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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(4): 387-395, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Allergic sensitization is one of the key components for the development of allergies. Polysensitization seems to be related to the persistence and severity of allergic diseases. Furthermore, allergic sensitization has a predictive role in the development of allergies. The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of sensitization of atopic patients treated at different pediatric allergy referral centers in Brazil. Methods A nation-wide transversal multicenter study collected data on patients attended in Brazil. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of allergen-specific IgE. If allergen-specific IgE was higher than 0.1 kUA/L, the following specific components were quantified. Results A total of 470 individuals were enrolled in the study. Mite sensitization was the most frequent kind in all participants. A high frequency of sensitization to furry animals and grasses featured in the respiratory allergies. Regarding components, there was a predominance of sensitization to Der p 1 and Der p 2. It has been verified that having a food allergy, atopic dermatitis, or multimorbidity are risk factors for the development of more severe allergic disease. Conclusion Studies on the pattern of allergic sensitization to a specific population offer tools for the more effectual prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of allergic diseases. Sensitization to dust mites house was the most prevalent in the evaluated sample. High rates of sensitization to furry animals also stand out. Patients with food allergy, atopic dermatitis, or multimorbidity appear to be at greater risk for developing more severe allergic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Asthma , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin E , Allergens , Pyroglyphidae
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-δ-dependent Akt activation is known to play critical roles in various immune responses of white blood cells in which PI3K-δ isoform is mostly expressed in contrast to the classes IA PI3Ks p110α and p110β. However, the immunological role of PI3K-δ isoform is still controversial in airway epithelium under house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic response. This study aimed to evaluate the role of PI3K-δ isoform in HDM-induced allergic responses, focusing on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in airway epithelium.METHODS: We used wild-type mice and PI3K-δ knock-out (KO) mice for HDM-induced asthma animal model and also performed in vitro experiments using primary cultured murine tracheal epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells.RESULTS: PI3K-δ activated HDM-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and epithelial cell-derived cytokines in the lung including airway epithelial cells. PI3K-δ KO mice or knock-down of PI3K-δ using siRNA exhibited the significant reduction in allergic asthmatic features and the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly as well as epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Interestingly, significantly increased expression of PI3K-δ isoform was observed in stimulated airway epithelial cells and the increases in epithelial cell-derived cytokines were markedly suppressed by blocking PI3K-δ, while these cytokine levels were independent of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that PI3K-δ-isoform can promote HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation via NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent response as well as via NLRP3 inflammasome-independent epithelial cell activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Cytokines , Dust , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Lung , Mice , Models, Animal , Phosphotransferases , Pyroglyphidae , RNA, Small Interfering
3.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(3)sept.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094631

ABSTRACT

Los ácaros Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides siboney (Ds) y Blomia tropicalis (Bt), constituyen la herramienta fundamental para diagnóstico e inmunoterapia de rinitis alérgica (RA), que en muchas ocasiones se asocia al síndrome apnea-hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS). Para diagnosticar SAHOS se seleccionaron 465 individuos del registro de alergia del Policlínico Previsora, Camagüey, Cuba, con diagnóstico presuntivo de RA. Se descartaron aquellos con prueba cutánea Prick test negativa a Dp, Ds y Bt y sin poligrafía cardio-respiratoria (PCR), quedando para estudio 236 pacientes entre 8 y 70 años de edad: 102 casos (43,2 por ciento) definidos como aquellos con respiración oral y ronquidos y 134 controles (56,7 por ciento) sin respiración oral ni ronquidos. La PCR se realizó utilizando el marcaje automático de eventos del dispositivo ApneaLink AirTM (Resmed Corp., RFA). La media del tamaño del habón fue de 5,9 mm en los casos (p=0,02). El índice de apnea e hipopnea (IAH) fue positivo en 129 pacientes (54,6 por ciento); de ellos, 97 casos (41,1 por ciento) y 32 controles (13,5 por ciento). Los pacientes con IAH˃20/h predominaron en los casos con 21 individuos (8,8 por ciento) (p꞊0,048). La sensibilidad del PCR fue del 95,10 por ciento, su especificidad del 76,12 por ciento. Los valores predictivos positivos y negativos del 75,19 por ciento y 95,33 por ciento respectivamente. Se estimó en 3,98 la razón de verosimilitud positiva y de 0,06 la negativa. Los pacientes con SAHOS en los casos y controles presentan incremento con predominio para casos (p=0,002). La PCR con el dispositivo ApneaLink permite hacer el diagnóstico de SAHOS en RA(AU)


The mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides siboney (Ds) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) are the primary tool for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of Allergic Rhinitis (AR), which is often associated with the Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS). To diagnose OSAHS, 465 individuals were selected from the allergy registry of the Previsora Polyclinic, Camagüey, Cuba, with presumptive diagnosis of AR. Those with a skin test (Prick test) negative to Dp, Ds and Bt, and without a previous Cardiorespiratory Polygraphy (CRP) were discarded, leaving 236 patients between 8 and 70 years old: 102 cases (43.2 percent) those with oral breathing and snoring and 134 controls (56.7 percent) without oral breathing or snoring. The CRP data analysis was performed using the automatic algorithm of the ApneaLink AirTM device (Resmed Corp., Germany). The average size of the wheal was 5.9 mm in cases (p = 0.02). The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) was greater than 5 events/hour in 129 patients (54.6 percent); of those, 97 cases (41.1 percent) and 32 controls (13.5 percent). Patients with AHI˃20/h predominated in cases with 21 individuals (8.8 percent) (p꞊0.048). The sensitivity of the PCR was 95.10 percent, its specificity 76.12 percent. The positive and negative predictive values were 75.19 percent and 95.33 percent respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 3.98 and the negative one was 0.06. The prevalence of OSAHS was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p =0.002). The CRP with the ApneaLink device allows the diagnosis of SAHOS in AR(AU)


Subject(s)
Skin Tests/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Cuba
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergic diseases have been increasing worldwide over the past few decades. Allergic sensitization is a pivotal risk factor for the development of allergic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in allergic sensitization patterns of aeroallergens over the last 10 years in children with respiratory allergic diseases. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 12,848 children under the age of 18 years who received skin prick tests (n=3,852) or serum specific IgE tests (n=8,996) to evaluate sensitization from 2007 to 2016 in a single center, Seoul, Korea. RESULTS: Sensitization rate to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) reached a plateau in preschool (28.3%–32.8%) and schoolchildren (45.8%–47.2%). Sensitization rate to animal dander (cat and dog) was increasing from 8.4% to 12.5% in preschool children and from 10.3% to 18.6% in schoolchildren (trend P<0.001 each). In preschool children, tree (birch, oak, and alder; from 3.5% to 6.4%), grass (timothy; from 0.8% to 6.5%), weed (ragweed and mugwort; from 2.8% to 6.9%) pollens and mold (Alternaria; from 2.5% to 6.0%) were also in similar increasing pattern (trend P=0.001, P<0.001, P=0.003, and P<0.001, respectively). Additionally, tree (from 9.0% to 15.2%), grass (from 2.6% to 5.2%) pollens were also in increasing pattern in schoolchildren (trend P<0.001 and P=0.024, respectively). CONCLUSION: Over the past 10 years, sensitization patterns of aeroallergen have been changing in Korean children with allergic diseases. We should pay attention to the changing patterns of allergic sensitization to educate and prevent the allergic disease.


Subject(s)
Alnus , Animals , Artemisia , Child , Child, Preschool , Dander , Fungi , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Medical Records , Poaceae , Pollen , Pyroglyphidae , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seoul , Skin , Trees
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762166

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ultra-rush schedule of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (UR-SCIT) administering maximum maintenance dose of allergen extract within one day can save time and effort for allergen immunotherapy in patients with allergic disease. However, UR-SCIT is associated with an increased risk of systemic reaction (SR) and typically has been conducted in a hospital admission setting. To overcome disadvantages of UR-SCIT, we evaluated the safety of UR-SCIT conducted in an outpatient clinic in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: UR-SCIT was performed in 538 patients with AD and/or AR sensitized to house dust mite (HDM). A maximum maintenance dose of tyrosine-adsorbed HDM extract (1 mL of maintenance concentration) was divided into 4 increasing doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL) and administered to the patients by subcutaneous injection at 2-hour intervals for 8 hours in an outpatient clinic. SRs associated with UR-SCIT were classified according to the World Allergy Organization grading system. RESULTS: SR was observed in 12 of 538 patients (2.2%) with AD and/or AR during UR-SCIT. The severity grades of the observed SRs were mild-to-moderate (grade 1 in 7 patients, grade 2 in 4 patients, and grade 3 in 1 patient). The scheduled 4 increasing doses of HDM extract could be administered in 535 of 538 patients (99.4%) except 3 patients who experienced SR before administration of the last scheduled dose. SR was observed within 2 hours in 11 patients after administration of the scheduled doses of HDM extract except one patient who experienced a grade 2 SR at 5.5 hours after administration of the last scheduled dose. CONCLUSIONS: UR-SCIT with tyrosine-adsorbed HDM extract conducted in an outpatient clinic was tolerable in patients with AD and AR. UR-SCIT can be a useful method to start a SCIT in patients with AD and AR.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Appointments and Schedules , Dermatitis, Atopic , Desensitization, Immunologic , Dust , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Injections, Subcutaneous , Methods , Outpatients , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chironomids (nonbiting midges) are widely and abundantly distributed near ponds, rivers, and artificially dammed pools used for irrigation. Chironomids contain allergens and cause airway allergy in humans. In this study, we aimed to examine the allergic potential of chironomids in inhabitants living near artificially dammed pools. METHODS: We examined immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to chironomid extracts in the sera of residents living around installed dams and assessed the correlations of IgE responses between chironomids (Chironomus flaviplumus, Chironomus kiiensis, Cricotopus bicinctus) and house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae). In addition, we identified potential IgE binding proteins specific for adult C. bicinctus, a popular species in Korea. Specific IgE antibodies in sera collected from the participants against the extracts were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The average IgE-positive rates were 10.4%, 8.1%, and 8.2% in C. bicinctus, C. flaviplumus, and C. kiiensis, respectively. The IgE-positive rate and IgE titer of C. bicinctus antigen were higher in residents living around installed dams than in those who lived other places (P = 0.013). Western blotting using sera having high IgE titers to C. bicinctus in ELISA showed the presence of a protein of approximately 42 kDa that was homologous to the actin protein isoform in C. bicinctus extracts as demonstrated using mass spectrometry. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that people living near installed dams were more sensitized to C. bicinctus and that the 42 kDa IgE-binding protein could be useful for further studies on chironomid allergic disease and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adult , Allergens , Antibodies , Blotting, Western , Chironomidae , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Galectin 3 , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Mass Spectrometry , Ponds , Pyroglyphidae , Rivers
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762156

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of daily vacuuming of mattresses on the concentration of house dust mite (HDM) allergens and on allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms in children sensitized to HDM. METHODS: Forty children between the ages of 6 and 12 years with mild persistent AR and sensitized only to HDM were enrolled and randomly allocated to 2 groups. Caregivers of children in the experimental group cleaned the children's rooms and vacuumed their mattresses daily for 2 weeks. Caregivers of children in the control group cleaned the children's rooms without vacuuming mattresses. Symptoms of AR were checked weekly and dust samples were collected from the mattresses before and after the study. RESULTS: Demographics at the beginning of the study were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In the experimental group, symptoms of AR and dust weight were significantly decreased after 2 weeks (total symptoms of AR, P <0.001; sneezing, P < 0.001; rhinorrhea, P <0.001; nasal obstruction, P < 0.001; itching, P <0.001; and dust weight, P = 0.006). The concentrations of HDM allergens were not changed significantly (Der p1, P = 0.333; Der f1, P = 0.841). In the control group, there were no significant changes in symptoms of AR, dust weight, or the concentration of HDM allergens. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that daily vacuuming of mattresses reduced dust weight and symptoms of AR. However, the concentration of HDM allergens did not significantly decrease.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Beds , Caregivers , Child , Demography , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Dust , Humans , Nasal Obstruction , Pruritus , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Sneezing , Vacuum
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762147

ABSTRACT

Environmental variations induced by industrialization and climate change partially explain the increase in prevalence and severity of allergic disease. One possible mechanism is the increase in allergen production leading to more exposure and sensitization in susceptible individuals. House dust mites (HDMs) are important sources of allergens inducing asthma and rhinitis, and experimentally they have been demonstrated to be very sensitive to microenvironment modifications; therefore, global or regional changes in temperature, humidity, air pollution or other environmental conditions could modify natural HDM growth, survival and allergen production. There is evidence that sensitization to HDMs has increased in some regions of the world, especially in the subtropical and tropical areas; however, the relationship of this increase with environmental changes is not so clear as has reported for pollen allergens. In this review, we address this point and explore the effects of current and predicted environmental changes on HDM growth, survival and allergen production, which could lead to immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization and allergic disease prevalence. We also assess the role of adjuvants of IgE responses, such as air pollution and helminth infections, and discuss the genetic and epigenetic aspects that could influence the adaptive process of humans to drastic and relatively recent environmental changes we are experiencing.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Allergens , Asthma , Climate Change , Dust , Epigenomics , Helminths , Humans , Humidity , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Pollen , Prevalence , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 570-577, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762077

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is known to be the only therapeutic modality to alter the natural course of allergic diseases. However, at least 3 years of treatment is recommended for achieving long-term disease modifying effect. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with immunotherapy non-adherence in real practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis, and received AIT to common allergens such as house dust mite and/or pollens from January 2007 to August 2014. In this study, non-adherence was defined as not completing 3 years of AIT. RESULTS: Among 1162 patients enrolled, 228 (19.6%) failed to complete 3 years of AIT. In multivariate analysis, age less than 20 years [odds ratio (OR) 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.70–5.69] and 20 to 40 years (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.17–3.43), cluster build-up (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.05–3.02) and ultra-rush build-up schedules (OR 5.46, 95% CI 2.40–12.43), and absence of visit to other departments in the same hospital (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.05–3.32) were independently associated with immunotherapy non-adherence. Disease duration of 5–10 years was negatively associated with non-adherence compared to shorter disease duration of less than 5 years (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.94). Although male sex and commercial product of AIT, Tyrosine S®, compared to Novo-Helisen® were non-adherent factors in univariate analysis, no statistical significances were identified in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Various factors are associated with immunotherapy adherence affecting the utility of immunotherapy. Clinicians should be aware of factors associated with adherence to maximize the utility of allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Appointments and Schedules , Asthma , Dermatitis, Atopic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Male , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Pollen , Pyroglyphidae , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tyrosine
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761799

ABSTRACT

Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is known to be a representative skin disorder, it also affects the systemic immune response. In a recent study, myoblasts were shown to be involved in the immune regulation, but the roles of muscle cells in AD are poorly understood. We aimed to identify the relationship between mitochondria and atopy by genome-wide analysis of skeletal muscles in mice. We induced AD-like symptoms using house dust mite (HDM) extract in NC/Nga mice. The transcriptional profiles of the untreated group and HDM-induced AD-like group were analyzed and compared using microarray, differentially expressed gene and functional pathway analyses, and protein interaction network construction. Our microarray analysis demonstrated that immune response-, calcium handling-, and mitochondrial metabolism-related genes were differentially expressed. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology pathway analyses, immune response pathways involved in cytokine interaction, nuclear factor-kappa B, and T-cell receptor signaling, calcium handling pathways, and mitochondria metabolism pathways involved in the citrate cycle were significantly upregulated. In protein interaction network analysis, chemokine family-, muscle contraction process-, and immune response-related genes were identified as hub genes with many interactions. In addition, mitochondrial pathways involved in calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidation-reduction process, and calcium-mediated signaling were significantly stimulated in KEGG and Gene Ontology analyses. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the genome-wide transcriptional changes of HDM-induced AD-like symptoms and the indicated genes that could be used as AD clinical biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Citric Acid , Citric Acid Cycle , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Ontology , Genome , Metabolism , Mice , Microarray Analysis , Mitochondria , Muscle Cells , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Myocardium , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Interaction Maps , Pyroglyphidae , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Skin
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719511

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Data comparing the long-term efficacy and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) using house dust mite (HDM) in children and adults with allergic rhinitis (AR) are limited. This study aimed to compare the long-term effects of HDM-SCIT in a cohort of Chinese pediatric and adult patients with AR. METHODS: A total of 124 pediatric and adult AR patients received HDM-SCIT for 3 years, with 118 patients being followed-up for 2 years. Prior to treatment (baseline), at the end of the 3-year treatment periods (third year) and 2 years after the discontinuation of treatment (fifth year), all patients were evaluated for total nasal symptom scores (TNSS), daily medication score (DMS), total combined score (TCS; symptoms [nasal + ocular] + DMS) and quality of life (QoL). Safety was assessed according to adverse events reported. RESULTS: After 3-year treatment, HDM-SCIT significantly improved symptoms and QoL scores at the end of the third and fifth years in both groups. Better improvements were observed in the third and fifth years based on baseline, in children compared to adults (TNSSΔ3: 6.66 vs. 5.41, P = 0.011; TCSΔ3: 4.30 vs. 3.83, P = 0.027 and TNSSΔ5: 6.16 vs. 4.86, P = 0.037; TCSΔ5: 4.11 vs. 3.62, P = 0.044).Shorter duration of AR history before SCIT (<10 vs. ≥10 years) resulted in better improvements at the end of the third and fifth years (TCSΔ3: 4.12 vs. 3.13, P = 0.036; TCSΔ5: 3.90 vs. 3.09, P = 0.033). HDM-SCIT was safe and comparable in both children and adults with AR. CONCLUSIONS: Children with AR may achieve better long-term efficacy of HDM-SCIT than adults with AR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunotherapy , Pyroglyphidae , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypoallergenic recombinant Der p 2 has been produced by various genetic manipulations, but mutation of a naturally polymorphic amino acid residue known to affect IgE binding has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the effect of a point mutation (S47W) of residue 47 of Der p 2 on its structure and immunoglobulin (Ig) E binding. Its ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses and to induce blocking IgG antibody was also determined. METHODS: S47 of recombinant Der p 2.0110, one of the predominant variants in Bangkok, was mutated to W (S47W). S47W secreted from Pichia pastoris was examined for secondary structure and for the formation of a hydrophobic cavity by 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) staining. Monoclonal and human IgE-antibody binding was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Allergen-induced degranulation by human epsilon receptor expressed-rat basophil was determined. Stimulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 release from human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells and inhibition of IgE binding to the wild type allergen by S47W-induced IgG were determined. RESULTS: S47W reduced secondary structure and failed to bind the hydrophobic ANS ligand as well as a monoclonal antibody known to be dependent on the nature of the side chain of residue 114 in an adjacent loop. It could also not stimulate IL-8 release from BEAS2B cells. IgE from house dust mite (HDM)-allergic Thais bound S47W with 100-fold weaker avidity, whereas IgE of HDM-allergic Australians did not. S47W still induced basophil degranulation, although requiring higher concentrations for some subjects. Anti-S47W antiserum-immunized mice blocked the binding of human IgE to wild type Der p 2. CONCLUSIONS: The mutant S47W had altered structure and reduced ability to stimulate pro-inflammatory responses and to bind IgE, but retained its ability to induce blocking antibodies. It thus represents a hypoallergen produced by a single mutation of a non-solvent-accessible amino acid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Blocking , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Basophils , Dust , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Mice , Pichia , Point Mutation , Pyroglyphidae
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the viral etiology and allergen distribution in infants and young children at high risk of asthma during a wheezing episode.@*METHODS@#A total of 135 infants and young children at high risk of asthma were enrolled who were admitted due to asthmatic bronchitis or asthmatic bronchopneumonia between April 2016 and August 2017. Fluorescent probe PCR was used to measure influenza A (Flu A), respiratory syncytium virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza virus (PinF), human rhinovirus (HRV), human partial lung virus (hMPV) and human bocavirus (HBoV) in nasopharyngeal aspirates. ImmunoCAP was used to measure inhaled allergens, food allergens, and total IgE concentration.@*RESULTS@#Among the 135 patients, the overall virus detection rate of nasopharyngeal aspirates was 49.6%, and HRV had the highest detection rate of 25.2%, followed by HBoV (9.6%), RSV (8.1%), PinF (5.9%), Flu-A (3.7%), ADV (1.5%) and hMPV (0.7%). The 1-3 years group had a significantly higher detection rate of HRV than the <1 year group (P<0.05). The positive rate of allergen screening was 59.3%, with 44% for inhaled allergens and 89% for food allergens. Among the inhaled allergens, dust mites had the highest positive rate of 77%, followed by mould (37%), pollen (26%) and animal dander (9%). Among the food allergens, egg white had a positive rate of 73% and milk had a positive rate of 68%. The <1 year group had a significantly higher positive rate of inhaled allergens than the 1-3 years group (P<0.05). The 1-3 years age group had a significantly higher level of T-IgE than the <1 year group (P<0.05). The positive virus group had a significantly higher positive rate of inhaled allergens than the non-virus group (P<0.05). The children with the second wheezing episode had significantly higher positive rates of inhaled allergens and food allergens and level of T-IgE than those with the first wheezing episode (P<0.05). The children with the second wheezing episode also had significantly higher positive rates of dust mites and mould than those with the first wheezing episode (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early HRV infection and inhaled allergen sensitization are closely associated with the development of wheezing in infants and young children at high risk of asthma.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Child , Child, Preschool , Egg Hypersensitivity , Humans , Infant , Pyroglyphidae , Respiratory Sounds
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739406

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) is expected to provide additional diagnostic information in allergic patients. PROTIA™ Allergy-Q 64 Atopy®, a recently developed CRD-based multiplex specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) assay, can quantitatively measure sIgE to major allergen components. METHODS: The sIgE detection by PROTIA™ Allergy-Q 64 Atopy® and ImmunoCAP® assays was compared using the sera of 125 Korean allergic patients. Group 1 and 2 allergens of house dust mites (HDMs; Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) 1 and Der f 2 in PROTIA™ Allergy-Q 64 Atopy®, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 and Der p 2 in ImmunoCAP®), Bet v 1, Fel d 1, Que a 1, ω-5 gliadin, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, casein and α-Gal were measured by both assays. RESULTS: Comparing the results from the 2 assays, the agreement rate for all the 10 allergens was > 88% (group 1 HDM allergen, 100%; group 2 HDM allergen, 94.6%; Bet v 1, 97.4%; Fel d 1, 90.5%; Que a 1, 89.2%; α-lactalbumin, 96%; β-lactoglobulin, 88%; casein, 88%; ω-5 gliadin, 96%; α-Gal, 100%). Correlation analysis indicated that, all the 10 allergen sIgEs showed more than moderate positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficients > 0.640). Additionally, intra-class comparison showed more than high correlation for all the 10 allergens (Spearman's rank correlation coefficients > 0.743). CONCLUSIONS: PROTIA™ Allergy-Q 64 Atopy® is reliable and comparable to the ImmunoCAP® assay for component-resolved diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Caseins , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Diagnosis , Gliadin , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Pyroglyphidae
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739396

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The house dust mite (HDM) is one of the most important sources of indoor allergens and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Our previous studies demonstrated that Vibrio vulnificus flagellin B (FlaB) plus allergen as a co-treatment mixture improved lung function and inhibited eosinophilic airway inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 5 signaling pathway in an ovalbumin (OVA)- or HDM-induced mouse asthma model. In the present study, we fused the major mite allergen Derp2 to FlaB and compared the therapeutic effects of the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein with those of a mixture of Derp2 and FlaB in a Derp2-induced mouse asthma model. METHODS: BALB/c mice sensitized with Derp2 + HDM were treated with Derp2, a Derp2 plus FlaB (Derp2 + FlaB) mixture, or the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein 3 times at 1-week intervals. Seven days after the final treatment, the mice were challenged intranasally with Derp2, and airway responses and Derp2-specific immune responses were evaluated. RESULTS: The Derp2-FlaB fusion protein was significantly more efficacious in reducing airway hyperresponsiveness, lung eosinophil infiltration, and Derp2-specific IgE than the Derp2 + FlaB mixture. CONCLUSIONS: The Derp2-FlaB fusion protein showed a strong anti-asthma immunomodulatory capacity, leading to the prevention of airway inflammatory responses in a murine disease model through the inhibition of Th2 responses. These findings suggest that the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein would be a promising vaccine candidate for HDM-mediated allergic asthma therapy.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Eosinophils , Flagellin , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Lung , Mice , Mites , Ovalbumin , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Therapeutic Uses , Toll-Like Receptor 5 , Vibrio vulnificus
16.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e17-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergy among Surabaya school children is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of the common allergic sensitization and allergic diseases among school children and undergraduate students in suburban of Surabaya by epidemiologic data collection. METHODS: A multistage simple random sampling was done to select 5 primary schools, 8 secondary schools (4 of junior high schools and senior high schools, respectively), and 1 university from 5 districts in Surabaya city. Out of 550 invited respondents, 499 (128 primary school, 221 secondary school, and 150 undergraduate) respondents gave their consent. A complete personal history, allergic symptoms, environmental exposure of common allergens was obtained from interview and the physical examinations were performed. Skin prick test (SPT) was done using 45 different allergen extracts. Total serum IgE and specific IgE radioallergosorbent test levels were measured for respondents with allergic manifestations. RESULTS: There was an increasing SPT positivity among study respondents, from primary school, secondary school, to undergraduate students (21.90%, 28.95%, to 45.30% respectively). Cockroach (42.85%) and fungi/mold spore (42.85%) were the most common allergens in primary school children. House dust mites was the most common allergen in secondary school (63.16%) and undergraduate students (58.82%). Urticaria and rhinitis were the commonest allergic diseases manifestation. History of atopy was positive in 60.79% of the allergic respondents. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of allergic sensitization among school children and undergraduate students in Surabaya suburb areas were increased compared to previous estimates in 1998. While house dust mites are known as important allergens, surprisingly cockroach was the common allergen among the younger school children.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Child , Cockroaches , Data Collection , Developed Countries , Environmental Exposure , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Indonesia , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Pyroglyphidae , Radioallergosorbent Test , Rhinitis , Skin , Spores , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urticaria
17.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e3-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750171

ABSTRACT

Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is a rare hereditary disorder with a triad of sparse hair, dental hypoplasia, and anhidrosis. Here we report a case of AED with food allergy and atopic eczema. The patient was a 11-month-old boy admitted to our hospital with pyrexia for 2 weeks. He presented with a history of dry skin, eczema, and food allergy to egg. On clinical examination, his body temperature was 38.8°C, with dry skin and eczema almost all over the body, sparse eyebrows, and scalp hair. Laboratory investigations and physical examination did not show any evidence of infection. Radioallergosorbent test was positive to egg yolk, egg white, ovomucoid, milk, house dust, and house dust mite. As the child did not sweat despite the high fever, we performed the sweat test which revealed a total lack of sweat glands. Genetic examination revealed a mutation of the EDA gene and he was diagnosed as AED. His pyrexia improved upon cooling with ice and fan. His mother had lost 8 teeth and her sweat test demonstrated low sweating, suggestive of her being a carrier of AED. Atopy and immune deficiencies have been shown to have a higher prevalence in patients with AED. Disruption of the skin barrier in patients with AED make them more prone to allergic diseases such as atopic eczema, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy. Careful assessment of the familial history is essential to differentiate AED when examining patients with pyrexia of unknown origin and comorbid allergic diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Body Temperature , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dust , Ectodermal Dysplasia , Eczema , Egg White , Egg Yolk , Eyebrows , Fever , Food Hypersensitivity , Hair , Humans , Hypohidrosis , Ice , Infant , Male , Milk , Mothers , Ovomucin , Ovum , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Pyroglyphidae , Radioallergosorbent Test , Rhinitis, Allergic , Scalp , Skin , Sweat , Sweat Glands , Sweating , Tooth
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Specific IgE assays are important in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). Among the diagnostic tests of AR, multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) and ImmunoCAP have been frequently used as simple, safe, and economical methods. In this study, we compared the diagnostic outcomes of MAST and ImmunoCAP in patients with AR. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Seventy-eight patients (52 men, 26 women, mean age 34.5 years: range 6–80 years), who have nasal symptoms of allergy and no clinical factors to influence the test results, underwent routine skin prick test (SPT) and MAST, and ImmunoCAP for eight major allergens. The diagnosis of AR was based on the criteria of SPT. The class 1 responses or more were regarded as positive for both MAST and ImmunoCAP. The agreements, sensitivities, and specificities of MAST and ImmunoCAP were evaluated along with the correlation between the two tests. RESULTS: Total agreement rates of MAST and ImmunoCAP amounted to 91.5 and 92.1%, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of MAST were 73.4 and 95.3%, respectively, and those of ImmunoCAP were 81.4 and 94.5%, respectively. The correlations between MAST and ImmunoCAP showed statistical significance for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/Dermatophagoides farinae. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the diagnostic usefulness of both MAST and ImmunoCAP in AR, especially for the most prevalent allergens of house dust mites. Moreover, ImmunoCAP, which showed higher sensitivity than MAST, can be effectively used in rhinology clinics.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Male , Methods , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775948

ABSTRACT

To analyze the efficacy and compliance of conventional immunotherapy(CIT)and rush immunotherapy(RIT)in patients with allergic rhinitis.This trial was a prospective study involved 404 patients with persistent AR who were allergic to house dust mite.328 patients were assigned to the conventional immunotherapy reaching the maintenance dose within 14 weeks,and 76 patients were assigned to the rush immunotherapy reaching the maintenance dose within 1 week.The visual analog scale(VAS)score and the patients' compliance were recorded during treatment and follow-up.After CIT and RIT,the VAS score were significantly reduced in each group,but the decrement of VAS score of RIT group was more evident than that of CIT in half ayear(<0.05).After 5 years follow-up,the VAS score of two groups was also significantly reduced.The rate of treatment continuation of CIT group in 1 year,2 years and 3 years were 18.5%,39.0% and 57.3%,higher than RIT group(11.8%,26.3%,42.1%),respectively.Both CIT and RIT were beneficial for allergic rhinitis patients,and the clinical efficacy lasts for at least 5 years.But RIT has the superiority of faster onset and better compliance.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Patient Compliance , Prospective Studies , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Therapeutics , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. However, the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) on ILCs remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of ILC subsets in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients in response to house dust mite (HDM)-specific immunotherapy. METHODS: We enrolled 37 AR patients undergoing AIT (16 responders and 11 non-responders) for 2 years, 35 HDM AR patients and 28 healthy subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry to identify ILC subsets. Stimulation of ILC2s with recombinant allergen-specific protein was used to determine ILC2's activation (CD69 expression). RESULTS: Responder AIT patients and healthy subjects had a decreased frequency of circulating ILC2s compared to non-responder AIT and AR patients. Conversely, ILC1s from responder AIT patients and healthy subjects showed increased frequency compared to non-responder AIT and AR patients. The frequency of ILC3s natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR)+ and NCR− in responder AIT patients was significantly lower compared to AR patients and healthy subjects. The ILC1: ILC2 proportion in responder AIT patients was similar to that of healthy subjects. PBMCs from patients who were responders to AIT had a significantly lower expression of the activation marker CD69 on ILC2s in response to allergen re-stimulation compared to AR patients, but no difference compared to non-responder AIT patients and healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that AIT might affect ILC responses. The activation of ILC2s was reduced in AR patients treated with AIT. Our results indicate that a relative ILC1/ILC2 skewed response is a possible key to successful AIT.


Subject(s)
Desensitization, Immunologic , Flow Cytometry , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunotherapy , Lymphocytes , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic
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