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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253948, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355909


Abstract The assessment of the comparative effect of biosal (phytopesticide), deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) were made against two fodder pests, Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi by filter paper impregnation method. The activity of total protein contents, GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and GOT (glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase) were affected in Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda cyhalothrin. The activity of total protein contents in H. modestus was 31.053%, 4.607%, and 24.575%, against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The activity of total protein contents was observed as 24.202%, 15.25%, and 56.036% against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and biosal, respectively in H. ocimumi. The activity of GOT was observed as 98.675% for biosal 33.95% for deltamethrin and 83.619% for lambda-cyhalothrin in H. modestus. The GOT activity was estimated in H. ocimumi as 78.831%, 47.645%, and 71.287% against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The efficacy of GPT enzyme against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin was calculated as 89.26%, 73.07%, and 47.58%, respectively in H. modestus. The H. ocimumi showed GPT activity as 77.58% for biosal, 68.84% for deltamethrin, and 52.67% for lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively.

Resumo A avaliação do efeito comparativo do biosal (fitopesticida), deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina (piretróides) foi feita contra duas pragas forrageiras, Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi, pelo método de impregnação com papel de filtro. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total, GPT (transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica) e GOT (oxaloacetato transaminase glutâmico) foram afetados em Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda cialotrina. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total em H. modestus foi 31.053%, 4.607% e 24.575%, contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total foi observada como 24.202%, 15.25% e 56,036% contra deltametrina, lambda-cialotrina e biosal, respectivamente em H. ocimumi. A atividade do GOT foi observada em 98.675% para o biosal, 33,95% para a deltametrina e 83.619% para a lambda-cialotrina em H. modestus. A atividade do GOT foi estimada em H. ocimumi como 78.831%, 47.645% e 71.287% contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A eficácia da enzima GPT contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina foi calculada como 89.26%, 73.07% e 47.58%, respectivamente em H. modestus. A H. ocimumi apresentou atividade GPT de 77.58% para biosal, 68.84% para deltametrina e 52.67% para lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente.

Animals , Pyrethrins , Insecticides , Heteroptera , Alanine Transaminase , Animal Feed , Nitriles
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 225-227, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970743


Esfenvalerate is a kind of commonly used highly effective pyrethroid insecticide. It is common for people who are poisoned by contact or misuse, but rarely reported for people who are poisoned by intramuscular injection. This paper reports a case of intramuscular injection of esfenvalerate in the Department of Infection, West China Hospital of Sichuan University in November 2021. The patient was intramuscularly injected with about 20 ml of esfenvalerate, inducing the sense of swelling and tingling, degeneration and necrosis of striated muscle tissue at the injection site, also liver function damage and other manifestations. The patient was discharged from hospital after rehydration, accelerating poison metabolism, anti-infection, liver protection and local puncture.

Humans , Insecticides , Injections, Intramuscular , Pyrethrins , Nitriles/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 461-462, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986051


This paper reported 3 cases of poisoning caused by chlorfenagyr. Chlorfenapyr poisoning has gradually increased in clinical practice. The early stage after poisoning is digestive tract symptoms, followed by sweating, high fever, changes in consciousness, changes in myocardial enzymology, etc. Its main mechanism of intoxication is uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. Since there is no specific antidote after poisoning, the fatality rate of chlorfenapyr poisoning remains high. The therapeutic measures are early gastrointestinal decontamination, symptomatic and supportive treatments, and early blood purification may be an effective treatment.

Humans , Pyrethrins , Gastrointestinal Tract , Insecticides , Poisoning/diagnosis
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 212-216, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935778


In recent years, chlorfenapyr poisoning has gradually increased in clinical practice, but the case fatality rate remains high. At present, the research on its poisoning mechanism and clinical characteristics is limited, and there is no effective treatment. In order to summarize the clinical characteristics of chlorfenapyr poisoning, in order to guide the clinical treatment, this article reported 2 cases of acute chlorfenayr poisoning and 21 cases of literature review, and summarized the clinical characteristics of chlorfenapyr poisoning.Most of the symptoms of gastrointestinal symptoms, profuse sweating, high fever, and changes in consciousness after chlorfenapyr poisoning, and delayed exacerbations are common, which can involve multiple organ systems such as the central nervous system, providing a basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Insecticides , Pyrethrins
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 270-279, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935281


Objective: To investigate the influence and critical windows of prenatal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) on neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Methods: The subjects of this study were derived from the Xuanwei Birth Cohort. A total of 482 pregnant women who participated in the rural district of Xuanwei birth cohort from January 2016 to December 2018 were included. Maternal urinary concentrations of PYRs metabolites during 8-12 gestational weeks, 20-23 gestational weeks and 32-35 gestational weeks were measured with ultra high performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry detector. Child neurodevelopment was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 2 years of age. Multivariate linear regression models and binary logistic regression models were used to assess the association between PYRs exposure during pregnancy and children's neurodevelopment. Results: A total of 360 mother-child pairs had complete data on maternal urinary PYRs metabolites detection and children's neurodevelopment assessment. The detection rate of any one PYRs metabolites during the first, second and third trimester were 93.6% (337/360), 90.8% (327/360) and 94.2% (339/360), respectively. The neurodevelopmental scores of Cognitive, Language, Motor, Social-Emotional, and Adaptive Behavior of 2-year-old children were (102.3±18.9), (100.2±16.3), (102.0±20.3), (107.8±23.3) and (85.8±18.6) points, respectively. After controlling for confounding factors, 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4F3PBA, one of PYRs metabolites) exposure in the first trimester reduced Motor (β=-5.02, 95%CI: -9.08, -0.97) and Adaptive Behavior (β=-4.12, 95%CI:-7.92, -0.32) scores of 2-year-old children, and increased risk of developmental delay of adaptive behavior (OR=2.07, 95%CI:1.13-3.82). Conclusion: PYRs exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy may affect neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children, and the first trimester may be the critical window.

Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Birth Cohort , Child Development , Cohort Studies , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Pesticides/adverse effects , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced , Pyrethrins/metabolism
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 25-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928843


BACKGROUND@#Pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides are widely used for controlling various pests. There are two types that differ in terms of usage: agricultural-purpose PYR (agriculture-PYR) and hygiene purpose PYR (hygiene-PYRs). Few studies exist on the exposure to these chemicals in small children. In this study, we conducted biomonitoring of urinary pyrethroid metabolites in 1.5-year-old children throughout the year.@*METHODS@#Study subjects were 1075 children participating in an Aichi regional sub-cohort of the Japan Environment and Children's Study as of 18-month health check-up. The concentrations of four specific hygiene-PYR metabolites including 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenedimethanol (HOCH2-FB-Al), and five common metabolites of hygiene- and agriculture-PYRs including 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) and cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DCCA), were measured in urine samples extracted from soiled diapers using a triple quadrupole gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer.@*RESULTS@#The highest detection frequencies were for 3PBA, followed by DCCA, 1R-trans-chrysanthemum dicarboxylic acid, and HOCH2-FB-Al. Among the six metabolites, urinary concentrations were seasonally varied. However, this variation was not observed in the most studied PYR metabolite, 3PBA. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between FB-Al and DCCA (r = 0.56) and HOCH2-FB-Al and 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (r = 0.60).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This biomonitoring survey found widespread and seasonally specific exposure to multiple hygiene- and agriculture-PYRs in 1.5-year-old Japanese children.

Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Agriculture , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Insecticides , Japan , Mass Spectrometry , Pyrethrins/urine
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1421-1426, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928069


The present study counted the frequency of detection technologies and monitoring frequency of pesticide species by frequency analysis based on the 28 258 pieces of data on pesticide content of Chinese medicinal materials in CNKI, calculated the detection rate and exceeding rate of different types of pesticides, and systematically analyzed the pesticide residue pollution of Chinese medicinal materials. The results showed that there were 40 types of pesticides with detection rates higher than 10%, where new pesticides such as organochlorines and nicotine accounted for 55%, and organic phosphorus, pyrethroids, and carbamates accounted for 17.5%, 15.0%, and 12.5%, respectively. Seventeen types of pesticides exceeded the standard to varying degrees, including 12 types(70.59%) with exceeding rates not higher than 5%, four types(23.53%) with exceeding rates in the range of 5%-10%, and one type(5.88%) with an exceeding rate higher than 10%. As revealed by the analysis results of the past five years, the pesticide residue pollution of Chinese medicinal materials showed a downward trend. Compared with the conditions at worst, organochlorines decreased by about 2/3 in detection rate and 47.23% in exceeding rate, carbamates by about 1/2 in detection rate and 10.78% in exceeding rate, organic phosphorus by 3/4 in detection rate and 7.22% in exceeding rate, pyrethroids by 1/2 in detection rate and 11.05% in exceeding rate, and other types by about 1/2 in detection rate but not exceeded the standard. In general, pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials and safety have been significantly improved. However, pesticide residues are still important factors affecting the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials. It is suggested to further improve the control standards of pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal materials, strengthen the monitoring of pesticides used in practical production, and promote the ecological planting mode to facilitate the high-quality development of the Chinese medicinal material industry.

China , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Pyrethrins/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 822-834, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153390


Abstract This study was aimed at determining the concentration of pyrethroid in the surface water, sediment, Weyonia acuminata and Synodontis clarias fish in Lekki lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. In-situ physicochemical analysis of the surface water was conducted using a calibrated handheld multi-parameter probe (Horiba Checker Model U-10). Intestinal samples from infected and uninfected fish were analyzed for pyrethroid concentrations, microbial colonization, proteins (PRO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The histopathology of infected and uninfected intestinal tissues were analyzed using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stains and examined under a binocular light microscope (Model 230485). A total of 39 out of 98 S. clarias fish were infected with cestode parasite, Wenyonia acuminate, amounting to 39% parasite prevalence. Among the tested pyrethroids, Cyfluthrin and Alpha -cypermethrin had significant sorption of 1.62 and 3.27 respectively from the aqueous phase to the bottom sediment of the lagoon. Pyrethroid concentration was in the order of sediment > parasite> water > intestine> liver. The cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (low density lipids) in the parasite were higher than in the host fish (p<0.05). On the other hand, the fish hepatic protein, high density lipids (HDL) and glucose were higher than the levels in the parasites (p<0.05). There was a high prevalence of gut microbes (30 - 40%), which include Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp among individuals infected with gut Cestodes, Wenyonia sp compared with uninfected individual which had higher gut Staphylococcus sp., Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. (10- 40%). among the congeners of pyrethroids analyzed, Cyfluthrin > Alpha-Cyermethrin had significant sorption on the sediment, however unlike a benthopelagic fish, no pyrethroid was accumulated in the S. clarias from the sediment. The fish however accumulated Alpha-Cypermethrin from the aqueous phase. The parasite on the other hand accumulated Bathroid significantly from the surface water and bottom sediment which may be linked to the higher stress levels observed in the parasite than the host fish. The parasite in turn inflicted histological alterations on the host intestine, marked by moderate inflammation of mucosa, alteration of the villi microstructure, moderate stunting of the villous structure and moderate fibrosis of villous structure. The study demonstrated the efficiency of histopathological and microbial analysis in biomonitoring studies enteric parasites and early detection of pyrethroid toxicity respectively compared to bioaccumulation analysis.

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a concentração de piretroide nos peixes de águas superficiais, sedimentos, Wenyonia acuminata e Synodontis clarias na lagoa de Lekki, Lagos, Nigéria. A análise físico-química in situ da água de superfície foi realizada usando uma sonda multiparâmetro manual calibrada (Horiba Checker Modelo U-10). Amostras intestinais de peixes infectados e não infectados foram analisadas quanto a concentrações de piretroides, colonização microbiana, proteínas (PRO), superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutationa reduzida (GSH), malonaldeído (MDA) e glutationa peroxidase (GPx). A histopatologia dos tecidos intestinais infectados e não infectados foi analisada usando manchas de Hematoxilina e Eosina (H&E) e examinada sob um microscópio de luz binocular (Modelo 230485). Um total de 39 dos 98 peixes de S. clarias foi infectado com o parasita cestoide Wenyonia acuminata, totalizando 39% de prevalência do parasita. Entre os piretroides testados, ciflutrina e alfa-cipermetrina tiveram sorção significativa de 1,62 e 3,27, respectivamente, da fase aquosa ao sedimento de fundo da lagoa. A concentração de piretroides estava na ordem de sedimentos > parasita > água > intestino > fígado. O colesterol, os triglicerídeos e o LDL (lipídios de baixa densidade) no parasita foram maiores que no peixe hospedeiro (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, a proteína hepática dos peixes, os lipídios de alta densidade (HDL) e a glicose foram superiores aos níveis nos parasitas (p < 0,05). Houve uma alta prevalência de micróbios intestinais (30-40%), incluindo Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. e Bacillus sp. entre indivíduos infectados no intestino com o parasita cestoide Wenyonia sp. em comparação com indivíduos não infectados com Staphylococcus sp., Klebsiella intestinal sp. e Proteus sp. (10-40%). Entre os congêneres dos piretroides analisados, ciflutrina > alfa-cipermetrina teve sorção significativa no sedimento, porém, diferentemente de um peixe bentopelágico, nenhum piretroide foi acumulado no S. clarias do sedimento. No entanto, os peixes acumularam alfa-cipermetrina a partir da fase aquosa. O parasita, por outro lado, acumulou Bathroid significativamente da água superficial e do sedimento do fundo, o que pode estar relacionado aos níveis mais altos de estresse observados no parasita do que no peixe hospedeiro. O parasita, por sua vez, causou alterações histológicas no intestino hospedeiro, marcadas por inflamação moderada da mucosa, alteração da microestrutura das vilosidades, atrofia moderada da estrutura das vilosidades e fibrose moderada da estrutura das vilosidades. O estudo demonstrou a eficiência da análise histopatológica e microbiana nos estudos de biomonitoramento de parasitas entéricos e detecção precoce da toxicidade dos piretroides, respectivamente, em comparação à análise de bioacumulação.

Animals , Parasites , Pyrethrins , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Cestoda , Bioaccumulation , Nigeria
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 67 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391603


O mosquito Aedes aegypti é vetor competente para a transmissão dos vírus dengue, chikungunya, Zika e febre amarela. O controle químico do vetor é amplamente utilizado, mas vem sendo ameaçado pela disseminação da resistência a inseticidas (RI), caracterizando-se pela seleção de alterações no comportamento ou na fisiologia do mosquito, que fazem com que o inseticida não atinja ou não encontre seu alvo no organismo do inseto. A disseminação da RI ocorre usualmente pelo fluxo gênico entre populações, que no caso do Ae. aegypti é facilitado pela dispersão passiva de seus ovos aderidos a mercadorias. A estruturação genética das populações naturais é, portanto, um fator fundamental que facilita ou dificulta a disseminação de alelos de resistência. Entre os principais mecanismos de RI estão as alterações no gene do canal de sódio regulado por voltagem (NaV), que causam resistência ao efeito knockdown de piretroides, sendo conhecidas como mutações kdr. Populações de Ae. aegypti das localidades de Macapá e Oiapoque, no estado do Amapá, eram geneticamente distintas e apresentavam alelos kdr diferenciados, muito provavelmente devido ao baixo fluxo gênico entre essas duas populações, dificultado pelo acesso terrestre entre essas duas localidades, feito por uma única rodovia que cruza a densa Floresta Amazônica. Não se conhecia, no entanto, como seria a estruturação genética entre as populações de localidades ao longo daquela rodovia e, tampouco sobre ocorrência de mutações kdr. Por isso, avaliamos a frequência das principais mutações kdr em três sítios polimórficos (V410L, V1016I e F1534C) no gene NaV de populações de Ae. aegypti de seis localidades do estado do Amapá (Oiapoque, Calçoene, Porto Grande, Ferreira Gomes, Tartarugalzinho e Macapá), através de genotipagem por qPCR em tempo real. Adicionalmente, investigamos a diversidade e a estruturação genética destas populações via genotipagem de 12 loci de microssatélites. Os alelos kdr R1 (mutante no sítio 1534) e R2 (mutante nos três sítios) foram observados nas seis populações, sendo que a de Oiapoque apresentou a maior frequência do kdr R2, enquanto o kdr R1 foi mais frequente na de Macapá. Genótipos kdr raros em demais regiões do Brasil, sugestivos de duplicações gênicas, foram encontrados em Ae. aegypti de Oiapoque e Calçoene. As análises de microssatélites mostraram baixa ou moderada diferenciação genética par-a-par, sendo que Oiapoque foi a população geneticamente mais distinta das demais e formou praticamente um único grupo genético em uma das análises de estruturação genética. Análise de Componentes Principais (DAPC) também sugeriu a população de Calçoene geneticamente diferenciada das demais, enquanto as outras populações mostraram-se mais similares entre si, sugerindo alto fluxo gênico entre elas. Ainda que a população de Oiapoque seja a mais diferenciada e estruturada, nosso estudo indica que há fluxo gênico entre esta e as demais ao longo da estrada BR-156 (AP), colaborando com a disseminação de alelos vindos da população da Guiana Francesa. Idealmente, medidas de controle químico do vetor devem ser pensadas conjuntamente entre as autoridades de ambos os lados da fronteira binacional.(AU)

Pyrethrins , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes , Dengue , Genotype , Insecticides , Culicidae
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 499-507, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153369


Increased agricultural production has been increased use of pesticides worldwide, which poses a threat to both human and environmental health. Recent studies suggest that several non-target organisms, from bees to mammals, show a wide variety of toxic effects of pesticides exposure, including impaired behavior, development and reproduction. Among mammals, bats are usually a neglected taxon among ecotoxicological studies, although they play important ecological and economical roles in forest ecosystems and agriculture through to seed dispersal and insect population control. Considering their wide variety of food habits, bats are exposed to environmental pollutants through food or water contamination, or through direct skin contact in their roosting areas. In order to better understand the risk posed by pesticides to bats populations, we compiled studies that investigated the main toxicological effects of pesticides in bats, aiming at contributing to discussion about the environmental risks associated with the use of pesticides.

O aumento da produção agrícola tem levado ao aumento do uso de pesticidas em todo o mundo, o que representa uma ameaça para a saúde humana e ambiental. Estudos recentes sugerem que vários organismos não-alvo, de abelhas a mamíferos, apresentam uma grande variedade de efeitos tóxicos após a exposição aos pesticidas a pesticidas, incluindo alterações de comportamento, no desenvolvimento e na reprodução. Entre os mamíferos, os morcegos geralmente são negligenciados entre os estudos ecotoxicológicos, embora desempenhem importantes papéis ecológicos e econômicos nos ecossistemas florestais e na agricultura por meio do controle de dispersão de sementes e de populações de insetos. Considerando sua ampla variedade de hábitos alimentares, eles estão expostos a poluentes ambientais através da contaminação de alimentos ou água, ou através do contato direto com a pele em suas áreas de descanso. Para entender melhor o risco que os agrotóxicos representam para as populações de morcegos, compilamos estudos que investigaram os principais efeitos toxicológicos de agrotóxicos em morcegos, visando à discussão sobre os riscos ambientais associados ao uso de agrotóxicos.

Animals , Pesticides/toxicity , Pyrethrins/analysis , Chiroptera/physiology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Insecticides, Organochlorine/analysis , Bees , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Bioaccumulation
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06859, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1346690


This study analysed the effectiveness of using different levels of a product based on 6% cypermethrin and 2% citronella on broiler production and control the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus). A total of 648 one-day-old chicks (Cobb®) which were allocated to one of three treatments (no application of the commercial product - control, and two concentrations of the product 2.00 and 3.33g/m2) in eight replicates with 27 birds each. The commercial product, which was based on cypermethrin was applied in the chambers with an atomizer. The lesser mealworm population was sampled weekly (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of the experiment) using traps, at three points (front, middle and back) inside the pen. The performance, carcass and cut yields were evaluated. At 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of the experiment, the number of lesser mealworm adults and larvae was lower in the treatment groups involving 2.00 and 3.33g/m2 of the product than in the control group. On the first and 14th days of the study, the number of lesser mealworms adults was lower in the group treated with 3.33g/m2 of the product compared to the control group, although the results did not differ statistically from those obtained with 2.00g/m2 of the product. In conclusion, the application of the commercial product at both concentrations (2.00 and 3.33g/m2) was effective in combating Alphitobius diaperinus adults and larvae, and the performance was not influenced by treatments.(AU)

Este estudo analisou a eficácia do uso de diferentes níveis de um produto à base de cipermetrina a 6% e citronela a 2%, na produção de frangos de corte e no controle do cascudinho (Alphitobius diaperinus). Um total de 648 pintos de um dia de idade (Cobb®) foram distribuídos em três câmaras com os tratamentos (sem aplicação do produto comercial - controle, e duas concentrações do produto comercial - 2,00 e 3,33g/m2) em oito repetições com 27 aves cada. O produto comercial a base de cipermetrina foi aplicado nas câmaras com um atomizador. A população de cascudinho foi amostrada semanalmente (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias do experimento) usando armadilhas, em três pontos (frente, meio e fundo) de cada parcela. Foram avaliados o desempenho, rendimentos de carcaça e cortes. Aos 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias do experimento, o número de adultos e larvas de cascudinho foi menor nos grupos de tratamento envolvendo 2,00 e 3,33g/m2 do produto quando comparado ao grupo controle. No primeiro e no 14º dia do estudo, o número de cascudinhos adultos foi menor no grupo tratado com 3,33g/m2 do produto em comparação ao grupo controle, embora os resultados não tenham diferido estatisticamente daqueles obtidos com 2,00g/m2 do produto. A conversão alimentar de 1 a 21 dias de idade foi significativa, com os melhores resultados para essa variável quando aplicado 3,33g do produto por metro quadrado e no tratamento controle. Em conclusão, a aplicação do produto comercial em ambas as concentrações (2,00 e 3,33g/m2) foi eficaz no combate a adultos e larvas de Alphitobius diaperinus e, não influenciou o desempenho.(AU)

Animals , Pyrethrins/administration & dosage , Tenebrio , Birds , Chickens/parasitology , Pest Control
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 166 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390829


A avaliação do risco é um processo científico e sistemático que incorpora quantitativamente o perigo e a exposição a diversos agentes. O processo de avaliação do risco tem evoluído nos últimos anos, indo além da exposição a únicos agentes e vias de exposição para a caracterização do risco cumulativo a múltiplos agentes. As metodologias para avaliação do risco cumulativo não são harmonizadas o que pode tornar o processo complexo. Nesta linha, a abordagem do RISK21 promovida pelo Health Environmental Science Institute (HESI) pode contribuir para desmistificar o tema. A exposição combinada da ingestão de resíduos de praguicidas através da dieta e do uso residencial de produtos a base de piretróides pela população brasileira não são conhecidas. Os piretróides são praguicidas utilizados na lavoura, bem como em ambiente doméstico no controle de pragas. O mecanismo de toxicidade destes agentes é bem conhecido e de relevância para a saúde humana, pois atuam sobre a permeabilidade iônica dos canais de sódio sensíveis a voltagem (CSSV), produzindo efeitos na excitabilidade das terminações nervosas. Como os seres humanos são potencialmente expostos a estes agentes, portanto, torna-se importante compreender os riscos cumulativos da exposição a estes praguicidas pela população brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi conduzir a avaliação do risco dos piretróides registrados no Brasil com base nos princípios do RISK21. A abordagem em etapas proposta pelo RISK21 demonstrou que o risco da ingestão crônica e aguda de resíduos de piretróides foi considerado aceitável. Além disso, não foi observada qualquer preocupação toxicológica decorrente da exposição residencial a estes agentes. Quando combinados os cenários da dieta aguda e residencial, também não foram observados níveis de preocupação, portanto, o risco foi considerado aceitável. A avaliação do risco dos piretróides registrados para o uso agrícola e residencial no Brasil com base nos principios do RISK21 foi uma importante etapa neste trabalho, uma vez que foi possível avaliar o risco e preocupações para cada um dos praguicidas de maneira rápida e visual. Além disso, mesmo considerando premissas altamente conservadoras, observou-se que a população exposta de maneira combinada a estes agentes não demonstrou um nível de preocupação para o cenário brasileiro

Risk assessment is a scientific and systematic approach that quantitatively incorporates hazard and exposure to agents' evaluation. The risk assessment process has evolved in recent years, going beyond exposure to single agents and pathways to characterize multiple agents' cumulative risk. Cumulative risk assessment methodologies are not harmonized, which can make the process complex. In this line, the RISK21 approach promoted by the Health Environmental Science Institute (HESI) can demystify the subject. The combined exposure of residue intake through diet and residential use of pyrethroid-based products by the Brazilian population is unknown. Pyrethroids are pesticides used in the crop as well as in a domestic environment in pest control. The mechanism of toxicity of these agents is well known and relevant to human health, as they act on the ionic permeability of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSC), producing effects on the excitability of nerve endings. As human beings are potentially exposed to these agents, it is essential to understand the cumulative risks derived from the exposure to these pesticides by the Brazilian population. The objective of this research was to conduct the risk assessment based on the principles of RISK21 of pyrethroids registered in Brazil. The stepwise approach proposed by RISK21 demonstrated that the risk of chronic and acute ingestion of pyrethroid residues was considered acceptable. Furthermore, no toxicological concern stemming from residential exposure to these agents was observed. When acute and residential diet scenarios were combined, no levels of concern were also observed, so the risk was considered acceptable. The risk assessment based on the principles of RISK21 of pyrethroids registered for agricultural and residential use in Brazil was an essential step in this research since it was possible to assess the risk and concerns for each of the pesticides in a fast and visual way. Moreover, from highly conservative premises, it was observed that the population exposed in combination with these agents did not demonstrate a level of concern for the Brazilian scena

Pyrethrins/classification , Pesticide Residues/adverse effects , Risk Assessment Methodologies , Insecticides/agonists , Pesticides/adverse effects , Pest Control/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Diet , Environment
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 18, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289991


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate locomotor activity in four field populations of Ae. aegypti with different insecticide resistance profiles from the state of São Paulo for two years. METHODS: This study comprised the susceptible Rockefeller strain and four populations from São Paulo, Brazil: two considered populations with "reduced susceptibility" to pyrethroids (Campinas and Marília), and two "resistant populations" (Santos and Ribeirão Preto). First, 2016 and 2017 eggs from these five populations were hatched in laboratory. Virgin females underwent experiments under laboratory conditions at 25°C, with 12:12h light/dark (LD) photoperiod; 24-hour individual activity was recorded using a locomotor activity monitor (LAM). RESULTS: In females from 2016 field populations, both resistant populations showed significant more locomotor activity than the two reduced susceptibility populations and the Rockefeller strain (p < 0.05). As for females from 2017 field populations, reduced susceptibility populations showed a significant increased locomotor activity than the Rockefeller strain, but no significant difference when compared to Santos resistant population (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations show increased locomotor activity, which may affect the transmission dynamics of their arboviruses.

Humans , Animals , Female , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Aedes , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance , Locomotion
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(Supplement1): 228-237, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355252


The present work aimed to determine the toxicity of linalool and evaluate the lethal and toxic effects of linalool associated with pyrethroids in binary mixtures to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). The insects used in the experiment were obtained from stock breeding initiated from larvae collected from conventional corn plants, grown in an experimental area, in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Also, it was obtained essential oil from a variety of Ocimum basilicum, with a high content of linalool (80%), found naturally, as a measure of comparison of different linalool (97.5%) assays. Dose-response bioassays with 3rd instar larvae were performed to determine lethal dose for 50% mortality (LD50) of linalool. Toxicity tests were also performed with O. basilicum essential oil and with pyrethroid insecticides: deltamethrin and its commercial product (Decis 25 EC, Bayer®). After this, combinations between different doses of these products were made and applied on 3rd instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith). Linalool presented high toxicity to S. frugiperda (LD50 = 0.177 µL a.i. µL-1). It was observed neurotoxic effects after the linalool application since the insects presented an aspect of confusion, followed by extreme agitation and finally death. All binary mixtures caused mortality higher than the products applied alone (deltamethrin and linalool) used at 100% LD50, except to 75% LD50 deltamethrin added to 25% LD50 linalool, whose mortality did not differ the products alone, in 24 hours. It was obtained over 90% larval mortality when linalool was combined with 25% LD50 of deltamethrin, in 24 and 48 hours after application, and over 80% of mortality when linalool was combined with 25% LD50 of Decis, only in 48 hours after application. We conclude that linalool is a potential insecticidal and can be associated with pyrethroids to control of S. frugiperda. Further studies are required in order to evaluate the synergistic combinations against field populations of S. frugiperda.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a toxicidade do linalol e avaliar os efeitos tóxicos e letais do linalol associado a piretroides em misturas binárias para lagarta do cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda). Os insetos utilizados no experimento foram obtidos de criação estoque iniciada a partir de larvas coletadas em plantas de milho convencional, cultivado em área experimental, no município de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Também foi obtido óleo essencial de uma variedade de Ocimum basilicum, com alto teor de linalol (80%), encontrado naturalmente, como medida de comparação para ensaios com linalol (97.5%). Os bioensaios do tipo dose-resposta com larvas de 3º instar foram realizados para determinar a dose letal do linalol para 50% de mortalidade da população (DL50). Também foram realizados testes de toxicidade com óleo essencial de Ocimum basilicum e com inseticidas piretroides: deltametrina e seu produto comercial (Decis 25 EC, Bayer®). Em seguida, foram realizadas combinações entre diferentes doses desses produtos e aplicadas em larvas de 3º instar de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith). De acordo com os resultados, observou-se que o linalol apresentou alta toxicidade para S. frugiperda (DL50 = 0,177 µL a. i. µL-1). Foram observados efeitos neurotóxicos após a aplicação do linalol, uma vez que os insetos apresentaram um aspecto de confusão, seguido de extrema agitação e, por fim, morte. Todas as combinações binárias causaram mortalidade maior que os produtos aplicados isoladamente (deltametrina e linalol) utilizando-se 100% da DL50, exceto para 75% DL50 de deltametrina somada a 25% DL50 de linalol, cuja mortalidade não diferiu dos produtos isolados, em 24 horas após a aplicação. Foi obtida mais de 90% de mortalidade de larvas quando se combinou linalol com 25% da DL50 de deltametrina, em 24 e 48 horas após a aplicação, e mais de 80% de mortalidade quando se combinou linalol com 25% da DL50 do produto comercial, somente 48 horas após a aplicação. Concluímos que o linalol é um potencial inseticida e pode ser associado a piretroides no controle de S. frugiperda. Mais estudos são necessários em vista de avaliar as combinações sinérgicas contra populações de campo de S. frugiperda.

Pyrethrins/toxicity , Terpenes/toxicity , Spodoptera/drug effects , Drug Synergism
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 587-592, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132628


Abstract Introduction: This study presents the effect of cypermethrin on the cochlear function in Wistar rats post-subchronic inhalation exposure. Worldwide several pesticides are described as causing health disorders. Cypermethrin is currently one of the most commonly used, however, little is known about its harmful effects, especially related to hearing. Human studies have associated pesticides with hearing disorders, but they present limited conclusions due to the multiple factors to which the population is exposed, such as noise. Objective: Mimic human exposure to cypermethrin and to verify the effects on cochlear function. Methods: It is a subchronic inhalation animal study (6 weeks, 4 hours/day), using 36 male Wistar aged 60 day. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: Control (12 rats exposed to inhalation of water); Positive Control for auditory lesion (12 rats administrated with 24 mg/kg intraperitoneal cisplatin); Experimental (12 rats exposed to inhalation of cypermethrin - 0.25 mg/L). Animals were evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emissions pre- and post-exposure. Results: The frequencies of 8, 10 and 12 kHz in both ears (right p = 0.003; 0.004; 0.008 and left 0.003; 0.016; 0.005 respectively) and at frequencies 4 and 6 in the right ear (p = 0.007 and 0.015, respectively) in the animals exposed to cypermethrin resulted in reduction. Conclusion: Subchronic inhalation exposure to cypermethrin provided ototoxicity in rats.

Resumo Introdução: Este estudo apresenta o efeito da cipermetrina sobre a função coclear em ratos Wistar após exposição por inalação subcrônica. Em todo o mundo, vários pesticidas são descritos como causadores de distúrbios de saúde. A cipermetrina é atualmente um dos mais utilizados, porém pouco se conhece sobre seus efeitos deletérios, principalmente relacionados à audição. Estudos em humanos associaram pesticidas a alterações auditivas, mas apresentaram conclusões limitadas devido aos múltiplos fatores aos quais a população está exposta, como, por exemplo, o ruído. Objetivo: Mimetizar a exposição humana à cipermetrina e verificar os seus efeitos na função coclear. Método: Estudo de inalação subcrônica em animais (6 semanas, 4 horas/dia), 36 ratos machos Wistar com 60 dias. Os ratos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos: controle (12 ratos expostos à inalação de água); controle positivo para lesão auditiva (12 ratos com administração de 24 mg/kg de cisplatina intraperitoneal); e experimental (12 ratos expostos a inalação de cipermetrina - 0,25 mg/L). Os animais foram avaliados por emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção, pré e pós-exposição. Resultados: As frequências de 8, 10 e 12 kHz em ambas as orelhas (direita p = 0,003; 0,004; 0,008 e esquerda 0,003; 0,016; 0,005 respectivamente) e frequências 4 e 6 na orelha direita (p = 0,007 e 0,015, respectivamente) apresentaram redução nos animais expostos à cipermetrina. Conclusão: A exposição subcrônica por inalação à cipermetrina resultou em ototoxicidade em ratos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Cisplatin , Rats, Wistar , Ototoxicity , Antineoplastic Agents
Salud pública Méx ; 62(4): 402-409, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377331


Abstract: Objective: The feasibility of the use of WHO impregnated paper and biochemical assays to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC99) and insecticide metabolic enzyme levels of Triatoma dimidiata. Materials and methods: LC50 and LC99 were calculated with WHO papers impregnated at different concentrations of malathion, propoxur and deltamethrin; the percentage of insensitive acetylcholinesterase (iAChE); and the levels of esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and monooxygenases in laboratory nymphs of the first stage (5 to 7 days), were undertaken using the WHO biochemical assays. Results: Respectively the LC50 and LC99 µg/cm2 obtained for malathion were 43.83 and 114.38, propoxur 4.71 and 19.29, and deltamethrin 5.80 and 40.46. A 30% of the population had an iAChE, and only a few individuals had high P450 and β-eterase levels. Conclusion: Impregnated papers and biochemical tests developed by WHO for other insects, proved to be feasible methods in monitoring insecticide resistance and metabolic enzymes involved in T. dimidiata.

Resumen: Objetivo: La factibilidad de usar los papeles impregnados y ensayos bioquímicos según la OMS para determinar concentraciones letales (CL50 y CL99) y niveles enzimáticos en la resistencia a insecticidas en Triatoma dimidiata. Material y métodos: Se calcularon la CL50 y CL99 con papeles impregnados según la OMS a diferentes concentraciones de malatión, propoxur y deltametrina; el porcentaje de acetilcolinesterasa insensible (iAChE); y los niveles de esterasas, glutatión S-transferasas, y monooxigenasas en ninfas de laboratorio del estadio I (5-7 días) se determinaron usando los ensayos bioquímicos según la OMS. Resultados: Se obtuvieron las CL50 y CL99 µg / cm2 respectivamente para malatión 43.83 y 114.38, propoxur 4.71 y 19.29, y deltametrina 5.80 y 40.46. Un 30% de las chinches tuvo iAChE, y sólo pocos individuos tuvieron niveles superiores de P450 y β-eterasas. Conclusión: Los papeles impregnados y ensayos bioquímicos que describe la OMS para otros insectos demostraron ser métodos factibles para monitorear la resistencia a insecticidas y las enzimas metabólicas involucradas en T. dimidiata.

Animals , Propoxur/toxicity , Pyrethrins/toxicity , Triatoma/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/toxicity , Malathion/toxicity , Nitriles/toxicity , Acetylcholinesterase/analysis , Triatoma/enzymology , World Health Organization , Feasibility Studies , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/analysis , Esterases/analysis , Glutathione Transferase/analysis , Mixed Function Oxygenases/analysis , Lethal Dose 50 , Nymph/drug effects , Nymph/enzymology
Salud pública Méx ; 62(4): 410-416, jul.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377332


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la combinación de Metarhizium anisopliae y Gliocladium virens, ambos con Aqua Reslin Super, sobre oviposición, eclosión y emergencia de Aedes aegypti. Material y métodos: Se realizaron evaluaciones para determinar el efecto de los tratamientos impregnados en papel filtro y expuestos dentro de recipientes de plástico sobre la oviposición, eclosión y emergencia de Aedes aegypti. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que las combinaciones hongo e insecticida no afectaron el comportamiento de oviposición, pero sí la eclosión de los huevos y la emergencia del adulto. Conclusión: Con los resultados se puede concluir que la combinación de hongos + insecticida puede ser una buena opción para aplicarse en sitios de oviposición con miras al desarrollo de una ovitrampa letal.

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effect of the combination of Metarhizium anisopliae and Gliocladium virens, both with Aqua Reslin Super, on the oviposition, hatching and emergence of Aedes aegypti. Materials and methods: Evaluations were carried out to determine the effect of treatments impregnated on filter paper and exposed within plastic containers on the oviposition, hatching and emergency of Aedes aegypti. Results: The results indicated that the fungus and insecticide combinations did not affect the oviposition behavior, but if the hatching of the eggs and the adult's emergency. Conclusion: With the results it can be concluded that the combination of fungi + insecticide can be a good option to be applied in oviposition sites with a view to the development of a lethal ovitrap.

Animals , Female , Oviposition , Piperonyl Butoxide , Pyrethrins , Aedes/anatomy & histology , Hypocrea , Metarhizium , Insecticides , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Spores, Fungal/growth & development , Mosquito Control/methods , Hypocrea/drug effects , Hypocrea/growth & development , Metarhizium/drug effects , Metarhizium/growth & development
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 52(1): 43-49, mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155684


Abstract Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are a heterogeneous group of fungi, mostly belonging to the Phylum Ascomycota, that are involved in a mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots. The aim of this study is to evaluate the behavior of two strains of DSE isolated from wheat roots of two cropping areas in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, against some agrochemicals. Of all the isolates obtained, two strains were identified as Alternaria alternata and Cochliobolus sp. These DSE were found to be tolerant to glyphosate, carbendazim and cypermethrin when evaluated at the recommended agronomic dose (AD), 2 AD and, in some cases, 10 AD. This work contributes to the study of the biology of this group of fungi and their tolerance in the presence of xenobiotics widely used in agriculture.© 2019 Asociaci´on Argentina de Microbiolog´ıa. Published by Elsevier Espa˜na, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Resumen Los endófitos septados oscuros (DSE) son un grupo heterogéneo de hongos que participan de una simbiosis mutualista con raíces de plantas, perteneciendo principalmente al Phylum Ascomycota. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar DSE de raíces de trigo proveniente de dos áreas de cultivo de la provincia de Buenos Aires y evaluar el comportamiento de dos cepas de DSE aisladas de raíces de trigo frente a algunos agroquímicos en dos áreas de cultivo de la provincia de Buenos Aires. De todos los aislamientos obtenidos se seleccionaron dos cepas que se identificaron como Alternaria alternata y Cochliobolus sp. Se encontró que estos DSE son tolerantes al glifosato, el carbendazim y la cipermetrina, evaluados a las dosis agronómicas recomendadas (AD), a 2x AD y, en algunos casos, a 10x AD. Este trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de la biología de este grupo de hongos y su tolerancia a xenobióticos ampliamente utilizados en la agricultura.

Ascomycota/drug effects , Agrochemicals/pharmacology , Alternaria/drug effects , Endophytes/drug effects , Argentina , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Triticum , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Plant Roots/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Glycine/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154867


BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.

Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/virology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200680, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143869


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars is a potentially useful tool for the control of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a program based on insecticide-impregnated collars compared to traditional visceral leishmaniasis control strategies used in Brazil. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the Unified Health System, using data from the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program implemented in the municipality of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. The direct costs of the three control strategies, which were 1) canine infection screening + sacrifice, 2) residual chemical control of the vector, and 3) insecticide-impregnated dog collars (Scalibor®), were evaluated over the two-year study period. RESULTS: The total cost of the program in the area subjected to the traditional control strategies (strategies 1 and 2; control area) was R$ 1,551,699.80, and in the area subjected to all three control strategies (intervention area), it was R$ 1,898,190.16. The collar program was considered highly cost-effective at preventing canine visceral leishmaniasis (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately R$ 578 per avoided dog sacrifice). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the decision by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2019 to provide insecticide-impregnated collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis in a pilot project.

Humans , Animals , Dogs , Pyrethrins , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Insecticides , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Nitriles