Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 225
Filter
1.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(3)jul-set. 2023.
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1512687

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A radioterapia é utilizada no tratamento do câncer de mama. No planejamento radioterápico, há formas de desenvolver o plano de tratamento, como a radioterapia 3D conformacional (3D-CRT), a radioterapia de intensidade modulada (IMRT) e a arcoterapia volumétrica modulada (VMAT). Objetivo: Comparar as doses nos órgãos de risco e no volume-alvo de tratamento com as diferentes técnicas de planejamento: 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT e VMAT modificada para o tratamento do câncer de mama em um phantom antropomórfico. Método: O plano de tratamento foi realizado no sistema Eclipse™ v.15.6 da Varian a partir de imagens de tomografia computadorizada adquiridas de phantom. A dose de prescrição estabelecida foi de 45 Gy em 25 frações de 1,8 Gy/dia. Resultados: Sobre a cobertura do volume do alvo planejado (PTV), as técnicas 3D-CRT (FILTRO e field-in-field ­ FIF) demonstram cobertura inferior comparada aos planos de IMRT e VMAT. Já o plano 3D-CRT-FIF apresenta maior homogeneidade comparado ao 3D-CRT-FILTRO. Para o pulmão contralateral, os planos de 3D-CRT (FIF, FILTRO) obtiveram restrições melhores em relação aos demais planos. Sobre a exposição cardíaca, os planos 3D-CRT (FIF, FILTRO) apresentaram maiores benefícios do que as técnicas IMRT, VMAT e VMAT modificada. Conclusão: As técnicas convencionais 3D-CRT (FIF, FILTRO) apresentaram menores doses nos órgãos de risco. Contudo, as técnicas IMRT e VMAT obtiveram melhor homogeneidade e conformidade da dose distribuída no PTV ao comparar as técnicas convencionais.


Introduction: Radiotherapy is utilized to treat breast cancer. For radiotherapy planning, there are several ways to develop the treatment plan, such as 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Objective: To compare the doses to risk organs and treatment target volume with different planning techniques, 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT and modified VMAT for the treatment of breast cancer in an anthropomorphic phantom. Method: The treatment plan was performed in the Eclipse™ v.15.6 system by Varian from CT images acquired from phantom. The established prescription dose was 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8Gy/day. Results: For the planning target volume (PTV) coverage, 3D-CRT techniques (FILTER and field-in-field ­ FIF) showed inferior coverage compared to IMRT and VMAT plans. The 3D-CRT-FIF plan, on the other hand, shows greater homogeneity when compared to 3D-CRT-FILTER. For the contralateral lung, the 3D-CRT plans (FIF, FILTER) have better restrictions when compared with the other plans. On cardiac exposure, the 3D-CRT (FIF, FILTER) plans showed greater benefits when compared with IMRT, VMAT and Modified VMAT techniques. Conclusion: Conventional 3D-CRT techniques (FIF, FILTER) showed lower doses in organs at risk. However, IMRT and VMAT techniques obtained better homogeneity and conformity of the dose delivered to the PTV when compared to conventional techniques


Introducción: La radioterapia se utiliza en el tratamiento del cáncer de mama. En la planificación de la radioterapia, existen formas de desarrollar el plan de tratamiento, como la radioterapia conformacional 3D (3D-CRT), la radioterapia de intensidad modulada (IMRT) y la arcoterapia volumétrica modulada (VMAT). Objetivo: Comparar las dosis en órganos de riesgo y en el volumen blanco de tratamiento con diferentes técnicas de planificación: 3D-CRT, IMRT, VMAT y VMAT modificada para el tratamiento del cáncer de mama en un fantoma antropomórfico. Método: El plan de tratamiento se realizó en el sistema Eclipse™ v.15.6 de Varian a partir de imágenes de TC adquiridas del fantoma. La dosis de prescripción establecida fue de 45 Gy en 25 fracciones de 1,8Gy/día. Resultados: En cuanto a la cobertura del volumen blanco de planificación (VBP), las técnicas 3D-CRT (filtro - FILTRO y field-in-field ­ FIF) demostraron una cobertura inferior en comparación con los planes IMRT y VMAT. El plan 3D-RCT-FIF mostró mayor homogeneidad en comparación con el 3D-RCT-FILTRO. Para el pulmón contralateral, los planes 3D-CRT (FIF, FILTER) obtuvieron mejores restricciones en comparación con los otros planes. En la exposición cardiaca, los planes 3D-CRT (FIF, FILTER) mostraron mayores beneficios en comparación con las técnicas IMRT, VMAT y VMAT modificada. Conclusión: Las técnicas convencionales de 3D-CRT (FIF, FILTER) mostraron dosis más bajas en los órganos de riesgo. Sin embargo, las técnicas IMRT y VMAT obtuvieron una mejor homogeneidad y conformidad de la dosis distribuida en el VBP en comparación con las técnicas convencionales.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Radiation Dosage
2.
Southern Philippines Medical Center Journal of Health Care Services ; (2): 1-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987248

ABSTRACT

@#We published in May 10, 2022 a retrospective cohort study comparing the post-radiotherapy (post-RT) hemoglobin levels between patients with breast cancer who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and those who underwent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in the Radiation Oncology Section of the Department of Radiological and Imaging Sciences of Southern Philippines Medical Center (ROS DORIS-SPMC) from October 2018 to March 2019. It came to our knowledge that the IMRT planning that was done on the patients included in our study was different from the IMRT planning that is currently being done since late 2020. Prior to late 2020, ROS DORIS-SPMC had been implementing forward-planned IMRT, wherein the weight of the multileaf collimator (MLC) segment was preselected at fixed values. In late 2020, ROS DORIS-SPMC started implementing inverse-planned IMRT, wherein the appropriate weights of the MLC segments are determined by an inverse optimization algorithm that creates a more uniform dose distribution throughout the target. Inverse-planned IMRT improves the dose homogeneity within the entire 3D-breast volume, while forward-planned IMRT mainly improves the dose distribution on the inframammary fold.1 Compared to 3D-CRT, however, forward-planned IMRT improves target homogeneity, albeit to a lesser degree than the homogeneity produced by the inverse technique.2 In the original article, we also stated that, for both IMRT and 3D-CRT, each dose fraction is given weekly within a span of 7 to 8 months. We recently confirmed that, among patients with breast cancer, each dose fraction of IMRT or 3D-CRT is given daily within a span of 33 days—28 days for conventional dose and 5 days for boost dose. In this corrigendum, we specify that the IMRT protocol used among the patients in our study was forward-planned IMRT, with all dose fractions given daily for 33 consecutive workdays, excluding weekends and holidays. We also describe here the original statements that we changed or removed because they have become irrelevant in light of the corrections. The table below shows the list of corrections.


Subject(s)
Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Radiotherapy, Conformal
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(8): 1118-1123, Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346969

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform dosimetric analysis of radiotherapy (RT) plans with or without elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and estimate whether the increase in mean doses (MDs) in the heart and lungs with ENI may lead to late side effects that may surpass the benefits of treatment. METHODS: The dosimetric analysis of 30 treatment plans was done with or without ENI. The planning and dose-volume histograms were analyzed, and the impact on the mortality of cardiovascular and lung cancer was estimated based on the correlation of the dosimetric data with data from population studies. RESULTS: RT with ENI increased the doses in the lungs and heterogeneity in the plans compared to breast-exclusive RT. When the increase in MDs is correlated with the increase of late side-effect risks, the most important effect of ENI is the increased risk of lung cancer, especially in patients who smoke (average increase in absolute risk=1.38%). The increase in the absolute risk of cardiovascular diseases was below 0.1% in the all the situations analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: ENI increases the heterogeneity and the doses at the lungs. When recommending ENI, the risks and benefits must be taken into account, considering the oncology factors and the plan of each patient. Special attention must be given to patients who smoke as ENI may lead to a significant increase in MD in the lung and the increased risk of radiation-induced lung cancer may surpass the benefits from this treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Risk Factors , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Lymph Nodes
4.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094947

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de próstata é considerado a neoplasia maligna mais comum que acomete homens em todas as Regiões do país, à exceção do câncer de pele não melanoma. Se diagnosticado e tratado precocemente, o câncer de próstata tem alta taxa de cura; contudo, terapêuticas como a radioterapia podem gerar complicações agudas que podem impactar as atividades cotidianas. Apesar das complicações no pós-tratamento, a radioterapia tem sido um método bastante praticado e que apresenta resultados positivos, ocasionando melhoria da sobrevida livre de doença. Objetivo: Avaliar os principais fatores preditores de complicações agudas que acometem pacientes em tratamento radioterápico para câncer de próstata. Método: Para identificação de fatores preditores de complicações agudas pós-radioterapia, avaliaram-se, consecutiva e prospectivamente, 208 pacientes diagnosticados com adenocarcinoma de próstata tratados com radioterapia conformacional 3D em um centro referência vinculado ao SUS entre os anos 2016 e 2017. Realizou-se ainda avaliação retrospectiva de prontuários para coleta de dados adicionais. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio dos testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher, Anova e regressão logística ordinal. Resultados: Após análise da amostra, evidenciou-se que, entre as complicações agudas, as de maior incidência foram radiodermite, cistite e enterite/retite, de forma que tais complicações tiveram como fatores associados volume irradiado, tratamento prévio e sintomas prévios ao tratamento. Conclusão: O estudo sugere que, apesar da existência de complicações ao final do tratamento, a grande maioria é de baixa complexidade e que pacientes submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos prévios podem evoluir com presença de complicações mais graves.


Introduction: Prostate cancer is considered the most common malignancy that affects men in all regions of the country, except for non-melanoma skin cancer. If diagnosed and treated early, prostate cancer has a high cure rate; however, therapies such as radiotherapy can generate acute complications that can impact daily activities. Despite post-treatment complications, radiotherapy has been a widely practiced method and has shown positive results, leading to improved disease-free survival. Objective: To evaluate the main predictive factors for acute complications that affect patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Method: To identify predictive factors for acute post-radiotherapy complications, 208 patients diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with 3D conformational radiotherapy were consecutively and prospectively evaluated at a referral center linked to SUS between the years 2016 and 2017. It was carried out retrospective evaluation of medical records to collect additional data. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact, Anova and ordinal logistic regression. Results: After analyzing the sample, it was evidenced that among the acute complications, those with the highest incidence were radiodermatitis, cystitis, enteritis/rectitis, so that these complications had associated predictive factors as irradiated volume, previous treatment and symptoms. Conclusion: The study suggests that despite the existence of complications at the end of the treatment, the vast majority are of low complexity and that the patients submitted to previous surgical procedures can evolve with the presence of more severe complications.


Introducción: El cáncer de próstata se considera la neoplasia maligna más común que afecta a los hombres en todas las regiones del país, con la excepción del cáncer de piel no melanoma. Si se diagnostica y trata temprano, el cáncer de próstata tiene una alta tasa de curación; sin embargo, las terapias como la radioterapia pueden generar complicaciones agudas que pueden afectar las actividades diarias. A pesar de las complicaciones posteriores al tratamiento, la radioterapia ha sido un método ampliamente practicado y ha mostrado resultados positivos, lo que lleva a una mejor supervivencia libre de enfermedad. Objetivo: Evaluar los principales predictores de complicaciones agudas que afectan a los pacientes sometidos a radioterapia para el cáncer de próstata. Método: Para identificar los factores predictivos de complicaciones agudas posteriores a la radioterapia, 208 pacientes diagnosticados con adenocarcinoma de próstata tratados con radioterapia conformacional 3D fueron evaluados consecutiva y prospectivamente en un centro de referencia vinculado al SUS entre los años 2016 y 2017. Se realizó evaluación retrospectiva de registros médicos para recopilar datos adicionales. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, exacta de Fisher, de Anova y la regresión logística ordinal. Resultados: Después de analizar la muestra, se evidenció que, entre las complicaciones agudas, las de mayor incidencia fueron radiodermatitis, cistitis, enteritis/retitis y síntomas obstructivos, por lo que estas complicaciones tenían factores predictivos asociados, como el volumen irradiado, el tratamiento previo y los síntomas. Conclusión: El estudio sugiere que a pesar de la existencia de complicaciones al final del tratamiento, la gran mayoría son de baja complejidad. Como factores predictivos encontrados, se puede mencionar el volumen irradiado, la existencia de tratamiento previo y los síntomas en la consulta inicial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Adenocarcinoma/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/adverse effects , Radiodermatitis/radiotherapy , Brazil , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Retrospective Studies , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Cystitis/radiotherapy , Enteritis/radiotherapy
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1105-1112, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056339

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the treatment outcomes of a cohort of prostate cancer patients treated with conventional schedule using IMRT or 3DRT technique. Materials and Methods: Between 2010-2017, 485 men with localized prostate cancer were treated with conventional radiotherapy schedule with a total dose ≥74Gy using IMRT (231) or 3DCRT (254). Late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity were retrospectively evaluated according to modified RTOG criteria. The biochemical control was defined by the Phoenix criteria (nadir + 2ng/mL). The comparison between the groups included biochemical recurrence free survival (bRFS), overall survival (OS) and late toxicity. Results: With a median follow-up of 51 months (IMRT=49 and 3DRT=51 months), the maximal late GU for >=grade- 2 during the entire period of follow-up was 13.1% in the IMRT and 15.4% in the 3DRT (p=0.85). The maximal late GI ≥ grade- 2 in the IMRT was 10% and in the 3DRT 24% (p=0.0001). The 5-year bRFS for all risk groups with IMRT and 3D-CRT was 87.5% vs. 87.2% (p=0.415). Considering the risk-groups no significant difference for low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups between IMRT (low-95.3%, intermediate-86.2% and high-73%) and 3D-CRT (low-96.4%, intermediate-88.2% and high-76.6%, p=0.448) was observed. No significant differences for OS and DMFS were observed comparing treatment groups. Conclusion: IMRT reduces significantly the risk of late GI severe complication compared with 3D-CRT using conventional fractionation with a total dose ≥74Gy without any differences for bRFS and OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Radiation Injuries , Radiotherapy Dosage , Time Factors , Urogenital System/radiation effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Disease-Free Survival , Radiotherapy, Conformal/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/radiation effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/adverse effects , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1589-1599, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763202

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is limited data on radiotherapy (RT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with Child-Pugh classification B (CP-B). This study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes of fractionated conformal RT in HCC patients with CP-B. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of HCC patients with CP-B treated with RT between 2009 and 2014 at 13 institutions in Korea. HCC was diagnosed by the Korea guideline of 2009, and modern RT techniques were applied. Fraction size was ≤ 5 Gy and the biologically effective dose (BED) ≥ 40 Gy₁₀ (α/β = 10 Gy). A total of 184 patients were included in this study. RESULTS: Initial CP score was seven in 62.0% of patients, eight in 31.0%, and nine in 7.0%. Portal vein tumor thrombosis was present in 66.3% of patients. The BED ranged from 40.4 to 89.6 Gy₁₀ (median, 56.0 Gy₁₀). After RT completion, 48.4% of patients underwent additional treatment. The median overall survival (OS) was 9.4 months. The local progression-free survival and OS rates at 1 year were 58.9% and 39.8%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, non-classic radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) (p < 0.001) and additional treatment (p < 0.001) were the most significant prognostic factors of OS. Among 132 evaluable patients without progressive disease, 19.7% experienced non-classic RILD. Normal liver volume was the most predictive dosimetric parameter of non-classic RILD. CONCLUSION: Fractionated conformal RT showed favorable OS with a moderate risk non-classic RILD. The individual radiotherapy for CP-B could be cautiously applied weighing the survival benefits and the RILD risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Korea , Liver , Liver Diseases , Multivariate Analysis , Portal Vein , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1156-1166, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763164

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thoracic re-irradiation (re-RT) of lung cancer has been challenged by the tolerance doses of normal tissues. We retrospectively analyzed local control, overall survival (OS) and toxicity after thoracic re-RT using highly conformal radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients who received high-dose thoracic re-RT were analyzed. Doses were recalculated to determine biologically equivalent doses. The median interval to re-RT was 15.1 months (range, 4.4 to 56.3 months), the median initial dose was 79.2 Gy₁₀ (range, 51.75 to 150 Gy₁₀), and the median re-RT dose was 68.8 Gy₁₀ (range, 43.2 to 132 Gy₁₀). RESULTS: Eighteen (58.1%) and eleven (35.5%) patients showed loco-regional recurrence and distant metastasis, respectively, after 17.4 months of median follow-up. The 1-year and 2-year local control rates were 60.2% and 43.7%, respectively. The median loco-regional recurrence-free-survival (LRFS) was 15.4 months, and the median OS was 20.4 months. The cumulative and re-RT biologically equivalent dose for α/β=10 (BED₁₀) doses were the most significant prognostic factors. Cumulative BED₁₀ ≥145 Gy₁₀ and re-RT BED₁₀≥68.7 Gy₁₀ were significantly associated with longer OS (p=0.029 and p=0.012, respectively) and LRFS (p=0.003 and p=0.000, respectively). The most frequent acute toxicity was grade 1-2 pulmonary toxicity (41.9%). No acute grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred. CONCLUSION: Our results show that high-dose thoracic re-RT of lung cancer can be safely delivered using highly conformal radiotherapy with favorable survival and acceptable toxicity. An optimal strategy to select patients who would benefit from re-RT is crucial in extending the indications and improving the efficacy with a sufficiently high dose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Re-Irradiation , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
8.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 82-90, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761003

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFX) for early glottic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients with cT1-2N0M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis who had undergone HFX, performed using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, n = 66) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT, n = 19) were analyzed. For all patients, radiotherapy was administered at 60.75 Gy in 27 fractions. Forty-three patients received a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) of 2.3–2.5 Gy per tumor fraction. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 29.9 months (range, 5.5 to 76.5 months). All patients achieved complete remission at a median of 50 days after the end of radiotherapy (range, 14 to 206 days). The 5-year rates for locoregional recurrence-free survival was 88.1%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 86.2%. T2 stage was a prognostic factor for locoregional recurrence-free survival after radiotherapy (p = 0.002). SIB for the tumor did not affect disease control and survival (p = 0.191 and p = 0.387, respectively). No patients experienced acute or chronic toxicities of ≥grade 3. IMRT significantly decreased the dose administered to the carotid artery as opposed to 3D CRT (V₃₅, p < 0.001; V₅₀, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with HFX achieved acceptable locoregional disease control rates and overall survival rates compared with previous HFX studies. A fraction size of 2.25 Gy provided good disease control regardless of SIB administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Carotid Arteries , Follow-Up Studies , Glottis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
9.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 271-278, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786562

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in treatment outcomes between two radiation techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT).MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 160 (IMRT = 23, 3DCRT = 137) patients with stage I glottic cancer treated from January 2005 through December 2016. The IMRT was performed with TomoTherapy (16 patients), volumetric-modulated arc therapy (6 patients), and step-and-shoot technique (1 patient), respectively. The 3DCRT was performed with bilateral parallel opposing fields. The median follow-up duration was 30 months (range, 31 to 42 months) in the IMRT group and 65 months (range, 20 to 143 months) in the 3DCRT group.RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival and 3-year local control rates of the 160 patients were 95.7% and 91.4%, respectively. There was no significant difference in 3-year local control rates between the IMRT and 3DCRT groups (94.4% vs. 91.0%; p = 0.587). Thirteen of 137 patients in the 3DCRT group had recurrences. In the IMRT group, one patient had a recurrence at the true vocal cord. Patients treated with IMRT had less grade 2 skin reaction than the 3DCRT group, but this had no statistical significance (4.3% vs. 21.2%; p = 0.080).CONCLUSION: IMRT had comparable outcomes with 3DCRT, and a trend of less acute skin reaction in stage I glottic cancer patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Glottis , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Vocal Cords
10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 279-285, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786561

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare the outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the postoperative treatment of biliary tract cancer.MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2008 to June 2016, 57 patients of biliary tract cancer treated with curative surgery followed by postoperative 3D-CRT (n = 27) or IMRT (n = 30) were retrospectively enrolled.RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 23.6 months (range, 5.2 to 97.6 months) for all patients and 38.4 months (range, 27.0 to 89.2 months) for survivors. Two-year recurrence-free survival is higher in IMRT arm than 3D-CRT arm with a marginal significance (25.9% vs. 47.4%; p = 0.088). Locoregional recurrence-free survival (64.3% vs. 81.7%; p = 0.122) and distant metastasis-free survival (40.3% vs. 55.8%; p = 0.234) at two years did not show any statistical difference between two radiation modalities. In the multivariate analysis, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, poorly-differentiated histologic grade, and higher stage were significant poor prognostic factors for survival. Severe treatment-related toxicity was not significantly different between two arms.CONCLUSIONS: IMRT showed comparable results with 3D-CRT in terms of recurrence, and survival, and radiotherapy toxicity for the postoperative treatment of biliary tract cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Cholangiocarcinoma , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survivors
11.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 22(4): 132-137, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de mama es la primera causa de cáncer en el mundo con 1.671.149 casos nuevos y 521.907 muertes, cada año. La radioterapia adyuvante en pacientes con tumores T3-T4 o con ganglios linfáticos comprometidos mejora significativamente el control locorregional y la supervivencia global. Desde 2010 existe un vacío respecto a los desenlaces oncológicos y la toxicidad derivada de los tratamientos con nuevas técnicas de radioterapia empleadas en nuestra institución. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, de tipo cohorte histórica. Se incluyeron 82 pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer de mama localmente avanzado y que fueron tratadas en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología con radioterapia externa técnica conformacional postmastectomía, entre el 1 de enero del 2010 y diciembre 31 del 2011. Resultados: En el análisis se incluyeron 82 pacientes. A 6 años de seguimiento, el 87,8% (n = 72) siguen vivas con 3 pérdidas en el seguimiento: 30% recayeron y, de estas, 76% fueron a nivel sistémico y 12% a nivel regional y 12% a nivel regional y sistémico. El 16% de los pacientes presentaron complicaciones relacionadas con la radioterapia. Conclusión: Los resultados del manejo multimodal de cáncer de mama localmente avanzado en las pacientes examinadas son similares a lo reportado por los ensayos clínicos. En futuros estudios es necesario evaluar los factores asociados a recaída regional en la institución.


Abstract Introduction: Breast cancer is the world's leading cause of cancer, with 1,671,149 new cases and 521,907 deaths each year. Adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with T3-T4 tumours or with positive lymph nodes improves locoregional control and overall survival. There is a gap regarding the oncological outcomes and the toxicity derived from the treatments with new radiotherapy techniques used in our Institution since 2010. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, historical cohort study was conducted on 82 patients with a diagnosis of locally advanced breast cancer treated with post-mastectomy conformational radiotherapy in the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2011. Results: A total of 82 consecutive patients were included in the analysis. At 6 years of follow-up 87.8% (n = 72) were still alive, with 3 losses in follow-up. There was a relapse in 30%, and of these 76% were systemic, 12% regional, and 12% regional and systemic. Complications related to radiotherapy were present in 16% of patients. Conclusion: The outcomes of multimodal management of locally advanced breast cancer are similar to those reported by clinical trials. In future studies it will be necessary to evaluate factors associated with regional relapse in this institution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Mastectomy , Survival , Therapeutics , Radiotherapy, Conformal
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(11): 1023-1030, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976791

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the cosmetic satisfaction of patients diagnosed with breast cancer submitted to the hypofractionated radiotherapy with IMRT (hIMRT) technique and its correlation with dosimetric data of the radiotherapy planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective cohort study that assessed women with a diagnosis of malignant breast neoplasia submitted to the conservative treatment or radical mastectomy and treated with hIMRT. In the period between August 2007 to December 2014, in a philanthropic / private institution, 170 records were selected. The cosmetic assessment was carried out by means of the Harvard/RTOG/NSABP scale with one-year minimum range after treatment. The collected dosimetric data were: breast / chest wall volume, volume that received 95% (V95%) and 107% (V107%) of the prescribed dose. RESULTS: The volume of the treated breasts ranged from 169 to 2.103 ml (median = 702; IQR: 535 to 914 ml). Median V95% was 86.7% (54.6-96.6%; IQR: 80.0% to 90.6%); eight (5.7%) patients had V95% higher than 95%. Median V107% was 0% (0%-16.3%; IQR: 0.0% to 0.3% and 13); 9.3% patients had V107% higher than 2%. One hundred and thirty-three (78.2%) patients responded to the cosmetic assessment: 99 (74.4%) considered the cosmetic results excellent. Significant associations between cosmetic assessment and breast volume (p=0.875), V95% (p=0.294) e V107% (p=0.301) were not found. CONCLUSION: The cosmetic results showed favorable when using hIMRT, and the lack of correlation with usual the dosimetric data illustrates the capacity of hIMRT to minimize the heterogeneity of the dose in this endpoint, even in voluminous breasts.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar a satisfação cosmética de pacientes diagnosticadas com câncer de mama submetidas à radioterapia hipofracionada com técnica IMRT (hIMRT) e sua correlação com dados dosimétricos do planejamento radioterápico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo que avaliou mulheres com diagnóstico de neoplasia maligna de mama submetidas a tratamento conservador ou mastectomia radical e tratadas com hIMRT. No período de agosto de 2007 a dezembro de 2014, em uma instituição filantrópica/particular, foram selecionados 170 prontuários. A avaliação cosmética foi feita por meio da escala de Harvard/RTOG/NSABP com um intervalo mínimo de um ano após o tratamento. Dados dosimétricos coletados foram: volume da mama/plastrão, volume que recebeu 95% (V95%) e 107% (V107%) da dose prescrita. RESULTADOS: O volume das mamas tratadas variou de 169 a 2.103 ml (mediana = 702; IQR: 535 a 914 ml). O V95% mediano foi 86,7% (54,6-96,6%; IQR: 80,0% a 90,6%); oito (5,7%) pacientes tiveram o V95% superior a 95%. O V107% mediano foi 0% (0%-16,3%; IQR: 0,0% a 0,3% e 13); 9,3% pacientes tiveram o V107% superior a 2%. Cento e trinta e três (78,2%) pacientes responderam à avaliação cosmética: 99 (74,4%) consideraram o resultado cosmético excelente. Não foram encontradas associações significativas entre a avaliação cosmética e o volume da mama (p=0,875), V95% (p=0,294) e V107% (p=0,301). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados cosméticos mostraram-se favoráveis com o uso de hIMRT, e a ausência de correlação com os dados dosimétricos usuais ilustra a capacidade do hIMRT em minimizar a heterogeneidade da dose neste desfecho, mesmo em mamas volumosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Image , Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Breast/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , Radiotherapy, Conformal/statistics & numerical data , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/statistics & numerical data , Mastectomy , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(4): 318-323, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956454

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND: A cost-effectiveness analysis of IMRT compared to 3D-CRT for head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) was conducted in the Brazilian Public Health System. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate radiation therapy-induced dysphagia and xerostomia in HNCPs. Data from the PARSPORT trial and the quality-of-life study were used as parameters. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained were calculated. RESULTS: At 2 years, IMRT was associated with an incremental benefit of 0.16 QALYs gained per person, resulting in an ICER of BRL 31,579 per QALY gained. IMRT was considered cost-effective when using the guideline proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) of three times the national gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (BRL 72,195). Regarding life expectancy (15 years), the incremental benefit of IMRT was 1.16 QALYs gained per person, with an ICER of BRL 4,341. IMRT was also cost-effective using the WHO definition, which states that the maximum cost is equal to the GDP per capita (BRL 24,065). CONCLUSIONS: IMRT was considered cost-effective from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Foi realizada uma análise de custo-efetividade da radioterapia com intensidade modulada de feixe (IMRT) comparada com a radioterapia conformada para pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço (CCP) no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). MÉTODOS: Foi elaborado um modelo de Markov para comparar os custos médicos diretos e os desfechos de saúde relacionados à qualidade de vida do paciente pós-intervenção radioterápica sofrendo de xerostomia e disfagia. Com essa finalidade, foram usados os dados do estudo PARSPORT e parâmetros de qualidade de vida. Os resultados comparativos das estratégias alternativas de tratamento foram medidos pela razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI). O desfecho analisado foi o de anos de vida ajustados à qualidade (QALY). RESULTADOS: Em um horizonte de tempo de dois anos, a IMRT foi associada com um benefício incremental de ganho de 0,16 QALYs por indivíduo, resultando em um RCEI de R$ 31.579 por QALY ganhado. A IMRT foi custo-efetivo, adotando-se o limite máximo de disposição a pagar, proposto pela OMS, de três vezes o PIB per capita nacional, equivalente a R$ 72.195. No horizonte de tempo de 15 anos, o benefício incremental de ganho foi de 1,16 QALYs por indivíduo, com um RCEI de R$ 4.341. A IMRT foi custo-efetivo, adotando-se o limite de disposição a pagar, proposto pela OMS, de uma vez o PIB per capita nacional, equivalente a R$ 24.065. CONCLUSÃO: A IMRT foi considerada um tratamento custo-efetivo na perspectiva do SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Radiotherapy, Conformal/economics , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/economics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/economics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , National Health Programs/economics , Quality of Life , Time Factors , Xerostomia/economics , Xerostomia/etiology , Brazil , Deglutition Disorders/economics , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Markov Chains , Treatment Outcome , Health Care Costs , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods , Middle Aged
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e67-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the recent changes of radiation therapy (RT) modalities in Korea. In particular, we focused on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) utilization as the main index, presenting the application status of advanced RT. METHODS: We collected information from the Korean Health and Insurance Review and Assessment Service data based on the National Health Insurance Service claims and reimbursements records by using treatment codes from 2010 to 2016. We classified locating region of each institution as capital vs. non-capital areas and metropolitan vs. non-metropolitan areas to assess the regional difference in IMRT utilization in Korea. RESULTS: IMRT use has been steadily increased in Korea, with an annual increase estimate (AIE) of 37.9% from 2011 to 2016 (P < 0.001) resulting in IMRT being the second most common RT modality following three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. In general, an increasing trend of IMRT utilization was observed, regardless of the region. The rate of AIE in the capital areas or metropolitan areas was higher than that in non-capital areas or non-metropolitan areas (40.7% vs. 31.9%; P < 0.001 and 39.7% vs. 29.4%; P < 0.001, respectively). DISCUSSION: The result of our survey showed that IMRT has become one of the most common RT modalities. IMRT is becoming popular in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, while metropolitan area has faster AIE possibly due to concentration of medical resources and movement of advanced patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insurance , Korea , National Health Programs , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1049-1056, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Local recurrence is the most common cause of failure in retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma patients after surgical resection. Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) is infrequently used due to its high complication risk. We investigated the efficacy of PORT using modern techniques in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients, who underwent surgical resection for non-metastatic primary retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma at the Yonsei Cancer Center between 1994 and 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-eight (47.5%) patients received PORT: three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 29 and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in nine patients. Local failure-free survival (LFFS), overall survival (OS), and RT-related toxicities were investigated. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 37.1 months (range, 5.8–207.9). Treatment failure occurred in 47 (58.8%) patients including local recurrence in 33 (41.3%), distant metastasis in eight (10%), and both occurred in six (7.5%) patients. The 2-year and 5-year LFFS rates were 63.9% and 47.9%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 87.5% and 71.1%. The 5-year LFFS rate was significantly higher in PORT group than in no-PORT group (74.2% vs. 24.3%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, PORT was the only independent prognostic factor for LFFS. However, there was no significant correlation between RT dose and LFFS. OS showed no significant difference between the two groups. Grade ≤2 acute toxicities were observed in 63% of patients, but no acute toxicity ≥grade 3 was observed. CONCLUSION: PORT using modern technique markedly reduced local recurrence in retroperitoneal sarcoma patients, with low toxicity. The optimal RT technique, in terms of RT dose and target volume, should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma , Treatment Failure
16.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 332-340, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741957

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze dosimetric parameters of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) delivered to extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the stomach (gastric MALT lymphoma) to find out advantages of VMAT and conditions for definite benefits of VMAT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with stage I-II gastric MALT lymphoma received VMAT (n = 14) or 3D-CRT (n = 36) between December 2005 and April 2018. Twenty-seven patients were categorized according to whether the planning target volume (PTV) overlaps kidney(s). Dosimetric parameters were analyzed by dose-volume histogram. RESULTS: Radiation dose to the liver was definitely lower with VMAT in terms of mean dose (p = 0.026) and V15 (p = 0.008). The V15 of the left kidney was lower with VMAT (p = 0.065). For those with PTV overlapping kidney(s), the left kidney V15 was significantly lower with VMAT. Furthermore, the closer the distance between the PTV and kidneys, the less the left kidney V15 with VMAT (p = 0.037). Delineation of kidney(s) by integrating all respiratory phases had no additional benefit. CONCLUSIONS: VMAT significantly increased monitor units, reduced treatment time and radiation dose to the liver and kidneys. The benefit of VMAT was definite in reducing the left kidney V15, especially in geometrically challenging conditions of overlap or close separation between PTV and kidney(s).


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney , Liver , Lymphoid Tissue , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Organs at Risk , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies , Stomach
17.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 241-247, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741947

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A hybrid-dynamic conformal arc therapy (HDCAT) technique consisting of a single half-rotated dynamic conformal arc beam and static field-in-field beams in two directions was designed and evaluated in terms of dosimetric benefits for radiotherapy of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This planning study was performed in 20 lung cancer cases treated with the VERO system (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany). Dosimetric parameters of HDCAT plans were compared with those of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plans in terms of target volume coverage, dose conformity, and sparing of organs at risk. RESULTS: HDCAT showed better dose conformity compared with 3D-CRT (conformity index: 0.74 ± 0.06 vs. 0.62 ± 0.06, p < 0.001). HDCAT significantly reduced the lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy (V20: 21.4% ± 8.2% vs. 24.5% ± 8.8%, p < 0.001; V30: 14.2% ± 6.1% vs. 15.1% ± 6.4%, p = 0.02; V40: 8.8% ± 3.9% vs. 10.3% ± 4.5%, p < 0.001; and V50: 5.7% ± 2.7% vs. 7.1% ± 3.2%, p < 0.001), V40 and V50 of the heart (V40: 5.2 ± 3.9 Gy vs. 7.6 ± 5.5 Gy, p < 0.001; V50: 1.8 ± 1.6 Gy vs. 3.1 ± 2.8 Gy, p = 0.001), and the maximum spinal cord dose (34.8 ± 9.4 Gy vs. 42.5 ± 7.8 Gy, p < 0.001) compared with 3D-CRT. CONCLUSIONS: HDCAT could achieve highly conformal target coverage and reduce the doses to critical organs such as the lung, heart, and spinal cord compared to 3D-CRT for the treatment of lung cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Organs at Risk , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Spinal Cord
18.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 103-113, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741943

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare tumor with a lethal clinical course despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may achieve a good therapeutic outcome in ATC patients, and the role of IMRT should be assessed. We retrospectively reviewed outcomes for ATC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or IMRT to determine the optimal treatment option and explore the role of radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2000 and December 2015, 41 patients with pathologically proven ATC received RT with a sufficient dose of ≥40 Gy. Among them, 21 patients (51%) underwent surgery before RT. Twenty-eight patients received IMRT, and 13 received 3D-CRT. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), patterns of failure, and toxicity were examined. RESULTS: The median follow-up time for survivors was 38.0 months. The median and 1-year OS and PFS rates were 7.2 months and 29%, 4.5 months and 15%, respectively. Surgery significantly improved the prognosis (median OS: 10.7 vs. 3.9 months, p = 0.001; median PFS: 5.9 vs. 2.5 months, p = 0.007). IMRT showed significantly better PFS and OS than 3D-CRT, even in multivariate analysis (OS: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.30, p = 0.005; PFS: HR = 0.33, p = 0.005). Significantly higher radiation dose could be delivered with IMRT than 3D-CRT (EQD210 66 vs. 60 Gy, p = 0.005). Only 2 patients had grade III dermatitis after IMRT. No other severe toxicity ≥grade III occurred. CONCLUSION: Patients with ATC showed better prognosis through multimodal treatment. Furthermore, IMRT could achieve favorable survival rates by safely delivering higher dose than 3D-CRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Combined Modality Therapy , Dermatitis , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Survivors , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic
19.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 1-10, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741934

ABSTRACT

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been considered the most successful development in radiation oncology since the introduction of computed tomography into treatment planning that enabled three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 1980s. More than three decades have passed since the concept of inverse planning was first introduced in 1982, and IMRT has become the most important and common modality in radiation therapy. This review will present developments in inverse IMRT treatment planning and IMRT delivery using multileaf collimators, along with the associated key concepts. Other relevant issues and future perspectives are also presented.


Subject(s)
Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy, Conformal
20.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 17-24, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741932

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess complications and outcomes of a new approach, that is, combining short course radiotherapy (SRT), concurrent and consolidative chemotherapies, and delayed surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single arm phase II prospective clinical trial, patients with T3-4 or N+ M0 rectal adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Patients who received induction chemotherapy or previous pelvic radiotherapy were excluded. Study protocol consisted of three-dimensional conformal SRT (25 Gy in 5 fractions in 1 week) with concurrent and consolidation chemotherapies including capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Total mesorectal excision was done at least 8 weeks after the last fraction of radiotherapy. Primary outcome was complete pathologic response and secondary outcomes were treatment related complications. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients completed the planned preoperative chemoradiation and 26 of them underwent surgery (24 low anterior resection and 2 abdominoperineal resection). Acute proctitis grades 2 and 3 were seen in 11 (33.3%) and 7 (21.2%) patients, respectively. There were no grades 3 and 4 subacute hematologic and non-hematologic (genitourinary and peripheral neuropathy) toxicities and perioperative morbidities such as anastomose leakage. Grade 2 or higher late toxicities were observed among 29.6% of the patients. Complete pathologic response was achieved in 8 (30.8%) patients who underwent surgery. The 3-year overall survival and local control rates were 65% and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed that SRT combined with concurrent and consolidation chemotherapies followed by delayed surgery is not only feasible and tolerable without significant toxicity but also, associated with promising complete pathologic response rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Arm , Capecitabine , Combined Modality Therapy , Consolidation Chemotherapy , Drug Therapy , Induction Chemotherapy , Iran , Proctitis , Prospective Studies , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Rectal Neoplasms
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL