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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 406-410, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356446


Background: Fistula-in-ano is one of the most common clinical condition encountered in a surgical outpatient department. Many treatment modalities have been described with variable outcomes but gold standard surgical treatment is yet to be agreed upon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes of ligature of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) technique in the treatment of simple and complex fistula-in-ano with the primary objective of recurrence rate and broad objective of other postoperative complications during the period of study and after long-term follow-up. Methods: It is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from the patients who havebeen operated for fistula-in-ano using the LIFT technique at our institute from February 2018 to March 2020 and followed-up until September 2020. Results: A total of 56 patients with fistula-in-ano were treated with the LIFT procedure during the study period, of which 20 patients had simple fistula and 36 had complex fistula. A success rate of 83% was obtained with completely healed fistulas in 46 patients. No patient developed postoperative incontinence. Conclusion: Ligature of intersphincteric fistula tract is an effective treatmentmodality for fistula-in-ano with less procedure-related morbidity, but it is associated with a higher recurrence rate in simple fistula than in complex fistula. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Anal Canal/surgery , Recurrence
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 355-360, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356433


Background: Fistula in ano is a very common perianal condition seen in outpatient departments. Fistulotomy and fistulectomy are two conventional options of surgery. The present study is designed to observe wound healing time and mean postoperative pain score in the comparison of outcome of the fistulectomy to fistulotomy with marsupialization. Methods: This prospective randomized trial was conducted in the surgical department of the Civil Hospital Karachi for a period of 12 months, in which 60 patients with low anal fistula were divided into 2 groups. Thirty patients in group A were treated with fistulectomy, and 30 in group B were treated with fistulotomy with marsupialization. The postoperative pain severity was assessed after 24 hrs through a visual analogue scale and on weekly and fortnightly follow-ups for 6 weeks. Wound healing was assessed by clinical examination on weekly and fortnightly follow-ups for 6 weeks to estimate the mean healing time. Results: The mean pain score was significantly lower in group B in comparison to group A (3.6±1.99 versus 2.40±1.52; p=0.01). The mean wound healing time was shorter in group B in comparison to group A (4.23±0.77 versus 5.80±0.41 weeks; p=0.0005). Conclusion: Fistulotomy with marsupialization is a simple, easy, and more effective method than fistulectomy for the treatment of simple perianal fistula. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Colorectal Surgery/methods , Rectal Fistula/therapy
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(6): 312-317, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359107


Antecedentes: la fístula de ano es un problema crónico para los pacientes. Causa angustia debido al mal olor y la suciedad con infecciones y secreciones recurrentes. La recurrencia y la lesión del esfínter anal fueron las complicaciones más críticas después de la cirugía. La colocación de un setón suelto y grueso fue la operación quirúrgica más prometedora. Reducir el tiempo de colocación del setón para disminuir el sufrimiento de los pacientes por la suciedad y múltiples apósitos. Pacientes y métodos: estudio retrospectivo. Cien pacientes con fístula anal alta tratados quirúrgicamente en la ciudad médica de Al-Sader y en la clínica privada diaria de Al-Najaf, ciudad de Najaf, Irak, desde febrero de 2018 hasta marzo de 2019. Se han tomado imágenes de fistulografía y resonancia magnética de todos los pacientes. Después de eso, se realiza una fistulectomía con sutura de setón suelta y gruesa durante tres meses. Los pacientes con persistencia del trayecto de trayecto fistuloso fueron sometidos a una segunda cirugía y una tercera operación hasta su completa curación. Resultados: Cien pacientes con fístula de tipo alto en ano con 96 varones (96%) y mujeres 4 (4%). La tasa de curación completa entre los pacientes masculinos después de la primera operación fue de 90 (93%), mientras que las mujeres mostraron una tasa de curación completa de 4 (100%) después de la primera operación. Tres de los pacientes varones restantes con un tracto de fístula alto persistente mostraron una curación completa después de la segunda operación, mientras que en 3 (3%) la tasa de curación completa fue del 100% después de la tercera operación. Conclusión: Un setón suelto y grueso colocado en un tracto de fístula de tipo alto durante tres meses brinda una excelente protección al esfínter anal externo con una tasa de recurrencia menor y una curación rápida.

Background: Fistula in ano is a chronic problem for the patients. It causes distressing because of foul odour and soiling with recurrent infection and discharge. Recurrence and anal sphincter injury were the most critical complications following surgery. Loose, thick seton placement was the most promising surgical operation. To reduce the time of seton placement, therefore, decreasing the suffering of patients from soiling and multiple dressing. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study. One hundred patients with high type fistula in ano treated surgically in Al-Sader Medical city and Al-Najaf daily private clinic, Najaf city, Iraq from Feb 2018 to March 2019. Fistulography and magnetic resonance imaging have taken from all patients. After that, fistulectomy with loose, thick seton suture placed for three months. Patients with the persistence of high fistula tract underwent a second surgery and third operation until complete healing. Results: One hundred patients with high type fistula in ano with male 96 (96%) and female patients were 4 (4%). The rate of complete healing among male patients after the first operation was 90 (93%), while female patients showed a 4(100%) rate of complete healing after the first operation. Three of the remaining male patients with persistently high fistula tract showed complete healing after the second operation, whereas 3 (3%) the rate of complete healing was 100% after the third operation. Conclusion: A Loose, thick seton placed in high type fistula tract for three months provides excellent protection to the external anal sphincter with less recurrence rate and rapid healing

Humans , Anal Canal/injuries , Recurrence , Reoperation/methods , Sutures , Retrospective Studies , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 265-274, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346412


Abstract Objectives To evaluate different types of perianal fistulas and their complications on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare plain, contrast, and jelly magnetic resonance fistulography findings. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed in 30 patients who presented with perianal pus discharge or external fistulous opening. Magnetic resonance imaging of the perianal region before and after giving intravenous contrast and after injecting jelly through a percutaneous opening was performed on a 3T scanner and the results were correlated. Results The mean age of the patients was 40.13±13.88 years (range 19-75 years). The male to female ratio was 14:1. The most common type of fistula was St. James classification type I, which was seen in 13 patients (43%), followed by type IV in 30%, type III in 16%, type II in 6.66%, and type V in 3.33% of the patients. Using agreement analysis, we compared the number of primary and secondary tracts, internal openings, and horseshoe tracts and found a significant agreement between plain and post Jelly MRI fistulography (kappa statistic close to 1).When comparing plain and contrast MRI, there was significant agreement in the primary and secondary tracts, while statistically insignificant results were obtained (p>0.05) for the horseshoe tract and internal openings. Contrast injection was helpful in 7 subjects (23.3%) as peripheral enhancement of abscesses were better delineated. Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging is the one stop diagnostic modality for perianal fistulas. Acquisition of axial (Ax) T2, axial T2 FS, coronal T2 and coronal T2 FS sequences without administering intravenous contrast or jelly is usually sufficient for the diagnosis of fistulas and their complications.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Rectal Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Anal Canal/diagnostic imaging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 308-315, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346418


Background: There is still controversy over the usefulness of seton placement prior to the ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) surgery in the management of anal fistula. Objective: To evaluate the impact of preoperative seton placement on the outcomes of LIFT surgery for the management of fistula-in-ano. Design: systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources: A search was performed on the MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases. Study Selection: Original studies without language restriction reporting the primary healing rates with and without seton placement as a bridge to definitive LIFT surgery were included. Intervention: The intervention assessed was the LIFT with and without prior seton placement. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome was defined as the primary healing rate with and without the use of seton as a bridge to definitive LIFT surgery. Results: Ten studiesmet the criteria for systematic review, all retrospective,with a pooled study population of 772 patients. There were no significant differences in the percentages of recurrence between patients with and without seton placement (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.43: p=0.35). The I2 value was 9%, which shows the homogeneity of the results among the analyzed studies. The 10 included studies demonstrated a weighted average overall recurrence of 38% (interquartile range [IQR] 27-42.7%), recurrence with the use of setonwas 40%(IQR26.6-51.2%), and without its use, the recurrence rate was 51.3% (IQR 31.3-51.3%) Limitations: The levels of evidence found in the available literature were relatively fair, as indicated after qualitative evaluation using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and the Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) evidence levels. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that the placement of seton as a bridge treatment prior to LIFT surgery does not significantly improve long-term anal fistula healing outcomes. Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract surgery can be performed safely and effectively with no previous seton placement. International prospective register of systematic reviews-PROSPERO registration number: CDR42020149173. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 217-221, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346423


Background: High perianal fistula treatment remains challenging, mainly due to the variability in success and recurrence rates as well as continence impairment risks. So far, no procedure can be considered the gold standard for surgical treatment. Yet, strong efforts to identify effective and complication-free surgical options are ongoing. Fistulotomy can be considered the best perianal fistula treatment option, providing a perfect surgical field view, allowing direct access to the source of chronic inflammation. Controversy exists concerning the risk of continence impairment associated with fistulotomy. The present study aimed to assess the outcomes of fistulotomy with immediate sphincteric reconstruction regaring fistula recurrence, incontinence, and patient satisfaction. Methods: This interventional study was performed at the General Surgery Department of Zagazig University Hospital during the period from July 2018 to December 2019 on 24 patients with a clinical diagnosis of high transsphincteric fistula-in-ano. The fistulous tract was laid open over the probe placed in the tract. After the fistula tract had been laid open, the tract was curetted and examined for secondary extensions. Then, suturing muscles to muscles, including the internal and external sphincters, by transverse mattress sutures. Results: Our study showed that 2 patients develop incontinence to flatus ~ 8.3%.and only one patient develop incontinence to loose stool, 4.2%. Complete healing was achieved in 83% and recurrence was 16.6%. Conclusion: Fistulotomy with immediate sphincteric reconstruction is considered to be an effective option in the management of high perianal fistula, with low morbidity and high healing rate with acceptable continence state. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Comorbidity , Treatment Outcome
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 185-189, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285312


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of recurrent anal fistulas can lead to numerous complications, including fecal incontinence. Therefore, sphincter preserving techniques are gaining more popularity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy in the patients with recurrent cryptoglandular anal fistulas. METHODS: A cohort of 18 patients with anal fistulas was enrolled into a preliminary and prospective trial. They were divided into two groups consisting of eight and ten patients respectively. PRP was injected locally in all patients, however in the group II it was applied after 7 days drainage of fistulas with polyurethane foam or negative pressure wound therapy. On average, three doses of PRP were administered, but with the opportunity to double the number of applications if it was clinically justified. The patients were evaluated in an out-patient department after fortnight and then in 1, 6, and 12 months following the last PRP application. RESULTS: Anal fistulas were closed in 4 (50%) patients from the group I and in 7 (70%) patients form the group II. Although, the difference between both groups was not statistically significant, PRP therapy should be preceded with fistulous tract drainage in all patients. Summarizing, that successful result was achieved in 11 (60%) patients from the entire group of 18 participants. CONCLUSION: The rate of recurrent cryptoglandular anal fistulas closure reaching 60%, after topical treatment with PRP, exceeds the results of other sphincter-saving methods of treatment. Therefore, it might become a novel method of anal fistulas therapy.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O tratamento cirúrgico de fístulas anais recorrentes pode levar a inúmeras complicações, incluindo incontinência fecal. Portanto, as técnicas de preservação do esfíncter estão ganhando mais popularidade. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da terapia de plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) nos pacientes com fístulas anais criptoglandulares recorrentes. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de 18 pacientes com fístulas anais foi inscrita em ensaio preliminar e prospectivo. Eles foram divididos em dois grupos compostos por 8 e 10 pacientes, respectivamente. PRP foi injetado localmente em todos os pacientes, porém no grupo II foi aplicado espuma de poliuretano ou terapia de feridas por pressão negativa após 7 dias de drenagem de fístulas. Em média, foram administradas três doses de PRP, mas com a oportunidade de dobrar o número de aplicações se fosse clinicamente justificado. Os pacientes foram avaliados em ambulatório após quinze dias e depois em 1, 6 e 12 meses após a última aplicação do PRP. RESULTADOS: As fístulas anais foram fechadas em 4 (50%) pacientes do grupo I e em 7 (70%) pacientes do grupo II. Embora a diferença entre ambos os grupos não tenha sido estatisticamente significante, a terapia PRP deve ser precedida de drenagem do trato fístulo em todos os pacientes. Resumindo, esse resultado bem-sucedido foi alcançado em 11 (60%) pacientes de todo o grupo de 18 participantes. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de fechamento recorrente de fístulas anais criptoglandulares chegando a 60%, após tratamento tópico com PRP, excede os resultados de outros métodos de tratamento que preservam o esfíncter. Portanto, pode se tornar um novo método de terapia das fístulas anais.

Humans , Rectal Fistula , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Fecal Incontinence , Anal Canal , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 399-412, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154459


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate efficacy of urorectal fistula (URF) repair using different approaches and the clinical factor determinant of success, and also the morbidity associated to the procedure and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in male survivors of pelvic malignancies. Material and Methods: Retrospective evaluation of 39 patients with URF primarily intervened in three institutions using different surgical approaches. Success was defined as effective fistula closure. Variables evaluated included demographics, previous treatments, surgical approach, ancillary surgeries, complications and HRQoL by using a standardized non-validated specific questionnaire. Median follow-up from surgery to interview was 55 months (interquartile range 49, range 4-112). Factors determinant of success were investigated using logistic regression. Safety of the procedure was evaluated by Clavien-Dindo scale. Deterioration of continence and erectile function and other HRQoL issues were evaluated. Results: Prostate cancer treatment was the predominant etiology. The success rate for fistula repair was 89.5%. The surgical approach was not related to failed repair (p=0.35) or complications (p=0.29). Factors associated with failure were complications (p=0.025), radiotherapy (p=0.03), fistula location (p=0.04) and fistula size (p=0.007). Multivariate analysis revealed fistula size was the only independent determinant of failure (OR 6.904, 1.01-47.75). Complications occurred in 46.2% and severe complications in 12.8%. The mortality related to the procedure was 2.6%. Urinary incontinence was present before repair in 26.3% and erectile dysfunction in 89.5%. Fistula repair caused de novo urinary incontinence in 7.9% and deterioration of erectile status in 44.7%. Globally 79% were satisfied after repair and only 7.9% rated HRQoL as unhappy. Trans-sphincteric approach was related to less deterioration of erectile function (p=0.003), and higher perceived satisfaction in QoL (p=0.04). Conclusions: The surgical approach elected to correct URF is not determinant of success nor of complications. Fistula size appears as independent determinant for failure. Transsphincteric approach could be advantageous over other procedures regarding HRQoL issues.

Humans , Male , Urinary Incontinence , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Urinary Fistula/surgery , Urinary Fistula/etiology , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1572, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248505


ABSTRACT Background: Treating anal fistulae is still a great challenge due to the possibility of fecal incontinence after surgery and that the use of laser has been gaining space in medicine, including as an inducing method of healing. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy on fistula-in-ano treatment in rats. Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats weighing approximately 250-300g were used, which were subjected to the anal fistula induction procedure and after 30 days were distributed into two groups: control group (CG, n=5) and laser group (LG, n=10) observed for another 30 days. In the CG no treatment was performed and, in the LG, low-level laser therapy was applied in fistulous tracts daily. The closure of the fistulous tract, the area of the remaining tract, the inflammatory infiltrate and vascular congestion were evaluated. Results: There was no complete closure of the tract in any of the animals. The mean area of the remaining tract was 847.2 µm2 in the CG and 248.5 µm2 in the LG (p=0.001). The mean inflammatory infiltrate score was 2.4 in the CG and 1.3 in the LG (p=0.0285), while in the evaluation of vascular congestion, 1.6 was observed in the CG and 0.6 in the LG (p=0.031). Conclusions: Low-level laser therapy was able to reduce the area of the fistulous tracts as well as decrease the inflammatory process and local vascular congestion.

RESUMO Racional: Tratamento de fístulas anais ainda é grande desafio devido à possibilidade de incontinência fecal pós-operatória; o uso do laser vem ganhando espaço na medicina, inclusive como método indutor de cicatrização. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia da terapia a laser de baixa potência no tratamento de fístula perianal em ratos. Métodos: Foram utilizados 15 ratos Wistar machos com peso aproximado de 250-300 g, os quais foram submetidos à indução da fístula anal e após 30 dias foram distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo controle (GC, n=5) e grupo laser (GL, n=10) observado por mais 30 dias. No GC nenhum tratamento foi realizado e no LG laserterapia de baixa intensidade foi aplicada nos trajetos fistulosos diariamente. Foram avaliados o fechamento do trajeto fistuloso, a área do trajeto remanescente, o infiltrado inflamatório e a congestão vascular. Resultados: Não houve fechamento completo do trajeto fistuloso em nenhum dos animais. A área média do trajeto remanescente foi de 847,2µm2 no GC e 248,5µm2 no GL (p=0,001). O escore médio do infiltrado inflamatório foi de 2,4 no GC e 1,3 no GL (p=0,0285), enquanto na avaliação da congestão vascular foi observado 1,6 no GC e 0,6 no GL (p=0,031). Conclusões: A terapia a laser de baixa potência foi capaz de reduzir a área dos trajetos fistulosos, bem como diminuir o processo inflamatório e a congestão vascular local.

Animals , Male , Rats , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Low-Level Light Therapy , Fecal Incontinence , Anal Canal , Wound Healing , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281097


Una Fístula Anal es la comunicación anormal entre el conducto anorrectal y la piel. El objetivo central en el tratamiento de la fístula anal es eliminar la fístula y los síntomas, prevenir la recurrencia y preservar la función del esfínter anal. El único tratamiento curativo para las fístulas anales criptogénicas es la cirugía. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo con componentes analíticos, de corte transversal, con un muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos en pacientes operados de fístulas anales por el Servicio de Coloproctología en la II Cátedra de Clínica Quirúrgica del Hospital de Clínicas San Lorenzo (2008-2019). De un total de 112 pacientes, no existió relación estadísticamente significativa entre el grado de obesidad, las comorbilidades, los distintos síntomas, la complejidad de la fístula ni la región comprometida y la recidiva postquirúrgica. La técnica quirúrgica más empleada fue la fistulotomía en el 75,9% de los casos. Las recidivas se vieron en 6.25% de los pacientes. En nuestra serie el riesgo de obtener una recidiva era 16 veces mayor en las fístulas complejas con relación a las simples (RR = 15,9 para p=0,001) y existió una relación estadísticamente significativa entre el tipo de cirugía realizada y el porcentaje de recidiva post quirúrgica. Las fístulas anales son una entidad nosológica de relevancia, que crea molestias hasta problemas en el desenvolvimiento tanto laboral como social por lo cual debe ser motivo de estudio exhaustivo en nuestro hospital como lo es en el mundo.

An Anal Fistula is an abnormal communication between the anorectal duct and the skin. The central goal of its treating is to eliminate the fistula and symptoms, prevent recurrence, and preserve anal sphincter function. The only curative treatment for cryptogenic anal fistulas is surgery. An observational, descriptive study was carried out with analytical components, cross-sectional, with a non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases in patients operated on for anal fistulas by the Coloproctology Service in the II Surgery Department of Clinica´s Hospital of San Lorenzo (2008- 2019). Out of a total of 112 patients, there was no statistically significant relationship between the degree of obesity, comorbidities, different symptoms, the complexity of the fistula or the anal region involved, and the postoperative recurrence. The most used surgical technique was fistulotomy in 75.9% of the cases. Recurrences were seen in 6.25% of the patients. In our series, the risk of obtaining a recurrence was 16 times greater in complex fistulas than in simple ones (RR = 15.9 for p = 0.001) and there was a statistically significant relationship between the type of surgery performed and the percentage of postoperative recurrence. Anal fistulas are a relevant nosological entity, which creates discomfort in both work and social development, which is why it should be the subject of exhaustive study in our hospital as it is in the world.

Colorectal Surgery , Obesity , Anal Canal , Rectal Fistula , Fistula
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887473


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at @*METHODS@#The data of 318 patients undergoing anal fistula surgery were analyzed retrospectively. In accordance with whether accepted the combined treatment with EA at bilateral @*RESULTS@#For VAS score, there was an interaction between therapeutic method and treatment duration (@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at

Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture, Ear , Electroacupuncture , Humans , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Retrospective Studies
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 250-256, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115551


Resumen Las fístulas anorrectales complejas son un desafío para el coloproctólogo. Son una patología frecuente que afecta la calidad de vida de los pacientes. La patogénesis aún no está clara, estarían involucradas citoquinas y el proceso de transición de epitelio a mesénquima. El gold standard para su estudio es la resonancia nuclear magnética, su uso por sí mismo disminuye la recurrencia. El objetivo del tratamiento es lograr la curación sin afectar la función del esfínter evitando las recidivas. Existen múltiples técnicas, siendo la de mayor aceptación la ligadura interesfinteriana del trayecto fistuloso, con tasa de curación sobre el 70%, con mínimo impacto en continencia. Esta revisión incluye otras técnicas como el colgajo endorrectal de avance, uso de sellante, permacol, células madres, Anal fistula plug, Video asisted anal fistula treatment, Over the scope clip y fistula laser closure.

Complex anal fistula are a challenge for colorectal surgeons. It is a common pathology in population. Pathogenesis is still unclear, it would be involved citokines and the process of epitelial to eesenchymal transition. The gold standard for study is MRI, its use reduces recurrences. The goal of treatment is heal the fistula without damaging the function of the sphincter and avoid recurrences. There are multiple techniques, the most accepted is ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract with cure rate over 70%, with minimal impact in continence. This review includes other techniques like rectal advancement flap, fibrin glue, permacol, stem cells, anal fistula plug, video asisted anal fistula treatment, over the scope clip and fistula laser closure.

Humans , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Ligation/methods , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Diseases/surgery , Rectal Diseases/therapy , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Video-Assisted Surgery
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(2): 129-134, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134971


ABSTRACT In order to determine the microbiology of anal abscess as a predictor of anal fistulas in patients who attended the external consultation of the Coloproctology unit of the Dr. Antonio María Pineda University Central Hospital, a prospective, descriptive, longitudinal study was conducted from September 2018 to July 2019. In this study, the population consisted of patients with a diagnosis of anal abscess, without associated comorbidities or contraindications for surgery, who agreed to be included in the study. A non-probabilistic, intentional sample consisting of 42 patients was determined. An appointment-based study protocol was applied by outpatient for patients who met the inclusion criteria applied, to perform due medical history through anamnesis, physical examination and culture taking of suppuration from the anal abscess to subsequently establish medical and surgical behavior thereof. The results were expressed in absolute numbers and percentages, a prevalence of ischiorectal abscesses was observed, followed by deep post-anal space abscesses. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 100% of the sample. In all fistulized patients, E. Coli was isolated as a predominant germ.

RESUMO Um estudo prospectivo, descritivo e longitudinal foi realizado de setembro de 2018 a Julho 2019 para determinar a microbiologia do abscesso anal como preditivo de fístulas anais em pacientes que compareceram à consulta externa da unidade de Coloproctologia do Hospital Central da Universidade Dr. Antonio María Pineda. Neste estudo, a população foi composta por pacientes com diagnóstico de abscesso anal, sem comorbidades ou contraindicações associadas à cirurgia, que concordaram em participar do estudo. Uma amostra intencional não probabilística, composta por 42 pacientes foi determinada. Um protocolo de estudo com base na consulta em regime ambulatorial foi aplicado aos pacientes que atenderam os critérios de inclusão estabelecidos, para realizar a anamnese, o exame físico e a devida cultura da supuração do abscesso anal para posteriormente estabelecer o comportamento médico e cirúrgico. Os resultados foram expressos em números absolutos e porcentagens, observando-se a prevalência de abscessos isquiorretais, seguidos por abscessos profundos no espaço pós-anal. Bactérias anaeróbias foram isoladas em 100% das amostras. Em todos os pacientes com fístulas, E. Coli foi isolada como um germe predominante.

Humans , Male , Female , Bacteria, Anaerobic , Rectal Fistula , Abscess/microbiology , Anal Canal , Suppuration , Abscess/surgery , Abscess/diagnosis , Escherichia coli
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(2): 143-148, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134967


ABSTRACT Background Post-operative pain is the major consequence of Ksarasutra, Seton technique employed in Ayurvedic management of Low anal fistula. Surgeons are forced to prescribe Opioids and NSAIDs with pronounced untoward effects. Non pharmacological measures like Balneotherapy are used to improve circulation and relieve spasm in contemporary sciences. Aim To compare the efficacy of Khadira (Acacia catechu) and Sphatika (Potash alum) hot sitzbath with plain hot sitzbath in patients of low anal fistula treated with Ksarasutra. Method The study was single blind, double armed; prospective, randomized control clinical trial in which 30 patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 each on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A received hot sitzbath using Acacia catechu and alum infusion twice daily for 21 days. Group B received hot sitzbath using warm water for 21 days. The assessments were made on pain, post-surgical satisfaction burning sensation, tenderness, discharge, constipation, itching and incontinence. Result The disease was prevalent in the 4th decade of life, more in males (86.67%) involved in sedentary work (53.33%) residing in urban domicile, consuming mixed diet (100%). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in outcome measures like pain, burning sensation, tenderness, discharge, constipation and itching. Conclusion On comparative analysis Acacia and Alum hot sitzbath was more effective in outcomes like pain, surgical satisfaction, burning sensation and discharge. There was no difference in the effect of both interventions with respect to outcome measures like constipation, itching and incontinence.

RESUMO Justificativa A dor pós-operatória é a principal consequência da técnica que utiliza seton de Ksarasutra no tratamento ayurvédico de fístula anal baixa. Os cirurgiões são impelidos a prescrever opiáceos e AINEs que possuem efeitos indesejáveis pronunciados. Medidas não farmacológicas como a balneoterapia são usadas nas ciências contemporâneas para melhorar a circulação e aliviar o espasmo. Objetivo Comparar a eficácia do banho quente de assento com Khadira (Acacia catechu) e Sphatika (Potash alum) com apenas banho de assento em pacientes com fístula anal baixa tratados com Ksarasutra. Método Estudo clínico prospectivo, cego e controlado de dois braços randomizados, no qual 30 pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 15 pacientes cada com base nos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. O Grupo A recebeu banho de assento com Acacia catechu e infusão de alume duas vezes ao dia por 21 dias. O Grupo B recebeu banho de assento com água morna por 21 dias. Os desfechos avaliados foram dor, satisfação pós-cirúrgica, sensação de queimação, sensibilidade, corrimento, constipação, prurido e incontinência. Resultado A doença foi prevalente na 4ª década de vida, mais frequente no sexo masculino (86,67%), nos envolvidos em trabalho sedentário (53,33%), nos residentes em domicílios urbanos e nos que consumiam dieta mista (100%). Ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora estatisticamente significativa na avaliação dos resultados, tais como dor, sensação de queimação, sensibilidade, corrimento, constipação e prurido. Conclusão Na análise comparativa, o banho quente de assento com acácia e alume foi mais eficaz nos desfechos de dor, satisfação cirúrgica, sensação de queimação e corrimento. Não houve diferença em relação ao efeito de ambas as intervenções sobre os desfechos de constipação, prurido e incontinência.

Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative , Baths , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Areca , Potassium , Aluminum Sulfate , Acacia
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(2): 179-188, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134974


ABSTRACT Background & aim Bibliometric analysis is used to explore the historical development in a particular field. The aim is to identify and analyse most cited papers in benign anorectal disease in the last 7 decades (1950-2018). Method Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was used to find the top 100 cited articles in benign anorectal conditions. Papers were independently extracted by two investigators. The top 100 cited articles were identified and ranked according to number of citations. The articles were then sorted by author, journal, institution, country and publication date. The study subject was divided into 5 groups. Results The most frequently cited article received 1307 citations whereas the least cited received 154 citations. The earliest recorded article was published in 1960 and the most recent was from 2010. More than half of the articles addressed faecal incontinence and sphincter related literature (n = 54). The articles were published in 29 different journals. A majority (69%) of manuscripts originated from the USA (n = 35; 9221 citations) and UK (n = 34; 7796 citations). The origin of these top 100 classic papers was from 53 different institutions. St. Mark's Hospital in the UK had the highest number of articles (n = 21), followed by Cleveland clinic (n = 5) and University of Minnesota (n = 5). Conclusion The most highly cited manuscripts in benign anorectal disease cover a wide range of topics. Faecal incontinence and sphincter related articles had the highest number of citations. This review serves as a reference for researchers to find the influential papers in this field.

RESUMO Justificativa e objetivo A análise bibliométrica é usada para explorar o desenvolvimento histórico em um campo específico. O objetivo é identificar e analisar os artigos mais citados em doença anorretal benigna nas últimas 7 décadas (1950-2018). Método A base de dados Thomson Reuters Web of Science foi usada para encontrar os 100 artigos mais citados em doenças anorretais benignas. Os artigos foram extraídos de forma independente por dois pesquisadores. Os 100 artigos mais citados foram identificados e classificados de acordo com o número de citações. Os artigos foram classificados por autor, revista médica, instituição, país e data de publicação. Os sujeitos do estudo foram divididos em cinco grupos. Resultados O artigo mais citado recebeu 1.307 citações, enquanto o menos citado recebeu 154 citações. O artigo mais antigo foi publicado em 1960 e o mais recente a partir de 2010. Mais da metade dos artigos abordou a incontinência fecal e a literatura relacionada ao esfíncter (n = 54). Os artigos foram publicados em 29 revistas diferentes. A maioria (69%) dos manuscritos é originária dos EUA (n = 35; 9.221 citações) e do Reino Unido (n = 34; 7.796 citações). Os 100 artigos clássicos mais citados são originários de 53 instituições diferentes. O St. Mark's Hospital, no Reino Unido, teve o maior número de artigos (n = 21), seguido pela Clínica de Cleveland (n = 5) e pela Universidade de Minnesota (n = 5). Conclusão Os manuscritos mais citados em doença anorretal benigna abrangem uma grande variedade de tópicos. Os artigos relacionados à incontinência fecal e ao esfíncter tiveram o maior número de citações. Esta revisão serve de referência para os pesquisadores encontrarem os artigos influentes nesse campo.

Rectal Diseases , Bibliometrics , Rectal Fistula , Scientific Publication Indicators , Fecal Incontinence , Hemorrhoids
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(1): 56-60, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090836


Abstract Rationale: Fistulotomy is a procedure widely used in the treatment of anal fistulas but is associated with varying degrees of fecal incontinence that could be minimized by previous use of sedentum, and the material used may influence the outcome. Purpouse: To compare cotton and silastic used as setons in the spacing of the sphincter cables of rats subjected to fistulotomy. Method: Thirty Wistar rats were used, which after 30 days of fistula production were distributed in: Control Group (GC): the steel wire was removed, followed by fistulotomy; Cotton Group (GA) and Silastic Group (GS), in which were applied cotton and silastic setons respectively for 30 days when fistulotomy was performed; after seven days, euthanasia and removal of the specimens were performed for histological study, and the results were submitted to statistical assessment using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test, establishing a significance level of p < 0.05. Results The distance between the muscular cables was 107.9 µm in the GC, 82.4 µm in the GA and 53.5 µm in the GS (p = 0.00001). The mean inflammation scores were 1.9 in the CG, 1.0 in the GA and 0 in the GS (p < 0.05). The fibrosis scores were 1.1 in GC, 0.9 in GA and 0.6 in GS (p > 0.05). Conclusion The silastic seton prior to fistulotomy caused less detachment of the muscular cables and less local inflammatory process.

Resumo Racional: A fistulotomia é um procedimento muito utilizado no tratamento das fístulas anais mas está associado a graus variáveis de incontinência fecal que poderia ser minimizado pelo uso prévio de sedenho, sendo que o material utilizado pode ter influência no resultado. Objetivo: Comparar os fios de algodão e sonda de silastic utilizados como sedenhos no afastamento dos cabos musculares do esfíncter anal de ratos submetidos a fistulotomia. Método: Utilizou-se 30 ratos Wistar, que após 30 dias da confecção da fístula foram distribuídos em: Grupo Controle (GC): foi retirado o fio de aço seguido por fistulotomia; Grupo Algodão (GA) e Grupo Silastic (GS), nos quais aplicou-se sedenho de algodão e silastic respectivamente por 30 dias quando foi realizada fistulotomia; após sete dias realizou-se eutanásia e remoção dos espécimes para estudo histológico, sendo os resultados submetidos a tratamento estatístico pelo teste não-paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, estabelecendo-se como significante p < 0,05. Resultados O afastamento entre os cabos musculares foi 107,9 µm no GC; 82,4 µm no GA e 53,5 µm no GS (p = 0,00001). As médias dos escores de inflamação foram 1,9 no GC; 1,0 no GA e 0 no GS (p < 0,05). Os escores de fibrose foram 1,1 no GC; 0,9 no GA e 0,6 no GS (p > 0,05). Conclusão O sedenho de silastic previamente à fistulotomia causou menor afastamento dos cabos musculares e menor processo inflamatório local.

Animals , Rats , Rectal Fistula , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Anal Canal , Fecal Incontinence
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(1): 67-72, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090840


Abstract Rationale: Considering that anal fistulae are still challenging regarding their treatment due to the risk of fecal incontinence in the most complex cases and the increasing use of phytotherapeutic drugs such as Aloe Vera in medicine, even with proven healing effectiveness, there is interest in researching this drug in the treatment of anal fistulae. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Aloe Vera extract in the treatment of anal fistulae in rats. Method: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were submitted to anal fistula and after 30 days were divided into three groups: Control Group (GCo) (n = 5), Carbopol Group (GCa) (n = 5), and Aloe Vera Group (GAV) (n = 10). In the GCo no treatment was performed, while in the others a daily infusion of 0.3 mL of solution (Carbopol only in GCa and Carbopol plus Aloe Vera extract in the GAV) was performed through the external orifice of the fistula for 30 days. Afterwards, euthanasia was performed and specimens were removed for histological study. It was evaluated the closure of the fistulous tract, the area of the remaining tract, the inflammatory infiltrate and the degree of vascular congestion. The results were submitted to statistical treatment by Kruskall-Wallis test, considering p<0.05. Results: There was no complete closure of the fistulous tract in any of the animals. The mean area of the remaining tract was 847.2 µm in the GCo, 565.6 µm in the GCa and 377.8 µm in the GAV (p<0.05). The mean of the inflammatory infiltrate score was 2.4 in the GCo, 2.4 in the GCa and 2.3 in the GAV (p<0.05), while in the evaluation of vascular congestion, we observed a mean of 1.6 in the GCo, 1.4 in GCa and 1.1 in GAV (p<0.05). Conclusion: The extract of Aloe vera was able to reduce the lumen of the fistulous tract and reduce the degree of vascular congestion; however, it did not allow the complete closure of the fistulous tract nor diminished the inflammatory process.

Resumo Racional: Considerando que o tratamento das fístulas anais tem risco de incontinência fecal e o crescente uso do Aloe Vera na medicina, há interesse em se pesquisar este fármaco. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia do extrato de Aloe vera no tratamento das fístulas anais em ratos. Método: Utilizou-se 30 ratos Wistar, os quais foram submetidos à criação de fístula anal e após 30 dias distribuídos em três grupos: Controle (GCo), Carbopol (GCa) e Aloe Vera (GAV). No GCo nenhum tratamento foi realizado, enquanto nos outros realizou-se infusão diária de 0,3 mL de Carbopol GCa e Carbopol mais extrato de Aloe Vera no GAV por 30 dias. Foram retirados os espécimes para estudo histológico, avaliou-se o fechamento do trajeto fistuloso, a área do trajeto remanescente, o infiltrado inflamatório e o grau de congestão vascular. Resultados: Não houve fechamento completo do trajeto fistuloso em nenhum dos animais. A média da área do trajeto remanescente foi 847,2 µm no GCo; 565,6 µm no GCa e 377,8 µm no GAV (p<0,05). A média do escore de infiltrado inflamatório foi 2,4 no GCo; 2,4 no GCa e 2,3 no GAV (p<0.05), enquanto na avaliação da congestão vascular observou-se média 1,6 no GCo; 1,4 no GCa e 1,1 no GAV (p<0,05). Conclusão: O extrato de Aloe Vera foi capaz de diminuir o lumen dos trajetos fistulosos e reduzir o grau de congestão vascular, porém, não permitiu o fechamento completo dos trajetos fistulosos nem diminuiu o processo inflamatório.

Animals , Rats , Rectal Fistula/drug therapy , Plant Preparations , Aloe , Aloe/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Rectal Fistula , Rats, Wistar
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(1): 31-36, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090841


Abstract Rationale: Very often magnetic resonance imaging is used in the study of complex anal fistulae, but conventional reports may contribute little to what really matters to the coloproctologist. Objective: To compare the clarity and usefulness of the conventional report compared to structured magnetic resonance imaging in cases of anal fistula. Method: 30 magnetic resonance exams already performed with an evaluation of anal fistula were again evaluated without the radiologist having access to the old report and a new structured report was prepared. Five proctologists evaluated the 30 conventional and 30 structured reports and answered questionnaires with eight questions comparing their practical aspects. The results were tabulated and submitted to statistical treatment considering a significant p<0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in favor of the structured report in the questions "clearly defines whether it is an active fistula or fibrosis", "clearly states whether the tract is single or multiple", "whether the patient has anal fistula or not". The other questions did not present differences between the groups. Conclusion: The structured magnetic resonance report presented clearer information and was better evaluated in relation to the conventional one in the analysis of proctologists in the study of anal fistulae.

Resumo Racional: Com muita frequência utiliza-se ressonância magnética no estudo de fístulas anais complexas, porém, laudos convencionais podem contribuir pouco para o que realmente importa ao coloproctologista. Objetivo: Comparar a clareza e utilidade do laudo convencional com uma proposta de laudo estruturado de ressonância magnética em casos de fístula anal. Método: 30 exames de ressonância magnética já com laudo realizados para avaliação de fístula anal foram novamente avaliados sem que o radiologista tivesse acesso ao laudo antigo e foi confeccionado novo laudo estruturado. Cinco médicos proctologistas avaliaram os 30 laudos convencionais e os 30 estruturados e responderam a questionários com oito questões comparando aspectos práticos dos mesmos. Os resultados foram tabulados e submetidos a tratamento estatístico considerando-se significante p<0,05. Resultados: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante em favor do laudo estruturado nos quesitos "define claramente se é fistula ativa ou fibrose", "declara claramente se o trajeto é único ou múltiplo", "fica clara a informação se o paciente tem ou não fistula anal". Os demais quesitos não apresentaram diferença entre os grupos. Conclusão: O laudo estruturado de ressonância magnética apresentou informações mais claras e foi melhor avaliado em relação ao convencional na análise dos proctologistas no estudo de fístulas anais.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Rectal Fistula , Rectal Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging