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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341785

ABSTRACT

La levadura metilotrófica Pichia pastoris (clasificada actualmente como Komagataella phaffii) es una de las más importantes para la producción de proteínas heterólogas. En el trabajo se presenta un análisis de las principales características que se ponen de manifiesto en la expresión de proteínas recombinantes expresadas en este microorganismo. Se describen las cepas disponibles para la transformación y producción de proteínas recombinantes expresadas en Pichia pastoris, los principales vectores comerciales para la expresión, los promotores más eficientes, los marcadores seleccionables, la señal de secreción, los métodos usados en las transformaciones genéticas y los patrones de glicosilación que se presentan. Se brindan recomendaciones generales acerca de los parámetros de bioprocesos como la composición del medio, el pH, la temperatura, la velocidad de aireación, la inducción y las estrategias de alimentación para alcanzar altos valores de productividad. Se presentan los resultados de las aplicaciones de Pichia pastoris en la producción de dos vacunas en Cuba, la vacuna contra la hepatitis B y la vacuna para el control de la garrapata(AU)


Pichia pastoris metylotrofic yeast (currently classified as Komagataella phaffii) is one of the most important yeast for the production of heterologous proteins. The work presents an analysis of the main characteristics that are marked in the production of recombinant proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris. It describes the strains available for the transformation and production of recombinant proteins expressed in P. pastoris, the main commercial vectors for expression, the most efficient promoters, selectable markers, the secretion signal, the methods used in genetic transformations and glycosylation patterns that occur. General recommendations are provided on bioprocess parameters such as media composition, pH, temperature, aeration velocity, induction, and feeding strategies to achieve high productivity values. The results of Pichia pastoris applications for the production of two vaccines in Cuba, the hepatitis B vaccine and the tick control vaccine are shown(AU)


Subject(s)
Pichia , Yeasts , Recombinant Proteins , Protein Engineering , Tick Control/methods , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cuba
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4415-4429, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921517

ABSTRACT

The zearalenone hydrolase (ZHD101) derived from Clonostachys rosea can effectively degrade the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) present in grain by-products and feed. However, the low thermal stability of ZHD101 hampers its applications. High throughput screening of variants using spectrophotometer is challenging because the reaction of hydrolyzing ZEN does not change absorbance. In this study, we used ZHD101 as a model enzyme to perform computation-aided design followed by experimental verification. By comparing the molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of ZHD101 at different temperatures, 32 flexible sites were selected. 608 saturated mutations were introduced into the 32 flexible sites virtually, from which 12 virtual mutants were screened according to the position specific score and enzyme conformation free energy calculation. Three of the mutants N156F, S194T and T259F showed an increase in thermal melting temperature (ΔTm>4 °C), and their enzyme activities were similar to or even higher than that of the wild type (relative enzyme activity 95.8%, 131.6% and 169.0%, respectively). Molecular dynamics simulation analysis showed that the possible mechanisms leading to the improved thermal stability were NH-π force, salt bridge rearrangement, and hole filling on the molecular surface. The three mutants were combined iteratively, and the combination of N156F/S194T showed the highest thermal stability (ΔTm=6.7 °C). This work demonstrated the feasibility of engineering the flexible region to improve enzyme performance by combining virtual computational mutations with experimental verification.


Subject(s)
Computer-Aided Design , Edible Grain , Enzyme Stability , Hydrolases/metabolism , Hypocreales/enzymology , Protein Engineering , Zearalenone
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3268-3275, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921423

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a synthetic polymer consisting of ester bond-linked terephthalate and ethylene glycol. Tremendous amounts of PET have been produced and majority of them enters terrestrial and marine environment as wastes, posing serious threats to the global ecosystems. In 2016, a PET hydrolase from a PET-assimilating bacterium Ideonalla sakaiensis was reported and termed as IsPETase. This enzyme outperforms other PET-hydrolyzing enzymes in terms of its PET hydrolytic activity at ambient temperature, thus holds a great promise for PET biodegradation. In order to improve IsPETase activity, we conducted structure-based engineering to modify the putative substrate-binding tunnel. Among the several variants to the N233 residue of IsPETase, we discovered that the substitution of N233 with alanine increases its PET hydrolytic activity, which can be further enhanced when combined with a R280A mutation. We also determined the X-ray crystal structure of the IsPETase N233A variant, which shares nearly identical fold to the WT protein, except for an open end of subsite Ⅱ. We hypothesized that the smaller side chain of N233A variant might lead to an extended subsite Ⅱ for PET binding, which subsequently increases the enzymatic activity. Thus, this study provides new clues for further structure-based engineering of PETase.


Subject(s)
Burkholderiales/enzymology , Hydrolases/genetics , Polyethylene Terephthalates/metabolism , Protein Engineering
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3242-3252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921421

ABSTRACT

L-asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to produce L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and serum of some rodents, and has important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. However, the poor thermal stability, low catalytic efficiency and low yield hampered the further application of L-asparaginase. In this paper, rational design and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) design strategies were used to increase the specific enzyme activity and protein expression of L-asparaginase derived from Rhizomucor miehei (RmAsnase). The results showed that among the six mutants constructed through homology modeling combined with sequence alignment, the specific enzyme activity of the mutant A344E was 1.5 times higher than the wild type. Subsequently, a food-safe strain Bacillus subtilis 168/pMA5-A344E was constructed, and the UTR strategy was used for the construction of recombinant strain B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E. The enzyme activity of B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E was 7.2 times higher than that of B. subtilis 168/pMA5-A344E. The recombinant strain B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E was scaled up in 5 L fermenter, and the final yield of L-asparaginase was 489.1 U/mL, showing great potential for industrial application.


Subject(s)
Asparaginase/genetics , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Industrial Microbiology , Protein Engineering , Rhizomucor/enzymology , Sequence Alignment
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2105-2115, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887784

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoids are a class of natural products of great commercial value that are widely used in pharmaceutical, health care and cosmetic industries. The biosynthesis of triterpenoids relies on the efficient synthesis of squalene epoxide, which is synthesized from the NADPH dependent oxidation of squalene catalyzed by squalene epoxidase. We screened squalene epoxidases derived from different species, and found the truncated squalene epoxidase from Rattus norvegicus (RnSETC) showed the highest activity in engineered Escherichia coli. Further examination of the effect of endogenous cytochrome P450 reductase like (CPRL) proteins showed that overexpression of NADH: quinone oxidoreductase (WrbA) under Lac promoter in a medium-copy number plasmid increased the production of squalene epoxide by nearly 2.5 folds. These results demonstrated that the constructed pathway led to the production of squalene epoxide, an important precursor for the biosynthesis of triterpenoids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli/genetics , NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase , Protein Engineering , Rats , Repressor Proteins , Squalene , Squalene Monooxygenase/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1919-1930, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887772

ABSTRACT

Glycosidases are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its ability to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds of various sugar-containing compounds including glycosides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides to generate derivatives with important physiological and pharmacological activity. While glycosidases often need to be used under high temperature to improve reaction efficiency and reduce contamination, most glycosidases are mesophilic enzymes with low activity under industrial production conditions. It is therefore critical to improve the thermo-stability of glycosidases. This review summarizes the recent advances achieved in engineering the thermo-stability of glycosidases using strategies such as directed evolution, rational design and semi-rational design. We also compared the pros and cons of various techniques and discussed the future prospects in this area.


Subject(s)
Glycoside Hydrolases/genetics , Oligosaccharides , Polysaccharides , Protein Engineering
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1845-1857, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887767

ABSTRACT

Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases catalyze the biosynthesis of structurally and functionally diverse non-ribosomal peptide natural products, which have broad applications in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial sectors. Engineered non-ribosomal peptide synthetases can be used to produce novel non-ribosomal peptides through combinatorial biosynthesis. This conforms to the concept of green chemistry, thus attracts increasing attention across the world. Herein, three different engineering strategies were summarized, and recent advances in this field were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Peptide Synthases/genetics , Peptides , Protein Engineering
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 891-898, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826887

ABSTRACT

Unnatural amino acid orthogonal translation machinery can insert unnatural amino acids at desired sites of protein through stop codon by means of foreign orthogonal translation system composed of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and orthogonal tRNA genes. This new genetic engineering technology is not only a new tool for biochemical researches of proteins, but also an epoch-making technology for the development of new-type live viral vaccines. The mutated virus containing premature termination codon in genes necessary for replication can be propagated in transgenic cells harboring unnatural amino acid orthogonal translation machinery in media with corresponding unnatural amino acid, but it cannot replicate in conventional host cells. This replication-deficient virus is a new-type of live viral vaccine that possesses advantages of high efficacy of traditional attenuated vaccine and high safety of killed vaccine. This article reviews the application and prospect of unnatural amino acid orthogonal translation machinery in the development of novel replication-deficient virus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Genetics , Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases , Genetic Engineering , Protein Engineering , RNA, Transfer , Viral Vaccines
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 920-931, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826884

ABSTRACT

The capacity for thermal tolerance is critical for industrial enzyme. In the past decade, great efforts have been made to endow wild-type enzymes with higher catalytic activity or thermostability using gene engineering and protein engineering strategies. In this study, a recently developed SpyTag/SpyCatcher system, mediated by isopeptide bond-ligation, was used to modify a rumen microbiota-derived xylanase XYN11-6 as cyclized and stable enzyme C-XYN11-6. After incubation at 60, 70 or 80 ℃ for 10 min, the residual activities of C-XYN11-6 were 81.53%, 73.98% or 64.41%, which were 1.48, 2.92 or 3.98-fold of linear enzyme L-XYN11-6, respectively. After exposure to 60-90°C for 10 min, the C-XYN11-6 remained as soluble in suspension, while L-XYN11-6 showed severely aggregation. Intrinsic and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS)-binding fluorescence analysis revealed that C-XYN11-6 was more capable of maintaining its conformation during heat challenge, compared with L-XYN11-6. Interestingly, molecular cyclization also conferred C-XYN11-6 with improved resilience to 0.1-50 mmol/L Ca²⁺ or 0.1 mmol/L Cu²⁺ treatment. In summary, we generated a thermal- and ion-stable cyclized enzyme using SpyTag/SpyCatcher system, which will be of particular interest in engineering of enzymes for industrial application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclization , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Chemistry , Metabolism , Enzyme Stability , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Microbiota , Protein Engineering , Rumen , Microbiology , Temperature
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1234-1246, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771805

ABSTRACT

1,3-1,4-β-glucanase (E.C.3.2.1.73) is an important industrial enzyme which cleave β-glucans into oligosaccharides through strictly cutting the β-1,4 glycosidic bonds in 3-O-substituted glucopyranose units. Microbial 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase belongs to retaining glycosyl hydrolases of family 16 with a jellyroll β-sandwich fold structure. The present paper reviews the industrial application and protein engineering of microbial β-glucanases in the last decades and forecasts the research prospects of microbial β-glucanases.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Glycoside Hydrolases , Models, Molecular , Protein Engineering , Substrate Specificity
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1806-1818, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771751

ABSTRACT

Industrial enzymes are the "chip" of modern bio-industries, supporting tens- and hundreds-fold of downstream industries development. Elucidating the relationships between enzyme structures and functions is fundamental for industrial applications. Recently, with the advanced developments of protein crystallization and computational simulation technologies, the structure-function relationships have been extensively studied, making the rational design and de novo design become possible. This paper reviews the progress of structure-function relationships of industrial enzymes and applications, and address future developments.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Biotechnology , Enzymes , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Protein Engineering , Structure-Activity Relationship
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1819-1828, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771750

ABSTRACT

We review major computational chemistry techniques applied in industrial enzyme studies, especially approaches intended for guiding enzyme engineering. These include molecular mechanics force field and molecular dynamics simulation, quantum mechanical and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approaches, electrostatic continuum models, molecular docking, etc. These approaches are essentially introduced from the following two angles for viewing: one is about the methods themselves, including the basic concepts, the primary computational results, and potential advantages and limitations; the other is about obtaining valuable information from the respective calculations to guide the design of mutants and mutant libraries.


Subject(s)
Enzymes , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutant Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Engineering , Quantum Theory , Static Electricity
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1829-1842, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771749

ABSTRACT

Industrial enzymes have become the core "chip" for bio-manufacturing technology. Design and development of novel and efficient enzymes is the key to the development of industrial biotechnology. The scientific basis for the innovative design of industrial catalysts is an in-depth analysis of the structure-activity relationship between enzymes and substrates, as well as their regulatory mechanisms. With the development of bioinformatics and computational technology, the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme can be solved by various calculation methods. Subsequently, the specific regions of the structure can be rationally reconstructed to improve the catalytic performance, which will further promote the industrial application of the target enzyme. Computational simulation and rational design based on the analysis of the structure-activity relationship have become the crucial technology for the preparation of high-efficiency industrial enzymes. This review provides a brief introduction and discussion on various calculation methods and design strategies as well as future trends.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Biotechnology , Enzymes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Protein Engineering , Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1843-1856, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771748

ABSTRACT

By constructing mutant libraries and utilizing high-throughput screening methods, directed evolution has emerged as the most popular strategy for protein design nowadays. In the past decade, taking advantages of computer performance and algorithms, computer-assisted protein design has rapidly developed and become a powerful method of protein engineering. Based on the simulation of protein structure and calculation of energy function, computational design can alter the substrate specificity and improve the thermostability of enzymes, as well as de novo design of artificial enzymes with expected functions. Recently, machine learning and other artificial intelligence technologies have also been applied to computational protein engineering, resulting in a series of remarkable applications. Along the lines of protein engineering, this paper reviews the progress and applications of computer-assisted protein design, and current trends and outlooks of the development.


Subject(s)
Directed Molecular Evolution , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Protein Engineering , Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Substrate Specificity
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1857-1869, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771747

ABSTRACT

Enzymes have a wide range of applications and great industrial potential. However, large-scale applications of enzymes are restricted by the harsh industrial environment, such as high temperature, strong acid/alkali, high salt, organic solvents, and high substrate concentration. Adaptive modification (such as rational or semi-rational design, directed evolution and immobilization) is the most common strategy to improve the catalysis of enzymes under industrial conditions. Here, we review the catalysis of enzymes in the industrial environment and various methods adopted for the adaptive modifications in recent years, to provide reference for the adaptive modifications of enzymes.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Biotechnology , Enzymes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Protein Engineering , Solvents , Chemistry , Pharmacology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771405

ABSTRACT

The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have been correlated with global warming. Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are the fastest among the known enzymes to improve carbon capture. The capture of carbon dioxide needs high temperature and alkaline condition, which is necessary for CaCO₃ precipitation in the mineralization process. In order to use CAs for biomimetic carbon sequestration, thermo-alkali-stable CAs are, therefore, essential, and polyextremophilic microbes are one of the important sources of these enzymes. The current review focuses on both those isolated by thermophilic organisms from the extreme environments and those obtained by protein engineering techniques, and the industrial application of the immobilized CAs is also briefly addressed. To reduce the greenhouse effect and delay global warming, we think further research efforts should be devoted to broadening the scope of searching for carbonic anhydrase, modifying the technology of protein engineering and developing highly efficient immobilization strategies.


Subject(s)
Biomimetics , Carbon Dioxide , Carbon Sequestration , Carbonic Anhydrases , Protein Engineering
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 351-362, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771371

ABSTRACT

Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, a well-studied class of flavin-dependent enzymes, catalyze the conversion of ketones to lactones or esters and the oxygenation of heteroatoms, which possesses great practical prospect in synthetic chemistry and biocatalysis. In this review, we focus on Baeyer-Villiger oxidations involved in biosynthesis of microbial secondary metabolites and discuss the characteristics of these Baeyer-Villiger oxidations and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, to provide reference for the protein engineering of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Catalysis , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Engineering
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 816-826, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771328

ABSTRACT

A new method to express oligomerized feruloyl esterase (FAE) in Pichia pastoris GS115 to improve the catalytic efficiency was developed. It was realized by fusing the foldon domain at the C-terminus of FAE, and the fusion protein was purified by histidine tag. Fusion of the feruloyl esterase with the foldon domain resulted spontaneously forming a trimer FAE to improve the catalytic performance. The oligomerized FAE and monomeric FAE were obtained by purification. The apparent molecular weight of the oligomerized FAE was about 110 kDa, while the monomeric FAE about 40 kDa, and the optimum temperature of the oligomerized FAE was 50 °C, which is the same as the monomeric one. The optimal pH of the oligomerized FAE is 5.0, while the optimal pH of the monomer FAE is 6.0. When compared with the monomeric ones, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the oligomerized FAE increased 7.57-folds. The catalytic constant (kcat) of the oligomerized FAE increased 3.42-folds. The oligomerized FAE induced by foldon have advantages in the catalytic performances, which represents a simple and effective enzyme-engineering tool. The method proposed here for improving the catalytic efficiency of FAE would have great potentials for improving the catalytic efficiency of other enzymes.


Subject(s)
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases , Metabolism , Catalysis , Molecular Weight , Pichia , Genetics , Metabolism , Polymerization , Protein Engineering , Substrate Specificity
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 3-14, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757007

ABSTRACT

Antibodies have proved to be a valuable mode of therapy for numerous diseases, mainly owing to their high target binding affinity and specificity. Unfortunately, antibodies are also limited in several respects, chief amongst those being the extremely high cost of manufacture. Therefore, non-antibody binding proteins have long been sought after as alternative therapies. New binding protein scaffolds are constantly being designed or discovered with some already approved for human use by the FDA. This review focuses on protein scaffolds that are either already being used in humans or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Although not all are expected to be approved, the significant benefits ensure that these molecules will continue to be investigated and developed as therapeutic alternatives to antibodies. Based on the location of the amino acids that mediate ligand binding, we place all the protein scaffolds under clinical development into two general categories: scaffolds with ligand-binding residues located in exposed flexible loops, and those with the binding residues located in protein secondary structures, such as α-helices. Scaffolds that fall under the first category include adnectins, anticalins, avimers, Fynomers, Kunitz domains, and knottins, while those belonging to the second category include affibodies, β-hairpin mimetics, and designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins). Most of these scaffolds are thermostable and can be easily produced in microorganisms or completely synthesized chemically. In addition, many of these scaffolds derive from human proteins and thus possess very low immunogenic potential. Additional advantages and limitations of these protein scaffolds as therapeutics compared to antibodies will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Metabolism , Animals , Antibodies , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Ligands , Protein Engineering , Methods , Protein Structure, Secondary , Recombinant Proteins , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses
20.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 47-62, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756963

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation of the Fc region of IgG has a profound impact on the safety and clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies. While the biantennary complex-type oligosaccharide attached to Asn297 of the Fc is essential for antibody effector functions, fucose and outer-arm sugars attached to the core heptasaccharide that generate structural heterogeneity (glycoforms) exhibit unique biological activities. Hence, efficient and quantitative glycan analysis techniques have been increasingly important for the development and quality control of therapeutic antibodies, and glycan profiles of the Fc are recognized as critical quality attributes. In the past decade our understanding of the influence of glycosylation on the structure/function of IgG-Fc has grown rapidly through X-ray crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance studies, which provides possibilities for the design of novel antibody therapeutics. Furthermore, the chemoenzymatic glycoengineering approach using endoglycosidase-based glycosynthases may facilitate the development of homogeneous IgG glycoforms with desirable functionality as next-generation therapeutic antibodies. Thus, the Fc glycans are fertile ground for the improvement of the safety, functionality, and efficacy of therapeutic IgG antibodies in the era of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Pharmacokinetics , Therapeutic Uses , Glycosylation , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Chemistry , Metabolism , Protein Engineering , Methods , Receptors, Fc , Chemistry , Metabolism , Treatment Outcome
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