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1.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 950-956, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010103

ABSTRACT

Due to the advancement of 16S rRNA sequencing technology, the lower respiratory tract microbiota, which was considered non-existent, has been revealed. The correlation between these microorganisms and diseases such as tumor has been a hot topic in recent years. As the bacteria in the surrounding can infiltrate the tumors, researchers have also begun to pay attention to the biological behavior of tumor bacteria and their interaction with tumors. In this review, we present the characteristic of the lower respiratory tract bacteria and summarize recent research findings on the relationship between these microbiota and lung cancer. On top of that, we also summarize the basic feature of bacteria in tumors and focus on the characteristic of the bacteria in lung cancer. The relationship between bacteria in lung cancer and tumor development is also been discussed. Finally, we review the potential clinical applications of bacterial communities in the lower respiratory tract and lung cancer, and summarize key points of sample collection, sequencing, and contamination control, hoping to provide new ideas for the screening and treatment of tumors.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Microbiota , Respiratory System , Lung/microbiology
2.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 1-1, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010714

ABSTRACT

The reduction of nitrate to nitrite by the oral microbiota has been proposed to be important for oral health and results in nitric oxide formation that can improve cardiometabolic conditions. Studies of bacterial composition in subgingival plaque suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria are associated with periodontal health, but the impact of periodontitis on nitrate-reducing capacity (NRC) and, therefore, nitric oxide availability has not been evaluated. The current study aimed to evaluate how periodontitis affects the NRC of the oral microbiota. First, 16S rRNA sequencing data from five different countries were analyzed, revealing that nitrate-reducing bacteria were significantly lower in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05 in all five datasets with n = 20-82 samples per dataset). Secondly, subgingival plaque, saliva, and plasma samples were obtained from 42 periodontitis patients before and after periodontal treatment. The oral NRC was determined in vitro by incubating saliva with 8 mmol/L nitrate (a concentration found in saliva after nitrate-rich vegetable intake) and compared with the NRC of 15 healthy individuals. Salivary NRC was found to be diminished in periodontal patients before treatment (P < 0.05) but recovered to healthy levels 90 days post-treatment. Additionally, the subgingival levels of nitrate-reducing bacteria increased after treatment and correlated negatively with periodontitis-associated bacteria (P < 0.01). No significant effect of periodontal treatment on the baseline saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite levels was found, indicating that differences in the NRC may only be revealed after nitrate intake. Our results suggest that an impaired NRC in periodontitis could limit dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide levels, and the effect on systemic health should be explored in future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nitrates , Nitric Oxide , Nitrites , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacteria , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics
3.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 19-30, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study was to assess the impact of bisphenol A (BPA) and its substitute, bisphenol F (BPF), on the colonic fecal community structure and function of mice.@*METHODS@#We exposed 6-8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice to 5 mg/(kg∙day) and 50 μg/(kg∙day) of BPA or BPF for 14 days. Fecal samples from the colon were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Gut microbiome community richness and diversity, species composition, and function were significantly altered in mice exposed to BPA or BPF. This change was characterized by elevated levels of Ruminococcaceae UCG-010 and Oscillibacter and decreased levels of Prevotella 9 and Streptococcus. Additionally, pathways related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism showed substantial enrichment.@*CONCLUSION@#Mice exposed to different BP analogs exhibited distinct gut bacterial community richness, composition, and related metabolic pathways. Considering the essential role of gut bacteria in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, our study highlights the intestinal toxicity of BPs in vertebrates.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Bacteria/genetics , Phenols
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 162-171, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Links between alterations in gut microbiota composition and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have previously been reported. This study aimed to examine the microbiota in the nasal cavity of ALS.@*METHODS@#Sixty-six ALS patients and 40 healthy caregivers who live in close proximity with patients were enrolled. High throughput metagenomic sequencing of the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) gene V3-V4 region of nasal microbiota was used to characterize the alpha and beta diversity and relative abundance of bacterial taxa, predict function, and conduct correlation analysis between specific taxa and clinical features.@*RESULTS@#The nasal microbiome of ALS patients showed lower alpha diversity than that of corresponding healthy family members. Genera Gaiella , Sphingomonas , Polaribacter _1, Lachnospiraceae _NK4A136_group, Klebsiella , and Alistipes were differentially enriched in ALS patients compared to controls. Nasal microbiota composition in ALS patients significantly differed from that in healthy subjects (unweighted UniFrac P = 0.001), while Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis indicated that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes dominated healthy nasal communities at the phylum level, whereas Actinobacteria was the predominant phylum and Thermoleophilia was the predominant class in ALS patients. Genus Faecalibacterium and Alistipes were positively correlated with ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R; rs = 0.349, P = 0.020 and rs = 0.393, P = 0.008), while Prevotella -9 and Bacteroides operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were positively associated with lung function (FVC) in ALS patients ( rs = 0.304, P = 0.045, and rs = 0.300, P = 0.048, respectively). Prevotella -1 was positively correlated with white blood cell counts (WBC, rs = 0.347, P = 0.021), neutrophil percentage (Neu%, rs = 0.428, P = 0.004), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, rs = 0.411, P = 0.006), but negatively correlated with lymphocyte percentage (Lym%, rs = -0.408, P = 0.006). In contrast, Streptococcus was negatively associated with Neu% ( rs = -0.445, P = 0.003) and NLR ( rs = -0.436, P = 0.003), while positively associated with Lym% ( rs = 0.437, P = 0.003). No significant differences in nasal microbiota richness and evenness were detected among the severe and mild ALS patients.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ALS is accompanied by altered nasal microbial community composition and diversity. The findings presented here highlight the need to understand how dysbiosis of nasal microbiota may contribute to the development of ALS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

ABSTRACT

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lizards , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 286-296, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430539

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and colorectal cancer is the only cancer that has shown a sustained increase in mortality in the last decade. In the search for new chemotherapeutic agents against cancer, extremophilic microorganisms have shown to be a potential source to obtain molecules of natural origin and with selective cytotoxic action towards cancer cells. In this work we analyzed the ability of a collection of Antarctic soil bacteria, isolated on Collins Glacier from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica Desv plant, to secrete molecules capable of inhibiting cell proliferation of a colorectal cancer tumor line. Our results demonstrated that culture supernatants from the Antarctic bacteria K2I17 and MI12 decreased the viability of LoVo cells, a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the Antarctic bacteria showed that they were taxonomically related and nucleotide identity analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the bacterium K2I17 as a species belonging to the genus Bacillus.


El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y el cáncer colorrectal es el único que presenta un aumento sostenido de la mortalidad en la última década. En la búsqueda de nuevos agentes quimioterapeúticos contra el cáncer, se ha propuesto a los microorganismos extremófilos como una fuente potencial para obtener moléculas de origen natural y con acción citotóxica selectiva hacia las células cancerígenas. En este trabajo analizamos la capacidad de una colección de bacterias de suelo antártico, aisladas en el glaciar Collins desde rizosfera de la planta de Deschampsia antarctica Desv, de secretar moléculas capaces de inhibir la proliferación celular de una línea tumoral de cáncer colorrectal. Nuestros resultados demostraron que los sobrenadantes de cultivo de las bacterias antárticas K2I17 y MI12 disminuyeron la viabilidad de la línea celular de adenocarcinoma colorrectal LoVo, en un ensayo de reducción metabólica de MTT. La caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de las bacterias antárticas, demostró que estaban relacionadas taxonómicamente y el análisis de la identidad nucleotídica en base a la secuencia del gen ARNr 16S identificó a la bacteria K2I17 como una especie perteneciente al género Bacillus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/physiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Phenotype , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/genetics , In Vitro Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Survival/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Genotype , Antarctic Regions
8.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 131-142, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970766

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect and analyze the characteristics of oral microbiota in species composition, function and metabolism among caries, periodontitis and oral healthy individuals, hunting for the microbiome-derived biomarkers with specificity and sensitivity to estimate the occurrence of these two diseases. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with high caries risk [decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT)≥6, HC group] in Department of Endodontics, 10 patients with periodontitis of grade Ⅱ A-Ⅲ C (PG group) in Department of Periodontology and 10 oral healthy individuals (HH group) from School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University during from March 2022 to June 2022. A baseline examination was conducted on all participants, including their oral conditions of caries and periodontal health. Metagenomic sequencing (Illumina PE150 platform) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and their metabolites in the samples respectively. The sequencing data were analyzed to obtain the information of microbial taxonomic composition, functional genes and metabolites in each group of samples. The basic oral conditions and saliva samples of subjects in each group were evaluated and collected by the same professional endodontist. Results: There were no significant difference in baseline characteristics such as age and sex among the subjects in each group (P>0.05). DMFT in HC group (9.0±1.7) was significantly higher than that in HH group (0) and PG group (0) (F=243.00, P<0.001). Sequencing data analysis showed that the taxonomic compositions of salivary microbiota in each group were mainly Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria at the phylum level, and Streptococcus, Neisseria, Rothia, Prevotella at the genus level. Differential analysis showed that, compared with the HH group, HC group and PG group had significant differences in taxonomic composition (P<0.05), and the most significant among them was Prevotella. At the species level, Prevotella pallens was the most significant change in HC group, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in PG group. Metabolite analysis showed that there were significant differences in metabolites between HC group and PG group. The results showed that, compared with the HH group, the most significant metabolite change was 3-hydroxy-1, 5-diphenylpentan-1-one in HC group (P=0.001) and N1 acetylspermine in PG group (P=0.002) respectively. Compared with the PG group, the metabolite of HC group with the most significant difference is D-glucosamine 6-phosphate (P=0.006). The metabolism gene function analysis showed that, the enrichment of carbohydrate metabolism related genes was highest in HC group, followed with HH group, and it was lowest in PG group. In addition, compared with the HH group, the abundance of functional genes related to glucose metabolism, such as ABC transporter and phosphotransferase system, were significantly decreased in PG group (P<0.05), but significantly increased in HC group (P<0.05). Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between the alternation of carbohydrate metabolism of salivary microbiota with the occurrence of caries and periodontitis. In the future, Prevotella pallens and 3-hydroxy-1, 5-diphenylpentan-1-one may be the potential biomarkers of caries; while Porphyromonas gingivalis and N1 acetylspermine work in the predictions of periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva/microbiology , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Periodontitis/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1319-1329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970603

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of the total ginsenosides from Panax ginseng stems and leaves on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury(ALI) in mice. Sixty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves normal administration group(61.65 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-, medium-, and high-dose total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves groups(15.412 5, 30.825, and 61.65 mg·kg~(-1)). Mice were administered for seven continuous days before modeling. Twenty-four hours after modeling, mice were sacrificed to obtain lung tissues and calculate lung wet/dry ratio. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) was detected. The levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in BALF were detected. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the levels of myeloperoxidase(MPO), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and malondialdehyde(MDA) in lung tissues were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes in lung tissues. The gut microbiota was detected by 16S rRNA sequencing, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) was applied to detect the content of short-chain fatty acids(SCFAs) in se-rum. The results showed that the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves could reduce lung index, lung wet/dry ratio, and lung damage in LPS-induced ALI mice, decrease the number of inflammatory cells and levels of inflammatory factors in BALF, inhibit the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory factors and levels of MPO and MDA in lung tissues, and potentiate the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in lung tissues. Furthermore, they could also reverse the gut microbiota disorder, restore the diversity of gut microbiota, increase the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Muribaculaceae, decrease the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae, and enhance the content of SCFAs(acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) in serum. This study suggested that the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves could improve lung edema, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in ALI mice by regulating gut microbiota and SCFAs metabolism.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Panax/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , RNA, Messenger
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4693-4701, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008636

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the effect and underlying mechanism of Puerariae Lobatae Radix on insulin resistance in db/db mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) based on the analysis of intestinal flora. Fifty db/db mice were randomly divided into a model group(M group), a metformin group(YX group), a high-dose Puerariae Lobatae Radix group(YGG group), a medium-dose Puerariae Lobatae Radix group(YGZ group), and a low-dose Puerariae Lobatae Radix group(YGD group). Another 10 db/m mice were assigned to the normal group(K group). After continuous administration for eight weeks, body weight and blood sugar of mice were measured. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect glycosylated serum protein(GSP) and fasting serum insulin(FINS), and insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR) was calculated. The histopathological changes in the pancreas were observed by HE staining. Tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α expression in the pancreas was detected using immunohistochemistry. The structural changes in fecal intestinal flora in the K, M, and YGZ groups were detected by 16S rRNA. Western blot was used to detect the expression of farnesoid X receptor(FXR) and takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5(TGR5) in the ileum, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase(CYP7A1) and sterol 27α-hydroxylase(CYP27A1) in the liver, and G protein-coupled receptors 41(GPR41) and 43(GPR43) in the colon. Compared with the K group, the M group showed increased body weight, blood sugar, serum GSP, fasting blood glucose(FBG), and FINS, increased HOMA-IR, inflammatory infiltration of islet cells, necrosis and degeneration of massive acinar cells, unclear boundary between islet cells and acinar cells, disturbed intestinal flora, and down-regulated FXR, TGR5, CYP7A1, CYP27A1, GPR41, and GPR43. Compared with the M group, the YX, YGG, YGZ, and YGD groups showed decreased body weight, blood sugar, serum GSP, FBG, and FINS, islet cells with intact and clumpy morphology and clear boundary, necrosis of a few acinar cells, and more visible islet cells. The intestinal flora in the YGZ group changed from phylum to genus levels, and the relative abundance of intestinal flora affecting the metabolites of intestinal flora increased. The protein expression of FXR, TGR5, CYP7A1, CYP27A1, GPR41, and GPR43 increased. The results show that Puerariae Lobatae Radix can improve the inflammatory damage of pancreatic islet cells and reduce insulin resistance in db/db mice with T2DM. The mechanism of action may be related to the increase in the abundance of Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides in the intestinal tract and the protein expression related to metabolites of intestinal flora.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Insulin Resistance , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Pueraria/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Body Weight , Necrosis
11.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 723-729, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010985

ABSTRACT

Many natural products can be bio-converted by the gut microbiota to influence pertinent efficiency. Ginsenoside compound K (GCK) is a potential anti-type 2 diabetes (T2D) saponin, which is mainly bio-transformed into protopanaxadiol (PPD) by the gut microbiota. Studies have shown that the gut microbiota between diabetic patients and healthy subjects are significantly different. Herein, we aimed to characterize the biotransformation of GCK mediated by the gut microbiota from diabetic patients and healthy subjects. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the results indicated the bacterial profiles were considerably different between the two groups, especially Alistipes and Parabacteroides that increased in healthy subjects. The quantitative analysis of GCK and PPD showed that gut microbiota from the diabetic patients metabolized GCK slower than healthy subjects through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The selected strain A. finegoldii and P. merdae exhibited a different metabolic capability of GCK. In conclusion, the different biotransformation capacity for GCK may impact its anti-diabetic potency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Healthy Volunteers , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Feces/microbiology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Biotransformation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
12.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 927-932, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the composition and metabolites of gut microbiota in septic rats by fecal 16s rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics, and to preliminarily explore the effect and potential mechanism of gut microbiota and its metabolites on inflammatory response and multiple organ damage in sepsis.@*METHODS@#Ten males healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a sham operated group (Sham group) and sepsis model group (CLP group) using a random number table method, with 5 rats in each group. A rat sepsis model was established by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) method. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours after modeling, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung and kidney tissues, and the pathological scores were evaluated. Fecal samples were collected, and 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing and non-targeted metabolomics were used to screen microbiota, metabolites and potential signal pathways that may play an important role in disease outcomes. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted to jointly analyze the gut microbiota and non-targeted metabolism.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the Sham group, the degree of pathological damage to lung and kidney tissues in the CLP group was significantly increased (lung tissue score: 3.60±0.80 vs. 0.00±0.00, kidney tissue score: 2.40±0.80 vs. 0.00±0.00, both P < 0.01), the level of IL-6 and TNF-α in peripheral blood significantly increased [TNF-α (ng/L): 248.12±55.98 vs. 143.28±36.57, IL-6 (ng/L): 260.26±39.47 vs. 116.01±26.43, both P < 0.05], the species diversity of intestinal flora of rats in the CLP group was significantly reduced, the relative abundance of Morganella, Bacteroides and Escherichia-Shigella were significantly increased, and the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae NK4A136, Ruminococcus, Romboutsia and Roseburia were significantly reduced. In addition, the biosynthesis and bile secretion of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan in the gut microbiota of the CLP group were significantly increased, while the biosynthesis of secondary bile acids was significantly reduced. There was a significant correlation between differential metabolites and differential microbiota.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Sepsis can cause significant changes in the characteristics of gut microbiota and fecal metabolites in rats, which provides a basis for translational research to seek new targets for the treatment of sepsis.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Wistar , Sepsis
13.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 155-161, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanisms of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) modulating the gut microbiome and trimethylamine oxide (TAMO) to exert cardioprotective effects.@*METHODS@#Ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery was performed in rats to induce heart failure (HF). Except for the sham-operation group (n=10), 36 operation-induced models were randomized into 3 groups using a random number table (n=12 in each group): the model group, the BYHWD group (15.02 g/kg BYHWD), and the positive group (4.99 g/kg metoprolol succinate). After 4-week treatment (once daily by gavage), echocardiography was applied to evaluate the cardiac function and the Tei index (the ratio of ventricular isovolumic contraction time (IVCT) and isovolumic diastolic time (IVRT) to ejection time (ET)) was calculated; hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was observed to characterize the pathology of the myocardium and small intestinal villi. D-lactic acid was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of occludin, claudin-1, and zonula occludens (ZO-1) were detected by Western blot. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) sequencing was used to explore the changes in the intestinal flora. TMAO was detected via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).@*RESULTS@#In the echocardiography, the Tei index was considerably lower in the positive and BYHWD groups compared with the model group (P<0.05). Besides, BYHWD improved the pathology of myocardium and small intestine of HF rats and lowered the D-lactic acid content in the serum, when compared with the model group (P<0.05). BYHWD also improved the expression of occludin and claudin-1 (P<0.05); in the gut microbiota analysis, BYHWD slowed down modifications in the structure distribution of gut microbiota and regulated the diversity of intestinal flora in HF rats. The content of TMAO in the serum was significantly lowered by BYWHT compared with the model group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#BYHWD may delay progression of HF by enhancing the intestinal barrier structure, and regulating intestinal flora and TAMO.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Chromatography, Liquid , Claudin-1 , Occludin , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Heart Failure
14.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 124-132, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the gut microbiota in newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1-2 and the association between the gut microbiota and the clinical risk factors of IgA nephropathy.@*METHODS@#Fresh fecal samples were collected from nineteen newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients with CKD stages 1-2 and fifteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Fecal bacterial DNA was extracted and microbiota composition were characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) high-throughput sequencing for the V3-V4 region. The Illumina Miseq platform was used to analyze the results of 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing of fecal flora. At the same time, the clinical risk factors of IgA nephropathy patients were collected to investigate the association between the gut microbiota and the clinical risk factors.@*RESULTS@#(1) At the phylum level, the abundance of Bacteroidetes was significantly reduced (P=0.046), and the abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased (P=0.001). At the genus level, the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella, Bifidobacte-rium, Dorea and others were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The abundance of Lachnospira, Coprococcus_2 and Sutterella was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). (2) There was no significant difference in the abundance of gut microbiota between the newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients and the healthy control group (P>0.05), but there were differences in the structure of the gut microbiota between the two groups. The results of LEfSe analysis showed that there were 16 differential bacteria in the newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients and healthy controls. Among them, the abundance of the newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients was increased in Enterobacteriales, Actinobacteria, Escherichia-Shigella, etc. The healthy control group was increased in Bacteroidetes and Lachnospira. (3) The result of redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Bifidobacterium was positively correlated with serum IgA levels, 24-hour urinary protein levels and the presence of hypertension. Lachnoclostridium was positively correlated with the presence of hypertension. Escherichia-Shigella was positively correlated with urine red blood cells account. Bifidobacterium was positively correlated with the proliferation of capillaries. Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with cell/fibrocytic crescents. Ruminococcus_2 was positively correlated with mesangial cell proliferation, glomerular segmental sclerosis and renal tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis.@*CONCLUSION@#The gut microbiota in the newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients with CKD stages 1-2 is different from that of the healthy controls. Most importantly, some gut bacteria are related to the clinical risk factors of IgA nephropathy. Further research is needed to understand the potential role of these bacteria in IgA nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Bacteria/genetics , Risk Factors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
15.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 30-37, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To describe the submucosal microbial profiles of peri-implantitis and healthy implants, and to explore bacteria that might be correlated with clinical parameters.@*METHODS@#In the present cross-sectional study, 49 patients were recruited. Each patient contributed with one implant, submucosal biofilms were collected from 20 healthy implants and 29 implants with peri-implantitis. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes were amplified. Submucosal biofilms were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing at Illumina MiSeq platform. Differences between the groups were determined by analyzing α diversity, microbial component and microbial structure. The potential correlation between the bacteria with pocket probing depth (PPD) of peri-implant calculated by Spearman correlation analysis.@*RESULTS@#The α diversity of submucosal microbial of health group was significantly lower than that in peri-implantitis group (Chao1 index: 236.85±66.13 vs. 150.54±57.43, P < 0.001; Shannon index: 3.42±0.48 vs. 3.02±0.65, P=0.032). Principal coordinated analysis showed that the submucosal microbial structure had significant difference between healthy and peri-implantitis groups [R2=0.243, P=0.001, analysis of similarities (ANOSIM)]. Compared with healthy implants, relative abundance of periodontal pathogens were higher in peri-implantitis, including members of the red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola) and some members of orange complex (Precotella intermedia, Eubacterium nodatum, Parvimonas micra), as well as some new periodontal pathogens, such as Fillifactor alocis, Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Desulfobulbus sp._HMT_041, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the relative abundance of Treponema denticola (r=0.686, P < 0.001), Tannerella forsythia (r=0.675, P < 0.001), Fretibacterium sp. (r=0.671, P < 0.001), Desulfobulbus sp._HMT_041 (r=0.664, P < 0.001), Filifactor alocis (r=0.642, P < 0.001), Fretibacterium fastidiosum (r=0.604, P < 0.001), Porphyromonas gingivalis (r=0.597, P < 0.001), Porphyromonas endodontalis (r=0.573, P < 0.001) were positive correlated with PPD. While the relative abundance of Rothia aeria (r=-0.615, P < 0.001) showed negatively correlation with PPD.@*CONCLUSION@#Marked differences were observed in the microbial profiles of healthy implants and peri-implantitis. The members of red and orange complex as well as some new periodontal pathogens seem to play an important role in peri-implant disease. Compared with healthy implants, the submucosal microbial of peri-implantitis were characterized by high species richness and diversity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peri-Implantitis/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Bacterial Load , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Dental Implants
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3670-3680, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007984

ABSTRACT

Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) is an oral anaerobic bacterium that has recently been found to colonize on the surface of colorectal cancer cells in humans, and its degree of enrichment is highly negatively correlated with the prognosis of tumor treatment. Numerous studies have shown that Fn is involved in the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), and Fn interacts with multiple components in the tumor microenvironment to increase tumor resistance. In recent years, researchers have begun using nanomedicine to inhibit Fn's proliferation at the tumor site or directly target Fn to treat CRC. This review summarizes the mechanism of Fn in promoting CRC and the latest research progress on Fn-related CRC therapy using different nanomaterials. Finally, the applications perspective of nanomaterials in Fn-promoted CRC therapy was prospected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genetics , Base Composition , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1157-1164, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of moxibustion at "Mingmen" (GV 4) and "Guanyuan" (CV 4) on immune function and intestinal flora in healthy rats, thereby investigating the underlying mechanism of moxibustion on immune function.@*METHODS@#Twenty 8-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into a young blank group and a young moxibustion group, with 10 rats in each group. Similarly, twenty 8-month-old SD rats were randomly divided into a middle-aged blank group and a middle-aged moxibustion group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the two moxibustion groups received moxibustion at "Mingmen" (GV 4) and "Guanyuan" (CV 4), 15 min per session, once daily, five times a week, for a total of four months. The rats in the two blank groups were fed under normal conditions. After the intervention, thymus and spleen indexes were calculated; the morphology of thymus and spleen tissues was observed using HE staining; the flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of CD and CD T lymphocytes and the CD/CD ratio was calculated; ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-17 (IL-17); 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the intestinal flora. Additionally, the correlation between the relative abundance of intestinal flora and serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17 was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the young blank group, the young moxibustion group exhibited an increase in the cortical area of thymus tissue with tighter lymphocyte arrangement; compared with the middle-aged blank group, the middle-aged moxibustion group showed an increase in thymus index (P<0.05) and an increase in the cortical area of thymus tissue. There were no significant differences in spleen index between the 2 moxibustion groups and the 2 blank groups (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the expression of CD, CD, and CD/CD ratio between the 2 moxibustion groups and the corresponding blank groups (P>0.05). Compared with the young blank group, the young moxibustion group had elevated IL-6 level (P<0.05); compared with the middle-aged blank group, the middle-aged moxibustion group had decreased IL-10 and IL-17 levels (P<0.05). Compared with the young blank group, the young moxibustion group exhibited increased Sobs index, Ace index, and Chao index (P<0.01, P<0.05), as well as increased relative abundance of Spirochaetota, Treponema, Turicibacter, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group (P<0.05), and decreased relative abundance of Dubosiella (P<0.05). Compared with the middle-aged blank group, the middle-aged moxibustion group had increased relative abundance of Spirochaetota, Treponema, norank_f_Peptococcaceae (P<0.05), and decreased relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Allobaculum, and Faecalibaculum (P<0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that relative abundance of Eubacterium_xylanophilum_group and unclassified _f_Lachnospiraceae was negatively correlated with serum TNF-α level (r=-0.39, P=0.03; r=-0.24, P=0.04), while relative abundance of norank_f_norank_o_Clostridia_UCG-014 and Lactobacillus was positively correlated with serum TNF-α level (r=0.37, P=0.04; r=0.43, P=0.02). The relative abundance of Roseburia and Monoglobus was negatively correlated with serum IFN-γ level (r=-0.40, P=0.02; r=-0.44, P=0.01), while relative abundance of Lactobacillus was positively correlated with serum IL-10 level (r=0.43, P=0.02).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could improve immune function in healthy rats, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of relative abundance of intestinal flora.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Moxibustion , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-17 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Interferon-gamma , Immunity
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 525-533, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970489

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the recovery effect of Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription on intestinal flora homeostasis control and intestinal mucosal barrier in type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet. NAFLD was established in MKR transgenic mice(T2DM mice) by a high-fat diet(HFD), and subsequently treated for 8 weeks with Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription(7.5, 15 g·kg~(-1)) and metformin(0.067 g·kg~(-1)). Triglyceride and liver function were assessed using serum. The hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining were used to stain the liver tissue, while HE staining and AB-PAS staining were used to stain the intestine tissue. 16S rRNA sequencing was utilized to track the changes in the intestinal flora of the mice in each group. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and immunofluorescence were used to determine the protein and mRNA expression levels of ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1. The results demonstrated that Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription increased the body mass of T2DM mice with NAFLD and decreased the hepatic index. It down-regulated the serum biomarkers of liver function and dyslipidemia such as alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate transaminase(AST), and triglycerides(TG), increased insulin sensitivity, and improved glucose tolerance. According to the results of 16S rRNA sequencing, the Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription altered the composition and abundance of the intestinal flora, increasing the relative abundances of Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Bacteroidota and decreasing the relative abundances of Lachnospiraceae, Firmicutes, Deslfobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Desulfovibrionaceae. According to the pathological examination of the intestinal mucosa, Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescritpion increased the expression levels of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1, promoted intestinal mucosa repair, protected intestinal villi, and increased the height of intestinal mucosa villi and the number of goblet cells. By enhancing intestinal mucosal barrier repair and controlling intestinal microbiota homeostasis, Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Prescription reduces intestinal mucosal damage induced by T2DM and NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Occludin/pharmacology , Claudin-1/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Liver , Triglycerides/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Homeostasis , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1175-1187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970431

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the changes of bacterial community structure and function in the early, middle and late stage of aerobic composting of chicken manure, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods were used to determine and analyze the 16S rRNA sequence of samples at different stages of composting. Wayne analysis showed that most of the bacterial OTUs in the three composting stages were the same, and only about 10% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed stage specificity. The diversity indexes including Ace, Chao1 and Simpson showed a trend of increasing at first, followed by decreasing. However, there was no significant difference among different composting stages (P < 0.05). The dominant bacteria groups in three composting stages were analyzed at the phylum and genus levels. The dominant bacteria phyla at three composting stages were the same, but the abundances were different. LEfSe (line discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size) method was used to analyze the bacterial biological markers with statistical differences among three stages of composting. From the phylum to genus level, there were 49 markers with significant differences among different groups. The markers included 12 species, 13 genera, 12 families, 8 orders, 1 boundary, and 1 phylum. The most biomarkers were detected at early stage while the least biomarkers were detected at late stage. The microbial diversity was analyzed at the functional pathway level. The function diversity was the highest in the early stage of composting. Following the composting, the microbial function was enriched relatively while the diversity decreased. This study provides theoretical support and technical guidance for the regulation of livestock manure aerobic composting process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Manure/microbiology , Chickens/genetics , Composting , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Soil , Bacteria/genetics
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 253-268, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) are two of the most common elements contaminating groundwater resources. A growing number of studies have found that As and F can cause neurotoxicity in infants and children, leading to cognitive, learning, and memory impairments. However, early biomarkers of learning and memory impairment induced by As and/or F remain unclear. In the present study, the mechanisms by which As and/or F cause learning memory impairment are explored at the multi-omics level (microbiome and metabolome).@*METHODS@#We stablished an SD rats model exposed to arsenic and/or fluoride from intrauterine to adult period.@*RESULTS@#Arsenic and/fluoride exposed groups showed reduced neurobehavioral performance and lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that As and/or F exposure significantly altered the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome,featuring the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Ruminococcus_1, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, [Eubacterium]_xylanophilum_group. Metabolome analysis showed that As and/or F-induced learning and memory impairment may be related to tryptophan, lipoic acid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) synapse, and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The gut microbiota, metabolites, and learning memory indicators were significantly correlated.@*CONCLUSION@#Learning memory impairment triggered by As and/or F exposure may be mediated by different gut microbes and their associated metabolites.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Fluorides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Metabolome , Microbiota
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