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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248024, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355855

ABSTRACT

Abstract By applying the in-silico method, resveratrol was docked on those proteins which are responsible for bone loss. The Molecular docking data between the resveratrol and Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-Β ligand [RANKL] receptors proved that resveratrol binds tightly to the receptors, showed the highest binding affinities of −6.9, −7.6, −7.1, −6.9, −6.7, and −7.1 kcal/mol. According to in-vitro data, Resveratrol reduced the osteoclasts after treating Marrow-Derived Macrophages [BMM] with Macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF] 20ng / ml and RANKL 50ng / ml, with different concentrations of resveratrol (2.5, 10 μg / ml) For 7 days, the cells were treated with MCSF (20 ng / ml) and RANKL (40 ng / ml) together with concentrated trimethyl ether and resveratrol (2.5, 10 μg / ml) within 12 hours. Which, not affect cell survival. After fixing osteoclast cells with formaldehyde fixative on glass coverslip followed by incubation with 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS for 5 min and after that stain with rhodamine phalloidin staining for actin and Hoechst for nuclei. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to see the distribution of filaments actin [F.actin]. Finally, resveratrol reduced the actin ring formation. Resveratrol is the best bioactive compound for drug preparation against bone loss.


Resumo Com a aplicação do método in-silico, o resveratrol foi ancorado nas proteínas responsáveis ​​pela perda óssea. Os dados de docking molecular entre o resveratrol e o ligante do receptor ativador do fator nuclear kappa-Β [Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligant (RANKL)] provaram que o resveratrol se liga fortemente aos receptores, mostraram as afinidades de ligação mais altas de −6,9, −7,6, −7,1, −6,9, - 6,7 e -7,1 kcal / mol. De acordo com dados in-vitro, o resveratrol reduziu os osteoclastos após o tratamento de macrófagos derivados da medula óssea [Bone Marrow-derived Macrophage (BMM)] com fator estimulador de colônias de macrófagos [Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (MCSF)] 20ng / ml e RANKL 50ng / ml, com diferentes concentrações de resveratrol (2,5, 10 μg / ml). Durante sete dias, as células foram tratadas com MCSF (20 ng / ml) e RANKL (40 ng / ml) juntamente com éter trimetílico concentrado e resveratrol (2,5, 10 μg / ml) em 12 horas, processo que não afeta a sobrevivência celular. Após a fixação de células de osteoclastos com fixador de formaldeído em lamela de vidro seguido de incubação com 0,1% Triton X-100 em PBS por 5 min, foi realizado posteriormente o procedimento para corar com rodamina faloidina a actina e Hoechst os núcleos. A microscopia de fluorescência foi realizada para ver a distribuição dos filamentos de actina [F.actina]. Finalmente, o resveratrol reduziu a formação do anel de actina. O resveratrol é o melhor composto bioativo para o preparo de medicamentos contra a perda óssea.


Subject(s)
Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand , Cell Differentiation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Resveratrol/pharmacology
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 375-386, dez 20, 2021. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354189

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o sistema RANKL (receptor-ativador do fator nuclear-ligante κB)/RANK (receptor ativador do NF-kB)/OPG (osteoprotegrina) Introdução: o sistema OPG (osteoprotegrina)/RANK (receptor ativador do NF-kB)/RANKL (receptor-ativador do fator nuclear-ligante κB) regula os processos fisiológicos e patológicos da remodelação óssea. Polimorfismos genéticos nos genes OPG, RANK e RANKL têm sido associados a doenças, em diferentes populações. Objetivo: Descrever a frequência e o potencial regulatório dos polimorfismos do sistema OPG, RANK e RANKL em uma população brasileira; avaliar o seu potencial como marcadores genéticos informativos de ancestralidade; comparar com patologias associadas em outras populações. Metodologia: neste estudo, 506 indivíduos adultos, participantes de uma coorte acometidos de asma e periodontite, tiveram o DNA genômico extraído e genotipado, utilizando-se a plataforma Illumina. As plataformas NCBI, RegulomeDB, Haploview 4.2 e rSNPBase foram consultadas e utilizadas para análises. Resultados e Discussão: os polimorfismos mais frequentes na população estudada foram o rs3102724 no gene OPG, com frequência de menor alelo (MAF) de 46%; o rs4941129 em RANK, MAF 50%; e o rs9525641 em RANKL, MAF 46%. Os rs3134063 (1f) em OPG, rs17069898 (1f) em RANK e rs2200287 (1d) em RANKL apresentaram maior impacto funcional. Em OPG e RANK, nove polimorfismos se caracterizaram como marcadores genéticos informativos de ancestralidade, com predomínio nas populações YRI (africanos) e CEU (europeus). Os nove polimorfismos, com função intrônica, apresentaram MAF entre 2 a 46% na população-alvo e foram associados a patologias do metabolismo ósseo em outras populações. Conclusão: polimorfismos dos genes estudados se mostraram frequentes na população estudada e tiveram seus alelos mais frequentes associados a doenças em populações ancestrais. Sugere-se que sejam realizados mais estudos.


Introduction: The OPG (osteoprotegerin)/ RANK (NF-kB activating receptor)/ RANKL (nuclear-binding factor κB receptor-activating system regulates the physiological and pathological processes of bone remodeling. Genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in OPG, RANK and RANKL genes have been associated with diseases in different populations. Objective: Describe the regulatory frequency and potential of SNPs in OPG, RANK and RANKL in a Brazilian population; assess their potential as informative genetic markers of ancestry; compare with pathologies associated with these polymorphisms in other populations. Methods: in this study, 506 adult individuals, participating in a cohort involving asthma and periodontitis, had genomic DNA extracted and genotyped using the Illumina platform. The NCBI, RegulomeDB, Haploview 4.2 and rSNPBase platforms were consulted and used for analysis. Results and discussion: the most frequent polymorphisms in the studied population were the rs3102724 in the OPG gene, with the lowest allele frequency (MAF) of 46%; rs4941129 in RANK, MAF 50% and rs9525641 in RANKL, MAF 46%. The rs3134063 (1f) in OPG, rs17069898 (1f) in RANK and rs2200287 (1d) in RANKL, had greater functional impact. In OPG and RANK, 9 SNPs were characterized as informative genetic markers of ancestry, predominantly in YRI (African) and CEU (European) populations. These 9 SNPs, with intronic function, presented MAF between 2 and 46% in our population, and were associated with pathologies in bone metabolism in other populations. Conclusion: SNPs of the studied genes were found to be frequent in the studied population and had their most frequent alleles associated with diseases in ancestral populations. It is suggested that further studies be carried out


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Polymorphism, Genetic , RANK Ligand , Genes , Periodontitis , Asthma , Computer Simulation
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879968

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL)-17-mediated autophagy on the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF6)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 pathway and osteoclast differentiation. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were cultured with a medium containing 30 ng/mL macrophage colony stimulating factor and 50 ng/mL receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligard (RANKL), and IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 ng/mL) was added for intervention (IL-17 group). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to observe TRAP positive multinucleated cells; phalloidin fluorescent staining was used to detect actin ring circumference; toluidine blue staining was used to analyze bone resorption lacuna formation. To further examine the mechanism of the effect of IL-17-mediated autophagy on the differentiation of osteoclasts, the control group used RANKL medium to culture mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, while the IL-17 group was treated with IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, /mL). Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and osteoclast-related proteins c-fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFATc1) after treatment with different concentrations of IL-17. The expression of LC3, NFATc1, TRAF6/ERK/p38 signaling pathway related proteins were detected in IL-17 and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA group. The number of TRAP positive multinucleated cells, the circumference of the actin ring and the area of bone resorption lacuna in IL-17 group treated with IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, were significantly higher than those in the control group. In IL-17 treated RAW264.7 cells, the expression of c-fos, NFATc1, Beclin-1, LC3, TRAF6, p-ERK, and p-p38 was all significantly up-regulated (all 0.05). After treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, the expression levels of LC3, NFATc1, TRAF6, p-ERK, and p-p38 all decreased significantly (all 0.05). IL-17 can promote the expression of autophagy proteins and enhance the differentiation ability of osteoclast precursor cells, and the TRAF6/ERK/p38 signaling pathway may be involved in this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Bone Resorption , Cell Differentiation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Interleukin-17 , Mice , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Osteoclasts/metabolism , RANK Ligand/metabolism , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878434

ABSTRACT

Bone invasion by oral cancer is a common clinical problem, which affects the choice of treatment and predicts a poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has not been fully elucidated. Current studies have revealed that oral cancer cells modulate the formation and function of osteoclasts through the expression of a series of signal molecules. Many signal pathways are involved in this process, of which receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway attracted much attention. In this review, we introduce recent progress in molecular mechanisms of bone invasion by oral cancer.


Subject(s)
Bone Resorption , Bone and Bones , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Osteoclasts , Osteoprotegerin , RANK Ligand , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e079, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1278593

ABSTRACT

Abstract Head and neck radiotherapy causes quantitative and qualitative changes in saliva. The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary biomarkers associated with bone remodeling and tissue repair in patients submitted to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment, compared with non-irradiated individuals. Total unstimulated saliva was collected for ELISA assay analysis of receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B (RANK) and its ligand (RANK-L), osteoprotegerin, matrix metalloproteinase-9/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Statistics were performed, and revealed that salivary RANK (p = 0.0304), RANK-L (p = 0.0005), matrix metalloproteinase-9/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (p = 0.0067), vascular endothelial growth factor (p = 0.0060), and epidermal growth factor (p < 0.0001) were reduced in patients, compared with the control group. Osteoprotegerin did not differ between the groups (p = 0.3765). Salivary biomarkers did not differ according to radiotherapy completion time (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the lower output of the salivary molecules - essential for bone remodeling and tissue repair - may disrupt tissue homeostasis and play a role in the pathogenesis of the radiotherapy-induced deleterious effects in the oral cavity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Remodeling , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Saliva , Case-Control Studies , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Epidermal Growth Factor , RANK Ligand
6.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 63(2): 39-54, nov. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150748

ABSTRACT

La búsqueda por encontrar métodos para acortar la duración de los tratamientos de ortodoncia tiene un pasado reciente, un presente y un futuro. Las fuerzas ortodóncicas que se ejercen sobre la membrana periodontal producen movimientos dentarios por modificaciones histológicas y biomoleculares. El conocimiento de los procesos biológicos da lugar a implementar cambios para favorecer la aceleración de los procesos resortivos y neoformativos. El objetivo de esta publicación es hacer una breve síntesis de lo acontecido con este tema y exponer el procedimiento de las micro-osteoperforaciones (MOPs) como una opción complementaria al tratamiento de ortodoncia convencional. Aún no existe suficiente apoyo de ensayos clínicos en humanos para aseverar su éxito. Más aún, distintos autores publican conclusiones contradictorias. Es de esperar que, en breve, nuevas investigaciones contribuyan a respaldarlo o desestimarlo (AU)


The quest to find methods to shorten the duration of orthodontic treatments has a recent past, a present, and a future. Orthodontic forces exerted on the periodontal membrane produce tooth movements by histological and biomolecular modifications. Knowledge of biological processes results in changes to promote the acceleration of spring and neoformative processes. The objective of this publication is to make a brief synthesis of what happened with this topic and expose the micro-osteoperforations (MOPs) procedure as a complementary option to conventional orthodontic treatment. There is not yet enough support from human clinical trials to assert its success. Moreover, different authors publish conflicting conclusions. It is to be expected that, shortly, further investigations will help to support or dismiss it (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Movement Techniques/methods , Biological Phenomena , Oral Surgical Procedures , Microsurgery , Osteotomy/methods , Bone Resorption/physiopathology , Low-Level Light Therapy , RANK Ligand , Duration of Therapy
7.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; S1 Preecedings: 20-25, jul. 1, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145546

ABSTRACT

Peri-implantitis is one of the leading causes of implant failure and loss, and its early diagnosis is not currently feasible due to the low sensitivity of currents methods. In the current exploratory cross-sectional study, we explored the diagnostic potential of lymphocyte B and Th17-chemotactic cytokine levels in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) in 54 patients with healthy, peri-mucositis, or peri-implantitis implants. Peri-implant crevicular fluid was collected, and the levels of the molecules under study were quantified by Luminex assay. The concentrations of CCL-20 MIP-3 alpha, BAFF/BLYS, RANKL and OPG concentration in PICF were analyzed in the context of patient and clinical variables (smoking status, history of periodontitis, periodontal diagnosis, implant survival, suppuration, bleeding on probing, periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, mean of implant probing depth, and plaque index). Patients with peri-implantitis, appear to have an overregulation of the RANKL/BAFF-BLyS axis. This phenomenon needs to be investigated in depth in further studies with a larger sample size.


La periimplantitis es una de las principales causas de falla y pérdida del implante, y su diagnóstico temprano no es factible debido a la baja sensibilidad de los métodos actuales. En este estudio transversal exploratorio, se estudió el potencial diagnóstico de los niveles de citocinas quimiotácticas de linfocitos B y Th17 en el líquido crevicular periimplantario (LCPI) en 54 pacientes con implantes sanos, peri-mucositis o periimplantitis. Se recogió líquido crevicular periimplantario y se cuantificaron los niveles de las moléculas estudiadas mediante Luminex assay. Las concentraciones de CCL-20 MIP-3 alfa, BAFF/BLYS, RANKL y la concentración de OPG en LCPI se analizaron en el contexto de las variables clínicas y del paciente (tabaquismo, antecedentes de periodontitis, diagnóstico periodontal, supervivencia del implante, supuración, sangrado al sondaje, profundidad de sondeo periodontal, nivel de inserción clínica, media de la profundidad de sondeo del implante e índice de placa). Los pacientes con periimplantitis parecen tener una sobrerregulación del eje RANKL/BAFF-BLyS. Este fenómeno debe investigarse en profundidad en futuros estudios con un tamaño de muestra mayor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dental Implants/adverse effects , Peri-Implantitis/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Mucositis , RANK Ligand , Chemokine CCL20
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(1): 63-68, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089266

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study evaluated polymorphisms in RANK, RANKL and OPG-encoding genes to assess whether they are associated with mucositis and peri-implantitis in a population from the Brazilian Amazon region. One hundred and fourteen patients with dental implants were included in the study. After clinical and radiographic examination, the sample was categorized into 4 groups, according to the peri-implant status: Healthy (n=71), Mucositis (n=30), Peri-implantitis (n=13) and Diseased (Mucositis + Peri-implantitis, n=43). Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal cells from saliva, and the genetic polymorphism in osteoprotegerin (OPG), Kappa nuclear factor activator receptor (RANKL) and nuclear kappa factor activator receptor (RANK) were genotyped by the real time PCR. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to compare clinical variables among groups and to evaluate genotypes and alleles distributions and the established alpha was 5%. Age, peri-implant biotype, diabetes and presence of peri-implant biofilm were associated with mucositis (p<0.05) and peri-implantitis (p<0.05). Smoking, alcoholism, and periodontal biofilms were also associated with the presence of peri-implantitis (p<0.05). Univariate and multivariate analysis did not demonstrate an association of peri-implantitis or mucositis with any genetic polymorphism in RANK (rs3826620), RANKL (rs9594738) and OPG (rs2073618) (p>0.05). The studied genetic polymorphism in RANK, RANKL and OPG were not associated with mucositis and peri-implantitis in a Brazilian population from the Amazon region.


Resumo O presente estudo avaliou a associação da predisposição clínica e dos fatores genéticos com a presença de doenças peri-implantares. Cento e quatorze pacientes com implantes dentais instalados na Clínica de Especialização do Amazonas, Brazil, foram incluidos no estudo. Após exame clínico e radiográfico, a amostra foi categorizada em 4 grupos, de acordo com o Status peri-implantar: saúde (n=71), mucosite (n=30), peri-implantite (n=13) e doentes (mucosite + peri-implantite). DNA genômico foi extraído de células orais da saliva, e o polimorfismo genético em osteoprotegerina (OPG), ligante do receptor ativador do fator Kappa nuclear (RANKL) e receptor ativador do fator Kappa nuclear (RANK) foram genotipados por PCR em tempo real. O estudo se propôs a avaliar se os polimorfismos em RANK, RANKL e OPG estão envolvidos na patogênese da mucosite e da peri-implantite, e avaliar também a presença de fatores de risco moduladores da resposta em uma população brasileira. Idade, biotipo peri-implantar, diabetes e presença de biofilme peri-implantar foram associados a mucosite (p<0.05) e peri-implantite (p<0.05). Tabagismo, alcoolismo e biofilme periodontal também foram associados com a presença de peri-implantite (p<0.05). Análise univariada e multivariada não demonstraram associação de peri-implantite ou mucosite com os polimorfismos genéticos em RANK (rs3826620), RANKL (rs9594738) e OPG (rs2073618) (p>0.05). Os polimorfismos genéticos estudados não foram associados com mucosite e peri-implantite em uma população brasileira da região Amazônica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Implants , RANK Ligand/genetics , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , Peri-Implantitis , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil , Mouth Mucosa
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of zoledronate (ZOL) on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption under high glucose, and the regulation mechanism of p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in this process.@*METHODS@#RAW264.7 cells were divided into four groups: low group, high group, low+ZOL group and high+ZOL group after induced into osteoclasts. Cell proliferation activity was determined by MTT assay. The migration of RAW264.7 cells were examined Optical microscopy. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to observe the cytoskeleton and sealing zones of osteoclasts. After adding group 5: high + ZOL + SB203580 group, trap staining was used to identify the number of positive osteoclasts in each group. The number and area of resorption lacunae were observed by SEM. The mRNA and protein expression of osteoclast related factors were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The cells in the 5 groups showed similar proliferative activity. High glucose promoted the migration of RAW264.7 cells (@*CONCLUSIONS@#High glucose inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. ZOL inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in high-glucose conditions by regulating p38 MAPK pathway, which can be a new pathway for ZOL to regulate diabetic osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Resorption , Cell Differentiation , Glucose , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , NFATC Transcription Factors , Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand , Zoledronic Acid/pharmacology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828964

ABSTRACT

Activation of osteoclasts during orthodontic tooth treatment is a prerequisite for alveolar bone resorption and tooth movement. However, the key regulatory molecules involved in osteoclastogenesis during this process remain unclear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a newly identified class of functional RNAs that regulate cellular processes, such as gene expression and translation regulation. Recently, lncRNAs have been reported to be involved in osteogenesis and bone formation. However, as the most abundant noncoding RNAs in vivo, the potential regulatory role of lncRNAs in osteoclast formation and bone resorption urgently needs to be clarified. We recently found that the lncRNA Nron (long noncoding RNA repressor of the nuclear factor of activated T cells) is highly expressed in osteoclast precursors. Nron is downregulated during osteoclastogenesis and bone ageing. To further determine whether Nron regulates osteoclast activity during orthodontic treatment, osteoclastic Nron transgenic (Nron cTG) and osteoclastic knockout (Nron CKO) mouse models were generated. When Nron was overexpressed, the orthodontic tooth movement rate was reduced. In addition, the number of osteoclasts decreased, and the activity of osteoclasts was inhibited. Mechanistically, Nron controlled the maturation of osteoclasts by regulating NFATc1 nuclear translocation. In contrast, by deleting Nron specifically in osteoclasts, tooth movement speed increased in Nron CKO mice. These results indicate that lncRNAs could be potential targets to regulate osteoclastogenesis and orthodontic tooth movement speed in the clinic in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Resorption , Genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , RANK Ligand , RNA, Long Noncoding , Genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828102

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on osteoclasts at different stages of differentiation.@*METHODS@#Raw264.7 cells cultured were induced for osteoclastogenesis using RANKL, and the stages of differentiation of the osteoclasts were determined with TRAP staining. The cells were then randomly divided into control group, early-stage AGEs intervention group and late-stage AGEs intervention group. The viability of the cells after AGEs treatment was assessed using CCK-8 method. The cells were examined after the induction for osteoclastogenesis using TRAP staining, and the expression levels of RANK, NFATC-1, TRAF-6, TRAP and CTSK mRNAs were tested with RT-PCR; the expressions of CTSK and RANK proteins were detected using Western boltting.@*RESULTS@#We defined the initial 3 days of induction as the early stage of differentiation and the time beyond 3 days as the late stage of differentiation of Raw264.7 cells. Intervention with AGEs at 100 mg/L produced no significant effects on the viability of the cells, but AGEs suppressed the cell proliferation at a concentration exceeding 100 mg/L. The number of osteolasts in the early- and late-stage intervention groups was greater than that in the control group, but the cell count differed significantly only between the early-stage intervention group and control group ( < 0.05). The gene expressions of RANK, NFATC-1, TRAF-6, TRAP and CTSK all increased after the application of AGEs in both the early and late stages of differentiation, but the changes were significant only in the early-stage intervention group ( < 0.05). The changes in CTSK and RANK protein expressions were consistent with their mRNA expressions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#AGEs can affect the differentiation of osteoclasts differently when applied at different stages, and intervention with AGEs at the early stage produces stronger effect to promote osteoclast differentiation than its application at a late stage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Resorption , Cell Differentiation , Mice , Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190409, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090768

ABSTRACT

Abstract Menopause induces oral bone loss, leading to various oral diseases. Mastication importantly affects bone metabolism in the jawbone. Objective: To analyze the effect of enhanced masticatory force on osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), and mechano-growth factor (MGF) in alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats and to study the mechanics mechanism of the alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats response to enhanced masticatory force. Methodology: Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation group (fat around the removed ovary + normal hard diet), model group (ovariectomy + normal hard diet), and experimental group (ovariectomy + high hard diet). It was a 2-month experiment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected serum estradiol (E2), osteocalcin (BGP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in rats. Bone histomorphometric indices in the third molar region of maxilla were detected by micro-CT; protein expressions of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in the third molar region of maxilla was detected by Western blot; and gene expression of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in the third molar region of maxilla was detected by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. Results: Comparing with model group, serum E2 in experimental group increased but not significantly, serum BGP and serum ALP in experimental group decreased but not significantly, OPG in experimental group in alveolar bone increased significantly, RANKL in experimental group in alveolar bone decreased significantly, RANKL/OPG ratio in experimental group decreased significantly, MGF in experimental group in alveolar bone increased significantly, bone volume to total volume fraction increased significantly in experimental group, trabecular thickness increased significantly in experimental group, and trabecular separation decreased significantly in experimental group. Conclusion: Enhanced masticatory force affected the expression of OPG, RANKL, and MGF in alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats, improved the quality of jaw bone of ovariectomized rats, and delayed oral bone loss by ovariectomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Bite Force , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Ovariectomy , RANK Ligand/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Alveolar Process/physiopathology , Osteocalcin/blood , Blotting, Western , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Estradiol/blood , X-Ray Microtomography , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e014, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089383

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although dental implants and bone regenerative procedures are important approaches for the reestablishment of esthetics and function in young patients with a history of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), no predictable outcomes have been reported, and the host osteo-immunoinflammatory response may play a relevant role in this context. In view of the lack of molecular investigations into the bone tissue condition of young patients with periodontitis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of bone-related factors in this population. Bone biopsies were obtained from the posterior mandible in 16 individuals previously diagnosed with GAP and on periodontal support therapy and from 17 periodontally healthy (PH) patients. The gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and type I collagen (COL-I), important biomarkers of bone turnover, was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Lower TGF-β and OPG mRNA levels were observed in GAP patients compared to PH individuals (p ≤ 0.05). There were no between-group differences in levels of TNF-α, BSP, RANKL, OC, or COL-I mRNA (p>0.05). In young adults, a history of periodontal disease can negatively modulate the gene expression of important bone-related factors in alveolar bone tissue. These molecular outcomes may contribute to the future development of therapeutic approaches to benefit bone healing in young patients with history of periodontitis via modulation of osteo-immuno-inflammatory biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Aggressive Periodontitis/genetics , Gene Expression , Aggressive Periodontitis/metabolism , Reference Values , Biomarkers , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/genetics , Single-Blind Method , Cross-Sectional Studies , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/genetics , RANK Ligand/analysis , RANK Ligand/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/analysis , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/genetics , Alveolar Process/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135564

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the differences of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) expressions between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic Wistar rats (Rattus Novergicus) during Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM). Material and Methods: This study was true experimental with post-test group only. Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats, weighted around 200-250 grams, 12-20 weeks old, were used as OTM animal study. They were divided into 2 groups (n=16), normoglycemic rats (normal blood glucose 80-120 mg/dl) and hyperglycemic rats (>250 mg/dl) induced by Streptozotocin with a dose of 30 mg in PBS injection intraperitoneally. A NiTi closed coil spring was mounted between maxillary first molar and incisors with the light force 10gf/mm2 in both groups to induce OTM. The studied animals were then terminated on days 1, 3, 6, and 9, respectively, and premaxilla was extracted. RANKL and OPG expression were examined utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD (p<0.05) were utilized to analyze the differences in the expression of RANKL and OPG between groups. Results: The hyperglycemic group on day 1, 9 rats showed a significant increase in the expression of RANKL, whereas OPG expression decreased significantly on days 1, 3, and 9. Conclusion: There was a significant increase of RANKL expression and a decrease of OPG expression in hyperglycemic rats as documented immunohistochemically.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tooth Movement Techniques , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Diabetes Mellitus , RANK Ligand , Hyperglycemia , Immunohistochemistry , Epidemiology, Experimental , Analysis of Variance , Investigative Techniques , Osteoprotegerin , Molar
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 20200000. 81 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1119580

ABSTRACT

Pacientes com cirrose hepática podem desenvolver osteoporose como complicação relacionada ao déficit funcional hepático. O objetivo desse estudo é o de avaliar a presença de proteínas relacionadas ao metabolismo ósseo (RANKL, OPG, IL-1?, IL-6 e TNF-?) na saliva e no sangue de pacientes cirróticos e compará-los com o índice da cortical mandibular (ICM), relacionado à densidade mineral óssea, em radiografias panorâmicas. Trinta e oito pacientes cirróticos foram submetidos à anamnese, exame físico e tiveram amostras de sangue e de saliva não estimulada coletadas. Desses, 22 apresentavam radiografias panorâmicas que foram avaliadas segundo o ICM. As proteínas foram avaliadas através da tecnologia LuminexTM xMAP. Foram considerados estatisticamente significativos valores de p <=0.05. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (68,4%), com idade média de 50,61 anos, média de MELD de 18 pontos no momento da consulta e média de 21,34 meses na fila de espera para o transplante. A análise das radiografias panorâmicas permitiu constatar que a maior parte da amostra apresentava alguma modificação na cortical mandibular sugestiva de alterações osteoporóticas (72,7%). O perfil de expressão das proteínas foi bastante variável no sangue e na saliva. Correlação estatisticamente significativa foi observada entre a expressão salivar de RANKL e OPG em pacientes com ICM alterado. Não foi observada relação estatisticamente significante entre o perfil das proteínas e a etiologia da cirrose, tempo na fila de transplante hepático, idade e sexo dos pacientes. As proteínas RANKL, OPG, IL-1?, IL-6 e TNF-? se comportam de maneira diferente na saliva e no sangue. Valores elevados de RANKL e OPG em saliva estão relacionados com ICM sugestivo de osteoporose em pacientes cirróticos, e propõe-se que esse aumento ocorra devido ao microambiente inflamatório local.


Subject(s)
Osteoporosis , Radiography, Panoramic , RANK Ligand , Osteoprotegerin , Inflammation , Liver Cirrhosis
16.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 180-191, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104226

ABSTRACT

Bone metabolism disorders are characterized by an imbalance of bone resorption and formation in the bone remodeling process. Glucocorticoids that are used to treat kidney diseases exacerbate these disorders. P-selectin and galectin-3 are molecules involved in the sclerotic process in kidney, whereas bone resorption is regulated by the interaction between the nuclear factor activator kappa b receptor (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disruption of bone remodeling regulation processes, reflected by intercellular mediators (RANKL, OPG, P-selectin and galectin-3) in chronic kidney disease experimental model treated with glucocorticoids. Rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. The first group, the control group, included intact animals. The second group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling resulting from chronic kidney disease (experimental group (CKD). The third group was a group of animals with impaired bone remodeling due to exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (GCs)). The fourth group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling in chronic kidney disease, followed by exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (CKD + GCs)). The effects of CKD and glucocorticoid were evaluated biochemically, histologically and by measuring bone density. An enzymelinked immunoassay was used to measure intercellular mediator levels in the serum. The bone density in the experimental groups was reduced compared to the control group. RANKL levels in animals of three experimental groups were higher than in intact animals. Serum levels of OPG were higher in CKD and GCs groups than in intact animals. At the same time, in the animals' blood serum of the CKD + GCs group, the levels of OPG were lower, than those in animals from the control group. The levels of galectin-3 in the serum of the experimental groups GCs and CKD + GCs were lower than in intact animals. The serum levels of galectin-3 in animals of the CKD group were higher than those in animals from the control group. The levels of P-selectin were lower in the serum of the GCs group than in intact animals. At the same time, the levels of P-selectin were higher in the CKD and CKD + GCs groups, than those in animals from the control group. In conclusion, the study of the complex system of bone remodeling regulation, which includes many factors and their interactions, may lead to the development of new methods for treating patients with chronic kidney disease in order to prevent osteoporosis in the future. (AU)


Las enfermedades metabólicas óseas se caracterizan por un desequilibrio en el proceso de remodelación ósea en los que participan mediadores tales como receptor del activador del factor nuclear- kappa- b (RANK), su ligando (RANKL) y la osteoprotegerina (OPG). Los glucocorticoides, recuentemente empleados en el tratamiento de la enfermedad renal crónica, exacerban este desequilibrio. En la enfermedad esclerótica renal, las moléculas de adhesión celular P-selectina and galectina-3 tienen un rol fundamental. El objetivo de esta trabajo fue estudiar las alteraciones en los mediadores de la remodelación ósea (RANKL, OPG, P-selectina and galectina-3) en un modelo de enfermedad renal crónica con tratamiento glucocorticoideo. Ratas Wistar hembras fueron divididos en 4 grupos: control (C); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea (ERC); animales con afección de la remodelación ósea expuestos a glucocorticoides (GC); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea tratados con glucocorticoides (ERC+GC). Los efectos de la ERC y los GC fueron evaluados bioquímicamente, histológicamente y por medición de la densidad ósea. RANKL, OPG, Pselectina and galectina-3 se cuantificaron en muestras de sangre venosa empleando enzimoinmuno análisis. En los 3 grupos experimentales la densidad ósea se evidenció reducida y los niveles séricos de RANKL elevados respecto al grupo control. Los niveles de OPG en los grupos ERC y GC fueron superiores mientras que en el grupo ERC+GC menores respecto a los animales controles. Galectina 3 plasmática en GC y ERC+GC se encontró reducida y aumentada en los animales ERC, en comparación con los animales controles. La concentración sérica de P-selectina sérica fue mayor en los grupos ERC y ERC+GC, y menor en los animales GC respecto a los niveles plasmáticos de los animales intactos. El avance del conocimiento sobre la regulación de la remodelación ósea a través de la interacción de mediadores sistémicos, en un futuro, puede conducir al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas para la prevención de la osteoporosis en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/chemically induced , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Density/drug effects , Chloroform/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , P-Selectin/drug effects , P-Selectin/blood , Galectin 3/drug effects , Galectin 3/blood , RANK Ligand/drug effects , RANK Ligand/blood , Osteoprotegerin/drug effects , Osteoprotegerin/blood , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
17.
Actual. osteol ; 15(1): 34-43, ene. abr. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049002

ABSTRACT

La brucelosis es una de las enfermedades zoonóticas más importantes a nivel mundial capaz de producir enfermedad crónica en los seres humanos. La localización osteoarticular es la presentación más común de la enfermedad activa en el hombre. Sin embargo, algunos de los mecanismos moleculares implicados en la enfermedad osteoarticular han comenzado a dilucidarse recientemente. Brucella abortus induce daño óseo a través de diversos mecanismos en los cuales están implicados TNF-α y RANKL. En estos procesos participan células inflamatorias que incluyen monocitos/macrófagos, neutrófilos, linfocitos T del tipo Th17 y linfocitos B. Además, B. abortus puede afectar directamente las células osteoarticulares. La bacteria inhibe la deposición de la matriz ósea por los osteoblastos y modifica el fenotipo de estas células para producir metaloproteinasas de matriz (MMPs) y la secreción de citoquinas que contribuyen a la degradación del hueso. Por otro lado, la infección por B. abortus induce un aumento en la osteoclastogénesis, lo que aumenta la resorción de la matriz ósea orgánica y mineral y contribuye al daño óseo. Dado que la patología inducida por Brucella afecta el tejido articular, se estudió el efecto de la infección sobre los sinoviocitos. Estos estudios revelaron que, además de inducir la activación de estas células para secretar quemoquinas, citoquinas proinflamatorias y MMPs, la infección inhibe la muerte por apoptosis de los sinoviocitos. Brucella es una bacteria intracelular que se replica en el retículo endoplásmico de los macrófagos. El análisis de los sinoviocitos infectados con B. abortus indicó que las bacterias también se multiplican en el retículo endoplasmático, lo que sugiere que la bacteria podría usar este tipo celular para la multiplicación intracelular durante la localización osteoarticular de la enfermedad. Los hallazgos presentados en esta revisión intentan responder a preguntas sobre los mediadores inflamatorios implicados en el daño osteoarticular causado por Brucella. (AU)


Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases that can produce chronic disease in humans worldwide. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common presentation of human active disease. The molecular mechanisms implicated in bone damage have started to be elucidated. B. abortus induces bone damage through diverse mechanisms in which TNF-α and RANKL are implicated. These processes are driven by inflammatory cells, including monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, Th17 lymphocytes and B cells. Also, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) can directly affect osteoarticular cells. The bacterium inhibits bone matrix deposition by osteoblast and modifies the phenotype of these cells to produce matrix methalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokine secretion that contribute to bone matrix degradation. B. abortus also affects osteoclast increasing mineral and organic bone matrix resorption and contributing to bone damage. Since the pathology induced by Brucella species involves joint tissue, experiments conducted in sinoviocytes revealed that besides inducing the activation of these cells to secrete chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines and MMPS, the infection also inhibits sinoviocyte apoptosis. Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that replicate in the endoplasmic reticulum of macrophages. The analysis of B. abortus infected sinoviocytes indicated that bacteria also replicate in their reticulum suggesting that the bacterium could use this cell type for intracellular replication during the osteoarticular localization of the disease. The findings presented in this review try to answer key questions about the inflammatory mediators involved in osteoarticular damage caused by Brucella. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Brucella abortus/pathogenicity , Brucellosis/pathology , Osteoarthritis/immunology , Osteoblasts/pathology , Osteocytes/microbiology , Osteogenesis/immunology , Brucella abortus/immunology , Brucellosis/etiology , Brucellosis/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Cytokines/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/adverse effects , Matrix Metalloproteinases/chemical synthesis , RANK Ligand/adverse effects , Th17 Cells/pathology , Synoviocytes/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology
18.
Actual. osteol ; 15(1): 57-64, ene. abr. 2019. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049428

ABSTRACT

Los tratamientos para osteoporosis se indican por tiempo variable dependiendo del tipo de droga, anabólica o anticatabólica, y de la gravedad de la enfermedad. Denosumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal totalmente humano que inhibe a RANK-L evitando de esa manera la interacción entre RANKL-RANK, con la consiguiente inhibición de la formación de los osteoclastos, su activación y sobrevida. Disminuye la resorción ósea cortical y trabecular. Su administración subcutánea de 60 mg cada 6 meses al cabo de 3 años ha demostrado reducción de la resorción ósea, incremento de la densidad mineral ósea y disminución de las fracturas vertebrales, no vertebrales y de cadera. Está indicado para el tratamiento de la osteoporosis con alto riesgo de fractura. Su mecanismo de acción es reversible. Se han descripto pérdida de la DMO y elevación de los marcadores de remodelado óseo postsuspensión. Una situación clínica grave son las fracturas vertebrales múltiples postsuspensión. Este evento es infrecuente y se lo atribuye a un rebote del remodelado óseo, postulándose se postula una predisposición especial, probablemente relacionada con microRNA. Se escriben dos mujeres con osteoporosis que presentaron este cuadro. Las fracturas ocurrieron entre 7 y 10 meses posteriores a la última dosis de denosumab. Registraron elevación de C-telopéptidos y disminución de la DMO conjuntamente con las fracturas vertebrales agudas en cascada. (AU)


The duration of osteoporosis treatments depends on the drug type, anabolic or anticatabolic, and the severity of the disease. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inactivates RANK-L, inhibiting the RANKL-RANK interaction . This inhibits osteoclast formation, activation, and survival. It also reduces cortical and trabecular bone resorption. Subcutaneous administration of 60 mg every 6 months for 3 years has reduced bone resorption, increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased vertebral, non-vertebral and hip fractures. It is indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis with high risk of fracture. Denosumab mechanism of action is reversible. After discontinuation, loss of BMD and elevation of bone turnover markers have been observed. In addition, multiple vertebral fractures after the suspension of the drug have been reported. These rebound-associated vertebral fractures are rare. A special genetic predisposition related to miRNA has been proposed. Two women with this clinical presentation are described. Fractures occurred between 7 and 10 months respectively after the last dose of denosumab. They presented with an increase in circulating C-telopeptid levels and a decrease inBMD with acute multiple vertebral fractures. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Spinal Fractures/drug therapy , Denosumab/adverse effects , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Menopause , Biomarkers , Bone Density/drug effects , Calcium/administration & dosage , Spinal Fractures/prevention & control , Charybdotoxin/analysis , Calcium Citrate/administration & dosage , Alendronate/administration & dosage , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , RANK Ligand/drug effects , Denosumab/administration & dosage , Tobacco Smoking , Zoledronic Acid/administration & dosage , Ibandronic Acid/administration & dosage , Indapamide/administration & dosage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the most widely used brominated flame-retardants, is a representative persistent organic pollutants group. Studies on TBBPA toxicity have been conducted using various target cells; however, few studies have investigated TBBPA toxicity in bone cells. Therefore, this study investigated the in vitro effects of TBBPA on osteoclasts, a cell type involved in bone metabolism. METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were cultured in medium containing 50 ng/mL receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and varying concentrations of TBBPA. To evaluate the effects of TBBPA on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, osteoclast-specific gene expression, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, bone resorbing activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial superoxide were measured. RESULTS: The presence of 20 μM TBBPA significantly increased TRAP activity in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts, and the gene expression of Akt2, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1, and chloride channel voltage-sensitive 7. However, TBBPA treatment caused no change in the expression of carbonic anhydrase II, cathepsin K, osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1, Src, extracellular signal-related kinase, GAB2, c-Fos, or matrix metalloproteinase 9. Furthermore, 20 μM TBBPA caused a significant decrease in MMP and a significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide production. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that TBBPA promotes osteoclast differentiation and activity. The mechanism of TBBPA-stimulated osteoclastogenesis might include increased expression of several genes involved in osteoclast differentiation and reactive oxygen species production.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Carbonic Anhydrase II , Cathepsin K , Chloride Channels , Cytoplasm , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Osteoclasts , Phosphotransferases , RANK Ligand , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B , Superoxides , T-Lymphocytes
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764046

ABSTRACT

Piperlongumine (PL) is a natural product found in long pepper (Piper longum). The pharmacological effects of PL are well known, and it has been used for pain, hepatoprotection, and asthma in Oriental medicine. No studies have examined the effects of PL on bone tissue or bone-related diseases, including osteoporosis. The current study investigated for the first time the inhibitory effects of PL on osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, and osteoclastogenesis-related factors in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by the receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Cytotoxicity was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and pit formation analysis. Osteoclast differentiation factors were confirmed by western blotting. PL exhibited toxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages, inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorption, in addition to inhibiting the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related factors, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), c-Fos, and NFATc1, in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. These findings suggest that PL is suitable for the treatment of osteoporosis, and it serves as a potential therapeutic agent for various bone diseases.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Asthma , Blotting, Western , Bone and Bones , Bone Diseases , Bone Resorption , Macrophages , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Osteoclasts , Osteoporosis , Piper , RANK Ligand , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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