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1.
Med. lab ; 26(2): 119-139, 2022. ilus, Grafs, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371154

ABSTRACT

Las amiloidosis sistémicas constituyen un grupo de enfermedades con diversas etiologías, caracterizadas por la síntesis de proteínas con plegado defectuoso, capaces de agregarse y depositarse en el medio extracelular de diferentes órganos y tejidos, alterando su estructura y función. Se conocen más de 14 formas de amiloidosis sistémica, de las cuales la más frecuente es la amiloidosis AL, objeto de esta revisión, en la que las proteínas precursoras son cadenas ligeras de inmunoglobulina inestables, secretadas por un clon de células plasmáticas o, con menor frecuencia, por un linfoma linfoplasmocítico o de células del manto. La amiloidosis AL puede llevar a una amplia gama de manifestaciones clínicas y compromiso de órganos, como el corazón y el riñón. El reconocimiento temprano de la enfermedad y el diagnóstico oportuno son determinantes para mejorar la supervivencia de los pacientes. El tratamiento deberá ser individualizado de acuerdo con la condición de cada paciente, lo que hace necesaria una correcta clasificación de los individuos según su pronóstico. La terapia dirigida a la amiloidosis está enfocada esencialmente en disminuir el compromiso orgánico, y por ende, prolongar la supervivencia con mejoría en los síntomas. En esta revisión se discutirán aspectos importantes de la fisiopatología, epidemiología, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la amiloidosis AL


Systemic amyloidosis constitutes a group of diseases with diverse etiologies characterized by the synthesis of proteins with defective folding, capable of aggregating and depositing in the extracellular matrix of different organs and tissues, altering their structure and function. More than 14 forms of systemic amyloidosis are known, of which the most frequent is AL amyloidosis, the subject of this review, in which the precursor proteins are unstable immunoglobulin light chains, secreted by a clone of plasma cells or, to a lesser extent, often due to lymphoplasmacytic or mantle cell lymphoma. AL amyloidosis can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations and organ involvement, such as the heart and kidney. Early recognition of the disease and timely diagnosis are crucial to improve patient survival. Treatment should be individualized according to the condition of each patient, which requires a properly classification of individuals according to their prognosis. Amyloidosis-targeted therapy is essentially focused on reducing organ involvement, and therefore prolonging survival with improvement in symptoms. In this review, important aspects of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of AL amyloidosis are discussed


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis , Proteins , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Protein Folding , Proteolysis , Mutation
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 188 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396966

ABSTRACT

A variabilidade estrutural é uma característica das proteínas de venenos de serpentes, e a glicosilação é uma das principais modificações pós-traducionais que contribui para a diversificação de seus proteomas. Recentes estudos de nosso grupo demonstraram que venenos do gênero Bothrops são marcadamente definidos pelo seu conteúdo de glicoproteínas, e que a maioria das estruturas de N-glicanos dos tipos híbrido e complexo identificados em oito venenos deste gênero contêm unidades de ácido siálico. Em paralelo, em glicoproteínas do veneno de B. cotiara foi identificada a presença de uma estrutura de N-acetilglicosamina bissecada. Assim, com o objetivo de investigar a variação do conteúdo de glicoproteínas, assim como os mecanismos envolvidos na geração dos diferentes venenos de Bothrops, neste estudo foram analisados comparativamente os glicoproteomas de nove venenos do gênero Bothrops (B. atrox, B. cotiara, B. erythromelas, B. fonsecai, B. insularis, B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni e B. neuwiedi). As abordagens glicoproteômicas envolveram cromatografia de afinidade e ensaio de pull-down utilizando, respectivamente, as lectinas SNA (aglutinina de Sambucus nigra) e MAL I (lectina de Maackia amurensis), que mostram afinidade por unidades de ácido siálico nas posições, respectivamente, α2,6 e α2,3; e cromatografia de afinidade com a lectina PHA-E (eritroaglutinina de Phaseolus vulgaris), que reconhece N-acetilglicosamina bissecada. Ainda, eletroforese de proteínas, blot de lectina, e identificação de proteínas por espectrometria de massas foram empregadas para caracterizar os glicoproteomas. As lectinas geraram frações dos venenos enriquecidas de diferentes componentes, onde as principais classes de glicoproteínas identificadas foram metaloprotease, serinoprotease, e L-amino ácido oxidase, além de outras enzimas pouco abundantes nos venenos. Os diferentes conteúdos de proteínas reconhecidas por essas lectinas, com especificidades distintas, ressaltaram novos aspectos da variabilidade dos subproteomas de glicoproteínas desses venenos, dependendo da espécie. Ainda, considerando que metaloproteases e serinoproteases são componentes abundantes nesses venenos e fundamentais no quadro de envenenamento botrópico, e que estas enzimas contêm diversos sítios de glicosilação, o papel das unidades de ácido siálico na atividade proteolítica das mesmas foi avaliado. Assim, a remoção enzimática de ácido siálico (i) alterou o padrão de gelatinólise em zimografia da maioria dos venenos, (ii) diminuiu a atividade proteolítica de alguns venenos sobre o fibrinogênio e a atividade coagulante do plasma humano de todos os venenos, e (iii) alterou o perfil de hidrólise de proteínas plasmáticas pelo veneno de B. jararaca, indicando que este carboidrato pode desempenhar um papel na interação das proteases com seus substratos proteicos. Em contraste, o perfil da atividade amidolítica dos venenos não se alterou após a remoção de ácido siálico e incubação com o substrato Bz-Arg-pNA, indicando que ácido siálico não é essencial em N-glicanos de serinoproteases atuando sobre substratos não proteicos. Em conjunto, esses resultados expandem o conhecimento sobre a variabilidade de proteomas de venenos do gênero Bothrops e apontam a importância das cadeias de carboidratos contendo ácido siálico nas atividades enzimáticas das proteases desses venenos


Structural variability is a feature of snake venom proteins, and glycosylation is one of the main post-translational modifications that contributes to the diversification of venom proteomes. Recent studies by our group have shown that Bothrops venoms are markedly defined by their glycoprotein content, and that most hybrid and complex N-glycan structures identified in eight venoms of this genus contain sialic acid units. In parallel, the presence of a bisected N-acetylglucosamine structure was identified in B. cotiara venom glycoproteins. Thus, with the aim of investigating the variation in the content of glycoproteins, as well as the mechanisms involved in the generation of different Bothrops venoms, in this study the glycoproteomes of nine Bothrops venoms (B. atrox, B. cotiara, B. erythromelas, B. fonsecai, B. insularis, B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni e B. neuwiedi) were comparatively analyzed. The glycoproteomic approaches involved affinity chromatography and pulldown using, respectively, the lectins SNA (Sambucus nigra agglutinin) and MAL I (Maackia amurensis lectin), which show affinity for sialic acid units at positions, respectively, α2,6 and α2,3, and affinity chromatography with PHA-E (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin), which recognizes bisected N-acetylglucosamine. In addition, protein electrophoresis, lectin blot, and protein identification by mass spectrometry were employed for glycoproteome characterization. The lectins generated venom fractions enriched with different components, where the main classes of glycoproteins identified were metalloprotease, serine protease, and L-amino acid oxidase, in addition to other low abundant enzymes. The different contents of proteins recognized by these lectins of distinct specificities highlighted new aspects of the variability of the glycoprotein subproteomes of these venoms, depending on the species. Furthermore, considering that metalloproteases and serine proteases are abundant components of these venoms and essential in Bothrops envenomation, and that these enzymes contain several glycosylation sites, the role of sialic acid units in their proteolytic activities was evaluated. Thus, enzymatic removal of sialic acid (i) altered the pattern of gelatinolysis in zymography of most venoms, (ii) decreased the proteolytic activity of some venoms on fibrinogen and the clotting activity of human plasma of all venoms, and (iii) altered the hydrolysis profile of plasma proteins by B. jararaca venom, indicating that this carbohydrate may play a role in the interaction of proteases with their protein substrates. In contrast, the profile of amidolytic activity of the venoms did not change after removal of sialic acid and incubation with the substrate Bz-Arg-pNA, indicating that sialic acid is not essential in N-glycans of serine proteases acting on small substrates. Together, these results expand the knowledge about the variability of proteomes of Bothrops venoms and point to the importance of carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid in the enzymatic activities of venom proteases


Subject(s)
Poisons , Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Glycosylation , Bothrops/classification , Proteome/administration & dosage , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Venoms/adverse effects , Coagulants/adverse effects , Chromatography, Affinity , Sambucus nigra/classification , Proteolysis
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 477-481, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939734

ABSTRACT

Proteolysis targeting chimeria (PROTAC) degrades target proteins by utilizing the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, subverting the concept of traditional small molecule inhibitors. Among the common mutation targets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PROTAC technology has successfully achieved the effective degradation of kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK ) and other proteins in preclinical studies. PROTAC drugs with their unique event-driven advantages, are expected to overcome acquired drug resistance caused by small molecule inhibitors and show good therapeutic potential for undruggable targets, thereby providing a new strategy for the treatment of NSCLC.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proteolysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 10-23, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1348245

ABSTRACT

Neurolaena lobata es utilizada tradicionalmente en Centroamérica para tratar la mordedura de serpiente, pero su efectividad para contrarrestar el envenenamiento producido por Bothrops asper ha sido poco estudiada. Se evaluó la capacidad del extracto etanólico de sus hojas para inhibir las actividades proteolítica, fosfolipasa A2 (PLA2; evaluada como hemólisis indirecta) y coagulante del veneno in vitro. El material vegetal fue colectado en Izabal, Guatemala, secado, se hicieron extracciones con etanol y se evaluó la presencia de actividades proteolítica, PLA2 y coagulante in-trínsecas en ensayos de concentración-actividad. Los efectos inhibitorios de la actividad proteolítica y PLA2 del veneno se evaluaron después de pre-incubar concentraciones variables del extracto con concentraciones fijas de veneno. La inhibición de la actividad coagulante del veneno no fue evaluada porque el extracto presentó actividad anticoagulante intrínseca dependiente de la concentración. El extracto inhibió completamente las actividades proteolítica (CE50 = 15.7 µg/µl) y PLA2 (CE50 = 32.5 µg/µl) del veneno. El análisis fitoquímico utilizando ensayos macro y semimicrométricos de cromatografía en capa fina, demostró la presencia de flavonoides, cumarinas, saponinas, taninos, sesquiterpenlactonas y aceites esenciales en el extracto. Su efecto sobre las proteínas del veneno se evaluó por electroforesis SDS-PAGE, mostrando cambios en el patrón electroforético atribuidos a la formación de complejos moleculares con los metabo-litos del extracto. Los resultados indican que el extracto podría inhibir los efectos tóxicos del veneno inducidos por las metaloproteinasas dependientes de zinc (SVMPs) y PLA2s, pero podría afectar las alteraciones en la coagulación, coadyuvando en la desfibrinogenación inducida por el veneno.


Neurolaena lobata has been used by traditional healers in Central America to treat snakebite, but its ability to neutralize Bothrops asper envenomations needs to be proved. This study evaluated the inhibitory potential of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of N. lobata against proteolytic, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and coagulant activities of the venom in vitro. Leaves were collected in Izabal, Guatemala, dried, extracted with ethanol and concentration-response assays were conducted to detect intrinsic proteolytic, PLA2 (evaluated as indirect hemolysis) and coagulant activities. Assays for anti-proteolytic and anti-PLA2 activities were performed after pre-incubation of several amounts of extract with a fixed concentration of venom. Inhibition assay for the coagulant effect of the venom was not tested because pre-incubation of thrombin with the extract prolonged the clotting time of plasma in a concentration-dependent manner. Proteolytic (EC50 = 15.7 µg/µl) and PLA2 (EC50 = 32.5 µg/µl) activities of the venom resulted completely inhibited by the extract. Phytochemical profiles, determined by micrometric assays and semi microanalysis by thin layer chro-matography, showed the presence of flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, tannins, sesquiterpene lactones and essential oils in the extract. SDS-PAGE was used to assess the action of the extract on the venom proteins. Results showed changes in the electrophoretic profile, probably due to the formation of insoluble complexes with plant specialized metabolites. These findings demonstrated that the extract could be able to inhibit toxic effects triggered by zinc-dependent snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) y PLA2s but might aggravate the alterations induced by the venom in coagulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Antivenins/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bothrops , Crotalid Venoms/antagonists & inhibitors , Proteolysis/drug effects , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Snake Bites/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves , Ethanol/therapeutic use , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Guatemala , Medicine, Traditional
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3915-3932, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921476

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD) technology facilitates specific and efficient degradation of disease-related proteins through hijacking the two major protein degradation systems in mammalian cells: ubiquitin-proteasome system and lysosome pathway. Compared with traditional small molecule-inhibitors, TPD-based drugs exhibit the characteristics of a broader target spectrum. Compared with techniques interfere with protein expression on the gene and mRNA level, TPD-based drugs are target-specific, efficaciously rapid, and not constrained by post-translational modification of proteins. In the past 20 years, various TPD-based technologies have been developed. Most excitingly, two TPD-based therapeutic drugs have been approved by FDA for phase Ⅰ clinical trials in 2019. Despite of the early stage characteristics and various obstructions of the TPD technology, it could serve as a powerful tool for the development of novel drugs. This review summarizes the advances of different degradation systems based on TPD technologies and their applications in disease therapy. Moreover, the advantages and challenges of various technologies were discussed systematically, with the aim to provide theoretical guidance for further application of TPD technologies in scientific research and drug development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Technology
6.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(2): 93-101, abr./jun. 2020. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1378305

ABSTRACT

During the Gorgonzola-type cheese preparation there are proteolysis and lipolysis which may be influenced by the type of starter culture chosen. Six manufacturing steps were selected to identify which of them is most suitable for biogenic amines (BA) formation (1- milk, 2- lactic acid bacterial culture and fungus addition, 3- curd, 4- dry salting, 5- maturation at 30 days and maturation at 60 days); perform research on enterobacteria; accomplish the research of BA-producing bacteria (BAPB); detect and quantify the most abundant BA (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine) in the six steps of Gorgonzola cheese production and in bacterial isolates using high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis SPD/10AV detector and define if the presence of enterobacteria and BAPB would be correlated with BA production in this cheese. The bacterial culture used increased its log population by 7 log cycles and reached its highest level in batch 2 during cheese maturation. There was a decrease in the enterobacterial population in 2 log cycles after 60 days of maturation in batch 1. Tyramine was the BA with the highest concentration 306.32 mg.Kg-1 quantified in step 6 (60 days maturation) in batch 1. Criterion is requiered in bacterial starter culture selection because it is a quality determinant factor in relation to BA production and more rigor in raw material selection.


Durante a elaboração do queijo tipo Gorgonzola ocorre proteólise a partir das bactérias e dos fungos adicionados ao leite que podem levar a formação de aminas biogênicas (AB) neste tipo de queijo. Portanto, no presente estudo foi feito o acompanhamento com coleta de amostras em seis etapas na fabricação deste queijo paraidentificar em qual delas haveria maior formação de aminas biogênicas (AB). As amostras coletadas em três diferentes lotes foram o leite cru (1), leite pasteurizado adicionado de cultura de bactérias ácido-láticas (2), massa coalhada (3), queijo após a etapa de salga seca (4), queijo após 30 dias de maturação (5) e queijo após 60 dias de maturação (6). Também foram realizadas a pesquisa de enterobactérias e bactérias ácido-láticas com característica capacidade de descarboxilação de aminoácidos e produção de aminas biogênicas (BPAB); detecção e quantificação da AB mais abundante (putrescina, cadaverina, tiramina, histamina, espermidina e espermina) nas seis etapas de fabricação do queijo tipo Gorgonzola e nos isolados bacterianos utilizando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e detector UV-Vis SPD/10AV e a verificação se a presença de enterobactérias e BPAB estariam correlacionadas com a produção de AB nesse queijo. A cultura bacteriana utilizada cresceu aumentando em sete ciclos logarítmicos sua população e alcançou seu maior nível no lote 2 na etapa de maturação do queijo. Houve diminuição da população enterobactérias em 2 ciclos logarítmicos após 60 dias de maturação no lote 1. A tiramina foi a AB com concentração mais elevada 306,32 mg.Kg-1 quantificada na etapa 6 (60 dias de maturação) no lote 1. É necessário dar mais atenção em duas etapas na elaboração dos queijos: mais critério na seleção da cultura bacteriana iniciadora por ser um fator determinante na qualidade em relação à produção de AB e mais rigor na seleção da matéria-prima.Palavras chaves: cromatografia, cultura iniciadora, detector SPD/10AV UV­Vis, maturação, tiramina.


Subject(s)
Quality Control , Biogenic Amines/analysis , Cheese/analysis , Enterobacteriaceae , Lactobacillales , Proteolysis , Chromatography , Food
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 894-914, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880885

ABSTRACT

Tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins are important effectors of innate immunity against viral infections. Here we identified TRIM35 as a regulator of TRAF3 activation. Deficiency in or inhibition of TRIM35 suppressed the production of type I interferon (IFN) in response to viral infection. Trim35-deficient mice were more susceptible to influenza A virus (IAV) infection than were wild-type mice. TRIM35 promoted the RIG-I-mediated signaling by catalyzing Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 and the subsequent formation of a signaling complex with VISA and TBK1. IAV PB2 polymerase countered the innate antiviral immune response by impeding the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination and activation of TRAF3. TRIM35 mediated Lys48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of IAV PB2, thereby antagonizing its suppression of TRAF3 activation. Our in vitro and in vivo findings thus reveal novel roles of TRIM35, through catalyzing Lys63- or Lys48-linked polyubiquitination, in RIG-I antiviral immunity and mechanism of defense against IAV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Mice , A549 Cells , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Proteolysis , Signal Transduction/immunology , THP-1 Cells , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/immunology , Ubiquitination/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology
8.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 251-256, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826373

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin is a small molecule protein consisting of 76 amino acids,widely found in eukaryotic cells. The process by which ubiquitin binding to a specific protein is called ubiquitination. Deubiquitination is the reversed process of ubiquitination. Ubiquitination stimulates downstream signal,including complex assembly,protein conformation and activity changes,proteolysis,autophagy,guilt,chromatin remodeling,and DNA repair. More than 80% of eukaryotic protein degradation is mediated by the ubiquitination system,and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is an extremely complex process involving many biomolecular processes. By regulating protein homeostasis,ubiquitination can also regulate a variety of biological processes including cell cycle,cell proliferation,and apoptosis,which are closely related to tumorigenesis and progression. Many abnormalities of androgen receptor (AR) including AR gene amplification,mutation,shear mutation,and AR activity enhancement are closely related to prostate cancer progression. In particular,prostate cancer progression is regulated by the ubiquitination/deubiquitination processes. This article summarizes the recent research advances in the roles of ubiquitination/deubiquitination in AR abnormalities and prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cell Line, Tumor , Prostatic Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Proteolysis , Receptors, Androgen , Metabolism , Ubiquitination
9.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 30-30, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826302

ABSTRACT

Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that causes neurotoxicity. Recent studies have reported that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in defense against methylmercury toxicity through the degradation of proteins synthesizing the pyruvate. Mitochondrial accumulation of pyruvate can enhance methylmercury toxicity. In addition, methylmercury exposure induces several immune-related chemokines, specifically in the brain, and may cause neurotoxicity. This summary highlights several molecular mechanisms of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Chemokines , Metabolism , Methylmercury Compounds , Toxicity , Neurotoxins , Toxicity , Proteolysis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
10.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 649-658, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a major enzyme responsible for the formation of methylarginine in mammalian cells. Recent studies have revealed that PRMT1 plays important roles in the development of various tissues. However, its role in pancreas development has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: Pancreatic progenitor cell-specific Prmt1 knock-out (Prmt1 PKO) mice were generated and characterized for their metabolic and histological phenotypes and their levels of Neurog3 gene expression and neurogenin 3 (NGN3) protein expression. Protein degradation assays were performed in mPAC cells. RESULTS: Prmt1 PKO mice showed growth retardation and a severely diabetic phenotype. The pancreatic size and β-cell mass were significantly reduced in Prmt1 PKO mice. Proliferation of progenitor cells during the secondary transition was decreased and endocrine cell differentiation was impaired. These defects in pancreas development could be attributed to the sustained expression of NGN3 in progenitor cells. Protein degradation assays in mPAC cells revealed that PRMT1 was required for the rapid degradation of NGN3. CONCLUSION: PRMT1 critically contributes to pancreas development by destabilizing the NGN3 protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus , Endocrine Cells , Gene Expression , Islets of Langerhans , Pancreas , Phenotype , Protein Stability , Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases , Proteolysis , Stem Cells
11.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 270-279, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763401

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and/or strength) frequently complicates liver cirrhosis and adversely affects the quality of life; cirrhosis related liver decompensation and significantly decreases wait-list and post-liver transplantation survival. The main therapeutic strategies to improve or reverse sarcopenia include dietary interventions (supplemental calorie and protein intake), increased physical activity (supervised resistance and endurance exercises), hormonal therapy (testosterone), and ammonia lowering agents (L-ornithine L-aspartate, branch chain amino acids) as well as mechanistic approaches that target underlying molecular and metabolic abnormalities. Besides other factors, hyperammonemia has recently gained attention and increase sarcopenia by various mechanisms including increased expression of myostatin, increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2a, cataplerosis of α ketoglutarate, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species that decrease protein synthesis and increased autophagy-mediated proteolysis. Sarcopenia contributes to frailty and increases the risk of minimal and overt hepatic encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Aspartic Acid , Fibrosis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hyperammonemia , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolism , Motor Activity , Myostatin , Peptide Initiation Factors , Phosphorylation , Proteolysis , Quality of Life , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sarcopenia , Testosterone
12.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 401-408, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772087

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether bortezomib and a Bcl-2 inhibitor exhibit synergistic anti-tumor effect in human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cells.@*METHODS@#MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of bortezomib in the absence or presence of Bcl-2 inhibitors (obatoclax, AT-101 and ABT-199) in Jurkat cells. The effects of drug treatment on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, LC3B, p62, ubiquitin, BiP/Grp78, p-JNK, p-p38 and CHOP proteins were examined by Western blotting. Flow cytometry was used to determine the effects of bortezomib and Bcl-2 inhibitors (obatoclax, AT-101 and ABT-199) on cell apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of the key regulatory factors of unfolded protein reaction (UPR). A zebrafish xenograft model was used to study the anti-tumor effect of bortezomib, obatoclax and their combination in vivo.@*RESULTS@#Bortezomib or Bcl-2 inhibitors alone inhibited the cell viability of Jurkat cells, but only obatoclax and bortezomib showed synergistic cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic effect. Obatoclax, rather than AT-101 and ABT- 199, blocked autophagic flux in the cells evidenced by concomitant accumulation of LC3B-Ⅱ and p62. Both bortezomib and obatoclax alone caused accumulation of polyubiquinated proteins, and their combination showed a synergistic effect, which was consistent with their synergistic cytotoxicity. The dual blockade of proteasome and autophagy by the combination of bortezomib and obatoclax triggered unfolded protein response followed by cell apoptosis. Preventing UPS dysfunction by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic effect of bortezomib in combination with obatoclax. In zebrafish xenograft models, bortezomib combined with obatoclax significantly decreased tumor foci formation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Bortezomib and obatoclax for dual blockade of protein degradation pathways show synergistic anti-tumor effect in human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Apoptosis , Bortezomib , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Synergism , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Proteolysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Pyrroles
13.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 93-98, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771633

ABSTRACT

The clinical treatment of joint contracture due to immobilization remains difficult. The pathological changes of muscle tissue caused by immobilization-induced joint contracture include disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and skeletal muscle tissue fibrosis. The proteolytic pathways involved in disuse muscle atrophy include the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway, caspase system pathway, matrix metalloproteinase pathway, Ca-dependent pathway and autophagy-lysosomal pathway. The important biological processes involved in skeletal muscle fibrosis include intermuscular connective tissue thickening caused by transforming growth factor-β1 and an anaerobic environment within the skeletal muscle leading to the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. This article reviews the progress made in understanding the pathological processes involved in immobilization-induced muscle contracture and the currently available treatments. Understanding the mechanisms involved in immobilization-induced contracture of muscle tissue should facilitate the development of more effective treatment measures for the different mechanisms in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrophy , Autophagy , Calcium , Metabolism , Caspases , Metabolism , Connective Tissue , Metabolism , Pathology , Contracture , Metabolism , Pathology , Therapeutics , Fibrosis , Immobilization , Joints , Lysosomes , Metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal , Metabolism , Pathology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Metabolism , Proteolysis , Signal Transduction , Physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism , Ubiquitin , Metabolism
14.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 675-684, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is an agent widely applied in dermatology for skin regeneration. To test whether TCA can offer an advantage for the regeneration of oral soft tissue defects, the cellular events following TCA application were explored in vitro and its influence on the oral soft tissue wound healing was evaluated in a canine palate model.METHODS: The cytotoxicity and growth factor gene expression in human gingival fibroblasts were tested in vitro following the application of TCA at four concentrations (0.005%, 0.05%, 0.5% and 1%) with different time intervals (0, 3, 9 and 21 h). One concentration of TCA was selected to screen the genes differentially expressed using DNA microarray and the associated pathways were explored. TCA was injected in open wound defects of the palatal mucosa from beagle dogs (n = 3) to monitor their healing and regeneration up to day 16-post-administration.RESULTS: While the 0.5–1% concentration induced the cytoxicity, a significantly higher expression of growth factor genes was observed after 3 and 9 h following the 0.5% TCA application in comparison to other groups. DNA microarray analysis in 0.5% TCA group showed 417 genes with a significant 1.5-fold differential expression, involving pathways of cell cycle, FoxO signaling, p53 signaling, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and cAMP signaling. In vivo results showed a faster reepithelialization of TCA-treated wounds as compared to spontaneous healingCONCLUSION: TCA promoted the healing and regeneration of oral soft tissue wound defects by up-regulating the cell cycle progression, cell growth, and cell viability, particularly at a concentration of 0.5%.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Cell Cycle , Cell Survival , Dermatology , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Mouth Mucosa , Mucous Membrane , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Palate , Proteolysis , Regeneration , Skin , Trichloroacetic Acid , Ubiquitin , Up-Regulation , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
15.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 172-179, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786406

ABSTRACT

Glutamate leads to neuronal cell damage by generating neurotoxicity during brain development. The objective of this study is to identify proteins that differently expressed by glutamate treatment in neonatal cerebral cortex. Sprague-Dawley rat pups (post-natal day 7) were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or glutamate (10 mg/kg). Brain tissues were isolated 4 h after drug treatment and fixed for morphological study. Moreover, cerebral cortices were collected for protein study. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were carried out to identify specific proteins. We observed severe histopathological changes in glutamate-exposed cerebral cortex. We identified various proteins that differentially expressed by glutamate exposure. Identified proteins were thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin 5, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, proteasome subunit alpha proteins, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and heat shock protein 60. Heat shock protein 60 was increased in glutamate exposed condition. However, other proteins were decreased in glutamate-treated animals. These proteins are related to anti-oxidant, protein degradation, metabolism, signal transduction, and anti-apoptotic function. Thus, our findings can suggest that glutamate leads to neonatal cerebral cortex damage by regulation of specific proteins that mediated with various functions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Rats , Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Chaperonin 60 , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Glutamic Acid , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolism , Neurons , Peroxiredoxins , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Proteolysis , Proteomics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Thioredoxins , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e1212018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1024562

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the contamination of refrigerated raw milk produced in the western region of Paraná, southern Brazil, with psychrotrophic microorganisms, aiming to assay the proteolytic activity of the isolates and to identify Pseudomonas fluorescens, the main proteolytic species associated with the spoilage of milk products. Raw milk samples from 50 dairy farms were submitted to the counting of psychrotrophic microorganisms, being the microbiota characterized by its mesophilic behavior and proteolytic capacity, besides molecular identification of P. fluorescens. Of the samples evaluated, 94% had psychrotrophic counts ranging from 3 to 7.1 log CFU mL-1, and 48.5% of these showed mesophilic behavior. Of the isolates, 48.0% had proteolytic activity in at least one evaluated temperature (21 and 30°C), and 39.3% had proteolytic activity in both temperatures. Among the 61 isolates submitted to molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 86.8% contained the expression of the 16S gene characteristic for P. fluorescens. In this study, we demonstrated that P. fluorescens is the most prevalent psychrotrophic bacteria species in raw refrigerated milk and their proteolytic ability poses high risks to the dairy industry.(AU)


No presente estudo, investigamos a contaminação do leite cru refrigerado produzido na região oeste do Paraná, sul do Brasil, com micro-organismos psicrotróficos, visando testar a atividade proteolítica dos isolados e identificar Pseudomonas fluorescens, a principal espécie proteolítica associada à deterioração de produtos lácteos. Amostras de leite cru de 50 fazendas leiteiras foram submetidas à contagem de micro-organismos psicrotróficos, caracterizando-se a microbiota por seu comportamento mesofílico e sua capacidade proteolítica, além de identificação molecular de P. fluorescens. Entre as amostras avaliadas, 94% apresentaram contagem psicrotrófica variando de 3 a 7,1 log UFC mL-1 e 48,5% destas apresentaram comportamento mesofílico. Entre os isolados, 48,0% apresentaram atividade proteolítica em pelo menos uma das temperaturas testadas (21 e 30°C) e 39,3% apresentaram atividade proteolítica em ambas as temperaturas. Entre os 61 isolados sub-metidos à identificação molecular por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), 86,8% continham expressão do gene 16S característico de P. fluorescens. Neste estudo, demonstramos que P. fluorescens é a espécie de bactérias psicrotróficas mais prevalente em leite refrigerado cru e sua capacidade proteolítica promove elevados riscos de deterioração para a indústria de laticínios.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas fluorescens , Milk , Proteolysis , Bacteria , Food Contamination , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cooled Foods
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 247-253, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888089

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho se propôs a desenvolver um modelo preditivo para identificação de perda de estabilidade e de sedimentação em leite UAT por determinação da atividade enzimática de aminopeptidase no leite por espectrofotometria. Foram analisadas amostras de leite cru, pasteurizado e UAT após envase durante seis meses, na região Sul do Brasil. Acidez, crioscopia, gordura, extrato seco total, extrato seco desengordurado e densidade foram analisados nos leites cru e pasteurizado. Amostras de leite cru foram ainda submetidas à análise de contagem de psicrotróficos e à atividade de aminopeptidase, e amostras de leite UAT estocadas foram analisadas quanto ao grau de proteólise mediante análises sensoriais e atividade de aminopeptidase. Alterações sensoriais foram observadas em tempos de estocagem menores para amostras originadas de leite cru com contagem de psicrotróficos acima de 107 UFC mL-1. Não houve correlação entre a atividade de aminopeptidase e proteólise e também não foi observada correlação significativa entre os parâmetros físico-químicos e a ocorrência de proteólise no leite estocado. O modelo estudado não foi apto para predizer perda de estabilidade e ocorrência de proteólise no leite UAT.(AU)


The aim of this work was to develop a predictive model for identifying loss of stability and sedimentation in UHT milk by determining the enzymatic activity of aminopeptidasis in milk by spectrophotometry. Samples of raw milk, pasteurized and UHT after filling for 6 months in Southern Brazil were analyzed. Acidity, freezing point, fat, total solids, nonfat solids and density were analyzed in raw and pasteurized milk. Raw milk samples were also subjected to psychrotrophic count analysis and aminopeptidasis activity and UAT samples of stored milk were analyzed for degree of proteolysis through sensory analysis and aminopeptidasis activity. Sensory changes were observed in smaller storage time for samples of raw milk originated with psychrotrophic count above 107 CFU ml-1. There was no correlation between aminopeptidasis activity and proteolysis and there was also no significant correlation between physicochemical parameters and the occurrence of proteolysis in stored milk. The model was unable to predict loss of stability and occurrence of proteolysis in UHT milk.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Milk/enzymology , Proteolysis , Aminopeptidases/analysis , Spectrophotometry , Cattle
18.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 153-161, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740116

ABSTRACT

Imbalance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is known to cause cellular malfunction, cell death, and diseases. Elaborate regulation of protein synthesis and degradation is one of the important processes in maintaining normal cellular functions. Protein degradation pathways in eukaryotes are largely divided into proteasome-mediated degradation and lysosome-mediated degradation. Proteasome is a multisubunit complex that selectively degrades 80% to 90% of cellular proteins. Proteasome-mediated degradation can be divided into 26S proteasome (20S proteasome + 19S regulatory particle) and free 20S proteasome degradation. In 1980, it was discovered that during ubiquitination process, wherein ubiquitin binds to a substrate protein in an ATP-dependent manner, ubiquitin acts as a degrading signal to degrade the substrate protein via proteasome. Conversely, 20S proteasome degrades the substrate protein without using ATP or ubiquitin because it recognizes the oxidized and structurally modified hydrophobic patch of the substrate protein. To date, most studies have focused on protein degradation via 26S proteasome. This review describes the 26S/20S proteasomal pathway of protein degradation and discusses the potential of proteasome as therapeutic targets for cancer treatment as well as against diseases caused by abnormalities in the proteolytic system.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Cell Death , Eukaryota , Homeostasis , Oxidative Stress , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination
19.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 242-247, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739922

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitination of proteins plays an essential role in various cellular processes, including protein degradation, DNA repair, and cell signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown that protein ubiquitination is implicated in regulating pluripotency as well as fate determination of stem cells. To identify how protein ubiquitination affects differentiation of embryonic stem cells, we analyzed microarray data, which are available in the public domain, of E3 ligases and deubiquitinases whose levels changed during stem cell differentiation. Expression of pja2, a member of the RING-type E3 ligase family, was up-regulated during differentiation of stem cells. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the most important signaling pathways for regulation of the self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Pja2 was shown to bind to TCF/LEF1, which are transcriptional factors for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and regulate protein levels by ubiquitination, leading to down-regulation of Wnt signaling activity. Based on these results, we suggest that E3 ligase Pja2 regulates stem cell differentiation by controlling the level of TCF/LEF1 by ubiquitination.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Repair , Down-Regulation , Embryonic Stem Cells , Ligases , Proteolysis , Public Sector , Stem Cells , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases , Ubiquitination
20.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 879-889, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757990

ABSTRACT

Wnt signaling has emerged as a major regulator of tissue development by governing the self-renewal and maintenance of stem cells in most tissue types. As a key upstream regulator of the Wnt pathway, the transmembrane E3 ligase ZNRF3 has recently been established to play a role in negative regulation of Wnt signaling by targeting Frizzled (FZD) receptor for ubiquitination and degradation. However, the upstream regulation of ZNRF3, in particular the turnover of ZNRF3, is still unclear. Here we report that ZNRF3 is accumulated in the presence of proteasome inhibitor treatment independent of its E3-ubiquitin ligase activity. Furthermore, the Cullin 1-specific SCF complex containing β-TRCP has been identified to directly interact with and ubiquitinate ZNRF3 thereby regulating its protein stability. Similar with the degradation of β-catenin by β-TRCP, ZNRF3 is ubiquitinated by β-TRCP in both CKI-phosphorylation- and degron-dependent manners. Thus, our findings not only identify a novel substrate for β-TRCP oncogenic regulation, but also highlight the dual regulation of Wnt signaling by β-TRCP in a context-dependent manner where β-TRCP negatively regulates Wnt signaling by targeting β-catenin, and positively regulates Wnt signaling by targeting ZNRF3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cells, Cultured , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Metabolism , Ubiquitination , beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins , Metabolism
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