitarios, riesgo de complicaciones y muerte en pacientes adultos con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas atendidos por COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio clínico descriptivo prospectivo realizado en pacientes adultos atendidos por COVID-19 en la Red de Salud UC Christus entre el 1 de abril y 31 de diciembre de 2020. Resultados: Se evaluaron 2.160 pacientes adultos, edad: 47 ± 17 años (rango: 18-100), 51,3% sexo masculino, 43,8% tenía comorbilidades, especialmente hipertensión (23,2%), diabetes (11,7%) y enfermedades respiratorias crónicas: asma (5%), EPOC (1,4%) y enfermedad pulmonar difusa (EPD: 0,8%). Los pacientes adultos con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas tuvieron mayor riesgo de hospitalización y uso de oxígeno suplementario; sin embargo, la evolución de los pacientes asmáticos y la sobrevida a los doce meses fue similar a los pacientes sin comorbilidades atendidos por COVID-19, mientras que en los pacientes con EPOC y EPD la admisión a la unidad de paciente crítico y riesgo de muerte fueron más elevados. En el análisis multivariado, los principales predictores clínicos asociados al riesgo de muerte en el seguimiento a doce meses en pacientes adultos con COVID-19 fueron la edad y admisión al hospital, mientras que el asma fue un factor protector. Conclusión: Los pacientes asmáticos tuvieron bajo riesgo de complicaciones y muerte asociados a COVID-19; mientras que los pacientes con EPOC y EPD tuvieron mayor riesgo de complicaciones y muerte en el seguimiento a largo plazo.


The acute respiratory disease associated to coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. Objectives: To examine the use of healthcare resources, risk of complications and death in adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases treated for COVID-19. Methods: Prospective descriptive clinical study conducted in adult patients treated for COVID-19 in the UC Christus Healthcare Network between April 1 and December 31, 2020. Results: 2,160 adult patients were evaluated, age: 47 ± 17 years-old (range: 18-100), 51.3% male, 43.8% had comorbidities, especially hypertension (23.2%), diabetes (11.7%), and chronic respiratory diseases: asthma (5%), COPD (1,4%) and interstitial lung disease (ILD: 0.8%). Adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases were at higher risk for hospitalization and use of supplemental oxygen; however, the evolution of asthmatic patients and survival at twelve months was similar to that of adult patients without comorbidities treated for COVID-19, while in patients with COPD and ILD admission to the critical care unit and risk of death were higher. In the multivariate analysis, the main clinical predictors associated to 12-month mortality risk in adult patients with COVID-19 were age and hospital admission, while asthma was a protective factor. Conclusion: Asthmatic patients had minor risk of complications and mortality associated with COVID-19; while patients with COPD and ILD had a significant higher risk of complications and 12-month mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Asthma/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , COVID-19/complications , Asthma/mortality , Asthma/therapy , Survival Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/mortality , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Risk Assessment , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253652, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448950

ABSTRACT

Martin Heidegger, em sua ontologia, destaca uma característica específica da atualidade que atravessa o comportamento humano, na filosofia, na ciência ou no senso comum: o esquecimento do ser. O filósofo diferencia a época atual das demais épocas históricas. O horizonte histórico contemporâneo se desvela por meio do desafio e da exploração, da tentativa de controle e domínio dos acontecimentos, ao modo da disponibilidade e em função da produtividade. O filósofo esclarece que todo esse desenraizamento do homem atual está atrelado ao esquecimento daquilo que é o mais essencial, qual seja, a existência. A questão que norteia este estudo é apurar, por meio das referências de Heidegger e dos estudos sobre suicídio, o quanto a interpretação da morte voluntária nos dias atuais está atravessada por tal esquecimento. Pretendemos investigar o quanto as ações de prevenção desenvolvidas pela suicidologia se encontram atravessadas por tal esquecimento do ser do homem e, dessa forma, acabam por estabelecer relações entre ser e ente em uma consequente redução ao ente como invariante e atemporal. O caminho para investigar a questão iniciará por abordar, em maiores detalhes, a analítica existencial, a questão da técnica e o movimento de esquecimento do ser apontados por Heidegger a fim de problematizar as perspectivas científicas atuais sobre o suicídio em sua prevenção para, então, estabelecer uma compreensão fenomenológica e existencial sobre o referido fenômeno.(AU)


Martin Heidegger, in his ontology, highlights a specific characteristic of the present moment that crosses human behavior, in philosophy, science, or common sense: the forgetfulness of being. The philosopher differentiates the current age from other historical ages. The contemporary historical horizon is unveiled by the challenge and the exploration, from the attempt to control and dominate events, to the mode of standing reserve and in terms of productivity. The philosopher clarifies that all this uprooting of the current man is linked to the forgetfulness of what is the most essential, namely, the existence itself. The question that guides this study is to investigate, via Heidegger's references and studies on suicide, to what extent the interpretation of voluntary death today is crossed by such forgetfulness. We intend to investigate to what extent the prevention actions developed by suicidology are crossed by such forgetfulness of the human's being and, in this way, they end up establishing relationships between being and entity in a consequent reduction to entity as an invariant and timeless. The path to investigate the issue will start by addressing, in greater detail, the existential analytics, the question concerning technique and the movement of forgetting the being pointed out by Heidegger to problematize the current scientific perspectives on suicide and its prevention to, then, propose a phenomenological and existential understanding about the referred phenomenon.(AU)


Martin Heidegger en su ontología destaca una característica específica del presente que atraviesa el comportamiento humano, ya sea en la filosofía, la ciencia o el sentido común: el olvido del ser. El filósofo diferencia la época actual de otras épocas históricas. El horizonte histórico contemporáneo se devela el desafío y la exploración, el intento de controlar y dominar los eventos, en la modalidad de disponibilidad y en términos de productividad. Y así aclara que todo este desarraigo del hombre actual está involucrado en el olvido de lo más esencial, que es la existencia misma. A partir de las referencias a Heidegger y de los estudios sobre el suicidio, este estudio busca saber hasta qué punto la interpretación de la muerte voluntaria hoy está atravesada por este olvido. Pretendemos investigar en qué medida las acciones de prevención desarrolladas por la suicidología se encuentran atravesadas por el olvido del ser del hombre y, de esta manera, terminan por establecer relaciones entre el ser y el ente, en una consecuente reducción al ente como invariante y atemporal. Para investigar el tema se abordará inicialmente, con mayor detalle, la analítica existencial, la cuestión de la técnica y el movimiento del olvido del ser señalado por Heidegger para problematizar las perspectivas científicas actuales sobre el suicidio y su prevención y, luego, proponer una comprensión fenomenológica y existencial sobre el referido fenómeno.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Suicide , Disease Prevention , Suicide Prevention , Anxiety , Pain , Personal Satisfaction , Personality , Prejudice , Psychiatry , Psychological Phenomena , Psychology , Psychopathology , Psychotherapy, Group , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Self Care , Self Concept , Social Problems , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Suicide, Attempted , Therapeutics , Behavior , Behavioral Sciences , Neurosciences , Humans , Power, Psychological , Family , Catatonia , Mental Health , Causality , Risk Factors , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Self-Injurious Behavior , Panic Disorder , Suicide, Assisted , Cognition , Combat Disorders , Conflict, Psychological , Conscience , Meditation , Cultural Diversity , Life , Substance-Related Disorders , Crisis Intervention , Affective Symptoms , Death , Depression , Drive , Alcoholism , User Embracement , Existentialism , Mental Fatigue , Resilience, Psychological , Theory of Mind , Suicidal Ideation , Apathy , Pandemics , Early Medical Intervention , Gene Ontology , Protective Factors , Behavior Observation Techniques , Moral Status , Freedom , Sadness , Emotional Regulation , Psychological Distress , Suicide, Completed , Social Inclusion , Genetics, Behavioral , Family Support , Psychological Well-Being , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Interpersonal Relations , Life Change Events , Life Style , Loneliness , Mental Disorders , Morals , Dissociative Identity Disorder , Neurotic Disorders , Obsessive Behavior , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255164, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529202

ABSTRACT

O presente texto tem o objetivo de explanar ações desempenhadas por psicólogas(os) trabalhadoras(es) dos Centros de Referência Especializados de Assistência Social (Creas), em situações de violência intrafamiliar, identificadas a partir do estude empírico realizado por mim, psicóloga pesquisadora, também trabalhadora de um Creas. Participaram da pesquisa doze psicólogas(os), trabalhadoras(es) destes centros, em sete municípios do interior do Rio Grande do Sul, onde foram realizadas, presencialmente, as entrevistas. A análise dos dados apontou para uma compreensão metodológica a partir de três dimensões já apontadas na bibliografia, sendo elas: a) Acolhida Inicial, que demonstra que esses profissionais geralmente iniciam suas práticas com uma família ou indivíduo indo ao encontro destes, buscando a vinculação dos mesmos com o serviço; b) Acompanhamento Especializado, onde essas(es) trabalhadoras(es) desenvolvem suas práticas com diversidade e criatividade, a partir de visitas domiciliares, trabalhos com grupos, indivíduos ou famílias, geralmente em conjunto com outros profissionais, principalmente assistentes sociais; c) Articulação com a Rede, onde se identificou um importante movimento para o trabalho em conjunto com outros serviços disponíveis no território. Por fim, as considerações finais indicam que ainda há um caminho a ser trilhado com relação à definição das práticas dos psicólogos no Creas. Porém, há muito que se falar a respeito de práticas que já estão ocorrendo. Assim, tornam-se relevantes as pesquisas acadêmicas nesse contexto, pois ao inserir os profissionais psicólogos trabalhadores da política, eles podem promover uma articulação entre a produção do fazer cotidiano e a reflexão teórica e acadêmica sustentada pelas pesquisas.(AU)


This study aims to explore the activities developed by psychologists from the Centros de Referência de Atenção Especializada (CREAS - Brazilian Specialized Social Assistance Reference Centers), regarding situations of intrafamily violence identified by me, the author, a research psychologist and, CREAS worker. Participants include 12 psychologists who work on such centers from 7 cities in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where the interviews were conducted in person. The data analysis pointed toward a methodological comprehension based on 3 dimensions that have already been mentioned in the literature: the Initial Approach, which shows that these workers usually initiate their practices with a family or an individual by going after them, seeking bond development with the service. The Specialized Follow-up, in which these workers develop their practices with diversity and creativity, through home visits and activities with group, family or individual, often with other workers, such as social assistance workers. And the Network Articulation, in which a significant movement toward working with the public services available on each territory is identified. Finally, there is still a path to be taken regarding the definition of psychological practices on CREAS, however, there is much to be noticed of what has already been occurring. Thus, academic research on such context is relevant since the inclusion of psychologists who work in this policy may promote an articulation between daily activity and the theoretical and academic reflection, supported by the research.(AU)


Este texto tuvo por objetivo explicar las acciones desarrolladas por psicólogas/os trabajadoras/es en los "Centros de Referência Especializados de Assistência Social" (CREAS) (Centros de Referencia Especializados en Asistencia Social), respecto a las situaciones de violencia intrafamiliar, identificadas por un estudio empírico hecho por una psicóloga-investigadora que actúa en un CREAS. Participaron 12 psicólogas/os que trabajan en estos centros, en siete ciudades del interior de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), donde se llevó a cabo las entrevistas en persona. El análisis de datos apuntó a una comprensión metodológica de tres dimensiones ya destacadas en la bibliografía: la Acogida Inicial, que enseña que estos profesionales generalmente empiezan sus prácticas con una familia o individuo buscando el encuentro para la promoción de la vinculación con el servicio; El Seguimiento Especializado, en el que desarrollan sus prácticas con diversidad y creatividad desde visitas domiciliarias, trabajos con grupos, individuos o familias, generalmente junto a otros profesionales, sobre todo con trabajadores sociales; y Articulación con la Red de Servicios, en la cual se identificó un importante movimiento para el trabajo con otros servicios disponibles en el territorio. Por fin, se observa que todavía hay un camino por recorrer en relación a la definición de las prácticas de psicólogos en CREAS, aunque hay mucho que decir respecto a las prácticas que ya están ocurriendo. Así, se vuelven relevantes las investigaciones académicas en ese contexto por introducir a los profesionales psicólogos trabajadores de la política, las cuales pueden promover una articulación entre la producción del hacer cotidiano y la reflexión teórica y académica sustentada por las investigaciones.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Public Policy , Social Support , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Paternal Behavior , Patient Escort Service , Psychology, Social , Psychosocial Deprivation , Quality of Life , Sexual Behavior , Sex Offenses , Social Control, Formal , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socioeconomic Factors , Sublimation, Psychological , Bed Conversion , Behavioral Sciences , Acting Out , Diagnosis of Health Situation , Risk Factors , Intersectoral Collaboration , Civil Rights , Intergenerational Relations , Domestic Violence , Cultural Diversity , Life , Program , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Creativity , Analysis of Situation , Hazards , Health Risk , Psychosocial Impact , Personal Autonomy , Sociobiology , Codes of Ethics , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , Projects , User Embracement , Family Conflict , Family Relations , Racism , Sexism , Patient Care Bundles , Human Trafficking , Dataset , Integrality in Health , Protective Factors , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Psychosocial Support Systems , Recidivism , Social Oppression , Freedom , Family Separation , Listening Effort , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Family Support , Health Occupations , Hierarchy, Social , Hospitals, Special , Human Rights , Malpractice , Mental Health Services , Object Attachment
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e257337, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529205

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou compreender a experiência de mulheres companheiras de homens privados de liberdade acerca da conjugalidade. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa, em que participaram 12 mulheres companheiras de homens presos. Como instrumentos, utilizou-se um questionário de dados sociodemográficos e uma entrevista semiestruturada, a qual foi analisada por meio da Análise Temática. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que as mulheres lançavam mão de diferentes estratégias para se manterem próximas de seus companheiros, engajando-se no tratamento penal deles, o que repercutiu em uma percepção de incremento da coesão conjugal. O compromisso assumido com seus relacionamentos mostrou-se relacionado, além do amor sentido pelos parceiros, a um desejo de manutenção do casamento e da família nuclear, além de evidenciar experiências de ciúme por parte dos homens. Dificuldades na comunicação, conflitos relacionados à insatisfação com o contexto prisional, além da falta de privacidade na intimidade e sexualidade do casal foram referidos pelas participantes.(AU)


This study aimed to understand the experience of conjugality of female partners of imprisoned men. Therefore, 12 female partners of imprisoned men participated in a qualitative study. The participants answered to a sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview, which was analyzed via Thematic Analysis. The results showed that women used different strategies to stay close to their partners, engaging in their criminal treatment, which reflected in a perception of increased marital cohesion. The commitment to the relationship was related to the love felt towards the partners, the desire to maintain the marriage and the nuclear family, in addition to the experience of men's jealousy. Moreover, it was identified difficulties in communication, conflicts related to dissatisfaction with prison context, and lack of privacy related to couple's intimacy and sexuality.(AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la experiencia de las mujeres parejas de hombres encarcelados sobre la conyugalidad. Para ello, se realizó una investigación cualitativa, en la cual participaron doce mujeres parejas de hombres encarcelados. El instrumento utilizado fue un cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos y una entrevista semiestructurada, la cual se aplicó el análisis temático. Los resultados encontrados demostraron que las mujeres usaban diferentes estrategias para mantenerse cerca de sus parejas, comprometiéndose en el tratamiento delictivo de ellos, lo que repercutió en una percepción de mayor cohesión marital. El compromiso asumido con sus relaciones se mostró relacionado, además del amor a los cónyuges, a un deseo de mantenimiento del matrimonio y del núcleo familiar, y reveló experiencias de celos por parte de los hombres. Las dificultades en la comunicación, los conflictos relacionados a la insatisfacción con el contexto carcelario, y la ausencia de privacidad en la intimidad y sexualidad de la pareja fueron mencionadas por las participantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Prisons , Prisoners , Marriage , Anxiety , Personal Satisfaction , Poverty , Prejudice , Psychology , Public Policy , Punishment , Quality of Life , Audiovisual Aids , Sexual Behavior , Shame , Social Isolation , Social Problems , Spouse Abuse , Telephone , Violence , Divorce , Child Rearing , Family Characteristics , Health , Mental Health , Family Health , Self-Injurious Behavior , Parenting , Interview , Coitus , Domestic Violence , Confidentiality , Conflict, Psychological , Privacy , Life , Substance-Related Disorders , Criminal Law , Affect , Hazards , Surveillance in Disasters , Complicity , Criminal Liability , Dissent and Disputes , Law Enforcement , Aggression , Dominance-Subordination , Emotions , Empathy , Fear , Masculinity , Social Stigma , Pandemics , Social Networking , Social Marginalization , Hope , Drug Trafficking , Integrality in Health , Protective Factors , Courage , Criminal Behavior , Defamation , Gender-Based Violence , Recidivism , Stakeholder Participation , Expression of Concern , Frustration , Embarrassment , Psychological Distress , Correctional Facilities , Betrayal , Gender Equity , Gender Role , COVID-19 , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Family Support , Psychological Well-Being , Correctional Facilities Personnel , Guilt , Health Promotion , Human Rights , Loneliness , Morale
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255290, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529217

ABSTRACT

Os jogos digitais são considerados um ambiente de privilégio masculino que exalta o padrão heteronormativo de masculinidade. A partir da Teoria das Representações Sociais, buscamos identificar as diferentes formas de expressão e ancoragens da homofobia a partir de princípios organizadores, nos discursos dos fãs do jogo League of Legends (LoL) na rede social Facebook. Foram selecionados 470 comentários publicados em 2017, os quais foram analisados com apoio do Iramuteq (software de análise lexicométrica) por meio de uma classificação hierárquica descendente, resultando em quatro classes: "Debate sobre a sexualidade dos campeões" (14,9%), "Representatividade no LoL" (29,8%), "Confronto entre as histórias de Varus" (39%), e "Estratégia empresarial" (16,2%). Os resultados evidenciam a existência de um conflito intergrupal, mediado pelo processo de ameaça simbólica: enquanto alguns comentários, realizados majoritariamente por homens heterossexuais, se utilizam do preconceito sutil para perpetuar a manutenção da heteronormatividade, outros comentários reforçam a importância da representação da diversidade nos jogos digitais.(AU)


Digital games are considered an environment of male privilege that promotes heteronormative standard of masculinity. Based on the Theory of Social Representations, we seek to identify, based on organizing principles, the forms of expression and anchorages processes related to homophobia within the speeches of the fans of the game League of Legends (LoL), on Facebook. A total of 470 comments published in 2017 were selected to be then analyzed with support from IRAMUTEQ software (lexicometric analysis software), which resulted in four classes: "Debate on the sexuality of champions" (14.9%), "Representativeness in LoL" (29.8%), "Confrontation between the stories of Varus" (39%), and "Business strategy" (16.2%). The results show intergroup conflict that is mediated by the process of symbolic threat: some comments, which are mostly from heterosexual men, carry aspects of covert prejudice to perpetuate the maintenance of heteronormative standards, whereas other comments reinforce the importance of representing diversity in digital games.(AU)


Los juegos digitales son un entorno de privilegio masculino que enaltece el estándar heteronormativo de la masculinidad. Con base en la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales, buscamos identificar las formas de expresión y anclaje de la homofobia a partir de principios organizativos en los discursos de aficionados del juego League of Legends (LoL) en la red social Facebook. Se seleccionaron 470 comentarios publicados en 2017, que pasaron por el análisis en IRAMUTEQ (software de análisis lexicométrico) mediante una clasificación jerárquica descendiente la cual dio como resultado cuatro clases: "Debate sobre la sexualidad de campeones" (14,9%), "Representatividad en LoL" (29,8%), "Confrontación entre las historias de Varus" (39%) y "Estrategia comercial" (16,2%). Los resultados muestran un conflicto intergrupal, mediado por la amenaza simbólica; mientras que algunos comentarios, hechos en su mayoría por hombres heterosexuales, utilizan prejuicios sutiles para perpetuar el mantenimiento de la heteronormatividad, otros comentarios refuerzan la importancia de representar la diversidad en los juegos digitales.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Video Games , Hazards , Gender Norms , Exergaming , Personality , Aptitude , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Rejection, Psychology , Religion , Self Concept , Social Behavior , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stereotyping , Taboo , Violence , Women , Behavior , Brazil , Bisexuality , Family , Ceremonial Behavior , Communications Media , Homosexuality, Male , Homosexuality, Female , Privacy , Internet , Crime , Culture , Psychosocial Impact , Ethical Relativism , Marketing , Ego , Erotica , Population Studies in Public Health , Ethics , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Social Stigma , Social Media , Racism , Sexism , Social Discrimination , Transgender Persons , Protective Factors , Harassment, Non-Sexual , Social Privilege , Monosexuality , Cisgender Persons , Transphobia , Androcentrism , Gender Stereotyping , Gender Performativity , Cyberbullying , Respect , Gender Identity , Weight Prejudice , Internet Use , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Social Representation , Social Status , Belonging , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Hostility , Love , Morale
14.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255629, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529219

ABSTRACT

Sobreviventes ao suicídio são pessoas que têm suas vidas profundamente afetadas e apresentam sofrimento psicológico, físico ou social após serem expostas a esse fato. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a experiência de sobreviventes ao suicídio de jovens, a partir do luto. Participaram sete sobreviventes entre familiares, amigos e parceiros amorosos de jovens que cometeram suicídio. A análise de conteúdo de entrevistas narrativas apontou que os participantes utilizam explicações racionalizadas ou dissociadas, criando uma distância entre o evento e eles mesmos. Como formas de lidar com o sofrimento podem buscar o isolamento, apoio entre amigos, prática religiosa e/ou a dedicação ao trabalho. Reafirma-se a dimensão do luto diante dessa experiência, além da importância da prevenção ao suicídio e da posvenção aos sobreviventes.(AU)


Suicide survivors are people who have their lives deeply affected; they experience psychological, physical, and social suffering following the occurrence. The aim of this study is to analyze the experience of survivors of youth suicide attempts, based on grief. Seven survivors participated among family, friends, and romantic partners of young people who committed suicide. The content analysis of narrative interviews showed that the participants use rationalized or dissociated explanations, creating a distance between the event and themselves. As ways to deal with suffering, they seek isolation, support among friends, religious practice, and/or dedication to work. The dimension of grief in the face of this experience is reaffirmed, as well as the importance of suicide prevention and postvention for survivors.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar la construcción metodológica desarrollada en una investigación de maestría, en la que sostenemos la escritura de escenas como método de investigación de la escucha clínica. Las escenas del trabajo en cuestión se recogieron a lo largo del tiempo desde la experiencia en un proyecto de extensión universitario de atención a la niñez y adolescencia en situación de vulnerabilidad social aplicado en una comunidad periférica. En este texto, presentamos los interrogantes que se elaboraron en torno a la elección por el trabajo con escenas y compartimos el rescate histórico de las mismas como un método de escribir la clínica y la reanudación del análisis a partir de la tradición psicoanalítica. Amparadas en el psicoanálisis y en lecturas y contribuciones del filósofo francés Jacques Derrida, nos basaremos en la noción de que la escena se constituye como un lugar de producción, engendrando la configuración particular de elementos significantes en los procesos de subjetivación y de construcción social. La escena no es aquí una representación de lo que pasa en la clínica, sino un modo de producir escucha y sus procesos de investigación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Suicide , Bereavement , Adolescent , Survivors , Anxiety , Personal Satisfaction , Professional-Family Relations , Professional-Patient Relations , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychotropic Drugs , Religion , Self Care , Self Concept , Self Mutilation , Social Isolation , Social Support , Societies , Stress, Psychological , Suicide, Attempted , Therapeutics , Violence , Women , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Humans , Child , Mental Health , Child Health , Self-Injurious Behavior , Intergenerational Relations , Suicide, Assisted , Crime Victims , Adolescent Health , Death , Trust , Qualitative Research , Vulnerable Populations , Aggression , Depression , Developing Countries , Empathy , User Embracement , Family Conflict , Family Relations , Mental Fatigue , Wandering Behavior , Bullying , Suicidal Ideation , Apathy , Forgiveness , Hope , Protective Factors , Help-Seeking Behavior , Psychological Trauma , Physical Abuse , Burnout, Psychological , Frustration , Emotional Regulation , Social Integration , Suicide, Completed , Internet Addiction Disorder , Emotional Abuse , Social Interaction , Family Support , Psychological Well-Being , Suicide Prevention , Guilt , Health Promotion , Interpersonal Relations , Life Cycle Stages , Loneliness , Antidepressive Agents , Negativism , Antisocial Personality Disorder
15.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 48: e4, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431679

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução: realizar a predição de doenças relacionadas ao trabalho é um desafio às organizações e ao poder público. Com as técnicas de aprendizado de máquina (AM), é possível identificar fatores determinantes para a ocorrência de uma doença ocupacional, visando direcionar ações mais efetivas à proteção dos trabalhadores. Objetivo: predizer, a partir da comparação de técnicas de AM, os fatores com maior influência para a ocorrência de dermatite ocupacional. Métodos: desenvolveu-se um código em linguagem R e uma análise descritiva dos dados e identificaram-se os fatores de influência de acordo com a técnica de AM que demonstrou melhor desempenho. O banco de dados foi disponibilizado pelo Serviço de Dermatologia Ocupacional da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz e contém informações de trabalhadores que apresentaram alterações cutâneas sugestivas de dermatite ocupacional no período de 2000-2014. Resultados: as técnicas com melhor desempenho foram: neural network, random forest, support vector machine e naive Bayes. As variáveis sexo, escolaridade e profissão foram as mais adequadas para os modelos de previsão de dermatite ocupacional. Conclusão: as técnicas de AM possibilitam predizer os fatores que influenciam a segurança e a saúde dos trabalhadores, os parâmetros que subsidiam a implantação de procedimentos e as políticas mais efetivas para prevenir a dermatite ocupacional.


Abstract Introduction: to predict work related diseases is a challenge for organizations and the governmental authorities. By means of machine learning (ML) techniques it is possible to identify factors that determine the occurrence of an occupational disease, aiming at taking more effective actions to protect workers. Objective: to predict, by comparing ML techniques, the factors which highly influence the occurrence of occupational dermatitis. Methods: we developed a code in R language and a descriptive analysis of the data and identified the influence factors according to the ML technique that presented the best performance. The database was made available by the Occupational Dermatology Service of Oswaldo Cruz Foundation and assembles information of the workers who experienced cutaneous alterations suggestive of occupational dermatitis between 2000-2014. Results: the techniques which presented the best performance were: neural network, random forest, support vector machine, and naive Bayes. Sex, schooling, and profession were the most adequate variables for the occupational dermatitis prediction models. Conclusion: ML techniques allowed to predict the factors that influence the workers' safety and health, as well as the parameters that subsidize the procedures implementation, and the most effective policies to prevent occupational dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Safety , Occupational Health , Dermatitis, Occupational , Dermatology , Protective Factors , Occupational Diseases , Learning , Methods , Occupational Groups
16.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 40: e210194, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1520908

ABSTRACT

Objective The present study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors for the development of stress in a random and stratified sample of Brazilian federal highway police officers in the state of São Paulo (N = 202). Method The instruments used were a General Questionnaire (sociodemographic and occupational variables) and Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults. The prevalence ratio was used as a measure of association and the independent variables were organized into 8 models and inserted into a logistic regression model. Results A stress prevalence of 43.1% (95% CI = 36.2-50.0) was found, with most of the sample in the resistance phase (82.7%). The factors related to stress were leisure, educational level, degree of job satisfaction, low remuneration, suicidal ideations, insomnia, lack of training, and work-family conflict. Conclusion The results can influence actions aimed at controlling stress.


Objetivo: O presente estudo objetivou identificar os fatores de risco e proteção para o desenvolvimento de estresse numa amostra aleatória e estratificada de policiais rodoviários federais do estado de São Paulo (N = 202). Método: Utilizou-se os seguintes instrumentos: Questionário Geral (variáveis sociodemográficas e ocupacionais) e Inventário de Sintomas de Estresse para Adultos de Lipp (ISSL). A razão de prevalência foi utilizada como medida de associação, e as variáveis independentes foram organizadas em 8 modelos e inseridas em um modelo de regressão logística. Resultados: Foi encontrada a prevalência de estresse de 43,1% (95% IC = 36,2-50,0), com a maioria da amostra na fase de resistência (82,7%). Os fatores relacionados ao estresse foram lazer, formação acadêmica, grau de satisfação com o trabalho, remuneração incompatível, ideação suicida, insônia, falta de treinamento e conflito trabalho-família. Conclusão: Conclui-se que os resultados podem influenciar em ações que visem controlar o estresse.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Police , Protective Factors
17.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432159

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To estimate risk and protection factors associated with suicide in Campinas, Brazil, in 2019. METHODS This is a populational case-control study analyzing 83 cases of suicide that occurred in 2019 in Campinas, a Brazilian city with about 1.2 million inhabitants. Controls were composed of 716 inhabitants. An adjusted multiple logistic regression was used. Cases and controls were the dichotomous response variables. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were the predictor variables. RESULTS The categories which presented higher risk of suicide were: males [OR = 5.26 (p < 0.001)]; people aged 10-29 years [OR = 5.88 (p = 0.002)]; individuals without paid work [OR = 3.06 (p = 0.013)]; individuals presenting problematic use of alcohol [OR = 33.12 (p < 0.001)] and cocaine [14.59 (p < 0.007)]; and people with disabilities [OR = 3.72 (p < 0.001)]. Moreover, the perception of fear was associated with reduced suicide risk [OR = 0.19 (p = 0.015)]. Higher district HDI levels also showed a 4% decrease in risk for each 0.01 increase in district HDI levels [OR = 0.02 (p = 0.008)]. CONCLUSIONS This study evidenced the association between sociodemographic and behavioral variables and suicide. It also emphasized the complexity in the dynamics between personal, social, and economic factors to this external cause of death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Suicide , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Protective Factors
18.
Edumecentro ; 152023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534318

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: actualmente son elevadas las cifras de jóvenes con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana y síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, lo cual impone la necesidad de disponer de amplia información, percibir la vulnerabilidad propia y la gravedad del riesgo de infección. Objetivo: diseñar una propuesta de programa educativo con orientación popular para la modificación de percepción de riesgo del VIH/sida en estudiantes becarios de primer año de Medicina, 2021-2022. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de desarrollo, entre enero-diciembre de 2021. Se aplicaron métodos teóricos, empíricos y matemáticos. Se utilizó la variable percepción de riesgo, referida a la valoración del VIH/sida como amenaza para la salud de los seres humanos. Como instrumentos se manejó un cuestionario previamente validado. Resultados: el diagnóstico realizado teniendo en cuenta el nivel de información sobre el VIH/sida, vulnerabilidad y severidad percibidas, demostró insuficiencias en ambos sexos, con mayor frecuencia en el femenino; por lo que se diseñó un programa educativo basado en educación popular, estructurado en: título, introducción, justificación, objetivo general, metodología, evaluación y orientaciones de actividades, con el fin de modificar la percepción de riesgo del VIH/sida en la muestra. Conclusiones: fue valorado por un grupo de especialistas, quienes ofrecieron sugerencias para su optimización, aplicadas en su conformación definitiva, lo cual resultó de suma utilidad para el resultado de la investigación y su aplicación en contextos similares.


Background: currently there are high numbers of young people with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which imposes the need to have extensive information, perceive one's own vulnerability and the severity of the risk for infection. Objective: to design a proposal for an educational program with popular orientation to modify the risk perception of HIV/AIDS in first-year medical scholarship students, 2021-2022. Methods: a development investigation was carried out from January to December 2021. Theoretical, empirical and mathematical methods were applied. The risk perception variable was used, referring to the assessment of HIV/AIDS as a threat to the health of human beings. A previously validated questionnaire was used as instruments. Results: the diagnosis carried out taking into account the level of information about HIV/AIDS, perceived vulnerability and severity, demonstrated insufficiencies in both sexes, more frequently in the female; Therefore, an educational program was designed based on popular education, structured in: title, introduction, justification, general objective, methodology, evaluation and guidelines for activities, in order to modify the perception of risk for HIV/AIDS in the sample. Conclusions: it was evaluated by a group of specialists, who offered suggestions for its optimization, applied in its final conformation, which was extremely useful for the results of the research and its application in similar contexts.


Subject(s)
HIV , Social Behavior , Risk , Education, Medical , Protective Factors , Sexual Vulnerability
19.
Edumecentro ; 152023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520830

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: mantenerse informados es un mediador influyente en las conductas de riesgo, mas no determinante. Conocerlo no es suficiente para traducirlo en conductas preventivas ya que existen otros factores que podrían influir en el comportamiento sexual, como la percepción de riesgo. Objetivo: determinar la percepción sobre el riesgo de contraer y/o transmitir VIH/sida, en estudiantes de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile en el año 2020, desde una perspectiva de género. Métodos: se realizó una investigación cualitativa con enfoque fenomenológico, de tipo exploratorio descriptivo, a estudiantes de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile durante el año 2020. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inductivo-deductivo e histórico-lógico; y empíricos: entrevistas individuales semiestructuradas. Para obtener la información se aplicó el análisis narrativo de contenido. Resultados: los estudiantes demostraron tener conocimiento respecto a VIH/sida, sus mecanismos de transmisión, tratamiento y prevención. La mayoría dice usar métodos de barrera, aunque distinguen su uso entre relaciones casuales y estables. En las relaciones de pareja estable la percepción de riesgo parece ser menor, asociada el no uso de preservativo por confianza y placer, entre otros. Conclusiones: el manejo teórico del tema no logra ser suficiente para que la autopercepción de riesgo sea incrementada y se adopten conductas preventivas. Conocer los elementos que influyen en la percepción de riesgo es relevante para lograr programas de educación sexual efectivos, considerando factores socioculturales además de la entrega de información.


Background: being updated is an influencial mediator of risk behaviors, but it is not determinant. To know the risk is not enough to put in practice prevetive behaviors since there are others factors that could influence upon sexual behavior, as the risk perception. Objective: to determine the perception about the risk of getting and/or transmitting HIV / AIDS, among students from the University of Chile, Faculty of Medicine, 2020, and with a gender perspective. Methods: a qualitative research with a phenomenological approach of descriptive exploratory type, with students from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, was carried out in 2020. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive and historical-logical methods; and empirical ones: semi-structured individual interviews. To get the information, narrative content analysis was applied. Results: students showed their knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS, the mechanisms of transmission, treatment and prevention of it. Most of them refer using barrier methods, although they distinguish the use of it depending on what if it is a casual or stable relationship. In case of stable relationships, the perception of risk seems to be lower, associated with the non-use of condoms for trust and pleasure, among others. Conclusions: the theoretical management of the topic is not sufficient for the increase of self-perception risk and preventive behaviors be adopted. Knowing the elements that influence on risk perception is relevant to achieve effective sexual education programs, taking into account sociocultural factors in addition to the communication of information.


Subject(s)
Social Behavior , Risk , HIV , Education, Medical , Protective Factors , Sexual Vulnerability
20.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Centro Nacional de Salud Intercultural; 1 ed; Dic. 2022. 74 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, INS-PERU, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1402619

ABSTRACT

La publicación describe las medidas de bioseguridad y biocustodia para la protección de la salud del personal de los laboratorios, áreas de apoyo, áreas de experimentación animal y bioterios mediante medidas y recomendaciones en bioseguridad y biocustodia


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Containment of Biohazards , Protective Factors , Laboratories
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