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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 142-146, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365338


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The vast majority of patients who hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are given empirical antibiotic therapy. However, information on the frequency, microorganism species, and resistance rates of secondary bacterial infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are insufficient. We aimed to show the frequency of secondary infections and resistance conditions in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized in the intensive care unit. METHODS: The results of tracheal aspirate culture, blood culture, and urine culture obtained from coronavirus disease 2019 patients - at least 2 days after their admission to the intensive care unit - were examined microbiologically. RESULTS: A total of 514 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit were included in our study. Tracheal aspirate, blood, or urine cultures were collected from 369 patients (71.8%). Bacterial reproduction was detected in at least one sample in 171 (33.3%) of all patients. The rate of respiratory tract infection and/or bloodstream infection was found to be 21%. Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tracheal aspirate culture; Coagulase-negative staphylococci, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in blood culture; and Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in urine culture were the most common microorganisms. A. baumannii was resistant to most antibiotics except colistin and P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to most antibiotics except amikacin, colistin, cefepime, and imipenem. In K. pneumoniae, the highest meropenem sensitivity (73%) was observed; there was a strong resistance to most of the remaining antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We think that our study can be useful in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and reducing the mortality that may occur with secondary infection.

Humans , Pneumonia , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii , Coinfection , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243189, 2022. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278508


Abstract The effects of Calcium (Ca+2) on virulence and some parameters should be analyzed in this study. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram (-) and Bacillus cereus Gram (+) were used. Both bacteria are soil bacteria. In this study; the effect of Ca+2 on protease, amylase, LasB elastolytic assay, H2O2, pyorubin and biofilm on metabolites of these bacteria were investigated during 24 hour time. In this study, the effect of Ca+2 on the production of some secondary metabolites on P. aeruginosa and B. cereus was investigated and presented for the first time by us.

Resumo Os efeitos do cálcio (Ca+2) na virulência e alguns parâmetros devem ser analisados neste estudo. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram (-) e Bacillus cereus Gram (+) foram usados. Ambas as bactérias são bactérias do solo. Neste estudo, o efeito do Ca+2 sobre a protease, amilase, ensaio elastolítico LasB, H2O2, piorubina e biofilme nos metabólitos dessas bactérias foram investigados durante 24 horas. Neste estudo, o efeito do Ca+2 na produção de alguns metabólitos secundários em P. aeruginosa e B. cereus foi investigado e apresentado pela primeira vez por nós.

Pseudomonas , Bacillus cereus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Calcium , Hydrogen Peroxide
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239868, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278494


Abstract Fluoroquinolones are important antimicrobial agents for the treatment of Pseudomonas infections. A total of 11 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from different clinical samples from different medical centers in the North West Bank-Palestine during 2017. In this study, resistance to fluoroquinolones and secretions of β-lactamases were detected by phenotypic methods, while presence of β-lactamase gene sequences and other virulence factors were detected by PCR technique. PCR product for gyrA, parC and parE genes were sequenced for further analyses. The phylogenetic analyses, population diversity indices and haplotypes determination were conducted using computer programs MEGA version 6, DnaSP 5.1001 and median-joining algorithm in the program Network 5, respectively. Results of this study showed that the MIC for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin had a range of 32-256 µg/ml. In addition, all isolates carried either exoT or exoT and exoY genes, different β-lactamase genes and 82% of these isolates harbored class 1 integrons. Analyses of the gyrA, parC and parE sequences were found to be polymorphic, had high haplotype diversity (0.945-0.982), low nucleotide diversity (0.01225-0.02001) and number of haplotypes were 9 for each gyrA and parE genes and 10 haplotypes for parC gene. The founder haplotypes being Hap-1 (18%), Hap-2 (27.3%) and Hap-6 (9.1%) for gyrA, parC and parE genes, respectively. Two of ParE haplotypes were detected as indel haplotypes. The Median-joining- (MJ) networks constructed from haplotypes of these genes showed a star-like expansion. The neutrality tests (Tajima's D test and Fu's Fs test) for these genes showed negative values. Palestinian fluoroquinolone resistant P. aeruginosa strains showed high MIC level for fluoroquinolones, β-lactamase producers, carried type III secretion exotoxin-encoding genes, most of them had integrase I gene and had high level of mutations in QRDR regions in gyrA, parC and parE genes. All these factors may play an important role in the invasiveness of these strains and make them difficult to treat. Isolation of these strains from different medical centers, indicate the need for a strict application of infection control measures in Medical centers in the North West Bank-Palestine that aim to reduce expense and damage caused by P. aeruginosa infections. Molecular analyses showed that Palestinian fluoroquinolone resistant P. aeruginosa haplotypes are not genetically differentiated; however, more mutations may exist in these strains.

Resumo Fluoroquinolonas são agentes antimicrobianos importantes para o tratamento de infecções por Pseudomonas. Um total de 11 bacilos isolados de P. aeruginosa foram coletados de diferentes amostras clínicas provenientes de diferentes centros médicos na Cisjordânia-Palestina durante o ano de 2017. Neste estudo, resistência a fluoroquinolonas e secreções de β-lactamases foram detectadas por métodos fenotípicos, enquanto a presença de sequências do gene β-lactamase e outros fatores de virulência foram detectados pela técnica de PCR (Proteína C-reativa). O produto de PCR para os genes gyrA, parC e parE foram sequenciados para análises posteriores. As análises filogenéticas, os índices de diversidade populacional e a determinação de haplótipos foram realizados utilizando os softwares MEGA versão 6, DnaSP 5.1001 e o algoritmo de junção de mediana do programa Network 5, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a MIC para ciprofloxacina e norfloxacina tinha um intervalo de 32-256 µg/ml. Além disso, todos os bacilos isolados carregavam genes exoT ou exoT e exoY, genes de β-lactamase diferentes e 82% desses isolados continham integrons de classe 1. As análises das sequências gyrA, parC e parE foram consideradas polimórficas, com alta diversidade de haplótipos (0,945-0,982), baixa diversidade de nucleotídeos (0,01225-0,02001) e o número de haplótipos foi de 9 para cada gene de gyrA e parE e 10 haplótipos para o gene parC. Os haplótipos fundadores são Hap-1 (18%), Hap-2 (27,3%) e Hap-6 (9,1%) para os genes gyrA, parC e parE, respectivamente. Dois dos haplótipos parE foram detectados como haplótipos InDel. As redes Median-joining (MJ) construídas a partir de haplótipos desses genes mostraram uma expansão semelhante à de uma estrela. Os testes de neutralidade (teste D de Tajima e teste Fs de Fu) para esses genes apresentaram valores negativos. As cepas palestinas de P. aeruginosa resistentes a fluoroquinolonas mostraram alto nível de MIC para fluoroquinolonas, produtores de β-lactamase, genes codificadores de exotoxina de secreção tipo III, a maioria deles tinha o gene integrase I e tinha alto nível de mutações nas regiões QRDR nos genes gyrA, parC e parE. Todos esses fatores podem desempenhar um papel importante na invasão dessas cepas e torná-las difíceis de tratar. O isolamento dessas cepas em diferentes centros médicos, indica a necessidade de uma aplicação estrita de medidas de controle de infecção em centros médicos da Cisjordânia-Palestina que visam reduzir despesas e danos causados ​​por infecções por P. aeruginosa. As análises moleculares mostraram que os haplótipos de P. aeruginosa resistentes à fluoroquinolona palestina não são geneticamente diferenciados; no entanto, mais mutações podem existir nessas cepas.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Mutation
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e228009, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249287


Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with the ability to develop a strong communication pathway by quorum sensing system and different virulent factors. Among the various important secretions of P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid is important biological detergent, believed to be involved in the development of the biofilm and intercellular communication. It readily dissolves the lung surfactants that are then easily catalyzed by the phospholipases and in this way is involved in the acute pulmonary infection. Objective research work was designed to investigate virulence and gene associated with virulence in P. aeruginosa responsible for pulmonary infections. Methods In current study polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the rhlR (rhamnolipid encoding) gene of isolated strains. A number of assays were performed that ensured its virulent behavior. Disc diffusion method was used to check its antibiotic resistance. Isolated strains were resistant to a number of antibiotics applied. Result It was found that males are more prone to respiratory infections as compared to females. Male members with age of 44-58 and 59-73 are at a higher risk, while females with age of 44-58 are also at a risk of pulmonary infections. Antibiotic resistance was observed by measuring zone of inhibition in strains GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 and GCU-SG-M6. GCU-SG-M2 was resistant to fluconazole (FLU), clarithromycin (CLR), cefixime (CFM) and Penicillin (P10). No zone of inhibition was observed. But it showed unusual diffused zone around the Ak and MEM antibiotic discs. rhl R gene and 16s rRNA gene were characterized and analyzed. Conclusion Findings from current study would help in raising awareness about antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, and also the sequence of rhl R gene can be used as the diagnostic marker sequence to identify the virulent rhl R gene sequence from the samples when isolated from sputum of Pneumonia patients.

Resumo Antecedentes Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma bactéria patogênica oportunista comum, com a capacidade de desenvolver uma forte via de comunicação pelo sistema de detecção de quorum e diferentes fatores virulentos. Entre as várias secreções importantes de P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid, há um importante detergente biológico, que se acredita estar envolvido no desenvolvimento do biofilme e na comunicação intercelular. Dissolve rapidamente os surfactantes pulmonares que são facilmente catalisados pelas fosfolipases e, dessa maneira, estão envolvidos na infecção pulmonar aguda. Objetivo O trabalho de pesquisa foi desenhado para investigar a virulência e o gene associado à virulência em P. aeruginosa responsável por infecções pulmonares. Métodos No presente estudo, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a detecção do gene rhlR (codificação ramnolipídeo) de cepas isoladas. Foram realizados vários ensaios que garantiram seu comportamento virulento. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para verificar sua resistência a antibióticos. As estirpes isoladas foram resistentes a vários antibióticos aplicados. Resultado Verificou-se que os homens são mais propensos a infecções respiratórias em comparação às mulheres. Membros do sexo masculino com idade entre 44 e 58 e 59 e 73 anos correm maior risco, enquanto mulheres com idade entre 44 e 58 anos também correm risco de infecções pulmonares. A resistência aos antibióticos foi observada medindo a zona de inibição nas cepas GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 e GCU-SG-M6. O GCU-SG-M2 foi resistente ao fluconazol (FLU), claritromicina (CLR), cefixima (CFM) e penicilina (P10). Nenhuma zona de inibição foi observada. Mas se notou uma zona difusa incomum ao redor dos discos antibióticos Ak e MEM. Os genes rhl R e 16s rRNA foram caracterizados e analisados. Conclusão As conclusões do presente estudo ajudariam a aumentar a conscientização sobre a resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa e, também, a sequência do gene rhl R pode ser usada como sequência de diagnóstico para identificar a sequência virulenta do gene rhl R das amostras quando isoladas do escarro de pacientes com pneumonia.

Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Glycolipids , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231742, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153476


Abstract The ability of pathogenic bacteria acquire resistance to the existing antibiotics has long been considered a dangerous health risk threat. Currently, the use of visible light has been considered a new approach to treat bacterial infections as an alternative to antibiotics. Herein, we investigated the antimicrobial effect of two range of visible light, blue and red, on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two pathogenic bacterial commonly found in healthcare settings-acquired infections and responsible for high rate of morbidity and mortality. Bacterial cultures were exposed to blue or red light (470 nm and 660 nm) provided by light-emitting diodes - LED. The fluencies and irradiance used for blue and red light were 284.90 J/cm2, 13.19 mW/cm2 and 603.44 J/cm2, 27.93 mW/cm2 respectively. Different experimental approaches were used to determine the optimal conditions of light application. Only exposure to blue light for 6 hours was able to inhibit about 75% in vitro growth of both bacterial species after 24 hours. The surviving exposed bacteria formed colonies significantly smaller than controls, however, these bacteria were able to resume growth after 48 hours. Blue light was able to inhibit bacterial growth upon inoculation in both saline solution and BHI culture medium. We can conclude that blue light, but not red light, is capable of temporarily retarding the growth of gram negative and gram positive bacteria.

Resumo A capacidade das bactérias patogênicas adquirirem resistência aos antibióticos existentes há muito tempo é considerada uma ameaça perigosa à saúde. Atualmente, o uso da luz visível tem sido considerado uma nova abordagem no tratamento de infecções bacterianas como alternativa aos antibióticos. Neste trabalho, investigamos o efeito antimicrobiano de duas faixas de luz visível, azul e vermelha, em Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, duas bactérias patogênicas comumente encontradas em infecções adquiridas em instituições de saúde e responsáveis por alta taxa de morbimortalidade. As culturas bacterianas foram expostas à luz azul ou vermelha (470 nm e 660 nm) fornecida por diodos emissores de luz - LED. As fluências e irradiâncias utilizadas para luz azul e vermelha foram 284,90 J/cm2, 13,19 mW/cm2 e 603,44 J/cm2, 27,93 mW/cm2, respectivamente. Várias abordagens experimentais foram utilizadas para determinar as condições ótimas de aplicação da luz. Apenas a exposição à luz azul por 6 horas foi capaz de inibir cerca de 75% o crescimento in vitro de ambas as espécies bacterianas após 24 horas. As bactérias expostas sobreviventes formaram colônias com um tamanho significativamente menor do que os controles, contudo, essas bactérias conseguiram retomar o crescimento normal após 48 horas. A luz azul foi capaz de inibir o crescimento das bactérias após sua inoculação em solução salina ou no meio de cultura rico em nutrientes BHI. Podemos concluir que a luz azul mas não a luz vermelha é capaz de retardar temporariamente o crescimento de bactérias Gram-negativas e Gram-positivas.

Humans , Staphylococcal Infections , Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Light , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 5-11, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352529


El síndrome de la uña verde o cloroniquia corresponde a la infección por Pseudomonas aeruginosa de una lámina ungueal dañada en pacientes con algún factor de riesgo identificable, siendo los más frecuentes la inmunosupresión, el ambiente húmedo constante y la patología ungueal preexistente. Su diagnóstico es relativamente sencillo si se logra observar la tríada característica de coloración verdosa de la lámina ungueal, paroniquia proximal crónica y onicolisis distal; en casos de duda diagnóstica se puede enviar una muestra de la uña afectada para cultivos o estudio histopatológico. El pilar de su tratamiento corresponde al uso de antibióticos tópicos o sistémicos en conjunto con medidas generales que protejan de la humedad. Es muy importante enfatizar la prevención de esta patología en el personal de salud, especialmente en el contexto del lavado de manos frecuente y riguroso implementado durante la pandemia COVID-19, ya que existen reportes de transmisión nosocomial de P. aeruginosa por profesionales de la salud con infección ungueal.(AU)

Green nail syndrome or chloronychia is the infection of a damaged nail plate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with an identifiable risk factor; the most frequently described are immunosuppression, a persistent moist environment and preexisting nail disease. Its diagnosis is relatively simple if the characteristic triad of green discoloration of the nail plate, chronic proximal paronychia and distal onycholysis can be observed, in cases of doubt a sample of the affected nail can be sent for cultures or histopathology. The cornerstone of treatment is the use of topical or systemic antibiotics along with measures to protect the nail from moisture. Prevention of this disease must be emphasized in health care personnel, especially in the context of frequent and rigorous handwashing practices implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic, since there are reports of nosocomial transmission of P. aeruginosaby health care professionals with nail infection.(AU)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , Pseudomonas Infections , Nails/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Syndrome , Health Personnel , Onychomycosis , Onycholysis , COVID-19
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337804


La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM), representa un grave problema por el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos de amplio espectro. En nuestro país, durante el primer cuatrimestre del año, se observó un aumento inusual en el número de aislamiento de gérmenes multirresistentes, sobre todo de bacilos gramnegativos, los cuales fueron remitidos al laboratorio de referencia con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes de resistencia a los carbapenemes. Estudio observacional y prospectivo de corte transversal en 456 aislamientos de bacilos gramnegativos provenientes de 11 centros colaboradores de la Red Nacional de Vigilancia de la RAM, remitidos al Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública entre enero y abril de 2021, para la detección molecular (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple) de los genes de resistencia enzimática bla OXA-51, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla NDM, bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM. Trescientos sesenta correspondieron a bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores: 346 Acinetobacter baumannii y 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 96 fueron miembros de Enterobacterales, siendo prevalente Klebsiella pneumoniae (81). Todos los aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii resultaron ser productores de carbapenemasas: OXA-23 (94%), NDM (4%), NMD+OXA-58 (2%); en Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7 de los 14 aislamientos (50%) fueron portadores de metalobetalactamasa del genotipo NDM (100%). Los genotipos NDM (92%) y KPC (8%) fueron confirmados en Enterobacterales. La resistencia plasmídica a carbapenemes es endémica en nuestro país, siendo prevalentes los genotipos OXA-23 en Acinetobacter baumannii y NDM en Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Enterobacterales

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem due to the indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. During the first quarter of the year, an unusual increase in the number of isolation multi-resistant germs, especially gram-negative bacilli was observed, specially of Gram-negative bacilli which were referred to the reference laboratory in order to characterize the carbapenems resistance genes. Observational and prospective cross-sectional study in 456 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli from 11 collaborating centers of the National AMR Surveillance Network, referred to the Central Public Health Laboratory (LCSP) between January and April 2021, for molecular detection (multiple polymerase chain reaction) targeting the enzymatic resistance genes: bla OXA-51, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla NDM, bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM. Of the 456 isolates studied, 360 corresponded to non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, of which 346 were confirmed as Acinetobacter baumannii and 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 96 were Enterobacterales, being Klebsiella pneumoniae (81) the most prevalent. All isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii carried genes encoding carbapenemases, being the OXA-23 (94%) followed by NDM (4%) and NDM +OXA-58 (2%). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 7 of the 14 isolates (50%) were carriers of NDM metallobetalactamase (100%). No carbapenemase gene was detected in the remaining 7. In all Enterobacterales strains, the presence of carbapenemases of the NDM (92%) and KPC (8%) genotypes were confirmed. Plasmid resistance to carbapenems is endemic in our country, being the OXA-23 genotypes prevalent in Acinetobacter baumannii and NDM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales

Pseudomonas Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacteria , Drug Resistance , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 58-63, 20210330. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291397


Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência e o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos das cepas de Acinetobacter baumannii e Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de amostras de lavado traqueal. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, transversal, descritivo, no qual foram coletados resultados de cultura de lavado traqueal de pacientes com PAV, internados em uma UTI adulta de um hospital público da cidade de Juiz de Fora, MG. Os dados foram coletados nos registros eletrônicos do Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar, referentes ao período de janeiro a dezembro de 2018. Resultados: Foram analisadas 469 amostras de lavado traqueal de pacientes adultos internados na UTI, sendo consideradas culturas positivas, aquelas com contagem de colônias ≥106UFC/ mL, totalizando 242 (51,52%) das amostras de lavado traqueal positivas, sendo que, destas, 230 foram monomicrobianas e 12 com dois micro-organismos. Foram isoladas 59 (24,89%) cepas de Acinetobacter baumannii e 45 (18,98%) cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. De acordo com os critérios do CLSI 2018, 100% das cepas de A. baumannii se mostraram resistentes a meropenem, cefepime, ceftriaxona, ceftazidima e piperaci- lina-tazobactam. Conclusão: A. baumannii e Pseudomonas aeruginosa são agentes importantes de PAV, sendo que A. baumannii foi o patógeno mais comumente associado e apresentou multirresistência aos fármacos testados.

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolated from tracheal lavage. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study where tracheal lavage culture results were collected from patients with VAP admitted to an adult ICU at a public hospital in the city of Juiz de Fora. Data were collected through the records of the Hospital Infection Control Service for the period from January to December 2018. Results: 469 tracheal lavage samples from adult patients admitted to the ICU were analyzed. Positive cultures were considered if ≥106CFU / mL, totaling 242 (51.52%) of the tracheal lavage samples were positive; 55 (24.89%) strains of A. baumannii and 45 (18.98%) strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated. According to the CLSI 2018 criteria, A. Baumannii presented 100% of the strains resistant to meropenem, cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and piperacillin-tazobactam. Conclusion: A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa are important agents of PAV. Furthermore, A. baumannii was the most commonly associated pathogen and presented multiresistance to the drugs tested, being considered as a public health issue.

Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Respiration, Artificial , Acinetobacter Infections , Drug Resistance , Acinetobacter baumannii
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 498-503, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1342265


Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been highly associated with carbapenem resistance in which carbapenemases has been suggested to be a major contributory factor. Hence the objective of this study was to phenotypically detect KPC-type carbapenemase, metallo-ß-lactamase and OXA-48 carbapenemase production in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Nigeria Methodology: One hundred and seventy-one P. aeruginosa isolates consecutively recovered from clinical specimens of patients with infections at the Medical Microbiology and Parasitology laboratory of the hospital were identified using MicrobactTM 24E kit. Preliminary screening for carbapenem resistance was determined by the disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar using single discs of meropenem and imipenem. Phenotypic detection of carbapenemase production among carbapenem-resistant isolates was performed by the combination disc test of meropenem-phenylboronic acid (MRPBO) and meropenem-dipicolinic acid (MRPDP) as recommended by EUCAST 2013 guideline. Results: Out of the 171 P. aeruginosa isolates, 35 (20.5%) were carbapenem non-susceptible (resistant) while carbapenemase production was detected in 27 (77.1%) of these carbapenem resistant isolates, and no enzyme was detected in 8 (22.9%). Of the 27 carbapenemase producing isolates, 22 (81.5%) produced MBL, 1 (3.7%) produced KPC, while 4 (14.8%) produced both KPC and MBL enzymes. Conclusion: This study revealed that carbapenem resistance among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates in our institution is gradually increasing. The mechanism for this rise is associated with carbapenemases, with MBL being the major carbapenemase involved. There is the need to ensure strict compliance with the LUTH infection control guidelines in order to check the rising incidence of infection caused by carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Hospitals, Teaching , Infections , Nigeria
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 147-161, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145965


Myrcianthes pungens (Myrtaceae) es un árbol nativo de Brasil conocido como guabijú. En nuestro estudio, describimos la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas secas de M. pungens, la actividad antioxidante por diferentes métodos y la actividad antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. La identificación química se realizó mediante un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado a un espectrómetro de masas y la actividad antibacteriana se evaluó mediante un método de microdilución en caldo. El aceite esencial de la hoja presentó sesquiterpenos de hidrocarburos (42,6%) como su principal clase química cuyos compuestos principales fueron ß-cariofileno (11,7%) y 1,8-cineol (10,1%). La mayor protección antioxidante fue de 57.5 a 63.3% de ß-caroteno. La mayor actividad antibacteriana fue contra S. aureus (MIC de 78.12 µg/mL). Este valor fue 2,56 veces menor que el control positivo de estreptomicina. M. pungens es una fuente prometedora de moléculas naturales con potencial estudio para el desarrollo de productos farmacológicos, cosméticos y alimenticios.

Myrcianthes pungens (Myrtaceae) is a native tree to Brazil known as guabijú. In our study, we described the chemical composition of the essential oil from M. pungens dried leaves, the antioxidant activity by different methods and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical identification was done by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer and antibacterial activity was evaluated by broth microdilution method. The leaf essential oil presented hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (42.6%) as its main chemical class whose major compounds were ß-caryophyllene (11.7%) and 1,8-cineole (10.1%). The best antioxidant protection was from 57.5 to 63.3% of ß-carotene. The highest antibacterial activity was against S. aureus (MIC of 78.12 µg/mL). This value was 2.56-fold lower than the positive streptomycin control. M. pungens is a promising source of natural molecules with potential study for the development of pharmacological, cosmetic and food products.

Myrtaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antioxidants , Plants, Medicinal , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus , Brazil , Gas Chromatographers , Medicine, Traditional
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3253-3267, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921422


Members of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein family are bacterial transcriptional repressors that control iron uptake and storage in response to iron availability, thereby playing a crucial role in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. The fur null mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could not be obtained because fur is an essential gene. In this study, We constructed a Fur inducibly expression strain Δfur/attB::PBAD-fur in order to study the effect of fur on the growth, biofilm formation, motilities and oxidative stress response of P. aeruginosa. The results showed that a low level of fur expression retarded the growth of P. aeruginosa at an iron-depleted condition, or under high concentration of iron, or in the presence of H2O2. Fur affected the biofilm formation and the motilities (swimming, twitching, and swarming) of strain PAO1. The production of pyoverdine is regulated by Fur. Interestingly, proteins from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1, which shares homology with Fur, can partially recover the pyoverdine production of strain Δfur/attB::PBAD-fur. This study provides new clues for the prevention and treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Hydrogen Peroxide , Magnetospirillum , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 351-360, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153372


Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common infection among hospitalized patients, associated with increased levels of morbidity, mortality and attributable health care costs. Increased resistant Pseudomonas worldwide has been quite meaningful to patients, especially in intensive care unit (ICUs). Different species of Pseudomonas exhibit different genetic profile and varied drug resistance. The present study determines the molecular epidemiology through DNA fingerprinting method and drug resistance of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with LTRIs admitted in ICU. A total of 79 P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU were characterized by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Repetitive Extrapalindromic PCR (REP-PCR). Antibiotic resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay while MDR genes, viz, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaVIM, blaCTX-M-15 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 137 Pseudomonas sp isolated from ICU patients, 57.7% of the isolates were reported to be P. aeruginosa. The overall prevalence of P. aeruginosa among the all included patients was 34.5%. The RAPD analysis yielded 45 different patterns with 72 clusters with 57% to 100% similarity level. The RFLP analysis yielded 8 different patterns with 14 clusters with 76% to 100% similarity level. The REP PCR analysis yielded 37 different patterns with 65 clusters with 56% to 100% similarity level. There was no correlation among the different DNA patterns observed between the three different methods. Predominant of the isolates (46.8%) were resistant to amikacin. Of the 79 isolates, 60.8% were positive for blaTEM gene and 39.2% were positive for blaOXA gene. P. aeruginosa was predominantly isolated from patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU. The difference in the similarity level observed between the three DNA fingerprinting methods indicates that there is high inter-strain variability. The high genetic variability and resistance patterns indicates that we should continuously monitor the trend in the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa especially in patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU.

Infecções do trato respiratório inferior (ITRIs) são as infecções mais comuns entre pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Pseudomonas aeruginosa é a causa mais comum de ITRIs e está associada ao aumento da mortalidade. Diferentes espécies de Pseudomonas exibem diferentes perfis genéticos e resistência variada as drogas. O presente estudo determina a epidemiologia molecular através do método de fingerprinting de DNA e resistência as drogas de P. aeruginosa isoladas de pacientes com LTRIs internados em UTI. Um total de 79 P. aeruginosa isoladas de pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI foram caracterizados por Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos de Restrição (RFLP), DNA Polimórfico Amplificado ao Acaso (RAPD) e PCR Extrapalindrômico Repetitivo (REP-PCR). A resistência aos antibióticos foram determinadas pelos ensaios de concentrações inibitória mínima (MIC), enquanto os genes MDR, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaVIM, blaCTX-M-15 foram detectados pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Das 137 Pseudomonas sp isoladas de pacientes de UTI, 57,7% dos isolados foram relatados como P. aeruginosa. A prevalência geral de P. aeruginosa entre os pacientes incluídos foram de 34,5%. A análise RAPD renderam 45 padrões diferentes com 72 clusters com nível de similaridade de 57% a 100%. A análise RFLP renderam 8 padrões diferentes com 14 clusters com 76% a 100% de similaridade. A análise de PCR do REP produziram 37 padrões diferentes com 65 clusters com nível de similaridade de 56% a 100%. Não houveram correlações entre os diferentes padrões de DNA observados entre os três diferentes métodos. Predominantes dos isolados (46,8%) eram resistentes à amicacina. Dos 79 isolados, 60,8% foram positivos para o gene blaTEM e 39,2% foram positivos para o gene blaOXA. P. aeruginosa foi predominantemente isolado de pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI. A diferença no nível de similaridade observado entre os três métodos de fingerprinting do DNA indica que há alta variabilidade inter-strain. A alta variabilidade genética e os padrões de resistência indicam que devemos monitorar continuamente a tendência na prevalência e resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa, especialmente em pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI.

Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory System/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Epidemiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Intensive Care Units
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2021. 62 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1362540


O conhecimento dos efeitos dos extratos naturais de plantas vem cada vez mais se mostrando um campo promissor. Extratos de Calendula officinalis, Capsicum annuum e Hamamelis virginiana apresentam propriedades analgésicas, anti-inflamatórias, antioxidantes e potencial antimicrobiano que deve ser aprofundado. Assim, o objetivo foi avaliar ação antimicrobiana dos extratos glicólicos em culturas planctônicas e biofilmes de cepas padrão e clínicas de Klebsiella pneumoniae e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Foi realizado o teste de microdiluição em caldo segundo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, para determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e Concentração Microbicida Mínima (CMM) dos extratos. Foram realizados biofilmes monotípicos, nos tempos de contato de 5 min e 24 h, utilizando o teste de MTT. A CIM e CMM variaram de 1,56 a 50 mg/mL para todas as cepas avaliadas. C. annuum (50 mg/mL) apresentou redução de 0,25% entre 8,60% para cepa ATCC de P. aeruginosa (5 min) e em 24 h redução de 99,89% entre 99,99%, destacando-se os extratos de C. annuum (100 mg/mL) e os de C. officinalis. C. annuum (200 mg/mL) apresentou redução de 18% de K. pneumoniae (ATCC 4352). Em 24 h houve redução de 8,86%-75,74%, para o extrato de C. annuum (100 mg/mL). Os extratos apresentaram resultados mais satisfatórios quando expostos aos tratamentos de 24 horas. As cepas clínicas K1, K2 e K3 responderam ao tratamento de C. annuum (50 e 100 mg/mL) (p>0,05%). Para cepa clínica K4, os extratos de C. annuum (50 e 100 mg/mL) e C. officinalis (12,5 mg/mL) promoveram redução de viabilidade semelhante a clorexidina 2% (p>0,05%). O extrato de C. annuum (50 e 100 mg/mL), promoveu a redução de viabilidade de P1 e P2, enquanto o extrato de C. officinalis (25 e 50 mg/mL), reduziu P1 (p>0,05%). Para as cepas P3 e P4 o extrato de 50 e 100 mg/mL de C. annuum, apresentaram resultados semelhantes a clorexidina. Conclui-se que todos os extratos apresentaram ação antimicrobiana em cultura planctônica, no entanto, o extrato de C. annuum foi o que apresentou importante ação antibiofilme (24 h) sobre cepas clínicas multirresistentes de K. pneumoniae e P. aeruginosa, podendo ser considerado um potencial agente antimicrobiano.

Empirical knowledge of natural plant extracts is increasingly proving to be a promising field. Extracts of Calendula officinalis, Capsicum annuum and Hamamelis virginiana have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential that should be further developed. This research objective was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of glycolic extracts in planktonic cultures and biofilms of standard and clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The broth microdilution test was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Microbicide Concentration (MMC) of the extracts. Tests were performed on monotypic biofilms, at contact times of 5 min and 24 h, using the MTT test. The MIC and CMM of the extracts ranged from 1.56 to 50 mg/mL for all strains evaluated. C. annuum (50 mg/mL) showed a reduction of 0.25% between 8.60% for the ATCC strain of P. aeruginosa (5 min) and in 24 h a reduction of 99.89% between 99.99%, highlighting extracts from C. annuum (100 mg/mL) and from C. officinalis. C. annuum (200 mg/mL) showed an 18% reduction in K. pneumoniae (ATCC 4352). In 24 h there was a reduction of 8.86% between 75.74% for the extract of C. annuum (100 mg/mL). The extracts showed more satisfactory results when exposed to 24-hour treatments. Clinical strains K1, K2 and K3 responded to the treatment of C. annuum (50 and 100 mg/mL) (p>0.05%). For clinical strain K4, extracts of C. annuum (50 and 100 mg/mL) and C. officinalis (12.5 mg/mL) promoted a reduction in viability similar to chlorhexidine 2% (p>0.05%). The extract of C. annuum (50 and 100 mg/mL), reduced the viability of P1 and P2, while the extract of C. officinalis (25 and 50 mg/mL), reduced P1 (p>0.05% ). For strains P3 and P4, the extract of 50 and 100 mg/mL of C. annuum showed similar results to chlorhexidine. It is concluded that all extracts showed antimicrobial action in planktonic cultures, however, the extract of C. annuum was the one that showed an important antibiofilm action (24 h) on multiresistant clinical strains of K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and can be considered a potential antimicrobial agent

Plant Extracts , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms , Analgesics , Anti-Infective Agents , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Capsicum , Hamamelis , Klebsiella pneumoniae
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(3): e20210017, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279286


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify microorganisms in sputum samples of patients with stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and to determine risk factors related to the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in those patients. Methods: Consecutive patients were recruited from a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. The patients were submitted to spirometry, six-minute walk test, HRCT, and sputum collection. Data on serum fibrinogen levels, disease severity, sputum color, and history of azithromycin treatment were collected. Results: The study included 112 patients, and females predominated (68%). The mean age was 51.6 ± 17.4 years. Most patients presented with mild-to-moderate disease (83%). The mean six-minute walk distance was 468.8 ± 87.9 m. Mean FEV1 and FVC, in % of predicted values, were 60.4 ± 21.8% and 69.9 ± 18.5%, respectively. The mean serum fibrinogen level was 396.1 ± 76.3 mg/dL. PA was isolated in 47 patients, other potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) were isolated in 31 patients, and non-PPMs were isolated in 34 patients. Purulent sputum was identified in 77 patients (68%). The patients with PA, when compared with those without it, presented with more severe disease, higher serum fibrinogen levels, and lower FVC%. In addition, purulent sputum and long-term azithromycin treatment were more common in those with PA. The multivariate regression analysis showed that the independent factors associated with PA were serum fibrinogen level > 400 mg/dL (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.1-7.7) and purulent sputum (OR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.6-11.3). Conclusions: In our sample, the prevalence of PA in sputum was 42%. Sputum color and inflammatory markers were able to predict the isolation of PA, emphasizing the importance of routine sputum monitoring.

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar microrganismos em amostras de escarro de pacientes com bronquiectasia não fibrocística estável e determinar os fatores de risco relacionados com o isolamento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) nesses pacientes. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivos foram recrutados em um ambulatório de um hospital terciário em Fortaleza (CE). Os pacientes foram submetidos a espirometria, teste de caminhada de seis minutos, TCAR e coleta de escarro. Foram coletados dados referentes ao fibrinogênio sérico, gravidade da doença, cor do escarro e histórico de tratamento com azitromicina. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 112 pacientes, com predomínio do sexo feminino (68%). A média de idade foi de 51,6 ± 17,4 anos. A maioria dos pacientes apresentou doença leve a moderada (83%). A média da distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos foi de 468,8 ± 87,9 m. A média do VEF1 em % do previsto foi de 60,4 ± 21,8%, e a da CVF em % do previsto foi de 69,9 ± 18,5%. A média do fibrinogênio sérico foi de 396,1 ± 76,3 mg/dL. PA foi isolada em 47 pacientes; outros microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos (MPP) foram isolados em 31; não MPP foram isolados em 34. Escarro purulento foi identificado em 77 pacientes (68%). Os pacientes com PA, em comparação com aqueles sem, apresentaram doença mais grave, fibrinogênio sérico mais elevado e menor CVF%. Além disso, escarro purulento e tratamento prolongado com azitromicina foram mais comuns naqueles com PA. A análise de regressão multivariada mostrou que os fatores independentes relacionados com PA foram fibrinogênio sérico > 400 mg/dL (OR = 3,0; IC95%: 1,1-7,7) e escarro purulento (OR = 4,3; IC95%: 1,6-11,3). Conclusões: Em nossa amostra, a prevalência de PA no escarro foi de 42%. A cor do escarro e os marcadores inflamatórios foram capazes de prever o isolamento de PA, o que enfatiza a importância do monitoramento rotineiro do escarro.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Bronchiectasis/drug therapy , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sputum , Brazil , Risk Factors
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021271, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249007


Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are at particularly high risk for infection due to an immature immune system, invasive procedures such as endotracheal intubation, intravascular catheterization, and other factors. Neonatal infections in this population are associated with a high mortality, poor growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of pneumonia and sepsis in the ELBW population. P. aeruginosa is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) or nosocomial infections. P. aeruginosa can perceive unfavorable environmental changes and orchestrate adaptations by developing plasmid-mediated and adaptive resistance to antibiotics. We describe an ELBW infant born at 26 weeks' gestation who succumbed at 13 days of life to P. aeruginosa infection. Some of the factors related to the pathogenesis and multidrug resistance are described.

Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bronchopneumonia , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Cross Infection , Neonatal Sepsis
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447


This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.

Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337596


La periodontitis crónica es una patología caracterizada por la destrucción de los tejidos de soporte del diente. Existe evidencia científica de la presencia en bolsas periodontales de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria que altera la microbiota subgingival. Ha sido asociada al fracaso en el tratamiento de la periodontitis y podría constituir un riesgo para la salud general de los pacientes. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de P. aeruginosa en bolsas periodontales de pacientes con periodontitis crónica que acudieron a la cátedra de Periodoncia de la Universidad Autónoma de Asunción. El estudio fue observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, para el mismo fueron seleccionados pacientes con periodontitis crónica que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Las piezas dentariasseleccionadas para la toma de muestras fueron aisladas con rollos de algodón estéril, y una vez removida la placa bacteriana supragingival, se retiró la placa subgingival de las bolsas periodontales por medio de curetas de Gracey y se introdujeron en tubos de ensayo que contenían medio de Stuart, para luego llevar las muestras hasta el laboratorio de microbiología para su análisis. Del total de 14 muestras, solo una dio positivo a P. aeruginosa representando el 7,14%. El microrganismo aislado resultó resistente a los antibióticos utilizados como coadyuvantes en el tratamiento de la periodontitis crónica,al igual que en otros trabajos encontrados en la literatura internacional. La presencia de estas bacterias dificulta el control de la enfermedad periodontal y podría significar un riesgo para desarrollar infecciones oportunistas, especialmente en los pacientes inmunodeprimidos

Chronic periodontitis is a pathology characterized by the destruction of tooth supporting tissues. There is scientific evidence of the presence in periodontal pockets of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that alters the subgingival microbiota and that has been associated with failure to treat periodontitis and could constitute a risk to patient general health. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of P. aeruginosa in periodontal pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis who attend the Chair of Periodontology at the Autonomous University of Asunción. Descriptive, cross-sectional observational study, in which patients with chronic periodontitis who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The pieces selected for sampling were isolated with sterile cotton rolls, and once the supragingival bacterial plaque had been removed, the subgingival plaque was removed from the periodontal pockets by means of Gracey curettes and placed in test tubes containing Stuart medium, then the samples were taken to the microbiology lab for analysis. Of the total of 14 samples, only one was positive for P. aeruginosa, representing 7.14%. The isolated microorganism was resistant to the antibiotics used as adjuvants in the treatment of chronic periodontitis, as in other studies found in the international literature. The presence of these bacteria makes it difficult to control periodontal disease and could pose a risk for developing opportunistic infections, especially in immunosuppressed patients

Humans , Male , Female , Periodontal Abscess/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Chronic Periodontitis , Subgingival Curettage
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 604-609, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249973


Resumen Introducción: Existe poca información acerca de la efectividad de las combinaciones ceftolozano/tazobactam y ceftazidima/avibactam en cepas clínicamente relevantes aisladas en México. Objetivo: Determinar el perfil antimicrobiano de ambos antibióticos en nuestra comunidad. Método: El presente estudio de investigación fue prospectivo, descriptivo y transversal. Se incluyeron cepas clínicamente relevantes aisladas a partir de cultivos de cepa pura durante el periodo de agosto de 2018 a enero de 2019 en Mexicali, Baja California, México. Resultados: Se analizaron 74 cepas de enterobacterias y 19 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa; el porcentaje de sensibilidad de ceftazidima/avibactam fue de 100 % contra enterobacterias y de 72.7 % contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa; el porcentaje de sensibilidad de ceftolozano/tazobactam fue de 90.5 % para enterobacterias y de 72.7 % para Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusiones: Las combinaciones ceftolozano/tazobactam y ceftazidima/avibactam ofrecen buena sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro, tanto contra enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido como contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Se requieren más datos para valorar la respuesta clínica en pacientes que reciben esas combinaciones de antibióticos.

Abstract Introduction: There is limited information on the effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations on clinically relevant strains isolated in Mexico. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial profile of both antibiotic combinations in our community. Method: The present research study was prospective, descriptive and cross-sectional. Clinically relevant strains isolated from pure-strain cultures were included during the period from August 2018 to January 2019 in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Results: 74 enterobacteriaceae and 19 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were analyzed; the percentage of sensitivity of ceftazidime/avibactam was 100 % for enterobacteriaceae and 72.7 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; the percentage of sensitivity of ceftolozane/tazobactam for enterobacteriaceae was 90.5 % and 72.7 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations offer good antimicrobial sensitivity in vitro, both for ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More data are required to assess clinical response in patients receiving these antibiotic combinations.

Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Drug Combinations , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Tazobactam/therapeutic use , Mexico
Infectio ; 24(4): 201-207, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114869


Resumen Objetivo: Describir la respuesta clínica y mortalidad general de Colistina en infecciones por Pseudomonas XDR y Acinetobacter XDR en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza in Lima, Peru. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se incluyeron los registros de pacientes > 18 años, desde junio del 2014 a junio del 2016, que tuvieron infección por Pseudomonas XDR o Acinetobacter XDR confirmada por cultivo, y que recibieron colistina. Se realizó análisis univariado de las características generales de los pacientes; un análisis bivariado con test de Chi2 , t-student o ANOVA según corresponda, y además se describió los factores asociados a mortalidad. Resultados. Se incluyeron 56 registros de pacientes, la mediana de la edad fue 46,5 [31,5 a 63,5]. El 48,2% tuvo un cultivo positivo para Pseudomonas XDR y el 51,8% para Acinetobacter XDR. La respuesta clínica favorable fue 85,7% a los 15 días y de 78,6% a los 30 días. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria a los 30 días fue 21,4%, la mortalidad en UCI fue de 30,8% y la nefrotoxicidad fue de 5,4%. Conclusiones. Colistina combinada con otro antimicrobiano tuvo una respuesta clínica favorable en infección por Pseudomonas XDR o Acinetobacter XDR.

Abstract Objective: To describe the clinical response and overall mortality of Colistin in infections by Pseudomonas XDR and Acinetobacter XDR at the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza in Lima, Peru. Methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective study. Records of all patients > 18 years old, from June 2014 to June 2016, who had infection by Pseudomonas XDR or Acinetobacter XDR confirmed by culture, and who received colistin, were included. A univariate analysis of the general characteristics of the patients was performed; a bivariate analysis with a Chi2, t-student or ANOVA test as appropriate, and the factors associated with mortality were also determined. Results: 56 patient records were included; the median age was 46,5 [31,5 to 63,5]. The Culture was positive for Pseudomonas XDR in 48,2% and for Acinetobacter XDR in 51,8%. The favorable clinical response was 85,7% at 15 days and 78,6% at 30 days. In-hospital mortality at 30 days was 21,4%, ICU mortality was 30,8% and nephrotoxicity was 5,4%. Conclusions: Colistin combined with another antimicrobial had a favorable clinical response in infection with Pseudomonas XDR and Acinetobacter XDR.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas Infections , Colistin , Pseudomonas , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Infections/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units