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1.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 102-106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971238

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) significantly reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis and prolong survival in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), but drug resistance is often inevitable. Immunotherapy has been proven effective in multiple solid tumors, but the efficacy in GIST is unclear. The efficacy of immunotherapy depends on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor-infiltrating immune cells and immune checkpoints are important components of TME, which not only participate in the regulation of tumor immune response but are also the key target of immunotherapy. A comprehensive analysis of them can clarify the mechanism of tumor immune escape. This review found that there are abundant tumor-infiltrating immune cells in GIST, which play an important role in tumor immune surveillance and escape. Although early clinical studies have shown that patients with GIST have a good tolerance to immunotherapy, the curative effect is not satisfactory. Therefore, how to select the responders of immunotherapy and coordinate the relationship between immunotherapy and TKIs is the key issue to be explored. At the same time, the gradual deepening of basic research and large sample prospective clinical trials will certainly provide more strategies for the application of immunotherapy in GIST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Immunotherapy/methods , Tumor Microenvironment , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 158-164, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971190

ABSTRACT

With the development of sequencing technology, the detection rate of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with primary epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation is increasing. However, the first-line treatment for primary EGFR T790M-mutated NSCLC still lacks standard recommendations. Here, we reported three advanced NSCLC cases with EGFR-activating mutation and primary T790M mutation. The patients were initially treated with Aumolertinib combination with Bevacizumab; among which, one case was discontinued Bevacizumab due to bleeding risk after treatment for three months. Treatment was switched to Osimertinib after ten months of treatment. Another case switched to Osimertinib and discontinued Bevacizumab after thirteen months of treatment. The best effect response in all three cases was partial response (PR) after initial treatment. Two cases progressed after first-line treatment and progression-free survival (PFS) was eleven months and seven months respectively. The other one patient had persistent response after treatment, and the treatment duration has reached nineteen months. Two cases had multiple brain metastases before administration and the best response to intracranial lesions was PR. The intracranial PFS was fourteen months and not reached (16+ months), respectively. There were no new adverse events (AEs), and no AEs of grade three or above were reported. In addition, we summarized the research progress of Osimertinib in the treatment of NSCLC with primary EGFR T790M mutation. In conclusion, Aumolertinib combined with Bevacizumab in the treatment of advanced NSCLC with primary EGFR T790M mutation has a high objective response rate (ORR) and control ability of intracranial lesions, which can be used as one of the initial options for first-line advanced NSCLC with primary EGFR T790M mutation.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Bevacizumab , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , ErbB Receptors , Lung Neoplasms , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 78-82, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971182

ABSTRACT

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) accounts for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and is the second most common histological type of lung cancer. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC accounts for only 2%-5% of all NSCLC cases, and is almost exclusively detected in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Thus, ALK testing is not routinely performed in the LSCC population, and the efficacy of such treatment for ALK-rearranged LSCC remains unknown. Echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 (EML4)-ALK (V1) and TP53 co-mutations were identified by next generation sequencing (NGS) in this patient with advanced LSCC. On December 3, 2020, Ensatinib was taken orally and the efficacy was evaluated as partial response (PR). The progression-free survival (PFS) was 19 months. When the disease progressed, the medication was changed to Loratinib. To our knowledge, Enshatinib created the longest PFS of ALK-mutant LSCC patients treated with targeted therapy since literature review. Herein, we described one case treated by Enshatinib involving a patient with both EML4-ALK and TP53 positive LSCC, and the relevant literatures were reviewed for discussing the treatment of this rare disease.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Lung/pathology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 31-38, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969802

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies have established the clinical application of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) adjuvant targeted therapy. Compared with chemotherapy, the high efficiency and low toxicity of targeted therapy increases the survival benefit of patients. Icotinib was the first EGFR-TKI with independent intellectual property rights in China and the third EGFR-TKI to be marketed in the world. In order to summarize the experience of icotinib and other EGFR-TKIs in the adjuvant treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and further standardize and guide the clinical application of icotinib, experts from the China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care and the Guangdong Association of Thoracic Diseases have organized an expert consensus on the adjuvant treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with icotinib, which is expected to provide clinicians with evidence-based medical evidences for postoperative targeted drug using.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Consensus , Mutation , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Crown Ethers/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
5.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 106-111, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969684

ABSTRACT

Objective: To develop a scoring system to predict molecular responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) receiving initial imatinib therapy. Methods: Data from consecutive adults with newly diagnosed CML-CP treated by initial imatinib was interrogated and subjects were distributed randomly into training and validation cohort, in a ratio of 2∶1. Fine-gray models were applied in the training cohort to identify co-variates of predictive value for major molecular response (MMR) and MR4. A predictive system was built using significant co-variates. The predictive system was then tested in the validation cohort and the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to estimate accuracy of the predictive system. Results: 1 364 CML-CP subjects receiving initial imatinib were included in this study. Subjects were distributed randomly into training cohort (n=909) and validation cohort (n=455) . In the training cohort, the male gender, European Treatment and Outcome Study for CML (EUTOS) Long-Term Survival (ELTS) intermediate-risk, ELTS high-risk, high WBC (≥130×10(9)/L or 120×10(9)/L, MMR or MR4) and low HGB (<110 g/L) at diagnosis were significantly related with poor molecular responses and were given points based on their regression coefficients. For MMR, male gender, ELTS intermediate-risk and low HGB (<110 g/L) were given 1 point; ELTS high-risk and high WBC (≥130×10(9)/L) , 2 points. For MR4, male gender was given 1 point; ELTS intermediate-risk and low HGB (<110 g/L) were given 2 points; high WBC (≥120×10(9)/L) , 3 points; ELTS high-risk, 4 points. We divided all subjects into 3 risk subgroups according to the predictive system above. Cumulative incidence of achieving MMR and MR4 in 3 risk subgroups was significantly different in both training and validation cohort (all P values <0.001) . In the training and validation cohorts, the time-dependent AUROC ranges of MMR and MR4 predictive systems were 0.70-0.84 and 0.64-0.81, respectively. Conclusions: A scoring system combining gender, WBC, HGB level and ELTS risk was built to predict MMR and MR4 in CML-CP patients receiving initial imatinib therapy. This system had good discrimination and accuracy, which could help phsicians optimize the selsction of initial TKI-therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Chronic Disease
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 207-219, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982585

ABSTRACT

The rearranged during transfection (RET) is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase. Oncogenic RET fusions or mutations are found most often in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in thyroid cancer, but also increasingly in various types of cancers at low rates. In the last few years, two potent and selective RET protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), pralsetinib (BLU-667) and selpercatinib (LOXO-292, LY3527723) were developed and received regulatory approval. Although pralsetinib and selpercatinib gave high overall response rates (ORRs), < 10% of patients achieved a complete response (CR). The RET TKI-tolerated residual tumors inevitably develop resistance by secondary target mutations, acquired alternative oncogenes, or MET amplification. RET G810 mutations located at the kinase solvent front site were identified as the major on-target mechanism of acquired resistance to both selpercatinib and pralsetinib. Several next-generation of RET TKIs capable of inhibiting the selpercatinib/pralsetinib-resistant RET mutants have progressed to clinical trials. However, it is likely that new TKI-adapted RET mutations will emerge to cause resistance to these next-generation of RET TKIs. Solving the problem requires a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms that support the RET TKI-tolerated persisters to identify a converging point of vulnerability to devise an effective co-treatment to eliminate the residual tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Neoplasm, Residual , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 493-502, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982582

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is the most common fusion gene involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and remarkable response has been achieved with the use of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs). However, the clinical efficacy is highly variable. Pre-existing intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) has been proven to contribute to the poor treatment response and the resistance to targeted therapies. In this work, we investigated whether the variant allele frequencies (VAFs) of ALK fusions can help assess ITH and predict targeted therapy efficacy. Through the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS), 7.2% (326/4548) of patients were detected to be ALK positive. On the basis of the adjusted VAF (adjVAF, VAF normalization for tumor purity) of four different threshold values (adjVAF < 50%, 40%, 30%, or 20%), the association of ALK subclonality with crizotinib efficacy was assessed. Nonetheless, no statistical association was observed between median progression-free survival (PFS) and ALK subclonality assessed by adjVAF, and a poor correlation of adjVAF with PFS was found among the 85 patients who received first-line crizotinib. Results suggest that the ALK VAF determined by hybrid capture-based NGS is probably unreliable for ITH assessment and targeted therapy efficacy prediction in NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/therapeutic use , Crizotinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Frequency
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 416-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982174

ABSTRACT

The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) exon 14 skipping mutation is mainly caused by the loss of c-Cbl tyrosine binding site. This mutation could result in a decrease in the degradation rate of proteasome-mediated MET proteins, trigger continuous activation of downstream pathways, and ultimately lead to tumorigenesis. The incidence of MET exon 14 skipping mutation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is 0.9% to 4.0%. Patients with advanced NSCLC are recommended to test MET exon 14 skipping mutations who may benefit from MET inhibitors-targeted therapy. MET inhibitors have a high objective response rate and good safety profiles, which could prolong the survival of NSCLC patients with MET exon 14 skipping mutations. The Lung Cancer Specialty Committee of Chinese Elderly Health Care Association organized multidisciplinary experts to give suggestions on the important issues of clinical aspects for targeted therapy of MET exon 14 skipping mutation in NSCLC according to the clinical practice experiences and evidences based medicine. "Expert Consensus on Targeted Therapy of NSCLC with MET Exon 14 Skipping Mutation" is proposed, aiming to provide standardized guidances for the clinical practice of Chinese physicians.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Consensus , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/genetics , Mutation , Exons , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 400-406, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982172

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for approximately 80%-85% of all pathological types. Approximately 30%-55% of NSCLC patients develop brain metastases. It has been reported that 5%-6% of patients with brain metastases harbor anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion. ALK-positive NSCLC patients have shown significant therapeutic benefits after treatment with ALK inhibitors. Over the past decade, ALK inhibitors have rapidly evolved and now exist in three generations: first-generation drugs such as Crizotinib; second-generation drugs including Alectinib, Brigatinib, Ceritinib, and Ensartinib; and third-generation drugs like Lorlatinib. These drugs have exhibited varying efficacy in treating brain metastases in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. However, the numerous options available for ALK inhibition present a challenge for clinical decision-making. Therefore, this review aims to provide clinical guidance by summarizing the efficacy and safety of ALK inhibitors in treating NSCLC brain metastases.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Crizotinib
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 319-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982162

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common in incidence and mortality worldwide. With the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) detection technology, more and more patients with rare anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion mutations were detected. A case of advanced lung adenocarcinoma with rare COX7A2L-ALK (C2:A20) fusion detected by NGS was reported in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, and all cases with rare ALK fusion mutations were searched from medical datebase from January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2021, to investigate the treatment of rare ALK fusion mutations with ALK inhibitors. The best response of the patient was assessed as partial response (PR) with Ceritinib treatment. By literature review, 22 cases of rare ALK fusion were reported in 19 articles. Combined with this case, 23 cases were analyzed. The objective response rate (ORR) was 82.6% (19/23) and disease control rate (DCR) was 95.7% (22/23) for rare ALK fusions patients treated with ALK inhibitors. Lung adenocarcinoma patients with rare ALK fusion could benefit from ALK inhibitors.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Crizotinib , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 291-302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982159

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and the leading cause of cancer death. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to the NSCLC caused by mutation, amplification or overexpression of the HER2 gene, resulting in its dysfunction. HER2 is the most active receptor in the HER family and can combine with other members to form dimers, which can activate multiple signaling pathways and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. In NSCLC, HER2 positivity is usually considered a poor prognostic marker. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC are not mature. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) and other technologies are often used to detect the positive status of HER2 mutation, amplification or overexpression. In previous studies, antitumor drugs did not show ideal therapeutic effects in HER2-positive NSCLC. However, in recent years, related researches have shown that antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in targeted therapy show good antitumor activity against HER2 positive NSCLC. This article summarized the progress in diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC, so as to provide reference for subsequent researches.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Mutation , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 281-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982158

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase and its rearrangements occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), resulting in signal dysregulation in kinase domain. As a new generation of potent ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), Brigatinib was approved in China in March 2022 as a treatment for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with ALK rearrangement positive. Brigatinib significantly improved the survival, cranial efficacy and quality of life compared to Crizotinib in clinical trials. Brigatinib is generally well tolerated. Brigatinib has been one of the preferred treatments and an addition of options in ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Pulmonary toxicity is one of the adverse effects observed during the treatment of TKIs and deserves the intense attention of clinicians, despite of its low incidence rate. Pulmonary toxicity reported during the treatment of Brigatinib has shown distinct clinical presentations, such as early-onset (median time to onset, 2 days) and rapid tolerance and reversibility of symptoms. In view of this, the concept of early-onset pulmonary events (EOPEs) was proposed and established during the submission for regulatory review and approval. We focused on clinical characteristics, potential mechanism of etiology, and management strategies of EOPEs to provide clinicians evidence for better clinical decision support.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Quality of Life , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 922-926, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982152

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematopoietic tumor originated from hematopoietic stem cells. FLT3 is an important receptor tyrosine kinase in cell signal transduction pathway and one of the common mutated genes in AML. AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutation have a poor prognosis and tendency to relapse. Therefore, early identification of FLT3 gene mutation and selection of appropriate treatment are particularly important. Currently, the small moleculetargeted drugs have been new treatment methods for AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutation, but accompanied drug resistance need to be solved. This paper reviews the mechanism of FLT3 mutation, the clinical significance of FLT3 mutation in AML, FLT3 inhibitors and drug resistance mechanism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 649-653, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, and interferon regimen as maintenance therapy for blast phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-BP).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of CML-BP patients who received the first major hematological response after induction therapy at The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2015 to December 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The event-free survival, duration of remission, and overall survival of patients in TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, interferon group(n=18) and TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy group(n=10) were compared by log-rank test.@*RESULTS@#A total of 28 patients were included, with a median age of 46 (24-58) years old. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients in TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, interferon group had longer event-free survival (7.4 vs 4.3 months, P=0.043, HR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.17-1.14), duration of overall remission (16.1 vs 6.6 months, P=0.005, HR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.11-0.89), overall survival (34.3 vs 13.5 months, P=0.006, HR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.82) compared with patients in TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy group.@*CONCLUSION@#The TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine and interferon regimen can significantly prolong the survival of CML-BP patients who obtained the major hematological response compared with TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Blast Crisis/drug therapy , Homoharringtonine/therapeutic use , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Tyrosine Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 585-588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982099

ABSTRACT

The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was revolutionized with the advent of the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but drug resistance developed during treatment, leading to the development of the second-generation (dasatinib, nilotinib, and bosutinib) and third-generation (ponatinib) TKI. Compared with previous treatment regimens, specific TKI can significantly improve the response rate, overall survival rate and prognosis of CML. Only a few patients with BCR-ABL mutation are insensitive to the second-generation TKIs, so it is suggested to select the second-generation TKIs for patients with specific mutations. For patients with other mutations and without mutations, the second-generation TKI should be selected according to the patient's medical history, while the third-generation TKIs should be selected for mutations that are insensitive to the second-generation TKIs, such as T315I mutation that is sensitive to ponatinib. Due to different BCR-ABL mutations in patients with different sensitivity to the second and third-generation TKIs, this paper will review the latest research progress of the efficacy of the second and third-generation TKIs in CML patients with BCR-ABL mutations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 298-312, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984723

ABSTRACT

MET gene is a proto-oncogene, which encodes MET protein with tyrosine kinase activity. After binding to its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, MET protein can induce MET dimerization and activate downstream signaling pathways, which plays a crucial role in tumor formation and metastasis. Savolitinib, as a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting MET, selectively inhibits the phosphorylation of MET kinase with a significant inhibitory effect on tumors with MET abnormalities. Based on its significant efficacy shown in the registration studies, savolitinib was approved for marketing in China on June 22, 2021 for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with MET 14 exon skipping mutations. In addition, many studies have shown that MET TKIs are equally effective in patients with advanced solid tumors with MET gene amplification or MET protein overexpression, and relevant registration clinical studies are ongoing. The most common adverse reactions during treatment with savolitinib include nausea, vomiting, peripheral edema, pyrexia, and hepatotoxicity. Based on two rounds of extensive nationwide investigations to guide clinicians, the consensus is compiled to use savolitinib rationally, prevent and treat various adverse reactions scientifically, and improve the clinical benefits and quality of life of patients. This consensus was prepared under the guidance of multidisciplinary experts, especially including the whole-process participation and valuable suggestions of experts in Traditional Chinese Medicine, thus reflecting the clinical treatment concept of integrated Chinese and western medicines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Consensus , Quality of Life , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Mutation
17.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 295-301, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984618

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the influencing covariates of severe neutrophils and/or thrombocytopenia and their effect on treatment response and outcome in patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) receiving initial second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G-TKI) . Methods: Data from consecutive patients aged ≥18 years with newly diagnosed CP-CML who received initial 2G-TKI at Peking University People's Hospital from September 2008 to November 2021 were interrogated. Binary logistic regression models and Fine-Gray and Cox regression models were applied. Results: Data from 267 patients who received initial 2G-TKI, including nilotinib (n=239, 89.5% ) and dasatinib (n=28, 10.5% ) , were interrogated. The median age was 36 (range, 18-73) years, and 156 (58.4% ) patients were male. At a median treatment period of 1.0 (0.1-3.0) month, 43 (16.1% ) patients developed grade ≥3 neutrophils and/or thrombocytopenia and recovered within 1.0 (0.1-24.6) month. Male (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.8; P=0.018) , age of ≥36 years (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.2, P=0.005) , a spleen below a costal margin of ≥7 cm (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.6, P=0.020) , and a hemoglobin (HGB) level of <100 g/L (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.8, P=0.012) at diagnosis were significantly associated with grade ≥ 3 neutrophils and/or thrombocytopenia. Based on their regression coefficients, male, age of ≥36 years, a spleen below a costal margin of ≥7 cm, and an HGB level of <100 g/L were given 1 point to form a predictive system. All patients were divided into three risk subgroups, and the incidence of severe cytopenia significantly differed among the three groups (P < 0.001) . Grade ≥3 neutrophils and/or thrombocytopenia for >2 weeks was significantly associated with lower cumulative incidences of complete cytogenetic response (CCyR, HR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7, P<0.001) and major molecular response (MMR, HR=0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.8, P=0.004) and was not significantly associated with failure, progression, and survival. Conclusion: Male, advanced age, a large spleen, and a low HGB level were significantly associated with severe cytopenia. The four covariates were used to establish a prediction model, in which the incidence of severe cytopenia among different risk groups was significantly different. Severe cytopenia for >2 weeks was a negative factor for responses but not for outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tyrosine Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia
18.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 143-156, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971476

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify subtypes of genomic variants associated with the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) by conducting systematic literature search in electronic databases up to May 31, 2021. The main outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and durable clinical benefit (DCB) were correlated with tumor genomic features. A total of 1546 lung cancer patients with available genomic variation data were included from 14 studies. The Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog G12C (KRASG12C) mutation combined with tumor protein P53 (TP53) mutation revealed the promising efficacy of ICI therapy in these patients. Furthermore, patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) classical activating mutations (including EGFRL858R and EGFRΔ19) exhibited worse outcomes to ICIs in OS (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01‍‒‍1.95; P=0.0411) and PFS (adjusted HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.49‍‒‍2.63; P<0.0001), while classical activating mutations with EGFRT790M showed no difference compared to classical activating mutations without EGFRT790M in OS (adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.48‍‒‍1.94; P=0.9157) or PFS (adjusted HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.39‍‒‍1.35; P=0.3050). Of note, for patients harboring the Usher syndrome type-2A(USH2A) missense mutation, correspondingly better outcomes were observed in OS (adjusted HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32‍‒‍0.82; P=0.0077), PFS (adjusted HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38‍‒‍0.69; P<0.0001), DCB (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.74; 95% CI, 2.75‍‒‍8.17; P<0.0001), and ORR (adjusted OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.88‍‒‍6.33; P<0.0001). Our findings indicated that, USH2A missense mutations and the KRASG12Cmutation combined with TP53 mutation were associated with better efficacy and survival outcomes, but EGFR classical mutations irrespective of combination with EGFRT790M showed the opposite role in the ICI therapy among lung cancer patients. Our findings might guide the selection of precise targets for effective immunotherapy in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Treatment Outcome
19.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(3): 160-167, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423697

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un estudio observacional compasivo de seguimiento de 20 pacientes portadores de Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática tratados con Nintedanib, que muestra que Nintedanib es un medicamento en general bien tolerado, sin efectos adversos serios, que otorga una sobrevida más prolongada que la que cabría esperar en pacientes con esta enfermedad.


A compassionate observational follow-up study of 20 patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis treated with Nintedanib is presented, showing that Nintedanib is a generally well-tolerated drug, with no serious adverse effects, that grants a longer survival in real-life patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Vital Capacity , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Indoles/adverse effects
20.
Natal; s.n; 31 mar. 2022. 120 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1532962

ABSTRACT

O carcinoma epidermóide oral (CEO) é a neoplasia maligna mais frequente da cavidade oral e constitui um problema de saúde pública devido a sua alta taxa de incidência e mortalidade devido em muitos casos ao fracasso terapêutico e a resistência tumoral. Assim sendo, destaca-se a busca por novas moléculas biologicamente ativas, como as encontradas nos produtos de origem natural. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a atividade antineoplásica do S-(-)-álcool perílico (POH) em culturas de células de CEO de língua e predizer sua afinidade através de modelo computacional sobre proteínas que regulam o ciclo celular. Para isso, foram utilizadas duas linhagens celulares de CEO de língua, HSC-3 e SCC-25. Os seguintes grupos foram analisados: G0 (controle; células cultivadas na ausência de POH), G1 (células tratadas com cisplatina a 40 µM), G2 (células tratadas com POH a 0,5 mM), G3 (células tratadas com POH a 1,0 mM), G4 (células tratadas com POH a 1,5 mM) e G5 (células tratadas com POH a 3,0 mM). Diferenças entre estes grupos foram investigadas através dos seguintes ensaios: viabilidade celular (Alamar Blue e Live/Dead assay) e atividade migratória (Wound healing). Foi também realizada a predição de afinidade entre o POH e as moléculas de controle do ciclo celular utilizando a docagem molecular com emprego do software Molegro Virtual Docker, v. 6.0.1. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente pelo GraphPad Prism 6.0 (GraphPad Software, EUA), análises paramétricas utilizando teste Anova, pós-teste de Tukey e teste estatístico não-paramétricos de Kruskal-Wallis, seguido pelo teste t de estudent foram adotados para determinação de diferenças entre os grupos experimentais. O índice de significância considerado neste trabalho foi de 5%. Para ambas as técnicas de avaliação da viabilidade celular (Alamar Blue e Live/dead assay) analisadas neste trabalho, o POH foi capaz de reduzir a viabilidade celular de linhagens do CEO de língua de maneira dosedependente e tempo-dependente (p<0,05). As concentrações de 1,5 mM e 3 mM do POH obtiveram resultados melhores ou semelhantes aos encontrados na cisplatina 40 µM, para as duas linhagens, na avaliação da viabilidade celular (p<0,05). Os valores de IC50 do POH foram de 1,5 mM para a célula SCC-25 em todos os intervalos de tempo (24 h, 48 h e 72 h), uma vez que, para a linhagem HSC-3, foram de 3 mM para os tempos de 24 h e 48 h e de 1,5 mM para o intervalo de 72 h. O POH foi capaz de inibir a migração das duas linhagens celulares de CEO de maneira dependente da concentração (p≤0,05), comparados ao grupo controle. A habilidade da molécula POH se ligar a proteínas responsáveis pela ativação do ciclo celular foi avaliada usando docking models. Dentre elas, a proteína GTPase Kras mostrou a melhor energia de ligação (-86.70 kcal/mol), apresentando ligações de hidrogênio com os resíduos THR58 (A) e ASP57 (A) e ligações estéricas com os resíduos TRY32 (A) e ALA18 (A). As evidências deste estudo corroboram a ideia de que o POH possui atividade sobre o CEO, sugerindo que essa molécula possa ser uma forte candidata para o desenvolvimento de medicamentos direcionados ao tratamento desta patologia (AU).


Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity and constitutes a public health problem due to its high incidence and mortality rate caused in many cases by therapeutic failure and tumor resistance. Therefore, the search for new biologically active molecules stands out, such as those found in products of natural origin. This work aims to evaluate the antineoplastic activity of S-(-)-perillyl alcohol (POH) in cell cultures of tongue CEO and to predict its affinity through a computer model on proteins that regulate the cell cycle. For this purpose, two cell lines of tongue CEO were used, HSC-3 and SCC-25. The following groups were analyzed: G0 (control; cells cultured in the absence of POH), G1 (cells treated with 40 µM cisplatin), G2 (cells treated with 0.5 mM POH), G3 (cells treated with 1 .0 mM), G4 (cells treated with 1.5 mM POH) and G5 (cells treated with 3.0 mM POH). Differences between these groups were investigated through the following assays: cell viability (Alamar Blue and Live/Dead assay) and migratory activity (Wound healing). Affinity prediction between POH and cell cycle control molecules were also performed using molecular docking using Molegro Virtual Docker, v. 6.0.1. The data was statistically treated by GraphPad Prism 6.0 (GraphPad Software, USA), parametric analysis using Anova test, Tukey post-test and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric statistical test, followed by t student test were adopted for determination of differences between the experimental groups. The significance index considered in this work was 5%. For both cell viability assessment techniques (Alamar Blue and Live/dead assay) analyzed in this work, POH was able to reduce the cell viability of tongue CEO lines in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner (p<0 .05). The concentrations of 1.5 mM and 3 mM of POH obtained better or similar results to those found in 40 µM cisplatin, for the two strains, in the evaluation of cell viability (p<0.05). The IC50 values of POH were 1.5 mM for the SCC-25 cell at all time intervals (24 h, 48 h and 72 h), since for the HSC-3 line they were 3 mM for 24 h and 48 h times and 1.5 mM for the 72 h interval. POH was able to inhibit the migration of the two DSC cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner (p≤0.05), compared to the control group. The ability of the POH molecule to bind to proteins responsible for cell cycle activation was evaluated using docking models. Among them, the protein GTPase Kras showed the best binding energy (-86.70 kcal/mol), featuring hydrogen bonds with residues THR58 (A) and ASP57 (A) and steric bonds with residues TRY32 (A) and ALA18 ( THE). The evidence from this study supports the idea that POH has antineoplastic activity on the CEO, suggesting that this molecule may be a strong candidate for the development of drugs aimed at the treatment of this pathology (AU).


Subject(s)
Monoterpenes , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Computer Simulation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods
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